SENSORY ORGANS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

1. Sensory organs are used to detect every changes in the environment. (a) Sensory organs are possessed by human and all animals. (b) Sensory organs allow the body to respond to the stimuli surroundings. Stimuli from the surroundings. Stimuli are changes that happen in the environment. (c) Sensory organs have receptors that receive the stimuli and then, send them as impulses to the brain to be analysed. The brain will then, give a response through the related

effectors. Examples of effectors are muscles and glands. 2. The sensory organs found in humans are the skin, eyes, nose, ears and tongue. 3. Table 1.1 shows the stimuli for the sensory organs found in our body.

We have five sensory organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin that are sensitive to different stimuli.

The Skin and the Sense of Touch
1. The skin is the outermost layer of the human body which covers and protects the human body. 2. The skin is a sensory organs which is sensitive to touch. 3. The human skin sonsists of two layers: (a) The epidermis layer which consists of dead cells and acts as a protector. (b) The dermis layer consists of living cells, blood vessels, nerves and sweat glands. The dermis

also has receptors which are sensitive to head, cold, contact (touch) and pressure. 4. Receptors are the ends of the nerves which are very sensitive to stimuli. 5. Each receptor is connected to a nerve. When stimulated, it sends a nerve signal known as an impluse to the brain to be interpreted. 6. Pain receptors are the closest to the skin surface. This is followed by touch receptors, heat receptors and cold receptors. Pressure receptors lie deep down in the adipose tissue beneath the dermis layer. 7. Different parts of the skin have different levels and sensitivity. The skin sensitivity depends on: (a) The depth of receptors in the skin. The palms of our hands, the lips and the neck are more sensitve than the soles of our feet. (b) How close together the receptors are. The parts of the skin which have receptors close to one another are more sensitive.

1. The arrangement of the apparatus is set up as shown in Figure.

lips. 2.2. The other parts of the body that are very sensitive to touch are the eyelids and armpits. knee. area behind the ear and neck are sensitive to touch. One or two toothpicks are used to prick the parts of the body as listed in the table below. 4. 3. The skin on the fingertips. Different parts of the body have different degrees of sensitivity to . 1. Your partner has to guess whether one or two tootpicks were used. Your partner is blindfolded using the piece of black cloth. Skin on the different parts of the body have different degrees of sensitivity to touch. sole of the foot and elbow are not so sensitive to touch. The skin on the palm of the hand. 3. 4.

3. 2. which are connected to the nerve endings that in turn convey smell impulses to the brain. 7. The cavity of the nose is lined by 2 types of cells: (a) Glandular cells which secrete slime ( muscus ). The sensivity of smell of animals such as cats. The Nose and the Sense of Smell 1. dissolve in the mucus and stimulate the sensory cells of smell. (b) Cells of the smell receptors. 6. Then.the stimulus of touch. the thick layer of mucus in the nose hinders these sensory cells from being stimulated and we are then. which is relatively quite weak. 5. unable to smell as usual. Hair and mucus in the nasal cavity function to filter dust from the air so that only clean air can enter the lungs. . The nose is a sensory organ which is sensitive to smell. Chemical substances. The cells of the smell receptors are found on the upper part of the nasal cavity. 4. impulses are sent to the brain through the nerves to be interpreted. rats and dogs is greater than that of humans. When we have flu. inhaled through the nose.

the receptors on the taste buds send impulses to the brain to be interpreted. the palatability of the food that is being eaten cannot be tasted. When we eat.The Tongue and Sense of Taste 1. It can detect salt. 10. When someone is having a flu. . 5. Our taste and smell sensory organs help us to feel the palatability of food. The taste buds are cells which are sensitive to taste. 3. the taste and smell of food can be experienced at the same time. sour. the chemical substances from the food dissolve in the saliva and stimulate the taste buds. Then. 9. 4. The tongue is the sensory organ for taste. When the nose is pinched while eating. There are small bumps on the surface of the tongue known as taste buds. 7. sweet and bitter tastes. Different parts of the tongue have different tastes. 6. Therefore. the taste of food cannot be detected because too much of mucus block the sensory cells. This is because the mouth cavity and nose cavity are connected. 2. 8. Most food have the combination of all types of tastes.

. 3. When the nose is not pinched.1. 2. both the sense of taste and the sense of smell are involved in tasting. only the sense of taste in volved in tasting. 4. When the nose is pinched. All types of food can be identified accurately with the help of the senses of smell and taste. Food cannot be identified accurately when the nose is pinched.

filled with air (c) Inner ear . . Each part of the ear has its own function as shown in Table 1.The Ears and the Sense of Hearing and Balance 1.filled with fluid 3. The human ear is divided into three parts: (a) Outer ear . 2. The ears are the sensory organs for hearing and are sensitive to sound.filled with air (b) Middle ear .3.

The hearing mechanism: (a) The earlobe collects and directs sound waves into the eardrum through the ear canal. (c) The ossicles strenghen these vibrations snd convey them to the oval window. (b) The eardrum vibrates and the sound vibration in tranferred to the ear bones (ossicle).4. (d) The vibrations of the oval window cause the fluid in the .

The eye is the sensory organ of sight and responds to light. (c) The brain will interpret these impulses and direct the muscles to respond and to balance up the body. SENSE OF SIGHT 1. . (e) The nerve impulses are sent to the brain by the auditory nerve to be interpreted. the ear also controls the balance of the body.cochlea to produce nerve impulses. The ear as a balancing organ: (a) Apart from functioning as a hearing organ. (b) Any bodily movements will stimulate the receptors in the semicircular canals to produce impulses. 5.

Changes in the size of the pupil under different situations.2. .

Light is reflected off an object into our eyes. The optic nerve then sends the nerve impulses from the retina to the brain. inverted and smaller than the object. The light travels through the pupil and the eye lens. 3. The formation of an image on the retina of the eye to the stage where we can see is summarised in Figure. The image formed on the retina is real. 4. 2. 6. The brain interprets the image as upright. . Finally the light is focused onto the retina. 5.The sight mechanism 1.

7. . The condition of the eye lens looking at near and distant objects is shown below : 8. The flow chart below summarises the route of light rays from the object entering the eye. Light rays are reflected by an opaque surface. LIGHT AND SIGHT Characteristics of light Reflection of light 1.

the reflected light rays will not be parallel or in order but dispersed. (b) vertical. like a plane mirror.used in submarines to see the situation on the surface of the sea. If the parallel light rays fall on a non-uniform rough surface. (b) kaleidoscope . (c) of the same size as the object. (e) laterally inverted. reflected ray and the normal are all on the same plane. 6. (d) the distance of the image behind the mirror is the same as the distance of the object in front of the mirror. 5. 4. The Law of Reflection is obeyed only if the parallel light rays fall onto a uniform surface. The knowledge of the reflection of light is used in the following instruments : (a) the periscope . (a) the incident ray. A smooth and shiny opaque surface. The characteristics of the image formed are as follows : (a) virtual ( cannot be formed on a screen ). . According to the Law of Reflection.2. 7. The reflected light rays are also parallel and in order.produces attractive patterns of small objects in it. The light ray is reflected when it is directed towards the plane mirror. (b) the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. 3. reflects nearly all the light rays that fall on it.

4. 2. The normal is drawn perpendicular to the surface of the plane mirror at the point where the two light rays meet. The measurements are recorded in the table below. . an incident ray is directed onto the plane mirror at an angle as shown in Figure 1. A line AB is drawn. angle of incidence (i) and the angle of reflection (r) are measuring using a protractor. The incident ray line and the reflected ray line are drawn on the white paper.20. 6. A plane mirror is placed vertically using platicine at the line AB.1. 3. Using a ray box. The activity is repeated for different angles of incidense. 5. Both the angles.

Refraction of light 1. the angle of reflection also increases. The speed of light changes when it moves from one medium to another with a different density which causes the light to be refracted (bent). As the angle of incidence increases . . Refraction of light takes place when light travels through two different media with different densities at an angle.1. 2. 2. The following shows the three situations of the movement of light rays through two different media. Light is reflected by the plane mirror. 3. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. 3. Light reflection takes place when incident light rays fall on the surface of a plane mirror.

.

4. The angle of incidence.21. a ( and a' ) and the angle of refraction. A light ray from the ray box is directed onto the surface of the glass block. The normal is drawn. b( and b' ) are measured and recorded in the table. 3. . The apparatus and material are set up as shown in Figure 1. The above steps are repeated for different values of the angle of incident 2 and 3.1. the incident ray and the emergent ray are drawn on the white paper. 5. The outline of the glass block. 2.

When light rays travel from a denser medium to a less dense medium. The following examples shows how light travels from one medium to another with different densities. When light rays travel from a less dense medium to a denser medium to a denser medium. it will bend away from the normal. it will bend towards the normal. 2. 4.1. Light rays bend or a refracted when it travels through media with different densities. 5. Daily phenomena of refraction of light are shown below : .

Eye defects .

4. The defect may be caused by (a) abnormally long eyeballs. A concave lens divergas the light rays before they enter the eye. Long-sightedness . (b) eye lens that are abnormally thick. 5. this happens because the ciliary muscles are weak and are unable to make the eye lens thinner. The defect can be corrected by wearing concave lenses ( diverging lenses ).Short-sightedness 3.

Long sightedness occurs because the image of a near objects falls behind the retina. Summary of short-sightedness ang longsightedness and correction of defects .1. A convex lens converges the light rays before they enter the eye. 2. 3. The defect may be caused by (a) abnormally short eyeballs. 4. A long-sighted person can see distant objects clearly but near objects appear blur. 5. This happens because the ciliary muscles are weak and are unable to make the eye lens thicker. (b) eye lens that are abnormally thin. The defect can be corrected by using convex lenses ( converging lenses ).

Part A To show short-sightedness and the correction of the defect .

Light rays from the ray box are directed onto the convex lens with a short focal length. 2. Another convex lens is placed in front of the convex lens so that a clear image is formed on the .24 but the convex lens with short focal length is substituted with a convex lens of long focal length. The apparatus is set up as shown in Figure 1.1. 3. An image is formed behind the surface X of the flask. The condition shows the defect known as long-sightedness.24. A concave lens is placed in front of the convex lens so that a clear image is formed on the surface of the flask. light rays from the ray box are directed onto the convex lens. 3. Part B To show long-sightedness and the correction of the defect 1. An image is formed in front of the surface X of the flask. This condition shows the defect knowm as short-sightedness. The light rays which show-sightedness and how it is corrected are drawn. The apparatus is set up as shown in Figure 1. 2. 4.

Astigmatism . 3. 4. 1. Long-sightedness is caused by an abnormally short eyeball or abnormally thin eye lens. The light rays which show long-sightedness and how it is corrected are drawn. Short-sightedness is caused by an abnormally long eyeball or abnormally thick eye lens. the fluorescent solution represents the vitreous humour. 2. The convex lens on the flask represents the eye lens. Long-sightedness can be corrected by wearing spectacles with convex lenses. Short-sightedness can be corrected by wearing specracles with concave lenses. 4. 5.surface X of the flask. The surface X of the flask represents the retina.

. 3. Astigmatism is caused by the irregular curvature of the cornea. On the other hand. To correct astigmatism. 4. the optician recommends cylindrical lenses ( asymmetrical lens ). 2. astigmatism causes blurred vision for either near or distant objects. 2. Limitation of the sense of sight Optical illusion 1.1. In many cases. This is because the brain cannot interpret accurately what is actually seen by the eye. Sometimes what we see may not appear to be the real thing. All the light rays from an object do not meet at a point on the retina. some light rays are focused on the retina while others are focused either in front or behind the retina. This limitation of the sense of sight is known as optical illusion ( confusion of the brain ).

2. The pictures (a) to (f) Figure 1. A ruler is used to measure if necessary.27 are observed carefully. .1.

Optical illusion happens when the brain cannot accurately interpret objects viewed.1. Blind spot . The brain cannot accurately interpret what is seen by the eye. The limitation of the sense of sight seen in the above activities is known as optical illusion. 2.

the dot disappears from the sight of your right eye. 2. the dot disappears from sight because the dot falls on the blind spot of your eye. . The image cannot be detected because the blind spot does anot have any nerve receptors that can detect the light impulses received. 1. At a certain distance.At a certain distance from your eyes.

the image at that moment is formed on the blind spot. 3. The brain will combine the vision from both eyes to from both eyes to from a three-dimensional image. Stereoscopic vision and monocular vision Stereoscopic vision 1. 5. . The monocular field of vision is wide. 4. Monocular vision 1. Predators usually have stereoscopic vision. Monocular vision is vision involving one eye only. The stereoscopic field of vision is narrow. Preys usually have monocular vision. 3. This enables us to estimate distances accurately. 2. This makes estimating distances accurately difficult.When the image cannot be seen. 2. Stereoscopic vision is vision involving both eyes. 4. Monocular vision produces a flat image.

Optical instruments can be used to help overcome the limitations .Comparison between stereoscopic vision and monocular vision Use of optical instruments 1.

SOUND AND HEARING Production of Sound 1. (b) When an object vibrates. The periscope is used in submarines to see above the sea level. The microscope is an optical instrument which helps us see fine and small objects. Vibrations produce sound : (a) Sound is a form of energy produced by vibration. A special machine called the ultrasonic scanner can produce an image of a foetus in a pregnant woman's womb on a screen.of the sense of sight. The telescope and binoculars are optical instruments that help us see distant objects. X-ray machines enable us to observe our bodies' internal organs. 2. 3. (c) Vibrating objects that produce sound are : . 6. the kinetic energy from the object is converted into sound energy. 5. 4.

v. a liquid or a gas. the transfer of vibration is not efficient. Particles in a gas are very far apart from each other. followed by liquid and slowest through a vacuum as there are no particles in a vacuum. Therefore. Sound produced by animals when their limbs are moved : . 2. voilin and drum when A tuning fork when knocked. Sound is transferred through the air when we listen to someone talking. Compact arrangement of particles in a solid enables the vibration to be transferred quickly. iv. Air at the mount of a tube containing water when blown. 3. sound. ii. Sound can be transferred from one place to another through a medium. iii. causing their wings to vibrate. The arrangement of particles in matter influence the transfer of sound. . played.Grasshoppers produce sound when their hind legh are brushing against their wings. Sound moves fastest through solid.Vibrations of the wings of bees and mosquitoes produce .i. 4. The tissues in our vocal cords vibrate when we talk. 5. Musical instuments such as guitar. Sound can move through a solid. Transfer of Sound 1.

removed using a vacuum Observations are recorded. . The switch of the electrical bell is turned on. (b) The sound of ringing bell becomes weaker when the air is removed from the glass jar. It cannot be heard when all the air is removed from the jar. (b) Transfer of sound needs a medium. (a) Sound cannot be transferred through a vacuum.(a) (b) (c) pump. (d) An electrical bell is installed in a glass jar. (a) The sound of ringing bell is heard when the switch is turned on. The air in the glass jar is then.

(b) Soft cushions and curtains are put in a hall or big room. soft materias are normally used reduce echo especially in a hall. . Echo is used to prevent ships from colliding with rocks under the sea. When sound waves are blocked by an object. 4. (c) The walls are lined by sponge or cardboard punched with holes. Echo is also used to trace fishes in the ocean and to determine the depth of the ocean. An object which has hard and smooth surfaces is a good sound reflector. Echo does not occur in a small room because sound is reflected very quickly. glass. Reflected sound is known as an echo. Examples : Plank. 5. 6. 3. metal. An object which has soft and rough surfaces is a good sound absorber. Some equipments are invented using the principle of echo to benefit mankind.The reflection and absorption of sound 1. they may be reflected or absorbed by the object. Actions to reduce echo are : (a) The floor of a hall is covered by carpets. 2. Therefore.

.

4. Bacterial or viral infections and high fever may lead to damage of the inner ear. Long exposure to loud sound may increase the chance of becoming deaf. Some of the hearing limitations can be corrected by using modern devices. (b) Surgery can be carried out to replace damaged ossicles and to repair damaged eardrums. 2. Deafness may be caused by several factors : (a) Damage of the ossicles. 3.Hearing Defect 1. (c) Implantation of electronic gadgets into the ears can help deaf people to hear again. (c) Damage of the cochlea. (b) Damage of the eardrums. (d) Damage of the auditory nerve. (a) Hearing aids can be used to help people with hearing problems. The most common hearing defects are the inability to detect sound and the difficulty of hearing with with ease. 5. .

The human ear can only detect sound between a frequency range of 20Hz to 20 000 Hz. ii.It is harder for old people to hear because their eardrums are less elastic. (d) Clean up the ears with cotton buds regularly so that the ear canal is not blocked. . a severe damage of the auditory nerves cannot be corrected. ii. their ability to hear will decrease. Nonetheless.For individuals who are exposed to continues sound pollution like loud sound of vehicles or machines. (b) Avoid digging the ears with sharp objects. . The rearing range differs from one individual to another. The ultrasonic frequencies are sound with frequencies exceeding 20 000 Hz. Looking after the ears : (a) Prevent the ears from being exposed to loud sound.6. Limitations of the Sense of Hearing 1. especially while listening to music. (c) Avoid from inflicting tight slaps onto the ears. Some animals can detect the ultrasonic frequencies that humans are not able to. (b) Animals : i. 7. The range of hearing frequency. (a) Human beings : i. . The range of hearing frequency for several animals is shown in the following table.

This is important because : i. i. iii. iv. reach the left ear. ii. The sound waves will then. (c) Stereophonic hearing is important to humans and animals because it can help to determine the direction or source of a sound. ii. . (d) The direction of sound is difficult to determine using only one ear. The differences in the loudness or speed of the sound that reaches the ears allows us to determine the direction or the source of sound. Stereophonic hearing (a) Hearing by using both sides of the ears is known as stereophonic hearing. the impulses are sent to the brain to be interpreted earlier than the left ear.2. It can help avoid danger such as enemies. 3. Devices to overcome the hearing limitations. (b) Stereophonic hearing allows us to determine the direction of sound accurately. A sound coming from the right side will stimulate the right ear first. It can help animals to obtain their food. The right ear will hear the sound louder than the left ear. predators or moving vehicles.

5. gravity and water. Plants respond to light. 3. The response by plants to stimuli is called tropism. 6. Examples of tropic responses and nastic movement are given as follows : . (b) negative tropism . There are two types of tropism : (a) Positive tropism . 2.response by plants away from the stimulus. The tropic movements are importants to plants because these movements help the plants get necessities like light and water and minerals. 4.STIMULI AND RESPONSE IN PLANTS 1. there are also plants that respond to the stimulus of touch. Plants can detect and respond to stimuli around them. This enables plants to grow healthily.response by plants toward s the stimulus.

7. Tropic differences between the responses of the plant shoots and .

3. is placed under the sun. The evaporating dish labelled P. Three to five green pea seedlings are germinated separately on moist cotton in two evaporating dishes two days before the start of the experiment. The evaporating dish labelled Q. .plant roots are given below. containing green pea seedlings. 1. containing green pea seedlings. 2.

2. 1. The shoot of the plant grows towards the light stimulus and this is called positive phototropism. The arrangement of the apparatus is left for three days. The observations are recorded at the end of the experiment. 3.is placed in a closed box with a hole under the sun as shown in Figure 1. The seedlings in evaporating dish P acts as a control experiment to compare the results at the end of the experiment. The moist cotton supplies water to the seedlight for germination and growth. 2. The root of the plant grows away from the light stimulus and shows negative phototropism. 4. 5.37. The hypothesis made can be accepted. The plant shoot grows towards the light source while the plant root grows away from the light source. 4. 1. .

The observations are recorded at the end of the experiment. .1. The arrangement of the apparatus is left for three days in a dark cupboard. 3. Three to five green pea seedlings are geterminated on damp cotton wool in two petri dishes separately two days before the experiment is started. Petri dish B is placed in a vertical position using plasticine. Petri dishes A and B are placed in position as shown in figure 1. 2. 4.38.

The plant root grows towards gravity while the plant shoot grows away from gravity. 3. The plant shoot grows away from the stimulus of gravity and shows negative geotropism. The seedlings in petri dishes A and B are kept in a dark cupboard so that the growth of the seedlings will not be affected by light. . 2. The plant root grows towards the direction of the stimulus of gravity and shows positive geotropism. The hypothesis mad ecan be accepted.1. 1. 2.

4.1. Three to five green pea seedlings are germinated on damp cotton wool on wire gauze. . Both sets of apparatus are kepst in a dark cupboard. The condition of the root and shoot are observed after three days. 3. The arrangement of apparatus set X and Y are set up as shown in Figure 1.39. 2.

The plant shoot grows away from water and is said to show negative. The function of the silica gel ( or anhydrous calcium chloride ) is to absorb the water. Copyright © 2005 Kenshido International Sdn Bhd . 4. 2. The seedlings are kept in the dark cupboard so that they do not receive any light and respond to it. 2. The water stimulus gives a stronger effect to plant roots than gravity. 3. The plant root responds to the water stimulus and is said to show positive hydrotropism. The plant root grows towards the direction of water. The hypothesis made can be accepted. 1. 5.1.