Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23:5–20, 2011 Copyright c Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0896-1530 print

/ 1528-7068 online DOI: 10.1080/08961530.2011.524571

ARTICLES

Repeat Purchase Intentions in Online Shopping: The Role of Satisfaction, Attitude, and Online Retailers’ Performance
Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin

ABSTRACT. A model of determinants of repeat purchase intentions of consumers who have
previously bought online is developed and empirically tested. Data for the model test comes from responses to a structured self-administered survey provided by a sample of 436 consumers in Saudi Arabia. The results confirm hypothesized positive effects of overall satisfaction with previous online purchases and attitude toward online purchasing on repeat purchase intentions. In turn, attitude is positively determined by overall satisfaction and negatively by experience with online purchase problems, while overall satisfaction is determined positively by satisfaction with the following online retailers’ performance dimensions: product prices, product quality, customer service, required payment methods, perceived payment security, and delivery time. Contrary to expectations, delivery cost is not significantly related to overall satisfaction. Neither does experience with online purchase problems. Theoretical and marketing strategy implications of the findings are outlined and discussed.

KEYWORDS. Online shopping, e-shopping, repeat purchase intentions, satisfaction, attitudes, e-commerce, e-satisfaction Across national contexts and demographic segments, consumers are increasingly adopting the phenomenon of buying products online. Accordingly, research interest in consumers’ online shopping behavior has shifted from the initial descriptive focus on identifying enabling product/service characteristics that facilitate their adoption for online purchasing (e.g., Phau and Poon 2000) and delineating the demographic and psychographic characteristics of online shoppers (e.g., Dholakia and Uusitalo 2002; Eastlick and Lotz 1999; Lee and Johnson 2002; Sin and Tse

Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin is Associate Professor of Marketing, Department of Management and Marketing, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Address correspondence to Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin, Department of Management and Marketing, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1185, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: alhassan@kfupm.edu.sa
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it extends this literature by including the impact of experiences with online purchase problems. Second. With increasing consumer adoption of online purchasing. First. followed by another section discussing their theoretical and managerial implications. and financial infrastructures. Fornell 1992.. this guidance could be particularly useful to start-up domestic online retailers as they build systems to target consumers in the country. Smith 2002). namely. the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1991). rationale for hypothesized relationships in the model. the study contributes to the broader literature on the relationships among overall satisfaction. This is because repeat purchase customers constitute the pool for developing a base of loyal patrons who tend to spend more. the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975).g. and the technology acceptance model (Davis 1989.. and even personality (Bosnjak. The rest of the article is organized as follows. Given the current dearth of domestic online retailers in the study region (Saudi Arabia). Goldsmith 2001). culture (Moon. Ajzen 1991. Monsuwe. and Tikoo 2008). and online purchase intentions in particular. The analysis and results are then presented in a separate section. Accordingly. These include inadequate communications.. it provides online retailers with guidance on which dimensions of their product/service offerings have the greatest impact on satisfaction and repeat purchase intentions. online purchase satisfaction (Evanschitzky et al. product presentation formats (Kim and Lennon 2008). The focus now is increasingly on developing models to explain various aspects of online purchase behavior. it is an important precursor to actual behavior. it complements the literature on consumers’ online purchase behavior in general. Yet. the key for sustained growth of the industry lies more in repeat purchases than initial purchases. In this regard. intention. and are more likely to spread positive word of mouth (Dick and Basu 1994. The next section presents the conceptual framework for the study. . Liao and Cheung 2001. Dellaert. and online purchase adoption (e.g. consumers in many countries outside the industrialized world often face a variety of online purchase problems resulting from their particular national circumstances. and Engchanil 2004). The focus on this construct is timely. Misra. online purchase risk perceptions (Bhatnagar. innovativeness (e. and actual repeat purchase (e. 2003). online purchase intentions are believed to be important precursors to actual online purchasing. beyond the online purchase context. Drawing on theories like innovation diffusion theory (Rogers 1983). Salisbury et al. Experiences with such problems can have significant effects on the consumers’ satisfaction and attitudes toward online purchasing as well as their intentions to buy online again.g. 2004. online store environment cues (Chang and Chen 2008). researchers have modeled online purchase intention as a function of online shopping attitude (e. the importance of intention lies in the fact that according to the theories of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) and planned behavior (Ajzen 1991). justifications for including specific variables. George 2002. The study’s theoretical contribution is threefold.6 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING 2002. From a managerial perspective. transportation. buy more frequently. Fishbein & Ajzen 1975. and Doukidis 2001).. Jiang and Rosenbloom 2005. The present study focuses on a special category of online purchase intentions.g. Guo. such as information searching (Kulviwat. one phenomenon that has attracted significant modeling interest is online purchase intention (Shim et al. Moon and Kim 2001). attitudes toward online shopping (e.. George 2002). Galesic and Tuten 2007). Siomkos.g. 2001). 2001). and formal statements of the hypotheses to be tested in the empirical study. and Ruyter 2004). attitudes. repeat purchase intentions of consumers who have previously bought products/services online. A final section outlines some limitations of the study and offers suggestions for future research. by examining repeat purchase intentions of consumers who have previously made online purchases. Szymanski and Hisse 2000). and Rao 2000. Jayawardhena 2004). As a construct. Third. Chadee. Few other studies have examined the impact of this construct. The section following this describes the study methodology. and a significant amount of research effort has been devoted to identifying the determinants of online purchase intentions. Vrechopoulos. Hellier et al.

rather than intention to buy again from a specific retailer (as in. This is conceptualized simply as the likelihood that a consumer who has previously made an online purchase will buy online again. The focal construct is online repeat purchase intention.. Attitudes have been defined as general and enduring positive or negative feelings (or learned . Hellier et al. Attitudes. Abdul-Muhmin 7 FIGURE 1. 2003). while attitude is impacted by experience and overall satisfaction. The study proposition is that this is directly determined by two constructs—overall satisfaction with previous online purchases (overall satisfaction) and attitude toward online purchasing (attitude). its key hypothesized determinants are attitudes toward online purchasing and overall satisfaction with previous online purchases. and has implications for how intentions are subsequently measured.g. This conceptualization views intentions as “expectations. Conceptual Model and Hypothesized Relationships Satisfaction with Online Product Prices Satisfaction with Delivery Time + + Satisfaction with Delivery Cost + + Overall Satisfaction with Previous Online Purchase Satisfaction with Online Product Quality Satisfaction with Online Customer Service Satisfaction with Required Online Payment Method Satisfaction with Online Payment Security + + + − + + Online Repeat Purchase Intentions + Attitudes toward Online Purchase − Experience with Online Purchase Problems CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Figure 1 shows a conceptual model of the constructs and hypothesized relationships. and Repeat Purchase Intentions The terminal dependent variable in the study is online repeat purchase intention. Overall Satisfaction. As indicated earlier. In turn.” in contrast to other views of intentions as “wants” or “plans” (Soderlund and Ohman 2003).Alhassan G. e. The conceptualization also applies to general online repeat purchase intention. The subsections that follow outline justifications for including the specific determining constructs as well as for the hypothesized relationships among the constructs. overall satisfaction is determined by two factors—experience with previous online purchase problems (experience) and satisfaction with online retailers’ performance on the key marketing-related dimensions (attribute satisfaction).

2003).g.. Both theories are premised on the postulation that attitude toward a behavior is the key determinant of intention to perform the behavior. Anderson and Sullivan 1993. Garbarino and Johnson 1999). in this study attitude toward online purchasing is viewed as a consumer’s level of affect (positive. Empirically. Therefore. Accordingly. all three definitions are integrated into a view of online purchase satisfaction as an overall positive evaluation of previous online purchases and an associated positive affective emotional state resulting from such evaluation. Hellier et al.. It has also been viewed as an overall evaluation of performance based on all prior experiences with a focal firm. Griffith. negative. Consistent with this definition. Its antecedent effect on attitudes is not unequivocal.8 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING dispositions) about a person. As will be discussed shortly. several studies have also demonstrated a positive effect of attitude toward online shopping on online purchase intention (e. the available theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that overall satisfaction with online purchasing should be positively related to online repeat purchase intention. However.g. Fornell 1992. E. Monsuwe et al. a formal hypothesis for the present study is that: H1a: Consumers’ online repeat purchase intentions are positively determined by their attitudes toward online purchasing. and Palmer 2001. consumer behavior. others treat it as a consequence (e. Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen 1985.g. Overall satisfaction has been defined as “an affective state that is the emotional reaction to a product or service experience” (Spreng. and repeat purchase intention in particular (e. prepurchase attitudes must necessarily be antecedents to overall satisfaction. Anderson and Srinivasan (2003) and Hellier and colleagues (2003). and as the overall level of customer pleasure and contentment resulting from experience with a product or service (Hellier et al. Determinants of Attitude toward Online Purchase The conceptual model posits two determinants of attitudes toward online purchasing. Mothersbauch. Thus. although the possibility exists for postpurchase . Some insights from Roest and Pieters (1997) suggest that these differences arise because attitudes can be formed either pre. product. a positive link between online purchase satisfaction and willingness to continue patronizing online purchasing has been found by R.g. or issue (Eagly and Chaiken 1993). 1991) inform this hypothesis.. the same cannot be said of the effect of overall satisfaction. postulations of attitude formation theories provide strong unequivocal evidence in support of an antecedent effect of experience on attitudes. overall satisfaction has been found to be positively related to repeat purchase intention (e. George 2002. Theoretically. however. Shim et al.or postpurchase. MacKenzie. and marketing confirm the potency of attitude in explaining behavioral intention in general. or neutral learned predisposition) toward the idea of buying products online. postulations of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Azjen and Fishbein 1980.. Overall satisfaction. In this study. 2003). In the online context. However. namely overall satisfaction with previous online purchases and experience with online purchase problems. W. Krampf.g.. or service (Jones. Empirically. is always a postexperience (purchase) construct. E. and Beatty 2000). a large body of studies in psychology. 2003. Hellier et al. Whereas some researchers treat it as an antecedent to attitudes (e. Both theoretical and empirical evidence in the literature support the hypothesized impact of online purchase attitudes on online repeat purchase intentions. 2004. Hellier et al. Selnes 1998). on the basis of this evidence. Patterson and Spreng 1997. and provide a basis for the hypotheses that: H1b: Consumers’ online repeat purchase intentions are positively determined by their overall satisfaction with previous online purchases. and Olshavsky 1996). object. 2001). 2003). In the realm of consumers’ online purchase behavior.

Thus. H1b. This argument is subsumed in Roest and Pieters’s (1997) definition of attitude as a customer’s positive. This essentially makes satisfaction an antecedent of attitude. Ouellete and Wood 1998). and the data is collected postpurchase.g.g. Bentler and Speckart 1979. in addition to the direct effect of satisfaction on repeat purchase intention hypothesized earlier. 1981.. and therefore a consequence of overall satisfaction (see also arguments in Hellier et al. hypotheses H1a. the previous performance of a behavior helps in shaping attitude toward the behavior.. making them the consequence rather than the antecedent (see. or (b) have any previously held negative attitudes reinforced. or company that is often the result of past evaluative experiences (emphasis added). Indeed some researchers even suggest that attitude toward a product can be assessed as the sum of satisfactions with various attributes of the product (Churchill and Surprenant 1982.. But attitude is a valenced construct that can be positive. Abdul-Muhmin 9 attitudes to be antecedent to overall satisfaction. 2000. Since the present study focuses on consumers who have previously made online purchases. service. The opposite will hold for consumers who have not encountered such problems. Experience with online purchase problems is conceptualized as the extent to which the consumer has encountered purchase barriers and other negative experiences during previous online purchase attempts. consumers who have encountered problems with previous online purchases will (a) develop negative attitudes toward online purchasing. This result supports the general contention that such past behavior contributes in shaping learned predispositions to respond to future behavioral situations in a manner that is not readily explained by attitude formation theories alone (Bentler and Speckart 1979). Knowledge and/or beliefs are themselves usually shaped by experiences with the relevant attitude object. Thus. neutral. and H2a imply that attitudes mediate the relationship between satisfaction and repeat purchase intention. Weber and Roehl 1999). the formal hypothesis is that: H2b: Consumers’ attitudes toward online purchasing are negatively determined by their past experiences with online purchase problems. Eastlick 1996. Conner et al. In an effort to untangle the exact processes by which this effect occurs. or neutral. In other words. or negative learned disposition with respect to a good. the model in Roest and Pieters 1997). Accordingly. Oliver 1981). an indirect effect through (postpurchase) attitudes is also expected. researchers have also demonstrated that previous online purchasing experiences have a direct impact on online purchasing attitudes (e. negative.g. The formal hypothesis then is that: H2a: Consumers’ attitudes toward online purchasing are positively determined by their overall satisfaction with previous online purchases. previous online purchasing experience should in itself shape online purchasing attitude and eventually repeat purchase intention. These models often include knowledge and/or beliefs as determinant of attitude toward an object. they are more likely shaped by the latter. Mediating Role of Attitude When considered jointly. attitudes reported must necessarily be postpurchase attitudes. the theory of reasoned action. The specific direction it takes depends on the direction of its determinants. for example. In the realm of online purchasing. Its expected impact on postpurchase attitude is grounded in postulations of attitude-formation theories and models (e. A related basis for expecting that previous online purchasing experience affects online purchasing attitude is findings in the psychology literature that past behavior is a significant predictor of future behavior (e. or (c) have any previously held positive attitudes neutralized.Alhassan G. Albarracin and Wyer (2000) concluded that past behavior affects future behavior mainly indirectly through its effect on present attitudes. resulting in the following mediating hypothesis: . 2003). and the theory of planned behavior). the expectancy-value model. Accordingly.

10 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING H3: Attitude toward online purchasing mediates the positive impact of overall satisfaction with previous online purchasing on online repeat purchase intentions. overall satisfaction should be related to experiences with the focal product or service. the customer must have consumed the product in question (Soderlund and Ohman 2003). services offered. and overall satisfaction with online purchasing should be related to specific experiences with previous online purchases. Accordingly. satisfaction judgments are relevant only for consumers who have experienced the focal product or service. For any given product or service. While overall satisfaction is concerned with a consumer’s postpurchase evaluation of the total product/service experience. That is. Academic discourses relating to the marketing mix suggest a positive link between satisfaction with elements of a seller’s marketing mix and overall satisfaction with the seller’s offer (e. Mittal and colleagues (1998) not only demonstrate the importance of this distinction. payment method required. 2001). This distinction implies that a consumer may be satisfied (dissatisfied) overall with a product/service and yet be dissatisfied (satisfied) with certain aspects (attributes) of it.. 2004. Experience also is a valence construct that can be bad or good. Indeed. Theoretically. delivery terms. the present study examines the impact of online retailers’ performance on key online purchase dimensions (attribute satisfaction) on overall satisfaction with online purchasing (overall satisfaction). These specific dimensions are chosen based on previous research showing that consumers generally evaluate online shopping experiences in terms of product information.g. a set of positive independent linear relationships is posited between overall satisfaction and satisfaction with each of the performance dimensions. Available empirical evidence strongly supports such a distinction (Mittal et al. delivery time. form of payment. Consequently. (d) product quality. Ghosh et al. 2000). Ross. and Baldasare 1998). (f) required payment method. delivery cost. Oliver 1993.. Drawing on both theoretical and empirical evidence. . (e) customer service. and (g) perceived online payment security. it has been cited as a major explanatory account of the phenomenon of mixed feelings toward a product/service (Mittal. the dimensions represent online retailers’ marketing program variables (e. (b) product delivery time. customer satisfaction programs are often implemented by manipulating relevant aspects of this marketing mix to increase the overall appeal of the seller’s offering. customer service. 421). among others (Monsuwe et al. 1998. Kotler 2003)—unique aspects of their offers on the basis of which customers develop preferences for online purchasing over traditional shopping. Hardock.g. Shim et al. and Ohlwein 2000). some researchers have defined overall satisfaction as an overall evaluation of performance based on all prior experiences with the focal firm or product (Jones et al. and payment security (see figure 1). Abdul-Muhmin 2002. attribute satisfaction is “the consumer’s subjective satisfaction judgment resulting from observations of attribute performance” (p. This is based on the logic of a positive link between satisfaction with each element of the mix and overall satisfaction with the purchase. From a practitioner point of view. product quality. The formal hypothesis then is that: H4: Consumers’ overall satisfaction with previous online purchasing is positively determined by their satisfaction with online (a) product prices. (c) product delivery cost. Specific performance dimensions included are satisfaction with online product prices. Determinants of Overall Satisfaction Researchers distinguish between overall satisfaction with a product/service and satisfaction with its attributes (attribute satisfaction). According to Oliver (1993). in order to form a satisfaction judgment. On the basis of this distinction. but even conclude that positive and negative attribute satisfactions have asymmetric effects on overall satisfaction. Biong 1993. and payment security. Schellhase. 1997. attribute satisfaction is concerned with evaluations of specific aspects of the product or service. In particular. 1996). Spreng et al.

and shopping centers in the major cities of the Kingdom. The dominance of male respondents in the sample reflects the realities of the cultural and economic situation in Saudi Arabia. a nonprobability sampling and data collection procedure was devised for the study. which was pretested on a sample Measurement The key constructs in the conceptual model are online repeat purchase intention. of 30 undergraduate students.000 (SR is for Saudi Riyal. where females are virtually out of the job market and most aspects of public life. . Consequently. SR 3.637 completed questionnaires were collected in the process. and satisfaction with online retailers’ performance on selected dimensions. respondents first indicated whether or not they had ever bought any products online. with the author as moderator. Overall satisfaction and repeat purchase intention were each measured using single-item measures with 7-point bipolar anchors. As input into the questionnaire design. 52. Internet cafes. In the questionnaire. Abdul-Muhmin 11 positive or negative. Then those who reported having ever bought indicated the types of products bought.2 These constitute the subsample of interest to the present study because the conceptual model and hypotheses can only be tested on a sample that has experience with online purchasing. Accordingly. All respondents then completed a set of attitudinal statements about online product purchasing and provided demographic information. Those who had never bought indicated their reasons for not buying.00). These were incorporated in the final questionnaire. Its impact on satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) is a consequence of the direction of this valence.2% male. Summary demographic characteristics of this subsample are: 75. and 79. respondents indicated their general satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their previous online purchases (1 = very dissatisfied. Respondents mostly filled out the questionnaires on the spot and returned them to the research assistants. overall satisfaction with the online purchase experience. 88. overall satisfaction with online purchasing. such that positive experiences result in satisfaction while negative experiences result in dissatisfaction. Minor modifications were then made in the main survey before administration. Research assistants distributed the questionnaires in coffee shops. for the present study. doctors’ offices. making it impossible to obtain adequate probability samples.1 Subsequently.6% of the sample) indicated that they had ever bought products online. experience with online purchase problems. A total of 1. Of these. 436 respondents (26. Sample and Data Collection Proper sampling frames are virtually nonexistent in Saudi Arabia. leading to the following hypothesis: H5: Consumers’ overall satisfaction with previous online purchases is negatively determined by their experience with online purchase problems. Students of an undergraduate marketing research course taught by the author conducted the depth interviews among their friends and relatives for course credit.5% with a university degree or some university education.75 = US$1. their experiences with selected online purchase problems. A combination of depth interviews and group discussion was used. there is an expectation that experiences with online purchase problems will be negatively related to overall satisfaction with online purchasing. banks. reasons for buying online rather than through conventional channels.4% in the age group 18–30 years. the whole class discussed the factors generated from the interviews and developed a final list of online purchase problems.Alhassan G. METHOD Data for the study were collected as part of a larger study using a structured self-administered questionnaire that was distributed in selected cities in Saudi Arabia.1% Saudi (the remainder are expatriates).1% in the income bracket SR 0–SR 5. For overall satisfaction. 65. and their intention of buying online in the future. an exploratory study was conducted to identify online purchase problems that respondents typically encounter in the study context. attitude toward online purchasing.

respondents indicated the frequency with which they had experienced each of 13 online purchasing problems uncovered from the exploratory study (see the Appendix for the list of problems). and work by LaBarbera and Mazursky (1983) that shows that use of multi-item measures of overall satisfaction in large-scale surveys may actually decrease measurement quality. 7 = very likely). Satisfaction with online retailers’ performance was elicited by asking respondents to indicate how satisfied or dissatisfied they were with the following seven dimensions of online retailers’ performance: online product prices. delivery time. 2 = once. Attitude toward online purchasing was measured using five Likert statements to which respondents expressed agreement or disagreement on a 5point category scale (1 = strongly disagree. 5 = strongly agree). The hypotheses were tested using ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression. Next a total experience score was computed by summing across the 13 possible problems. A 4-point category response format was used with the following category labels: 1 = never. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Prior to the hypothesis testing.59) than those who had not (mean = 3. Only one dimension was extracted. there are precedents for using similar single-item measures. A summated experience score was calculated using the following procedure. Specifically. or by establishing that the confidence intervals of interconstruct correlations do not include 1).72. delivery cost. Thus.0001). Table 1 shows descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) and interitem correlations for all constructs used in the hypothesis testing. which is considered acceptable.1611 = 155. also anchored only at the ends (1 = very dissatisfied. All constructs and their respective measures are shown in the Appendix. they indicated how likely they were to purchase products online again in the near future (1 = very unlikely. by comparing the squared correlations between constructs with the average variance extracted [AVE] from each.4% of the variance. discriminant validity could not be assessed using the traditional causal modeling approaches (i. 3 = more than once. predictive validity of the attitude scale was assessed by conducting a one-way analysis of variance in which attitudes of respondents who had ever purchased online were compared with attitudes of respondents who never had. p < . the scale has acceptable validity.441. Satisfaction judgments were obtained on a 7-point scale.e. customer service. and 4 = always. which accounted for 61. p < . For each of the 13 possible problems. those who purchased online had significantly more positive attitudes (mean = 3. 7 = very satisfied). With only one multi-item construct in the model. Mittal and colleagues (1998) use single-item measures of overall satisfaction and repeat purchase intention. The outcome is an experience variable with a range from 0 (for respondents who have never experienced any problem) to 13 (for those who have experienced all problems). payment method required. However. The first equation was formulated to test hypotheses H1a and H1b relating to the effects of overall satisfaction and attitude on repeat purchase intentions. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was 0. Parameter estimates for this equation (shown in the first column of table 2) provide support for the hypotheses.. The difference was statistically significant and in the expected theoretical direction. product quality. For experience with online purchasing problems. citing earlier work by Yi (1990) that shows acceptable test–retest reliabilities of single-item measures in satisfaction research.88. in terms of its ability to discriminate between online purchasers and nonpurchasers.12 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING 7 = very satisfied) while for repeat purchase intentions. Repeat purchase intention is positively related to both overall satisfaction (β = .11) (F1. psychometric properties of the attitude scale were assessed using exploratory principal component analyses. and payment security associated with their previous online purchases. In the broader satisfaction literature.3 Three separate OLS regression equations were estimated (see table 2). each respondent was assigned a score of 1 if s/he ever experienced it and a 0 if otherwise.

p < .331 4.37 a 1. TABLE 2.59 c .000 .291 .000 −.16 a 1. 424)∗∗∗∗ .351 .06)∗ −. and Interitem Correlations for Study Constructs 1(a) 1. (a) Product prices (b) Delivery time (c) Delivery cost (d) Product quality (e) Customer service (f) Payment methods (g) Payment security 2.227 . Attitude toward online purchase 2.441 (9.001.005).001.13 a 1.01. attitude was the dependent variable and the predictors were overall satisfaction and experience with online purchase problems.000 .181 5.265 .234 .300 (.22 (2. Delivery cost 7.351 .121 (2.000 . Means.256 .197 (.349 −. c: 5-point scale (1 = totally disagree.36 1.313 −. b: Total number experienced out of problems listed in the Appendix (0 = never experienced a problem.73 1.299 . The relevant coefficients are shown in the second column of table 2.282 . Measurement scales: a: 7-point scale (1 = very dissatisfied. The two variables account for almost 20% of the variance in attitudes.24)∗∗∗∗ .256 −. 4. p < .005).486 .236 −. 5 = totally agree). 1.223 . ∗∗∗ p < .121 (2.413 . d: 7-point scale (1 = very unlikely.267 4.62)∗∗∗∗ −.189 (4. Abdul-Muhmin 13 TABLE 1.005).251 4.261 . Customer service 9.383.99)∗∗∗∗ 51.95)∗∗∗ 1.258 . ∗∗ p < . Regression Results (Standardized Regression Coefficient [t -Value]) Dependent Variable Predictor Variables 1.61) . .299 −. Satisfaction with . 3.373 . Product quality 8.54 Note.58 1.101 (2.157∗ .363 . 5. Negative experiences 3. Standard Deviations.319 .71)∗∗∗∗ — — — — — — — 2.000 .273 .310 . Attitude 5. and the two predictors account for 30% of the variance in repeat purchase intention. Overall satisfaction with online purchase 3.33 (3. .166∗ 3.314 (. One-tail probabilities: ∗ p < .227 . In the second equation.141 (2.84 (20.345 .59)∗∗∗∗ 90.000 −.345 .434 −. It was used to test hypotheses H2a and H2b.005) and attitude (β = –.90 a 1.000 .244 .153 (3.141∗ .417 .000 .239 .165 (−3.326 . Payment security Intercept Overall F (df ) R 2 (Adj R 2 ) Online repeat purchase intention .77 (5.000 5.301) Note.25)∗∗∗ .241 .242 . 13 = ever experienced all 13). . 430)∗∗∗∗ .18)∗∗∗∗ 24.47 a 1.75 1.000 .05.99 1. 7 = very likely).321 .13 (8. and provide support for the two hypotheses. 4.354 .217 4.345 .296) Attitude toward online purchase — . ∗ p < .68 1. Experience with online purchase problems Satisfaction with online .032 (.55 d 1.193) Overall satisfaction with online purchase — — . for all remaining coefficients p < . .245 (5.519 5.57)∗∗ .341 . Repeat purchase intention M SD 1(b) 1(c) 1(d) 1(e) 1(f) 1(g) 2.029 (−0. ∗∗∗ p < .165. Attitude toward online purchasing is positively related to overall satisfaction (β = .258 5. Prices 5. p < .23 a 1. and negatively related to experience with online purchase problems (β = −.Alhassan G.23)∗∗∗∗ .185 −.175 6.372 3.12 b 3.230 . 7 = very satisfied).198 .73 (2. .86)∗∗∗∗ — — — — — — — — 1.87 a 1.23 1.000 . Delivery time 6.71 1.60)∗∗ .386 . Payment method 10.39 1.005.383 (8.721) .65 a 1. .296 −. 424)∗∗∗∗ . Overall satisfaction 4.189.65 1.005.

The study findings have implications for both theory and practice related to online purchasing.g. Overall Satisfaction.. In turn. The amount of mediation (i. 2003). Parameter estimates for this equation are shown in the last column of table 2. Thus. No support is found for H5. this particular position is contentious because some DISCUSSION In totality. while attitudes are more enduring and tend to change more slowly.05.5 Thus.001). delivery time are the significant determinants of overall satisfaction. However. the most significant findings of the present study are the positive effects of overall satisfaction and attitudes on repeat purchase intentions. of attitude toward online purchasing. payment security. as an essentially postpurchase construct. Fornell 1992). Finally. and Repeat Purchase Intentions By far.. Attitudes. the size of the regression coefficients indicates that. p < . and therefore mediates the effect of attitudes on repeat purchase intentions.14 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING The third equation was used to test the effects of satisfaction with online retailers’ performance (H4a to H4g) and experiences with online purchase problems (H5) on overall satisfaction. all subhypotheses under H4 are supported by the data. the mediating role of attitudes on the impact of overall satisfaction on repeat purchase intention (H3) was examined using the procedures suggested by Judd and Kenny (1981) and Baron and Kenny (1986). At α = 0. five of the eight hypothesized determinants have statistically significant effects on overall satisfaction.85. reduction in the effect of satisfaction on repeat purchase intention after controlling for attitude) is 0. which can be formed either pre.or postpurchase. except for hypothesis H4c. In addition to their hypothesized individual effects on repeat purchase intention. Overall satisfaction with previous online purchasing and attitude toward online purchasing are significant determinants of repeat purchase intention. Hellier et al. customer service. and to a marginal extent. A possible reason for this is that. while online product prices.g. there is evidence in support of H3 and the satisfaction → attitude → intention causal ordering suggested in some sections of the literature (e. Another significant issue worth discussing relates to the causal ordering between overall satisfaction and attitudes.4 The results show that attitude partially mediates the satisfaction–repeat purchase intention relationship. The result for overall satisfaction confirms the association between satisfaction and intentions found in numerous previous studies (e. the present study also hypothesized a causal ordering between the two constructs such that satisfaction affects attitude. Furthermore. in relative terms satisfaction is a far more important determinant of repeat purchase than attitudes. the empirical results provide evidence in support of the conceptual model and hypothesized relationships.089. Delivery time is additionally significant at α = 0. payment methods.e. satisfaction with online product prices has the largest and most distinct effect on overall satisfaction. satisfaction is more immediate and short-term. In terms of relative effects. Furthermore. As discussed in the hypothesis development section. the positive effect of attitudes on repeat purchase intention confirms the association between attitudes and intentions in extant attitude formation theories like the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) and the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1991) and related empirical studies.01. Together the significant variables account for 31% of the variance in satisfaction. overall satisfaction and experience with online purchase problems are significant determinants . A Sobel test led to rejection of the null hypothesis that the indirect effect (through attitude) of satisfaction on repeat purchase intention is zero (t = 3. Experience with online purchase problems and delivery cost are the only factors with nonsignificant effects on overall satisfaction.. product quality. satisfaction is more closely related to repeat purchase intentions than attitudes. The finding here is similar to evidence in the service marketing literature that satisfaction judgments are more closely related to outcome behaviors than quality perceptions (Baker and Taylor 1997).

In this regard. However. it explained only 3. On the other hand. On the other hand. it is important that a cross-sectional study involving the relationship between the two be based on a model in which attitudes are viewed as postpurchase.918. First. and have two major theoretical implications. One possible explanation for this result is that most online purchases by consumers in Saudi Arabia typically involve products that are not available locally. especially in cross-sectional studies. leading to a salience of the problems encountered in the previous purchase. do support the hypothesized causal ordering. Second. in reporting overall satisfaction. The present empirical results. negative experiences have a significant negative effect on online shopping attitudes (H2b is supported) but totally unrelated to overall satisfaction (H5 is not supported). given the problems encountered last time. The plausibility of this explanation is corroborated by a high level of overall satisfaction with online purchasing (Mean = 5.23 on a 7-point scale).” Effects of Online Retailer Performance Variables on Overall Satisfaction The finding that satisfaction with online product prices. the gratification in obtaining such locally unavailable products may have far outweighed any negative experiences (hurdles) encountered in the online purchasing process. respondents may have been primed by specific previous online purchase encounters. p < .Alhassan G. t = –3. it is only logical that the attitudes will be antecedent to the satisfaction judgments. However. payment security.e. product quality. such problems could still trigger the development of negative attitudes toward online shopping. I don’t think it is a good idea to buy products online unless I absolutely have no other option. because satisfaction is largely a postpurchase construct while attitudes can be formed pre. In that case. Abdul-Muhmin 15 other researchers believe that the direction of the “causal” path is from attitude to satisfaction. Effects of Online Purchase Problems The negative effect of experience with online shopping problems on online shopping attitude is consistent with other aspects of attitude theories suggesting that experiences are key determinants of attitudes. However. in reporting attitudes toward online purchasing they may have been primed by the general idea of buying products online. customer service. payment methods.. the results show that attitude and satisfaction are two distinct constructs that need to be treated as such. in relative terms. To investigate whether the lack of support for H5 is because experience is included in a multiple regression model as one of several determinants of satisfaction. an unexpected finding is the differential impact of these negative experiences on attitudes and overall satisfaction. the study results reinforce previous . For the consumers. despite the problems encountered.or postpurchase. This is contrary to some views in the literature suggesting that satisfaction is a form of attitude (Taylor 2008). the present results are probably indicative of the need to model constructs at the same level of analysis. its effect is weaker (and actually vanishes) in the presence of the online retailer performance dimensions included in the model. however.005). The resulting standardized regression coefficient was statistically significant and in the expected direction (β = –0.185. It is possible that. i. the present results suggest that satisfaction judgments influence such postpurchase attitudes. hotel bookings) in international destinations. I am quite happy with my previous online shopping experience. To the extent that these factors constitute online retailers’ marketing mix elements. a separate simple regression model was estimated with satisfaction as dependent variable and experience as predictor. or services (e.4% of the variance in satisfaction. it appears that although experience with online purchase problems does have a negative effect on satisfaction. and (to a marginal extent) delivery time are positive determinants of overall satisfaction also has some implications for theory.g.. This level of satisfaction notwithstanding. Thus. It is like saying: “Given that I have been able to obtain a product not available locally. in a longitudinal study in which attitudes are measured prepurchase while satisfaction judgments are obtained postpurchase. leading to a salience of the benefits of finally obtaining the purchased products.

LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The present study has the following two main limitations. This result is interesting as it reinforces the popular notion that one of the key benefits of shopping online is the possibility of finding good deals. The relatively large positive effect of overall satisfaction on repeat purchase intentions implies a need for these retailers to continually strive toward satisfying their Saudi customers as a means to foster future repeat purchase. especially for European and North American online retailers from whom the majority of respondents reported having made their online purchases. they demonstrate the need for the retailers to constantly strive toward providing customer value (quality products at satisfactory prices). anecdotal evidence suggests that this lower-price benefit is even more pronounced because most online purchases are made for products that are not manufactured locally. This limits the generalizability of the present results. quick delivery. a consequence of the exclusive dealership agreements that local importing agents often have with foreign suppliers. Second. The insignificant effect of delivery cost is also interesting. different underlying cognitive processes in fact drive satisfaction and attitudes. This further suggests that online retailers might benefit from two-part pricing strategies that combine low product list prices with relatively higher delivery charges to offset the low list prices. the specific types of online purchase problems encountered in Saudi Arabia may not be present in other national contexts. From the perspective of the study setting. we have alluded to the possibility that in reporting overall satisfaction. a consequence of the ability of the online shopping environment to foster easier comparison shopping. Such products. In relative terms. The design of the present study could not allow investigation of the plausibility of this assumption. and to some extent. This is good news for online retailers because it suggests that these consumers are content with having to pay additional amounts for delivery of products ordered online and that this has no effect on their level of satisfaction with online purchasing. respondents may have been primed by specific previous online purchase encounters. The study findings also have some managerial implications.. are generally high-priced due to the quasi-monopoly nature of markets for most imported products. Specifically. it is not unusual for a product to be available online (typically from foreign vendors) for a price that is 20–30% less than what it is sold for in the local offline environment. while in reporting attitude toward online purchase they may have been primed by the general (nonspecific) idea of buying products online. Essentially. Saudi Arabia. Thus. Therefore.g. if available locally. future studies should consider examining whether. and for . especially to national contexts that are significantly different from Saudi Arabia. Evanschitsky and colleagues (2004) arrived at a similar conclusion. the study results may be context-specific. this finding suggests that consumers (at least those in the present study) make a cognitive separation between an online product’s list price and its delivery cost rather than integrate the two into a total product acqui- sition cost. The pattern of parameter estimates for the determinants of satisfaction provides a guide as to how this can be done. in the online shopping context.16 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING findings on the role of suppliers’ marketing mix variables as determinants of customer satisfaction (e. payment security. in explaining the finding that experiences with online purchase problems is negatively related to attitudes but unrelated to satisfaction. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The findings reported in this article are part of results from a study that has been funded under the CIM Accreditation Fund of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Abdul-Muhmin 2002. Significantly. Such studies will help provide useful conceptual clarity. good customer service. In particular. The author acknowledges KFUPM for the support. First. Dhahran. satisfaction with product prices has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction. 2005).

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m) Saudi customs officials did not allow the product into the country.20 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING APPENDIX Constructs and Measures Experiences with online purchase problems (No. 7 = very satisfied) Overall. e) Company does not accept your credit card type. k) It is difficult to find products on the Internet. range = 0–13) a) Shipping costs were higher than you expected. (R) Overall satisfaction (1 = very dissatisfied. b) Product took too long to arrive. g) Quality of the product you received was lower than you expected. h) The ordering instructions are not clear. (R) e) Buying products online is a risky thing to do. how satisfied/dissatisfied are you with your previous online shopping experience? Online repeat purchase intention (1 = very unlikely. j) You spend too much time searching. of problems ever experienced.72 a) It is a good thing that consumers can buy products online. i) The order form is difficult to fill out. b) Buying products online is not a sensible thing to do. (R) c) It is exciting to buying products online. c) Product was lost during shipping. d) Company will not ship to Saudi Arabia. f) Internet connection was lost during order processing. 7 = very satisfied) a) Product prices b) Delivery time c) Delivery cost d) Product quality e) Customer service f) Payment methods required by sellers g) Security in the payment Attitude toward online purchase (1 = totally disagree. l) Seller charged you additional unexpected costs. Satisfaction with online retailers’ performance dimensions (1 = very dissatisfied. 5 = totally agree)—Cronbach’s alpha = 0. d) It is not advisable to buy products online. 7 = very likely) How likely is it that you will continue to buy products online in the future? (R) = Reverse-scored .

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