1. METAL INERT GAS (MIG) / (GMAW) WELDING 1.

1MIG Fundamentals

Metal inert gas is a welding process in which metal joined by heating them with a welding arc between the base metal and a continuous consumable electrode. A shielding gas or gas mixture is use to prevent the atmosphere from contaminating the weld. Another term that is often used to describe MIG is GMAW. GMAW is stands for gas metal arc welding.

Gas metal arc welding uses a wire as an electrode. A welding arc is struck between the electrode and the base metal. Direct current is always used for GMAW. Direct current electrode positive (DCPE) or direct current reverse polarity (DCRP) is use for GMAW.

A constant voltage power supply is used for MIG. On this type of machines, the welder sets the required voltage. A constant voltage tries to maintain a constant voltage during the welding operation. Although the voltage is constant, the current varies.

Fig. 1 illustrates the GMAW process.

1.1Modes of MIG transfer

There are 5 type of mode MIG transfer : • Metal transfer • Spray transfer • Globular transfer • Pulsed spray transfer • Short circuiting transfer

Metal transfer

Spray penetration can produce the good penetration.2 mm and thicker can be welded using the spray transfer process. drops of molten metal leave the end of the electrode and enter the weld pool through the arc. Spray transfer Spray transfer requires higher voltages and current setting than globular transfer. In globular transfer. In spray transfer. In short circuiting transfer the electrode contacts the base metal and some molten metal is transferred. the arc melts the end of . the wire does not touch the base metal. Globular transfer Globular transfer uses slightly higher voltage and current setting than those used for short circuiting transfer. The transition current is the amount of current required to convert from globular transfer to spray transfer. hundreds of small droplets are formed every second. They travel at a high rate of speed directly into the weld. This is called metal transfer. These drops travel between the end of the wire and base metal. In these transfer method. The size of the drop in globular transfer is much larger than the size of the drop in spray transfer. In globular and spray transfer. Very little spatter is produced. spray transfer is used primarily for welding in the flat position or horizontal fillet welds. Spray transfer only occur when the current setting is above the transition current. Metal that is 3. current. globular transfer and spray transfer. Voltage. Metal transfer can occur in three different ways: short circuiting transfer. The weld pool is very fluid. shielding gas.Filler metal from the electrode must leave the electrode and enter the weld. and other factors determine the type of metal transfer you will obtain.

because gravity is used to transfer the molten globules to the base metal. A large amount of spatter usually occurs. . The size of the molten metal. Globular transfer is difficult to perform for out of position welding.the electrode and the base metal. The molten globule does not fall straight into the weld. It continues to grow in size until the globule falls off the electrode due to its own weight. globule or ball on the end of the electrode increases until it is larger than the diameter of the electrode. Forces acting on the arc cause the globule to travel across the arc and land on the base metal in random patterns.

Spray transfer occurs during period of peak current.Pulsed spray transfer Pulsed spray transfer is very similar to standard spray transfer. However. background current and peak current. Peak current is a preset current level that is above the transition current. two different current are used. . The background current is an amount of current that is less than the transition current that is less than the transition current. Background current maintains the arc but no metal transferred across the arc during the background current period.

The pinch force caused the end of the electrode separate from the base metal.The peak current and background current alternate. Therefore. results in a pinch force. with current flowing for a short time at each level. The welding machine must maintain the preset voltage.030” to . The increased current. is used. It also used for out-of-position welding and for welding parts that have larger gaps. A small-diameter electrode. Short Circuiting Transfer Short circuiting transfer is called short arc.76mm to 1. Pulsed spray transfer allow for good penetration.14mm). Less heat is applied to the base metal in pulsed spray transfer because the weld pool cools during the period og background current. Short circuiting transfer uses a low welding current and voltage. When the electrode touches the base metal it is called short circuit. In circuiting transfer. that because it can increase the current to the electrode. Short circuiting transfer method does not add much heat to the base metal. . It can be performed in all position since the weld pool has time to cool during the background current period. the arc reignites and the step are repeated. After the end of the electrode separate from the weld pool . Peak current pulse ( turn on and off) approximately sixty to several hundred times per second.045”(. . short circuiting transfer is used to joint thin sheets of metal. the base metal and the end of the electrode are heated by an arc.

2. . IMPLEMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MIG 2. The increasing inductance help make the weld pool flatter and more fluid. The inductance is very importance very importance in short circuiting transfer because it can control how fast the welding machine increases the welding current.The electrode is continuously fed into the weld and contacts the base metal at 20200 time per second. Inductance is an electrical means of controlling the rate of current change in circuit.1 Setting Up MIG Welding Equipment.

which because this power supply provide the constant current to MIG. The equipment of MIG welding: • A welding machine • A wire feeder • A welding gun • Shielding gas supply and controls Welding Machine GMAW power supply is a very important in process welding MIG. Setting the pressure gauge into 2 kPa and flow meter between 15 or 10 meter. After setting. you must set the voltage in adjustment voltage knob.Before we do welding MIG. Wire Feeder The wire feeder is used to feed electrode wire to the gun. The power supply also can be a transformer – rectifier. push the button setting into mode weld. That because this machine supply the current while doing a process welding. After the GMAW power supply had turn on. The transformer – rectifier made the voltage stays about the same even thought the current varies. we must setting up their equipment first. Set the voltage into volt. The coils or spools generally contain several hundred . The relationship between voltage and current is the slope To setup the welding machine. help us to setting how much gas pressure that we needed. push the button setting of weld or gas to gas mode. The gas mode. firstly you must turn on their switch. After that turn on the switch of GMAW power supply. These GMAW machines are difference between metal arc and gas tungsten arc. Before do a welding. The volt is a volt ideal for help make the weld pool become flatter and more fluid. GMAW electrode wire available in coils or spools.

first check the gas. helium and carbon dioxide. The inch switch caused the electrode to feed out. . Use the switch to control the movement of wire feeder. Press the purge switch and the shielding gas will flow. If the contacts make a spark then you direct the shielding gas to the work piece. If the gas is finish. The inert gas does not combine with the weld metal. It is often used when loading new coil or spool of wire. Welding Gun Equipment of welding guns is GMAW gun. A center drive gear engages two drive rolls. shielding gas carrier and nozzle and wire carrier. The roll or drive gear is powered by DC motor. Shielding Gas Include argon. firstly make a electrical contact with the electrode. To setup the welding gun. After setting the pressure of shielding gas. electrode and shielding gas. the wire and current stop immediately. Firstly you must pressing the inch switch. Argon and helium are inert gases. only one drive roll is driven. Press the switch. setting the meter of flow meter in 10-15 m. Used purge switch if you want to manually control the flow of shielding gas. Shielding gas. This combination cable assembly on a gun carries electricity. which in turn drive remaining two rolls. make the pressure of gas in 2000 psi (13. To setup the wire feeder. Active gas will combine with the metal if given the chance. When you released the switch. After that setting the shielding gas pressure. The electrode will feed slowly as long as the inch switch is pressed. On a wire feeder that has two drive rolls. electrical current and water will also turn on when the switch is pressed. the electrode wire will begins to feed. chance the gas with the new one.). To setup the shielding gas. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are active gas.feet of wire.79MPa.

4. Wire Root And Shielding Gas. Adjust the flow meter so that shielding gas does not flow. Coil the connected cable to the welding gun. 7. Connect the host from the flow meter to the proper place on the welding machine.3 Fix Adjustment Of Welding. Turn off the wire feeder. The machine is plugged into an electrical outlet. Turn off the welding machine. Press the purge switch on the wire feeder to remove all shielding gas from the hose. Shielding gas is connected to the welding machine. 6.2 Shutting Down MIG Welding Station.2. 5. Close the cylinder valve by turning clockwise or close the valve on the manifold. Readjust the flow meter to allow shielding gas to flow. Place cable where they will not get damaged. then the ground cable. 2. Welding Machine a constant voltage welding machine is used for MIG. 2. 3. The proper sequence must be followed to properly shut down a GMAW welding station: 1. Placed on top .

Removing the bird nest. you can continue your welding again. Secure the pressure roll into position . Push the end of the electrode wire through the inlet wire guide. firstly raising the pressure roll and cutting the wire both sides of it. Feed the wire into the grooves of the drives roll. Check the wire coming from the spool to make sure it is not bent or twisted. Pull all the electrode wire out of the cable connected to the gun. put your hand over the wire as you cut to prevent it from flying and causing injury. When the wire comes out the contact tube. Swing the pressure roll back into position to complete the adjustment. Secure the spool on the hub so it does not fall off during operation. Next check that the groove in the drive rolls are the correct size for diameter of the electrode wire. After that. Connect the wire feeder to the remote contactor control on the welding machine.of the welding machine when use a separate wire feeder. First. Wire Root Step to adjustment the wire root or wire feeder. The wire feeder is then connected to the machine. Install the proper size drive rolls so that the correct size groove align with electrode wire. Feed new electrode wire through the wire guides and into cable connected to the welding gun. pull the gun trigger the inch switch to feed the electrode wire to the gun. select the type of electrode wire to be used. then through the outlet wire guide directly in front of the drive roll. . Remove any twisted wire. Mount the spool of electrode wire on the write spool hub. Swing the pressure roll of the wire. using the correct cable.

There are four techniques that we use in welding MIG. First make a two run in the flat welding position. Shielding gas will flow for a while so the flow rate can be adjusted. Two running weld in the flat welding position. Then slowly open the cylinder valve. Do not strike an arc. this cause the gas to flow. Shielding gas must be following when adjusting the flow meter. Set the flow rate after opening the rate after opening the cylinder valve. Press the purge switch if the welding machine has one. high pressure from the gas in the cylinder may damage it. first open the valve. .Shielding Gas Adjusting shielding gas. or by a needle on a gauge flow meter. second welding a butt joint in the horizontal welding position. While gas is flowing. 3. The flow rate is indicated by the top of the ball on a ball-float flow meter. third welding fillet in the horizontal welding position and lastly welding a T joint in horizontal welding position. Another way to start gas flowing is to set the post flow adjustment for 15-20 second and pull the gun trigger for one second or less. Turn the adjusting screw on the flow meter so no gas flows. turn the adjusting screw until the flow meter indicates the correct flow rate. Perform of Technique for MIG welding for mine steel. If the flow meter is open when the cylinder valve is opened. The screw turned counterclockwise.

Take the mine steel and put them in flat position on the table. 4. Made a one running weld on the surface of mine steel. 2. 3. repeat step 2. Welding Butt Joint In The Horizontal Position .1. Make sure the distance between area of weld and the side of mine steel are 5cm. Let the mine steel cold.

Tack weld the two mine steel. clam the butt joint mine steel in position horizontal. After tack weld. And make sure the welding is penetrating at backside of mine steel. Tack weld the butt joint mine steel with another one mine steel. . That’s because the small distance can make a full penetration at the backside of mine steel. Make sure tack at the lap position. Make sure tack weld at the last side of the joint. let them cold in a few minute. After finish. 5.1. 3. The distance must be at 5 cm from side to side. Welding fillet in the horizontal welding position 1. Weld it. The joint of two mine steel must have a small distance or key hole. 2. 4. Tack weld at the last side of joint.

After finish let the mine steel cold in few minutes. clam the lap joint mine steel in position horizontal. Clam position the piece in a welding positioned for horizontal welding. Tack weld the joint in 3 places on each side of joint. After finish weld.2. 5. 6. 3. . Clean an edge on one piece and a surface on other piece. Weld a T Joint In Horizontal Welding Position 1. Weld it in horizontal position. 4. let them cold in a few minute. Place the clean edge on the clean surface to form T joint. 3. Make a fillet weld in the horizontal welding position. 2. 4. After tack weld. wire feed speed and shielding gas flow rate. Set the voltage.

TUNGSTEN INERT GAS (TIG/GTAW) 1.1 Fundamentals of TIG .1.

push the button setting of weld or gas to gas mode. Inert gas do not react with the electrode. 2. Oxygen in atmosphere cause the electrode and base metal to oxide. Setting the pressure gauge into 2 kPa and flow meter between 15 or 10 meter. After setting. firstly you must turn on their switch. GTAW is considered to be a very clean process. The volt is a volt ideal for help make the weld pool become flatter and more fluid. After the GTAW power supply had turn on. since oxygen kept away from the electrode and the molten metal. After that turn on the switch of GTAW power supply and choose the DC mode. IMPLEMENT OF OPERATION & MAINTENANCE 2. Filler metals are used. arc or molten weld metal. you must set the voltage in adjustment voltage knob.1 setting up welding equipment MIG GTAW Machine To setup the welding machine. The electrode and weld area are shielded with the inert gas. help us to setting how much gas pressure that we needed. Before do a welding. Set the voltage into volt. The gas mode. The tungsten electrode does not melt and become part of the weld. The arc struck is produce in this TIG process. An inert gas is used to shield the arc area from atmosphere.A process that join metals together by heating them with an arc between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the work. push the button setting into mode weld. Torches . The tungsten electrode and the molten weld pool must be protected from the atmosphere while welding.

Helium provide for faster travel speeds. Close the cylinder valve by turning clockwise or close the valve on the manifold. Slide the collect into the collet body from the top of the torch. When correctly inserted. If the gas is finish. A noozle is also called cup. .). Select the gas nozzle you will be using.79MPa. After that setting the shielding gas pressure. the electrode will extend past the end of the gas cup only a short distance. Thread the collect body into the torch body. Thread an end cap with an O-ring loosely into the torch body. 4.To set up the torches firstly separate collect and collect body are needed for each diameter. 3. Readjust the flow meter to allow shielding gas to flow. Choose the correct – size collet and collet body for the electrode’s diameter. 2. chance the gas with the new one. make the pressure of gas in 2000 psi (13. Thread it into the torch body.2 Shutting Down TIG Welding Station The proper sequence must be followed to properly shut down a GMAW welding station: 1. setting the meter of flow meter in 10-15 m. To setup the shielding gas. Each gas can be used by itself. Adjust the flow meter so that shielding gas does not flow. first check the gas. two types of shielding gas are used : argon and helium. Press the purge switch on the wire feeder to remove all shielding gas from the hose. The distance depends on the type of joint weld. Shielding gas inert gas does not react with weld . The argon is easier to start and maintain an arc with argon. 2. Do not tighten the end cap yet. Insert the electrode into the collet. After setting the pressure of shielding gas.

Shielding gas . Fillet metal is need to make joint. 7. the collet is not sharp. Shielding gas is connected to the welding machine. Turn off the cooling water inlet. Welding machine To make a welding first you must plugged the machine into an electrical outlet. After that threaded the water and shielding gas connection. Adjust the voltage of machine about to 115 V or 220 V. The Threaded connection help prevent leaks. Torch and Fillet Rod And Shielding Gas. Coil the connected cable to the welding gun. then the ground cable. Turn off the welding machine. first you must make a spark first. Such example. the collet must be sharpener in the collet sharpener. So to make them more efficient. The position of fillet rod must in 175 degree. The torch or nozzle must use coolant nozzle. To make joint with the fillet rod. That because this voltages are the ideal voltages. Place cable where they will not get damaged 2.5. Then after a spark immersed take a fillet.3 Fix Adjustment Of Welding. 6. Use the proper size wrench to tighten these connection Torch and Fillet Rod There are many problems in torch will during the welding. That’s can help easier the filler rod become melt with the pool. That because it can cold the nozzle from be hotter.

While gas is flowing. or by a needle on a gauge flow meter 3. Then slowly open the cylinder valve. Shielding gas will flow for a while so the flow rate can be adjusted. Shielding gas must be following when adjusting the flow meter.Adjusting shielding gas. If the flow meter is open when the cylinder valve is opened. Perform of Technique for MIG welding for mine steel. Two running weld in the flat welding position. second welding a butt joint in the horizontal welding position. high pressure from the gas in the cylinder may damage it. third welding fillet in the horizontal welding position and lastly welding a T joint in horizontal welding position. Set the flow rate after opening the rate after opening the cylinder valve. Turn the adjusting screw on the flow meter so no gas flows. Press the purge switch if the welding machine has one. The flow rate is indicated by the top of the ball on a ball-float flow meter. The screw turned counterclockwise. first open the valve. this cause the gas to flow. There are four techniques that we use in welding MIG. Another way to start gas flowing is to set the post flow adjustment for 15-20 second and pull the gun trigger for one second or less. First make a two run in the flat welding position. Do not strike an arc. . turn the adjusting screw until the flow meter indicates the correct flow rate.

Let the mine steel cold. . 7. repeat step 2.5. Welding Butt Joint In The Horizontal Position 1. clam the butt joint mine steel in position horizontal. That’s because the small distance can make a full penetration at the backside of mine steel. Tack weld the two mine steel. 3. 2. 6. Make sure the distance between area of weld and the side of mine steel are 5cm. 8. Made a one running weld on the surface of mine steel with fillet rod. Make sure tack weld at the last side of the joint. The joint of two mine steel must have a small distance or key hole. Take the mine steel and put them in flat position on the table. After tack weld.

Weld it with fillet rod. Tack weld the butt joint mine steel with another one mine steel. let them cold in a few minute. 3. Tack weld at the last side of joint. Welding fillet in the horizontal welding position 1. 5. 4. Make sure tack at the lap position. 4. let them cold in a few minute. . 2. Weld it with fillet rod in horizontal position. After finish. After tack weld. After finish weld. clam the lap joint mine steel in position horizontal. The distance must be at 5 cm from side to side. And make sure the welding is penetrating at backside of mine steel.

Make a fillet weld in the horizontal welding position. Clean an edge on one piece and a surface on other piece. 6. Tack weld the joint in 3 places on each side of joint. After finish let the mine steel cold in few minutes. 2. Place the clean edge on the clean surface to form T joint. 4. wire feed speed and shielding gas flow rate. Clam position the piece in a welding positioned for horizontal welding.Weld a T Joint In Horizontal Welding Position 1. . 3. 5. Set the voltage.