Wide Area Network

The network that is design for long distance communication is called Wide Area Network. A WAN network uses WAN protocols, WAN interface card to communicate with remote network. WAN Point-to-Point Circuit Switching Packet Switching Cell Switching

Leased line ISDN Frame Relay ATM MLLN PSTN X.25 Radio Link For 2 locations Unlimited Maximum Maximum Factors to be considered while selecting a WAN technology (1) No. of locations (2) Hours of connectivity (3) Speed (4) Cost (Bandwidth + Distance) (5) Reliability WAN Encapsulation WAN encapsulation is used to convert a packet into frame and transfer data to WAN links, Different type of encapsulation are designed for different WAN technologies. The general format of WAN encapsulation is: Flag Address ControlData FCS Flag

FH Common WAN Encapsulation Point-to-Point Point-to-Point, Circuit Switch Frame Relay Frame Relay X.25 ISDN ATM

Packet

FT

High level data link control Point-to-Point Protocol Frame Relay Cisco Frame Relay IETF Link Access Procedure Based Link Access Procedure Based for D channel ATM Adaptation layer 5

HDLC PPP

LAPB LAPD AAL5

Point-to-Point WAN technologies
These WAN technologies are used to connect two locations with each other. It is the 24hour high speed and reliable connectivity. We can setup this WAN technology in three steps: 1

Step 1: - Connect the devices according to topology. Step 2: - Configure Modems. Step 3: - Configure Router. Step 1 Point-to-Point WAN Topology (a) Campus n/w or Drop wire n/w V.35 RS 232 EIA/TIA 530 Modem Line 2 wire TP Or 4 wire TP DB-60 Smart Serial Serial Router Eth RJ-45 * Distance depends on modems & mostly up to 10-15 kms. Router Line

(b) Leased line via Service Provided G703 G704 Modem Mux Exchange Mux Modem 2

Line Local Loop Line Modem V.35 RS 232, EIA/TIA 530 R SS, DB-60 Modem Local Loop

R

(c) Managed Leased Line n/w (MLLN)

MLLN MUX

Exchange

MLLN MUX

MLLN Modem

MLLN Modem

Route r

Route r

(d) Radio Link

V.35 RS 232

Radio Modem

Antenna

Radio Modem

3

EIA 530 DB-60 Smart Serial Router Router

(e) Radio Link using IDU & ODU Radio Modem ODU UTP or Coaxial Route r Radio Modem IDU Radio Modem IDU Route r ODU – Out Door Unit IDU – In Door Unit Radio Modem ODU

Line 4 Wire 1 ------2 ------- Loop 1 3 4 ------- Loop2 5 ------ 6 7 2 Wire 1 2 3 4 ------- Signal 5 ------6 7 4

8

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Step 2 Configurations of Modems We have to configure various parameters in the modem. There are three different methods to configure these parameters according to Modem. Method1) Configuration of modem using Jumper setting/ Dip switches. 2) Configuration of modem using LCD menu. 3) Configuration of Modem using Console/ Terminal. Step 3 Configuration of Router To configure Router for a Leased line scenario or Point-to-Point n/w, we have to set following parameters: 1) IP addresses 2) IP routing 3) WAN encapsulation

172.16.0.1 192.168.5.1

172.16.0.2 10.0.0.1

In Point-to-Point WAN n/w any type of routing can be perform on routers.

WAN Encapsulation
Two routers interfaces in Point-to-Point WAN must required to have same WAN encapsulation. Two types of WAN encapsulation are supported in this type of network. (1) HDLC (2) PPP

HDLC PPP 5

Same Manufacturer

PPP Different Manufacturer By default, Cisco routers will use Cisco HDLC encapsulation. We can change encapsulation by following command: Router#conf ter Router(config)#interface <type> <no> Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp|hdlc HDLC High Level Data Link Control HDLC is the modified form of SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control). SDLC was developed by IBM for router to main frame communication. HDLC is modified for routerto-router communication. Most of manufacturer has developed their proprietary HDLC protocol. So HDLC from one manufacturer is not compatible for other. HDLC encapsulation is designed for Point-to-Point router communication. In HDLC no addressing is required, but still all station address is used in encapsulation. HDLC provides only basic features and error checking for the frame. PPP – Point-to-Point Protocol PPP is an open standard WAN protocol that can be used in Point-to-Point and circuit switching networks. PPP provides various advantages as compared to HDLC. PPP has following special features: (1) Authentication (2) Multi Link (3) Compression (4) Call Back PPP at OSI layer A P S T N TCP/IP IPX/SPX PPP HDLC 6

Lan, Wan Protocols

DL P LAPB EE 8023 ARPA

Network D A NCP T ------------------A LCP L I -------------------N K HDLC Physical

PPP

Three Phases of PPP (1) Link Control Protocol (LCP) This protocol negotiates the basic feature of PPP. It exchanges the parameter and option to be used with link. LCP supported features are: Authentication, Compression, Multi link & Call back (2) Authentication Phase - optional In this phase authentication is performed with peers with the help of one of the following protocol. (i) Password Authentication Protocol (ii) Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (iii) Microsoft CHAP (iv) Shiva PAP (clear text) (3) Network Control Protocol Phase (NCP) In this phase parameters for routed protocol are established. In NCP, there is one module for each routered protocol. IPCP for TCP/IP IPXCP for IPX/SPX (internetwork packet exchange/sequenced packet exchange) CDPCP for CDP etc.

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Configuring Authentication in PPP Example: Router 1 S0 Router 1 Router#config ter Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#hostname chd Router(config)#username ldh password net123 Router(config)#exit Router 2 Router#config ter Router(config)#int serial 1 Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp Router(config-if)#ppp authentication chap Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#hostname ldh Router(config)#username chd password net123 Router(config)#exit

Router 2 S1

Configuring Compression in PPP In PPP, one of the following three protocols can be used for compression (1) Stac (2) Predictor (3) Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression Router#config ter Router(config)#interface <type> <no> Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp Router(config-if)#compress <Stac|MPPC|Predictor> Router(config-if)#exit To display Compression Router#show compress

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PPP debug commands Router#debug ppp error Router#debug ppp authentication Router#debug ppp negotiation To display PPP status Router#show interface LCP Open LCP Closed LCP Request sent LCP Listen IPCP Open IPCP Closed CDPCP Open CDPCP Closed

Packet Switching
Packet Switching is the wan technology in which all devices are connected to the packet switching exchange. The devices will request packet switching exchange to create a virtual connection then data is transferred over the virtual connection. It is possible to create more than one virtual connection. Simuntasouly and transfer data over them one by one. Example of Packet Switching Technology are: (1) X.25 (2) Frame Relay Frame Relay Frame Relay is the Packet switching technology in which virtual connections are established. The frame relay supports only permanent virtual connections. Frame used special addresses called DLCI to create common and virtual connections. Frame Relay Topology FR SW

4 wire Tp Line

FR Modem Line Local loop

V.35 232 530

FR Modem

9

V.35, RS232, EIA 530

DB-60, Smart Serial Route r

Switch

Frame Relay Encapsulation
Frame Relay use special type of Encapsulation, Which is specifically designed for this technology. There are two encapsulations are available: (1) Frame Relay Cisco (2) Frame Relay IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

R Cisco

Cisco FR IETF FR

R Cisco

R Non Cisco

IETF FR

R ?

Frame Relay DLCI DLCI stands for Data Link Control Identifier. It is used for addressing purpose. In frame Relay Encapsulation, Virtual Circuits are established and data is transferred on the basis of 10

DLCI. DLCI addresses are different from general addressing scheme. One DLCI address provided for each virtual circuit that we want to create. DLCI range 16 - 1017 Virtual Circuit In packet switching technology there are two types of virtual circuits: (1) Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) (2) Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) Only PVC is supported in Frame Relay technology. Frame Relay Local Management Interface LMI are the keepalive signals, which are used to keep the virtual circuit up and running. LMI are exchange between frame relay switch and router. We have to set same LMI on router as specified by the service provider. There are three types of LMI that we can use (1) CISCO (2) Q933a (3) ANSI

Configuring Frame Relay Point to Point connectivity S0 Cisco SW FR SW S1 ANSI

M 300 for R2 encap: - Cisco FR M

M 400 for R1

M

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192.168.10.1 R1 172.16.0.1

192.168.10.2 R2 172.30.0.1

R1 Router#config ter Router(config)#int eth0 Router(config-if)#ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 172.30.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.10.2 Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 300 Router(config-dlci)#exit Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.10.2 300 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit R2 Router#config ter Router(config)#int eth0 Router(config-if)#ip address 172.30.0.1 255.255.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.10.1 Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.2 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 400 Router(config-dlci)#exit 12

Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.10.1 400 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Frame-relay Switch Router(config)#hostname FR-SW FR-SW(config)#frame-relay switching FR-SW(config)#int serial0 FR-SW(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay FR-SW(config-if)#no ip address FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay route 300 int serial 1 400 FR-SW(config-if)#clocka rate 64000 FR-SW(config-if)#no sh FR-SW(config-if)#exit FR-SW(config)#int serial1 FR-SW(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay FR-SW(config-if)#no ip address FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay route 400 int serial 0 300 FR-SW(config-if)#clocka rate 64000 FR-SW(config-if)#no sh FR-SW(config-if)#exit Configuring Frame Relay point to multipoint when all routers are same subnet 192.168.10.2 M 172.30.0.1

400 for R1 ANSI S VC1 VC2 M

R2

M 309 for R2 318 for R3 M

M 701 for R1 M

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192.168.10.1 R1 10.0.0.1

192.168.10.5 R3 172.20.0.1 Encapsulation = Frame-Relay IETF

On physical interface, we can assign only one DLCI address. But in this case, we have to use two DLCI on single interface so we will create a frame relay sub interface (multipoint), which is able to create multiple virtual circuit. R1 Router#config ter Router(config)#int eth 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 172.30.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.10.2 Router(config)#ip route 172.20.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.10.5 Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type ansi Router(config-if)#no ip address Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#interface serial 0.2 multipoint Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.10.2 309 Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.10.5 318 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit R2 Router#config ter Router(config)#interface Ethernet 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 172.30.0.1 255.255.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit

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Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 192.168.10.1 Router(config)#interface serial 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.2 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 400 Router(config-dlci)#exit Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type ansi Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.10.1 400 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit R3 Router#config ter Router(config)#interface Ethernet 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 172.20.0.1 255.255.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 192.168.10.1 Router(config)#interface serial 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.5 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 701 Router(config-dlci)#exit Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type ansi Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.10.1 701 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Frame-relay Switch Router(config)#hostname FR-SW FR-SW(config)#frame-relay switching FR-SW(config)#int serial0 FR-SW(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay FR-SW(config-if)#no ip address FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay route 309 int serial 1 400 FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay route 318 int serial 2 701 FR-SW(config-if)#clocka rate 64000 FR-SW(config-if)#no sh FR-SW(config-if)#exit FR-SW(config)#int serial1

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FR-SW(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay FR-SW(config-if)#no ip address FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay route 400 int serial 0 309 FR-SW(config-if)#clocka rate 64000 FR-SW(config-if)#no sh FR-SW(config-if)#exit FR-SW(config)#int serial2 FR-SW(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay FR-SW(config-if)#no ip address FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce FR-SW(config-if)#frame-relay route 701 int serial 0 318 FR-SW(config-if)#clocka rate 64000 FR-SW(config-if)#no sh FR-SW(config-if)#exit

Frame Relay point to multipoint configuration when routers are in different subnets. 192.168.10.6 M

400 for R1 CISCO S VC1 VC2 M

R1

11.0.0.1

M 300 for R2 309 for R3 M

M 701 for R1 M

192.168.10.5 172.16.0.2 R1

172.16.0.1 R1 16

10.0.0.1 Encapsulation = Frame-Relay IETF

12.0.0.1

R1 Router#config ter Router(config)#int eth0 Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 192.168.10.6 Router(config)#ip route 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 172.16.0.1 Router(config)#interface serial 0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco Router(config-if)#no ip address Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#interface serial 0.20 point-to-point Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.10.5 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 300 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.10.6 300 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#interface serial 0.30 point-to-point Router(config-if)#ip address 172.16.0.2 255.255.0.0 Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 309 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 172.16.0.1 309 Router(config-if)#no sh Router(config-if)#exit Frame Relay Show Command Router#sh interface <type> <no> It will be show additional (i) Encapsulation (ii) LMI send/receive

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Router#sh frame-relay pvc It will be show (i) Active/inactive pvc (ii) Data send/receive over each pvc (iii) Frame-relay congestion control information Router#sh frame-relay map Display the IP to DLCI mapping and pvc status Frame relay congestion control Frame relay uses three types of information in frame relay encapsulation for congestion control. (1) Backward explicit congestion notice. (2) Forward explicit congestion notice (3) Discard eligibility

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