From Big Bang Theory to Higg’s Boson The Big Bang Theory is an attempt to explain the expanding universe

. This phenomenon was confirmed in 1929 by astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble. The Big Bang Theory holds that all things in the universe had emerged from a large explosion or a Big Bang that set each celestial body in its place. The Big Bang Theory infers the universe is this way and it is expanding because of a massive explosion that created it, that is, before this explosion the universe did not exist. The birth of the universe is commonly believed to have resulted from an extremely powerful explosion. This was the first significant event that triggered the chain of events that led to the creation of galaxies, stars, planets and, eventually, the origin of life on Earth. It all began with a bang... Over 15 billion years ago, the entire universe was compressed into a miniature space the size of an atom’s nucleus. A gargantuan explosion known as the Big Bang released all the compressed matter and energy and created space and time. The newly-born universe expanded rapidly and with a nearly infinite capacity for expansion. Nanoseconds after the Big Bang, the entire universe consisted of a hot and dense cloud of hydrogen atoms. Since these atoms were packed together tightly there were lots of violent collisions between them. These collisions fused many of the hydrogen atoms together, forming helium. The exact same fusion process occurs in the extremely hot cores of stars. As the universe expanded, it cooled too rapidly to allow atomic fusion to occur, making hydrogen and helium, the two simplest chemical elements, the only elements in the universe at that time. Now we are going to fast-forward to a couple hundred million years after the Big Bang. Under the influence of gravity, hydrogen and helium collected together into massive gas clouds, forming simple galaxies. These galaxies became the birthplace of stars. As the clouds became larger, gravity forced the core of the cloud to become increasingly dense. This resulted in the contraction of the star and changed the shape of the cloud into that of a huge ball. More and more pressure built up in the cloud, producing lots of heat, and slowly changed the color of the cloud to a bright yellow-white light. A star is born!

proton. namely gravitational. scientists had to wait for a major breakthrough in the particle physics which came in 1970. when physicists realized that the unification of four fundamental forces in nature. one of the requirements of such a unifying model entails that all particles are massless – something which is apparently not true! After all. The last stage of a star’s life is when the pressure in the iron core is so great that it undergoes a final collapse. Robert Brout and François Englert came up with a solution to solve this conundrum. are comparably cool. the core cools and shrinks. you can see stars in a plethora of colors. As superhot stars like supergiants begin to exhaust their hydrogen fuel. electromagnetic. Extremely hot stars. and neutron – all have definite masses. They suggested that particles had no mass just after the Big Bang. electron. strong and weak nuclear forces may be the key in formulation of a model to explain the creation of the Universe. Eventually. called a supernova. where they were deposited in a number of different forms and substances. Red stars.During the lifetime of a star. emit blueish white light. the star’s color gradually changes. The color of a star corresponds to it’s temperature. In summary. The outer gases of the sun are blown away in a great burst of energy. However. the Big Bang created the universe and initiated the creation and placement of the chemical elements and matter essential for the development of life on Earth and other planets in the universe. In order to give a credible explaination to the proposed Big Bang theory. to explain the proposed theory and the Universe as it exists today. called Standard Model. When you gaze up into the night sky with a telescope or binoculars. How can we then explain the creation of mass and the Universe. Scientists found enough evidence to suggest unification of at least two of four fundamental forces – weak force and electromagnetic force −and proposed a model. elements that are heavier than iron were fused and flung outward. called red dwarfs. called supergiants. As the early Universe (1/10 second after the Big Bang) . as we see it today? Physicists Peter Higgs. varying fusion reactions take place until the core is nearly iron. With the incredible amount of energy produced in this explosion. Eventually these elements find their way to the planet Earth. matter and light.

scientists of CERN announced that the long-sought Higgs boson does exist. Systematic analysis of data is carried out to search for a particle over a range of masses. Till recently. is an example of a particle with no mass and hence it does not interact with the Higgs field. Finally on 4 July. no experimental evidence of the existence of the Higgs boson was found. which could accelerate protons up to 7 trillion electron volts (TeV). whereas particles that never interact are left with no mass. smashing protons at near-light speed generates a vast shower of particles that are created only at extremely high energies. Scientists found data corresponding to a . The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)built the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). the heavier they become.9 % of speed of light) and then collide them. In a particle accelerator like LHC. It was predicted that Higgs boson should have a mass much more than that of protons. Experiments conducted in the Large Hadron Collider yielded results that were consistent with its existence. Highspeed collision was expected to create the conditions prevailing in early Universe for a brief moment. an invisible force field called the 'Higgs field' was formed together with the associated 'Higgs boson'. Scientists did a number of experiments during last two years to search for any evidence that confirms the existence of the Higgs boson. They were looking for Higgs boson that only fleetingly exists in a soup of particles but leaves behind a trail of other particles that could prove its existence. Scientists knew that Higgs boson cannot be observed directly because of its extremely short life of “a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a second”. During last 40 years physicists tried to find the Higgs boson and did several experiments to create conditions that could simulate the formation of the early Universe. the Higgs boson existed only in theory. Fermi Lab in USA used the Tevatron – a powerful particle accelerator to accelerate protons to a very high speed (99. Photon. The stronger the interaction. a larger and more powerful particle accelerator. The Standard Model does not predict an exact mass of the Higgs boson. The field prevails throughout the cosmos: any particle that interacts with it is given a mass via the Higgs boson.cooled and the temperature fell below a critical value (10 Kelvin). which is the carrier of the electromagnetic field.

says “We’re on the frontier now. As Professor of the University of California. So far. . This will provide more data to support the Standard Model.” Discovery of the Higgs boson may just be the beginning of many more discoveries to uncover other secrets of the Universe. or we could open a whole new realm of discovery. All matter we see comprises only 4% of the observable Universe – the rest. however. is made up of mysterious dark matter and dark energy. which is about 133 times heavier than protons. This could be the only part of the story that’s left. Currently. on the edge of new exploration. this discovery is claimed to be the greatest discovery of 21st century. thus confirming Higgs boson. Some physicists are comparing this to the Apollo program that landed man the Moon in 1960. the finding has been termed as tentative by the CERN teams and the final confirmation is about to be revealed. Scientists will also look at how the Higgs boson decays or transforms into other more stable particles.particle weighing about 125 billion electron-volts (GeV). as proposed by the scientists. Santa Barbara. Definitely science will explain these mysteries in days to come. Discovery of the existence of the Higgs boson will certainly prove to be a major milestone in our understanding of the Universe.