Chapter 2

:
Mathematical
modelling
NURYANTI MOHD. SALLEH
FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
UiTM PULAU PINANG
ROOM: BILIK PENSYARAH 10 (PERDA)
EXT: 2430 HP: 012-6679583
2
Mathematical modelling
 Introduction to Mathematical Modelling
 Models of Electrical, Mechanical and
Electromechanical System
 Block Diagram Reduction
 Signal Flow Graph and Mason's rule
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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INTRODUCTION TO
Mathematical modelling
 Mathematical modeling is used to design and analyze
control systems.
 Type of discussing system – electrical, mechanical and
electromechanical system.
 Modeling method – differential equation, Laplace
transform, transfer function, block diagram and signal
flow graph.
 Advantage of mathematical models :
 Translation of physical system from a complex
system to a simple mathematical form.
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Mathematical modelling
 In order to analyse and design control system,
physical system need to be represented
mathematically.
 A physical system can be represented
mathematically in three form:-
1. Differential equation
2. Transfer function
3. State space
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Table 2.1(pg40)
Laplace transform table
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Table 2.2 (pg 41)
Laplace
transform theorems
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Simplify EQUATION
Single loop equation:
Sum of impedance ( ) Sum of applied voltage I s = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Double loop equation:
1 2
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied voltage
( ) ( )
around Mesh 1 common to the 2 meshes around mesh 1
I s I s
( ( (
÷ =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 2
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied voltage
( ) ( )
common to the 2 meshes around Mesh 2 around mesh 2
I s I s
( ( (
÷ + =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
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Simplify EQUATION
Multiple loop equation:
1 2 3
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied voltage
( ) ( ) ( )
around Mesh 1 common to mesh 1 and 2 common to mesh 1 and 3 around mesh 1
I s I s I s
( ( ( (
÷ ÷ =
( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 2 3
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied voltage
( ) ( ) ( )
common to mesh 1 and 2 around mesh 2 common to mesh 2 and 3 around mesh 2
I s I s I s
( ( ( (
÷ + ÷ =
( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 2 3
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied voltage
( ) ( ) ( )
common to mesh 1 and 3 common to mesh 2 and 3 around mesh 3 around mesh 3
I s I s I s
( ( ( (
÷ ÷ + =
( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
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Transfer function
Definition
Transfer function is the ratio between output and
input expressed in s-domain.
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Simplify steps to obtain
TRANSFER FUNCTION
1. Draw the transformed circuit:
 Convert all time variables to it’s Laplace
transform.
 Replace component values with it’s
impedance values.
2. Using the suitable pattern of
equations obtain the TF.
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Model of Electrical system
• Passive Network (RLC Circuit)
 Serial RLC Circuit
 Parallel RLC Circuit
 Combinational RLC Circuit
• Active Network (Op-amp)
 Inverting Op-Amp
 Non-inverting Op-Amp
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Electric Network
Transfer function
• Electrical Components
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Model of Electrical system
Differential equatioN • Serial RLC Circuit
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
}
+ + =
+ + =
dt t i
C
1
dt
) t ( di
L R t i
t V t V t V t V
: KVL
C L R in
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) t i
C dt
t i d
L
dt
t di
R
dt
t dV
in
1
: equation the of side both ate Differenti
2
2
+ + =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) t i
LC dt
t di
L
R
dt
t i d
dt
t dV
L
in
1 1
: L with sides both Divide
2
2
+ + =
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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• Serial RLC Circuit
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s I
LC
s sI
L
R
s I s s V
L
s
in
1
0) to equal condition initial the all (Let
: side both Transform Laplace Taking
2
+ + =
( )
( )
LC
s
L
R
s
L
s
s V
s I
in
1
: follows as is system the of TF the Therefore
2
+ +
=
ModelS of Electrical system
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• Serial RLC Circuit
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t V t V t V t V
C L R in
+ + =
: Transform Laplace using
away straight obtained be can system the of TF the ely, Alternativ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
LC
s
L
R
s s I s V
L
s
C
Ls Rs s I s sV
C
s I Ls s I Rs s I s sV
Cs
s I Ls s I R s I s V
in
in
in
in
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
( )
( )
LC
s
L
R
s
L
s
s V
s I
in
1
: follows as is system the of TF the Therefore
2
+ +
=
Model of Electrical system
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EG 2.10: Double loop
Find the TF,
2
( )
( )
I s
V s
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
( )
( )
| | | |
2 2
2 1
1
: system the of TF
s L
Cs
Ls R Ls R
Ls
s V
s I
in
÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
=
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EG 2.13: Multiple loops
Write, do not
solve the mesh
equation for
the given
network.
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exercise
 Try Skill Assessment exercise 2.6 (pg 67)
Find
( )
( )
( )
L
V s
G s
V s
=
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Op Amp
Ideal characteristics:
1. Differential inputs, v
2
(t) – v
1
(t)
2. High input impedance, Z
i
= ∞
3. Low output impedance, Z
o
= 0
4. High constant gain amplification, A = ∞
The output, v
o
(t) = A(v
2
(t)- v
1
(t))
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Inverting Op Amp
• v
2
(t) connected to ground
• v
o
(t) = -Av
1
(t)
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
e therefor ,
0 e therefor , , ,
: pedance, input High
2 2
1 1
1 2 2 1
1
s Z s I s V
s Z s I s V
I I I I I
I I d Z
I
V
Z
Z
o
i
a
a a a
a
a
a
=
=
÷ = = +
~ + | =
|
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
1
2
1 1
2 1
1 1
2 2
s Z
s Z
s Z s I
s Z s I
s Z s I
s Z s I
s V
s V
i
o
÷
=
÷
= =
•Transfer function
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Non Inverting Op Amp
) (
) ( ) (
) ( V
) ( V
A arg
)) ( ) ( /( ) ( ) ( V
) ( V
(1) into (2)
) ( ) ( V
) ( ) (
) (
) ( V
division, voltage using By
) ( )) ( ) ( ( ) (
i
o
i
o
o 1
s Z
s Z s Z
s
s
e l for
s Z s Z s AZ
A
s
s
Substitute
s
s Z s Z
s Z
s
s V s V A s V
i o
1
2 1
2 1 1
2 1
1
1
1
2
1
+
=
+ +
=
÷
+
=
÷ ÷ =
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Example 2.14
Find Transfer Function:
) s ( V
) s ( V
i
o
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• Mechanical system is handled the same way as electrical
system.
• Can be simplified using Cramer’s Rule.
• Two type of Mechanical System:
– Linear Mechanical System
 Three passive components – spring, damper and mass.
 Translational motion.
– Rotational Mechanical System
 Three passive components – spring, damper and inertia.
 Rotation motion instead of translational.
ModelS of MECHANIcal system
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 23
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LINEAR Mechanical System
TRANSFER FUNCTION
Table 2.4(pg 69)
Force-velocity, force-
displacement, and
impedance translational
relationships
for springs, viscous
dampers, and mass
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Simplify EQUATION
Single loop equation:
Sum of impedance ( ) Sum of applied forces X s = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Double loop equation:
1 2
1 2 1
1
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of applied
connected to ( ) ( )
bet x and x forces at x
the motion at x
X s X s
(
( (
(
÷ =
( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1 2
1 2 2
2
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of applied
( ) connected to ( )
bet x and x forces at x
the motion at x
X s X s
(
( (
(
÷ + =
( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
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Simplify EQUATION
Multiple loop equation:
1 2 3
1 3 1 2 1
1
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied
connected to ( ) ( ) ( )
bet x and x bet x and x forces at x
the motion at x
X s X s X s
(
( ( (
(
÷ ÷ =
( ( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1 2 3
2 3 1 2 2
2
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied
( ) connected to ( ) ( )
bet x and x bet x and x forces at x
the motion at x
X s X s X s
(
( ( (
(
÷ + ÷ =
( ( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1 2 3
1 3 2 3 3
3
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied
( ) ( ) connected to ( )
bet x and x bet x and x forces at x
the motion at x
X s X s X s
(
( ( (
(
÷ ÷ ÷ =
( ( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
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Eg 2.16: free body diagram
Linear Motion System:
Find transfer function,
( )
( )
X s
F s
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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• Linear Motion System
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t f t x
dt
d
M t x
dt
d
f t Kx
v
= + +
2
: right the to is motion of direction positive the Assume
motion. of equation al differenti the find TF, the find To
SOLUTION:
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 28
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( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s F s KX s sX f s X Ms
v
= + +
2
: transform Laplace
( )
( ) K s f Ms s F
s X
v
+ +
=
2
1
: system the of TF
• Block Diagram:
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 29
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30
EG 2.17: two degree of
freedom (pg 63)
Find transfer function,
2
( )
( )
X s
F s
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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• Linear Motion System
( )| | ( )| | ( )
( )| | ( )| | 0 ) ( ) (
: M on forces All
) ( ) (
: M on forces All
: motion own its to due ) M , (M body
each on acting forces the find ion, superposit Using
3 2 3 2
2
2 2 2 3 1
2
2 3 2 2 1 3 1
2
1 1
1
2 1
= + + + + + + ÷
= + ÷ + + + +
K K s f f s M s X K s f s X
s F K s f s X K K s f f s M s X
v v v
v v v
( ) ( )
A
+ ÷
+ + + + =
0 ) (
) (
: Rule s Cramer' Using
2 3
2 1 3 1
2
1 2
K s f
s F K K s f f s M s X
v
v v
SOLUTION:
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( )
( ) A
+
=
2 3
2
: system the of TF
K s f
s F
s X
v
( ) ( )
3 2 3 2
2
2 2 3
2 3 2 1 3 1
2
1
2 3
2 1 3 1
2
1 2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
0 ) (
) (
K K s f f s M K s f
K s f K K s f f s M
K s f
s F K K s f f s M s X
v v v
v v v
v
v v
+ + + + + ÷
+ ÷ + + + +
+ ÷
+ + + + =
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• Block Diagram:
( )
( )
2
2 3 3 2 3 2
2
2 2 1 3 1
2
1
2 3
2
) ( ] ) ( ][ ) ( [
: system the of TF
K s f K K s f f s M K K s f f s M
K s f
s F
s X
v v v v v
v
+ ÷ + + + + + + + +
+
=
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EG 2.18: tHree degree of
freedom (pg 65)
Write, do not solve, the equation of motion for the
mechanical network
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exercise
 Try Skill Assessment exercise 2.8 (pg 66)
Find
2
( )
( )
( )
X s
G s
F s
=
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rotational Mechanical
System Transfer Function
Table 2.5 (pg 69)
Torque-angular velocity,
torque-angular
displacement,
and impedance
rotational relationships for
springs, viscous dampers,
and inertia
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Simplify EQUATION
Single loop equation:
Sum of impedance ( ) Sum of applied forces s u = ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Double loop equation:
1 2
1 2 1
1
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of applied
connected to ( ) ( )
bet and forces at x
the motion at
s s u u
u u
u
(
( (
(
÷ =
( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1 2
1 2 2
2
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of applied
( ) connected to ( )
bet and forces at x
the motion at
s s u u
u u
u
(
( (
(
÷ + =
( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
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Simplify EQUATION
Multiple loop equation:
1 2 3
1 3 1 2 1
1
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied
connected to ( ) ( ) ( )
bet and bet and forces at
the motion at
s s s u u u
u u u u u
u
(
( ( (
(
÷ ÷ =
( ( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1 2 3
2 3 1 2 2
2
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied
( ) connected to ( ) ( )
bet and bet and forces at
the motion at
s s s u u u
u u u u u
u
(
( ( (
(
÷ + ÷ =
( ( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1 2 3
1 3 2 3 3
3
Sum of impedances
Sum of impedances Sum of impedances Sum of applied
( ) ( ) connected to ( )
bet and bet and forces at
the motion at
s s s u u u
u u u u u
u
(
( ( (
(
÷ ÷ + =
( ( (
(
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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• Rotational Motion System
( ) ( ) ( ) ) (
: m transfor Laplace
2
s T s K s Ds s Js = + + u u u
( )
( ) K Ds Js s T
s
+ +
=
2
1
: system the of TF
u
EG 2.19: ONE equation of motion
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 39
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40
EG 2.20: two equation of motion
Find transfer function,
2
( )
( )
s
T s
u
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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• Rotational Motion System
Two degrees
of freedom
( )| | ( )| | ( )
( )| | ( )| | 0
: M on torques All
: M on torques All
: System Motion Linear as way same the Use
2
2
2 2 1
2
2 1
2
1 1
1
= + + + ÷
= ÷ + +
K s D s J s K s
s T K s K s D s J s
u u
u u
SOLUTION:
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 41
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( )
( ) A
=
K
s T
s
2
: system the of TF
u
( ) ( )
K s D s J K
K K s D s J
K
s T K s D s J s
+ + ÷
÷ + +
÷
+ + =
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1 2
0
: Rule s Cramer' Using
u
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 42
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43
EG 2.21: tHree degree of
freedom
Write, do not solve, the equation of motion for the
mechanical network
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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exercise
 Try Skill Assessment exercise 2.9 (pg 71)
Find
2
( )
( )
( )
s
G s
T s
u
=
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TRANSFER FUNCTION FOR
SYSTEMS WITH GEAR
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
2 2 1 1
N
N
= =
T
T
N
N
=
r
r
=
r = r
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
Rotational mechanical impedances can be reflected
through gear trains by multipying the mechanical
impedance by the ratio
)
shaft source on gear of teeth of #
shaft n destinatio on gear of teeth of #
(
2
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ElectroMechanical System
Transfer function
 Electromechanical system is the
combination of electrical and mechanical
system.
 In this course, electromechanical systems
to be studied are:
1. Armature control DC motor
2. Field control DC motor
3. Filed Control DC generator
4. Potentiometer
5. Tachometer
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
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Armature control Dc motor
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
ElectroMechanical System
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• Armature Control DC Motor System
 DC motor converts electrical voltage (armature
circuit) into mechanical rotation.
 The fixed field circuit current, If is constant.
( ) | | ) ( ) (
: circuit Armature
s V sL R s I s E
b a a a a
+ + =
1
a a a
a
sL R s s E
s I
TF
+
=
÷
1
) ( V ) (
) (
: circuit armature of
b
ElectroMechanical System
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 48
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( )
m
m
, Simplified
) current circuit field fixed (
constant with ,
speed a is where ,
: EMF) (back
circuit, armature of Potential
u
u
s K V
I
s I K V
w
w I K V
V
b b
f
f b
f b
b
=
=
=
b
sK
s
s
TF
=
) (
) ( V
: EMF back of
m
b
u
2
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 49
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( )
a m m
f
a f
m
a b
m
I K T
I
w
I w I K
T
w
I V
Speed
Power
T
=
=
=
=
, Simplified
constant with ,
motor of potential is V ,
: T motor, DC by Torque
b
m
3
m
K
s
s
=
) ( I
) ( T
: motor DC by torque of TF
a
m
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 50
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( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( T
: system mechanical Rotational
m
2
s s K s Ds s Js
m m m
= + + u u u
4
K sD J s s
s
m
+ +
=
2
m
1
) ( T
) (
: system rotational of TF
u
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 51
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• Armature Control DC Motor
 Overall block diagram
b
sK
s
s
=
) (
) ( V
m
b
u
a a a
a
sL R s s E
s I
+
=
÷
1
) ( V ) (
) (
b
m
K
s
s
=
) ( I
) ( T
a
m
K sD J s s
s
m
+ +
=
2
m
1
) ( T
) ( u
CLCS
ElectroMechanical System
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 52
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53
field control Dc motor
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
ElectroMechanical System
ESE353
• Field Control DC Motor System
 DC motor converts electrical voltage (fixed field
circuit) into mechanical rotation.
 The armature circuit current, Ia is constant.
( ) | |
f f f f
sL R s I s V + = ) (
: circuit field Fixed
1
f f
f
sL R s
s I
TF
+
=
1
) ( V
) (
: circuit field fixed of
f
ElectroMechanical System
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 54
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( )
f m m
a
a f
m
a b
m
I K T
I
w
I w I K
T
w
I V
Speed
Power
T
=
=
=
=
, Simplified
constant with ,
motor of potential is V ,
: T motor, DC by Torque
b
m
m
K
s
s
=
) ( I
) ( T
: motor DC by torque of TF
f
m
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 55
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2
( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( T
: system mechanical Rotational
m
2
s s K s Ds s Js
m m m
= + + u u u
3
K sD J s s
s
m
+ +
=
2
m
1
) ( T
) (
: system rotational of TF
u
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 56
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• Field Control DC Motor
 Overall block diagram
f f
f
sL R s
s I
+
=
1
) ( V
) (
f
m
K
s
s
=
) ( I
) ( T
f
m
K sD J s s
s
m
+ +
=
2
m
1
) ( T
) ( u
) ( V
) (
) ( I
) ( T
) ( T
) (
) ( V
) (
: TF
f f
m
m f
s
s I
x
s
s
x
s
s
s
s
f
m m
u u
=
OLCS
ElectroMechanical System
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 57
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58
field control Dc generator
R
f
L
f
I
f
G
V
i
V
o
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
Electro Mechanical System
ESE353
• Field Control DC Generator System
 Generator converts mechanical rotation into
electrical voltage.
 The speed of the rotation is constant.
( ) | |
f f f f
sL R s I s V + = ) (
: circuit field Fixed
1
f f
f
sL R s
s I
TF
+
=
1
) ( V
) (
: circuit field fixed of
f
R
f
L
f
I
f
G
Vf
+
_ θg=constant
Vg
+
_
ElectroMechanical System
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 59
ESE353
( )
f g g
f g g
f g g
g
I K V
s I K V
w
w I K V
V
=
=
=
, Simplified
speed constant a is where ,
: generator, of Potential
g
u
g
f
g
K
s I
s V
TF
=
) (
) (
: potential generator of
2
R
f
L
f
I
f
G
Vf
+
_ θg=constant
Vg
+
_
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 60
ESE353
• Field Control Generator
 Overall block diagram
f f
f
sL R s
s I
+
=
1
) ( V
) (
f
g
f
g
K
s I
s V
=
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
: TF
s V
s I
x
s I
s V
s V
s V
f
f
f
g
f
g
=
OLCS
ElectroMechanical System
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 61
ESE353
62
potentiometer
+
V
i
-
+
V
o
-
θ
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
ElectroMechanical System
ESE353
• Potentiometer
 The TF relationship is between output voltage and input
angular displacement.
 In the center location – Vo is zero.
 5 turns toward either the +10V or the -10V (Vo) – yields
voltage change (Vi) of 10V.
H
=
H
=
1
10
10
) (
) (
: ter potentiome of
s
s V
TF
i
o
u
ElectroMechanical System
63
ESE353
64
tachometer

T
θ
+
-
V
o
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
ElectroMechanical System
ESE353
• Tachometer
 To measure rotation speed.
f
o
sK
s
s V
TF
=
) (
) (
: r tachomete of
u
T
θ
+
-
V
o
Exercise 2.6:
Find the operation of tachometer .
ElectroMechanical System
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 65
ESE353
66
EG:
electromechanical system
G M J
T,θ
R
f
L
f
R
a
L
a
+
-
E(s)
+
-
E
a
(s)
+
-
E
b
(s)
Obtain,
( )
( )
s
E s
e
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
ESE353
 Block diagram components:
 Lines/arrows (signals)
 Blocks (system, TF, gain)
 Summing junction (SJ)
 Pick-off point/take-off point (PP)
 Use Block diagram reduction method to reduce complex system.
) ( ) ( ) ( s B s A s C + =
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
s R s Y
s R s X
=
=
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 67
ESE353
 Reduction method:
 SJ Arrangement
 PP Arrangement
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 68
ESE353
 Reduction method:
 Blocks Arrangement
– Cascade (serial) blocks
– Parallel blocks
– Feedback blocks
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling
69
ESE353
 Reduction method:
 Moving Block Diagram Over SJ
Moving BD to the left of SJ Moving BD to the right of SJ
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 70
ESE353
 Reduction method:
 Moving Block Diagram Over PP
Moving BD to the left of PP Moving BD to the right of PP
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 71
ESE353
 Step of Block Diagram Reduction
1. Rearrange all summing junctions (SJ) that have
more than two inputs.
2. Rearrange all pick-off points (PP) that have more
than two outputs.
3. Solve all cascade, parallel and feedback blocks.
4. Repeat step 1, 2 and 3 which appropriate until the
simplest block diagram can be obtained.
5. Obtain transfer function of the simplest block
diagram configuration.
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 72
ESE353
 Example 2.1
Step 1, 2: Rearrange all summing junctions (SJ) and pick-off points (PP).
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5 G6
G7
R(s) C(s) +
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
C
V
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G7
R(s) +
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
G6
C(s) + +
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 73
ESE353
C
V
C
V
Step 3: Solve all cascade, parallel and feedback blocks .
Step 1 & 2
Step 3
Rearrange SJ
Rearrange SJ
Rearrange PP
Rearrange PP
Parallel
Feedback
G1
G2+G3
G4
G5
G7
+
-
C(s)
R(s) +
-
+
-
G6
(1+G6)
G1
G2+G3 G5
G7
+
-
C(s)
R(s) +
-
+
-
G6
(1+G6)
G4
G2+G3
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 74
ESE353
Step 4: Repeat step 1, 2 and 3 which appropriate until the simplest block
diagram can be obtained.
Move block G2+G3
over PP to the left
Step 4
Step 4
Feedback
Parallel
G7
C(s)
R(s) +
-
G6
(1+G6)
G5 – G4
G2+G3
G2+G3
1+G1(G2+G3)
C(s)
R(s) [G6][G5(G2+G3) – G4]
[1+G1(G2+G3)][1+G6]+[G6G7][G5(G2+G3) – G4]
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 75
ESE353
Step 4
Step 5
Step 5: Obtain transfer function of the simplest block diagram configuration.
Feedback
| || |
| || || |
| |
| || |
| |
| || | | || | 4 G ) 3 G 2 G ( 5 G 7 G 6 G 6 G 1 ) 3 G 2 G ( 1 G 1
4 G ) 3 G 2 G ( 5 G 6 G
Ga 7 G Gb
Ga
Gb
Ga 7 G Gb
Gb
Ga
Gb
Ga
7 G 1
Gb
Ga
Feedback
) s ( G ) s ( H 1
) s ( G
) s ( R
) s ( C
Gb
Ga
6 G 1 ) 3 G 2 G ( 1 G 1
4 G ) 3 G 2 G ( 5 G 6 G
6 G 1 3 G 2 G ) 3 G 2 G ( 1 G 1
4 G ) 3 G 2 G ( 5 G 3 G 2 G 6 G
6 G 1
6 G
3 G 2 G
4 G
5 G
) 3 G 2 G ( 1 G 1
3 G 2 G
÷ + + + + +
÷ +
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
> ÷÷ ÷
+
=
=
+ + +
÷ +
=
+ + + +
÷ + +
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 76
ESE353
Simplify the transfer function:
 SFG components:
 Nodes (signals, points)
 Arrows / branches (system, TF, gain)
 SFG represents block diagram of a system:
 Use Mason’s Rule to reduce complex block diagram.
G1
G2
-
G3
G4
G5
+
+
G6
C(s) R(s) +
BD
SFG
R SJ PP C SJ PP
G1
G2
G6
G4
-G5
G3
SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH (SFG)
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 77
ESE353
DEFINITIONS IN SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 78
ESE353
Forward path gain:
The product of gains found by traversing a path from the input node to
the output node of single-flow graph in the direction of signal flow.
5 4 3 2 1 1
G G G G G M =
6 4 3 2 1 2
G G G G G M =
Loop gain:
The product of branch gains found by traversing a path that starts at a
node and ends at the same node, following the direction of signal flow
without passing through any other node more than once.
1 2 1
H G L =
2 4 2
H G L =
3 5 4 3
H G G L =
Nontouching loop gain:
The product of loop gains from non touching loops taken two, three, four
or more at a time.
Nontouching loop:
Loops that do not have any nodes in common.
2 4 1 2 2 1
H G H G L L =
3 5 4 1 2 3 1
H G G H G L L =
Mason’s Rule
 To determine the final transfer function of SFG.
 Mason’s Rule expression:
t determinan the Δ
gain path forward k the M
path forward of number k where
th k
=
=
=
...... NTL4 Σ NTL3 Σ NTL2 Σ LG Σ 1 ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
cofactor the Δ
k
=
) NTL2(NTFPG Σ LG(NTFPG) Σ 1 + ÷ =
...... ) NTL3(NTFPG Σ + ÷
Note:
LG = individual loop gain
NTL = non-touching loops
NTFPG = non-touching forward path gain
80
Δ
Δ M Σ
R(s)
C(s)
(s) G
k k k
= =
Mason’s Rule
 Example 2.2
5 ) 1 )( 5 )( 1 (
36 ) 1 )( 4 )( 3 )( 3 )( 1 (
: gain, path forward Consider
2
1
k
= =
= =
M
M
M
31
15 ) 5 )( 3 (
6 ) 2 )( 3 (
: G gain, loop individual Consider
5 4 3 2 1
2
1
÷ = + + + + = E
÷ = ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
L L L L L LG
L
L
L
4
30 ) 2 )( 3 )( 5 (
36 ) 3 )( 4 )( 3 (
5
4
3
÷ =
= ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
L
L
L
1
2
81
Mason’s Rule
None : others and NTL4 NTL3, Consider
84 2
60 ) 4 )( 15 ( ) )( (
24 ) 4 )( 6 ( ) )( (
: time a at NTL2 Consider
25 15
5 2 25
5 1 15
= + = E
= ÷ ÷ = =
= ÷ ÷ = =
L L NTL
L L L
L L L
116 0 ) 84 ( ) 31 ( 1
..... 4 3
2 1
: t determinan the Therefore,
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
÷ E + E
÷ E + E ÷ = A
NTL NTL
NTL LG
3
1 0 1
) not touch that loop ( 1
: gain path forward not touch that loop Consider
1 1
= ÷ =
÷ = A M
16 ) 15 ( 1 ) ( 1
) not touch that loop ( 1
2
2 2
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
÷ = A
L
M
4
1
116
) 16 )( 5 ( ) 1 )( 36 (
R(s)
C(s)
: Rule s Mason' using function transfer the Therefore,
2 2 1 1 k k k
=
+
=
A
A + A
=
A
A E
=
M M M
5
82
 Differential Equation (DE) – describes the relationship
between input and output system, sometimes become
complex equation.
 Laplace Transform (LT) – simplifies DE to represent
the input, output and system as separate entities.
 Transfer Function (TF) – ratio of output variable to input
variable in form of LT, with all initial conditions assumed
to be zero.
SUMMARY
83
 Block Diagram (BD)
– Representation as blocks and lines.
– System (TF) as blocks and signals as lines.
– Using BD Algebra (BD Reduction Method) to reduce BD.
 Signal Flow Graph (SFG)
– Representation as lines/branches and nodes.
– System (TF) as lines and signals as nodes
– Using Mason’s Rule to reduce SFG
ESE353
SUMMARY
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 84

Mathematical modelling

  

Introduction to Mathematical Modelling Models of Electrical, Mechanical and Electromechanical System Block Diagram Reduction Signal Flow Graph and Mason's rule

ESE353

Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling

2

INTRODUCTION TO Mathematical modelling

 

Mathematical modeling is used to design and analyze control systems. Type of discussing system – electrical, mechanical and electromechanical system. Modeling method – differential equation, Laplace transform, transfer function, block diagram and signal flow graph. Advantage of mathematical models :  Translation of physical system from a complex system to a simple mathematical form.
Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 3

ESE353

Mathematical modelling

In order to analyse and design control system, physical system need to be represented mathematically. A physical system can be represented mathematically in three form:-

Differential equation 2. Transfer function 3. State space
1.

ESE353

Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling

4

Table 2.1(pg40) Laplace transform table ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 5 .

2 (pg 41) Laplace transform theorems ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 6 .Table 2.

Simplify EQUATION Single loop equation: Sum of impedanceI(s)  Sum of applied voltage     Double loop equation:  Sum of impedances  Sum of impedances   Sum of applied voltage I1(s)   I2(s)   around Mesh 1      common to the 2 meshes around mesh 1   Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances  Sum of applied voltage  I1(s)   I2(s)      common to the 2 meshes around Mesh 2  around mesh 2  ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 7 .

Simplify EQUATION Multiple loop equation:  Sum of impedances Sum of impedances  Sum of impedances   Sum of applied voltage around Mesh 1  I1(s)  common to mesh 1 and 2 I2(s)  common to mesh 1 and 3 I3(s)  around mesh 1           Sum of impedances  Sum of impedances  Sum of impedances   Sum of applied voltage   I1(s)  around mesh 2  I2(s)  common to mesh 2 and 3 I3(s)  around mesh 2  common to mesh 1 and 2        Sum of impedances  Sum of impedances  Sum of impedances  Sum of applied voltage   I1(s)  common to mesh 2 and 3 I2(s)  around mesh 3  I3(s)  around mesh 3  common to mesh 1 and 3       ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 8 .

Transfer function Definition Transfer function is the ratio between output and input expressed in s-domain. ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 9 .

 Replace component values with it’s impedance values.Simplify steps to obtain TRANSFER FUNCTION 1. Draw the transformed circuit: Convert all time variables to it’s Laplace transform. 10 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling .  2. Using the suitable pattern of equations obtain the TF.

Model of Electrical system • Passive Network (RLC Circuit)  Serial RLC Circuit  Parallel RLC Circuit  Combinational RLC Circuit • Active Network (Op-amp)  Inverting Op-Amp  Non-inverting Op-Amp ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 11 .

Electric Network Transfer function • Electrical Components ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 12 .

Model of Electrical system • Serial RLC Circuit Differential equatioN Vin t   VR t   VL t   VC t  di( t ) 1  i t R  L  dt C KVL :  it dt Differentiate both side of the equation : dVin t  dit  d 2it  1 R L  it  2 dt dt dt C Divide both sides with L : 1 dVin t  d 2i t  R di t  1    i t  2 L dt dt L dt LC Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 13 ESE353 .

ModelS of Electrical system • Serial RLC Circuit Taking Laplace Transform both side : (Let all the initial condition equal to 0) s R 1 Vin s   s 2 I s   sI s   I s  L L LC Therefore the TF of the systemis as follows : s I s  L   Vin s  s 2  R s  1 L LC ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 14 .

the TF of the systemcan be obtained straight away using Laplace Transform : Vin t   VR t   VL t   VC t  Vin s   I s R  I s Ls  I s  1 Cs 1 C sVin s   I s Rs  I s Ls 2  I s  1  sVin s   I s  Rs  Ls 2   C  s R 1   Vin s   I s  s 2  s  L L LC    ESE353 Therefore the TF of the systemis as follows : s I s  L   Vin s  s 2  R s  1 L LC Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 15 .Model of Electrical system • Serial RLC Circuit Alternatively.

EG 2.10: Double loop Find the TF. I2(s) V(s) TF of the system: I s  Ls   Vin s  R1  Ls R 2  Ls  1   L2 s 2  Cs      16 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling .

do not solve the mesh equation for the given network. ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 17 .13: Multiple loops Write.EG 2.

exercise  Try Skill Assessment exercise 2.6 (pg 67) Find VL(s) G(s)  V(s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 18 .

v2(t) – v1(t) 2. High constant gain amplification. Low output impedance. vo(t) = A(v2(t). Zo = 0 4. Zi = ∞ 3. Differential inputs.v1(t)) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 19 . High input impedance. A = ∞ The output.Op Amp Ideal characteristics: 1.

therefore I a  0 Ia I1  I 2  I a . I a  . Z a  d . therefore I 2   I1 Vi ( s )  I1 ( s ) Z1 ( s) Vo ( s )  I 2 ( s ) Z 2 ( s ) •Transfer function Vo ( s) I 2 ( s) Z 2 ( s)  I1 ( s) Z 2 ( s)  Z 2 ( s)    Vi ( s) I1 ( s) Z1 ( s) I1 ( s) Z1 ( s) Z1 ( s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 20 .Inverting Op Amp • v2(t) connected to ground • vo(t) = -Av1(t) High input pedance. Z a : Za  V1 .

Non Inverting Op Amp Vo (s )  A(Vi (s )  V1(s ))  (1) By using voltage division. Z1(s ) V1(s )  Vo (s )  (2) Z1(s )  Z2 (s ) Substitute (2) into (1) Vo (s ) A  Vi (s ) 1  AZ1(s ) /( Z1(s )  Z2 (s )) for l arg e A Vo (s ) Z1(s )  Z2 (s )  Vi (s ) Z1(s ) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 21 .

Example 2.14 Find Transfer Function: Vo (s) Vi (s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 22 .

– Rotational Mechanical System  Three passive components – spring. damper and inertia. ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 23 .  Translational motion. • Can be simplified using Cramer’s Rule. • Two type of Mechanical System: – Linear Mechanical System  Three passive components – spring.  Rotation motion instead of translational.ModelS of MECHANIcal system • Mechanical system is handled the same way as electrical system. damper and mass.

viscous dampers. and mass ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 24 .4(pg 69) Force-velocity.LINEAR Mechanical System TRANSFER FUNCTION Table 2. forcedisplacement. and impedance translational relationships for springs.

Simplify EQUATION Single loop equation: Sum of impedance X(s)  Sum of applied forces     Double loop equation:  Sum of impedances connected to  X (s)   Sum of impedances X (s)   Sum of applied  bet x and x  2 forces at x    1  1 2   1  the motion at x1     Sum of impedances Sum of impedances  connected to  X (s)   Sum of applied    X1(s)   forces at x   2 bet x1 and x 2    2  the motion at x 2    ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 25 .

Simplify EQUATION Multiple loop equation:  Sum of impedances  connected to  X (s)   Sum of impedances  X (s)   Sum of impedances  X (s)  Sum of applied  bet x and x  3 bet x and x  2 forces at x    1 1 3  1 2   1    the motion at x1     Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances   X (s)   Sum of impedances  X (s)   Sum of applied   X1(s)  connected to bet x and x  3  forces at x    2 2 3 bet x1 and x 2   2    the motion at x 2     Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances    X (s)  Sum of applied    X1(s)  bet x and x  X2(s)  connected to forces at x   3 2 3 3 bet x1 and x 3      the motion at x 3    ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 26 .

Eg 2.16: free body diagram Linear Motion System: X(s) Find transfer function. F(s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 27 .

Assume the positive direction of motion is to the right : d d2 Kxt   f v xt   M xt   f t  dt dt ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 28 . find the differential equation of motion.SOLUTION: • Linear Motion System To find the TF.

Laplace transform : Ms 2 X s   f v sX s   KX s   F s  TF of the system: X s  1   F s  Ms 2  f v s  K • Block Diagram: ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 29 .

X2(s) F(s) 30 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling .17: two degree of freedom (pg 63) Find transfer function.EG 2.

M 2 ) due to its own motion : All forces on M1 : X 1 s  M 1s 2  ( f v1  f v 3 ) s  ( K1  K 2 )  X 2 s  f v 3 s  K 2   F s    All forces on M 2 :  X 1 s  f v 3 s  K 2   X 2 s  M 2s 2  ( f v 2  f v 3 ) s  ( K 2  K 3 )  0 Using Cramer' s Rule : X 2 s   M 1s 2  ( f v1  f v 3 ) s  K1  K 2  ( f v3s  K 2 )  ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 31   F s  0 . find the forces acting on each body (M1 .SOLUTION: • Linear Motion System Using superposition.

X 2 s   M 1s 2  ( f v1  f v 3 ) s  K1  K 2  ( f v3s  K 2 ) M 1s 2  ( f v1  f v 3 ) s  K1  K 2  ( f v3s  K 2 ) F s  0  ( f v3s  K 2 ) M 2s 2  ( f v 2  f v 3 ) s  K 2  K 3 X 2s  f v 3 s  K 2   F s   TF of the system: ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 32 .

TF of the system:  f v3s  K 2 X 2s   F s  [ M 1s 2  ( f v1  f v 3 ) s  K1  K 2 ][ M 2s 2  ( f v 2  f v 3 ) s  K 2  K 3 ]  ( f v 3 s  K 2 ) 2 • Block Diagram: ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 33 .

do not solve.18: tHree degree of freedom (pg 65) Write.EG 2. the equation of motion for the mechanical network ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 34 .

exercise  Try Skill Assessment exercise 2.8 (pg 66) X2(s) Find G(s)  F(s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 35 .

viscous dampers.5 (pg 69) Torque-angular velocity. and inertia ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 36 . torque-angular displacement.rotational Mechanical System Transfer Function Table 2. and impedance rotational relationships for springs.

Simplify EQUATION Single loop equation: Sum of impedance(s)  Sum of applied forces     Double loop equation:  Sum of impedances  connected to   (s)   Sum of impedances   (s)  bet  and   2   1  1 2  the motion at 1     Sum of applied  forces at x   1   Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances     (s)    1(s)  connected to  2 bet 1 and  2  the motion at  2     Sum of applied  forces at x   2  ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 37 .

Simplify EQUATION Multiple loop equation:  Sum of impedances connected to   (s)   Sum of impedances   (s)   Sum of impedances  (s)   Sum of applied  bet  and   3 bet  and   2 forces at     1 1 3  1 2   1    the motion at 1     Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances    (s)   Sum of impedances   (s)   Sum of applied   1(s)  connected to bet  and   3  forces at     2 2 3 bet 1 and 2   2    the motion at 2     Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances   Sum of impedances    (s)   Sum of applied   1(s)   2(s)  connected to   forces at     3 3 bet 1 and 3  bet 2 and 3    the motion at 3    ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 38 .

EG 2.19: ONE equation of motion • Rotational Motion System Laplace transform : Js 2 s   Ds s   K s   T ( s) TF of the system: 1   2 T s  Js  Ds  K  s  ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 39 .

EG 2.20: two equation of motion Find transfer function.  2(s) T(s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 40 .

SOLUTION: • Rotational Motion System Two degrees of freedom  1 s J 1s 2  D1 s  K  2 s K   T s  All torques on M 2 :  1 s K   2 s  J 2s 2  D 2 s  K  0 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling Use the same way as Linear M otion System : All torques on M1 :   41 .

Using Cramer' s Rule :  2 s   J 1s 2  D1 s  K K J 1s 2  D1 s  K K K T s  0 J 2s 2  D 2 s  K TF of the system: K   T s   ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 42  2 s  .

EG 2.21: tHree degree of freedom Write. do not solve. the equation of motion for the mechanical network ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 43 .

9 (pg 71) Find G(s)  2(s) T(s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 44 .exercise  Try Skill Assessment exercise 2.

TRANSFER FUNCTION FOR SYSTEMS WITH GEAR r1θ 1 = r2 θ 2 θ2 r N = 1 = 1 θ1 r2 N2 T2 θ N = 1 = 2 T1 θ2 N1 Rotational mechanical impedances can be reflected through gear trains by multipying the mechanical impedance by the ratio ( # of teeth of gear on destinatio n shaft 2 ) # of teeth of gear on source shaft Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 45 ESE353 .

ElectroMechanical System Transfer function   Electromechanical system is the combination of electrical and mechanical system. electromechanical systems to be studied are: 1. 2. 3. Armature control DC motor Field control DC motor Filed Control DC generator Potentiometer Tachometer ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 46 . 5. In this course. 4.

ElectroMechanical System
Armature control Dc motor

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ElectroMechanical System
• Armature Control DC Motor System  DC motor converts electrical voltage (armature circuit) into mechanical rotation.  The fixed field circuit current, If is constant.
Armature circuit : Ea s   I a ( s)Ra  sLa   Vb ( s)

TF of armature circuit : I a ( s) 1  Ea ( s)  Vb ( s) Ra  sLa
1
ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 48

Potential of armature circuit, Vb (back EM F) : Vb  K I f w Vb  K I f s m  , where w is a speed , with constant I f (fixed field circuit current ) Simplified , Vb  K b s m

TF of back EM F : Vb ( s )  sKb  m ( s)
ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling

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Torque by DC motor, Tm : Power Tm  Speed Vb I a  , Vb is potential of motor w K I f wI a , with constant I Tm  f w Simplified , Tm  K m I a

TF of torque by DC motor : Tm ( s)  Km Ia ( s)
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Rotational mechanical system: Js 2 m s   Ds m s   K m s   Tm ( s) TF of rotational system:  m ( s) 1  2 Tm ( s) s J  sD  K 4 51 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling .

ElectroMechanical System • Armature Control DC Motor  Overall block diagram I a ( s) 1  Ea ( s)  Vb ( s) Ra  sLa Tm ( s)  Km I a ( s) Vb ( s)  sKb  m ( s) CLCS  m ( s) 1  2 Tm ( s) s J  sD  K ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 52 .

ElectroMechanical System field control Dc motor ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 53 .

V f s   I f ( s) R f  sL f Fixed field circuit : ElectroMechanical System   TF of fixed field circuit : 1  Vf ( s ) R f  sL f ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 54 I f ( s) 1 . Ia is constant.  The armature circuit current.• Field Control DC Motor System  DC motor converts electrical voltage (fixed field circuit) into mechanical rotation.

Torque by DC motor. Tm  K m I f ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 55 2 . with constant I Tm  a w Simplified . Vb is potential of motor w K I f wI a . Tm : TF of torque by DC motor : Power Tm ( s) Tm   Km Speed If ( s) VI  b a .

Rotational mechanical system: Js 2 m s   Ds m s   K m s   Tm ( s) TF of rotational system:  m ( s) 1  2 Tm ( s) s J  sD  K 3 56 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling .

ElectroMechanical System • Field Control DC Motor  Overall block diagram 1  Vf ( s) R f  sL f TF : I f ( s) Tm ( s)  Km If (s)  m ( s) 1  2 Tm ( s) s J  sD  K  m ( s) Vf ( s)   m ( s) Tm ( s) I f ( s) Tm ( s) x I f ( s) x Vf ( s) OLCS ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 57 .

Electro Mechanical System field control Dc generator If Rf Vi Lf G Vo ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 58 .

If + Vf _ Rf + V f s   I f ( s) R f  sL f Fixed field circuit :   Lf G θg=constant Vg _ TF of fixed field circuit : 1  Vf ( s ) R f  sL f 1 59 I f ( s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling .ElectroMechanical System • Field Control DC Generator System  Generator converts mechanical rotation into electrical voltage.  The speed of the rotation is constant.

If + Vf _ Rf + Lf G θg=constant Vg _ Potential of generator. Vg : Vg  K g I f w Vg  K g I f s g  . where w is a constant speed TF of generator potential : Vg ( s ) I f (s)  Kg 2 Simplified . Vg  K g I f ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 60 .

ElectroMechanical System • Field Control Generator  Overall block diagram 1  Vf ( s) R f  sL f TF : Vg ( s) V f ( s)  Vg ( s) I f ( s) Vg ( s ) I f ( s) x  Kg I f ( s) I f ( s) V f ( s) OLCS ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 61 .

ElectroMechanical System potentiometer θ + Vi + Vo - ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 62 .

 In the center location – Vo is zero.ElectroMechanical System • Potentiometer  The TF relationship is between output voltage and input angular displacement. TF of potentiome ter : Vo (s ) 10 1    i (s ) 10  ESE353 63 .  5 turns toward either the +10V or the -10V (Vo) – yields voltage change (Vi) of 10V.

ElectroMechanical System  tachometer + θ T Vo - ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 64 .

6: Find the operation of tachometer .ElectroMechanical System • Tachometer  To measure rotation speed. + θ T Vo TF of tachometer : Vo ( s )  sK f  (s) - Exercise 2. ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 65 .

θ J Obtain. (s) E(s) ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 66 .EG: electromechanical system Rf + E(s) Lf G Ra + Ea(s) La + M Eb(s) T.

gain)  Summing junction (SJ) C (s)  A(s)  B(s)  Pick-off point/take-off point (PP) X ( s)  R( s) Y ( s)  R( s)  Use Block diagram reduction method to reduce complex system. Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 67 ESE353 . TF.BLOCK DIAGRAM  Block diagram components:  Lines/arrows (signals)  Blocks (system.

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD  Reduction method:  SJ Arrangement  PP Arrangement ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 68 .

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD  Reduction method:  Blocks Arrangement – Cascade (serial) blocks – Parallel blocks – Feedback blocks ESE353 69 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling .

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD  Reduction method:  Moving Block Diagram Over SJ Moving BD to the left of SJ Moving BD to the right of SJ ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 70 .

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD  Reduction method:  Moving Block Diagram Over PP Moving BD to the left of PP Moving BD to the right of PP ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 71 .

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD  Step of Block Diagram Reduction 1. Rearrange all pick-off points (PP) that have more than two outputs. ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 72 . parallel and feedback blocks. Obtain transfer function of the simplest block diagram configuration. Repeat step 1. Solve all cascade. Rearrange all summing junctions (SJ) that have more than two inputs. 2. 5. 4. 3. 2 and 3 which appropriate until the simplest block diagram can be obtained.

G1 R(s) + G3 G4 G7 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 73 + - G2 + + G5 Parallel + - + G6 Feedback C(s) Step 3 . parallel and feedback blocks . G1 R(s) + CRearrange PP Rearrange SJ V - G2 G3 G4 + + G5 +C- V- G6 CC(s) V Step 1 & 2 Rearrange SJ Rearrange PP G7 Step 3: Solve all cascade.BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD  Example 2. 2: Rearrange all summing junctions (SJ) and pick-off points (PP).1 Step 1.

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD Step 4: Repeat step 1. 2 and 3 which appropriate until the simplest block diagram can be obtained. G1 R(s) + G4 + G2+G3 G5 Move block G2+G3 over PP to the left + - G6 (1+G6) C(s) Step 4 G7 G1 R(s) + Feedback + - G2+G3 G5 G4 G2+G3 G7 + Parallel G6 (1+G6) C(s) Step 4 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 74 .

BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION METHOD R(s) + G2+G3 1+G1(G2+G3) G5 – G4 G2+G3 G6 (1+G6) C(s) Step 4 Feedback G7 Step 5: Obtain transfer function of the simplest block diagram configuration. R(s) [G6][G5(G2+G3) – G4] [1+G1(G2+G3)][1+G6]+[G6G7][G5(G2+G3) – G4] C(s) Step 5 ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 75 .

Simplify the transfer function:   G2  G 3 G4   G6   1  G1( G 2  G 3 )  G5  G 2  G 3   1  G6      G6 G 2  G 3 G5 ( G 2  G 3 )  G 4   1  G1( G 2  G 3 )G 2  G 3 1  G6  G6 G5 ( G 2  G 3 )  G 4  Ga   1  G1( G 2  G 3 )1  G6  Gb C( s ) G( s )  R( s ) 1  H ( s )G( s ) Ga Gb     Feedba ck Ga Ga Gb    Ga Gb  G7 Ga Gb  G7 Ga 1  G7 Gb Gb G6 G5 ( G 2  G 3 )  G 4   1  G1( G 2  G 3 )1  G6   G6G7 G5 ( G 2  G 3 )  G 4  ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 76 .

SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH (SFG)   SFG components:  Nodes (signals. Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 77 ESE353 . TF. gain) SFG represents block diagram of a system: G1 R(s) + G2 G3 G4 G5 + + G6 C(s) BD G1 R SJ G2 PP G3 G4 -G5 SJ G6 PP C SFG  Use Mason’s Rule to reduce complex block diagram. points)  Arrows / branches (system.

DEFINITIONS IN SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH Forward path gain: The product of gains found by traversing a path from the input node to the output node of single-flow graph in the direction of signal flow. M1  G1G2G3G4G5 M2  G1G2G3G4G6 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 78 ESE353 .

Loop gain: The product of branch gains found by traversing a path that starts at a node and ends at the same node. three. following the direction of signal flow without passing through any other node more than once. L1  G2 H1 L2  G4 H2 L3  G4G5 H3 Nontouching loop: Loops that do not have any nodes in common. four or more at a time. Nontouching loop gain: The product of loop gains from non touching loops taken two. L1L2  G2 H1G4 H2 L1L3  G2 H1G4G5 H3 .

) 80 ........ Mason’s Rule expression: Note: C(s) Σ k Mk Δk G(s)   R(s) Δ LG = individual loop gain NTL = non-touching loops NTFPG = non-touching forward path gain where k  number of forward path M k  the k th forward path gain Δ  the determinan t  1  ΣLG  ΣNTL2  ΣNTL3  ΣNTL4  .. Δk  the cofactor  1  ΣLG(NTFPG) ΣNTL2(NTFPG)  ΣNTL3(NTFPG  .Mason’s Rule   To determine the final transfer function of SFG...

M k : M 1  (1)(3)(3)(4)(1)  36 M 2  (1)(5)(1)  5 2 Consider individual loop gain.Mason’s Rule  Example 2.2 1 Consider forward path gain. LG : L1  (3)(2)  6 L2  (3)(5)  15 LG  L1  L2  L3  L4  L5  31 L3  (3)(4)(3)  36 L4  (5)(3)(2)  30 L5  4 81 .

. the determinan t :   1  LG  NTL2  NTL3  NTL4  . NTL4 and others : None 4 Consider loop that not touch forward path gain : 1  1  (loop that not touch M 1 )  1 0  1  2  1  (loop that not touch M 2 )  1  ( L2 )  1  (15)  16 5 Therefore... the transfer function using M ason's Rule : C(s)  k M k  k M 11  M 2  2   R(s)   (36)(1)  (5)(16)  1 116 82 .  1  (31)  (84)  0  116 L15  ( L1 )( L5 )  (6)(4)  24 L25  ( L2 )( L5 )  (15)(4)  60 NTL2  L15  L25  84 Consider NTL3.Mason’s Rule 3 Consider NTL2 at a time : Therefore..

  Transfer Function (TF) – ratio of output variable to input variable in form of LT. with all initial conditions assumed to be zero. Laplace Transform (LT) – simplifies DE to represent the input. output and system as separate entities. sometimes become complex equation. 83 .SUMMARY  Differential Equation (DE) – describes the relationship between input and output system.

– Using BD Algebra (BD Reduction Method) to reduce BD. – System (TF) as blocks and signals as lines.SUMMARY  Block Diagram (BD) – Representation as blocks and lines. – System (TF) as lines and signals as nodes – Using Mason’s Rule to reduce SFG ESE353 Chapter 2: Mathematical Modelling 84 .  Signal Flow Graph (SFG) – Representation as lines/branches and nodes.