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)

Solutions: Quiz 1

1. For this type of problem the idea is to ﬁnd the number of independent variables. Value

of that will be dimension of the system.

(1) If f ∈ R

n

[X], then

f =

6

i=0

a

i

X

i

(a

i

∈ R)

Now, there is no restriction on choosing the (a

0

, a

1

, . . . , a

6

). Hence all are inde-

pendent variable and dimension is 7.

(2) (a)

f(0) = a

0

f(1) = a

0

+a

1

+a

2

+a

3

+a

4

+a

5

+a

6

f(−1) = a

0

−a

1

+a

2

−a

3

+a

4

−a

5

+a

6

f(0) +f(1) −f(−1) = a

0

+ 2(a

1

+a

3

+a

5

)

Hence

a

0

= −2(a

1

+a

3

+a

5

) (1)

Thus here we can choose (a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

6

) independently and a

0

will be a func-

tion of them. Hence dimension is 6.

Now how to compute the basis? The procedure is as follows:

Choose any one of (a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

6

) to be ONE and rest zero. Say a

1

= 1, a

2

=

0, a

3

= 0, a

4

= 0, a

5

= 0, a

6

= 0 then a

0

= −2. Thus (-2,1,0,0,0,0,0) is a basis

vector.

Now repeat the procedure with choosing some other component to be one and

rest zero. For example: a

1

= 0, a

2

= 1, a

3

= 0, a

4

= 0, a

5

= 0, a

6

= 0. Then

a

0

= 0. Thus (0,0,1,0,0,0,0) is another basis element.

Thus the basis will be: (-2,1,0,0,0,0,0),(0,0,1,0,0,0,0),(-2,0,0,1,0, 0,0),(0,0,0,0,

1,0,0),(-2,0,0,0,0,1,0),(0,0,0,0,0,0,1)

(b) Compute the equation. Only single equation is there. Hence again one vari-

able can be expressed in terms of others. Hence dimension will be 6. Find

basis using similar construction method.

(c) For symmetric polynomial, coeﬃcients corresponding to odd power of X will

have to be zero. Hence no of independent elements will be no of even power

terms(a

0

, a

2

, a

4

, a

6

)

1

(d) similar to previous one.

(3) Any element from Z

m

p

is a m-tuple (a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

m

) and all a

i

∈ Z

p

, which is a

ﬁeld when p is prime. Thus these m variables can take any values from the ﬁeld.

Thus number of independent variable is m.

(4) The unconstrained F(θ) has a natural basis (1, θ, θ

2

, θ

3

, ...) which has an inﬁnite

dimension. But fortunately here the space is constrained and it is given that θ

7

=

θ+1. Thus if we try to rewrite the basis elements we get, θ

0

= 1, θ

1

, θ

2

, . . . , θ

6

, θ

7

=

1 + θ, θ

8

= θ(1 + θ) = θ + θ

2

... Thus you will ﬁnd that beyond θ

6

, i.e. higher

degree terms can be written in terms of the lower degree terms. Thus the vectors

of θ

i

, i ∈ {0, 1, . . . , 6} are independent. Thus dimension is again 7.

Basis vector construction procedure is as previous.

(5) I am showing only for the symmetric matrix problem Let us consider a general

n ×n matrix.

A

n,n

=

_

_

_

_

_

a

1,1

a

1,2

· · · a

1,n

a

2,1

a

2,2

· · · a

2,n

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n,1

a

n,2

· · · a

n,n

_

_

_

_

_

Now as it is a symmetric matrix a

i,j

= a

j,i

. Thus in the ﬁrst row all n variables

are independent. In second row a

2,1

is same as a

1,2

. Hence rest (n −1) terms are

independent. Thus proceeding same way, in the last row only a

n,n

is independent.

Thus total no of independent entries are

n + (n − 1) + (n − 2) +. . . + 2 + 1 =

n(n + 1)

2

(2)

The basis construction is shown for a 2 × 2. The idea is similar as before: choose

one independent element to be one rest independent elements to be zero and

compute the dependent elements from them. Thus say a

1,1

= 1, a

1,2

= 0, a

2,1

=

0, a

2,2

= 0 is a basis. Similarly when a

1,2

= 1 then a

2,1

is also 1. Thus proceeding

same way, the basis vectors will be

_

1 0

0 0

_

,

_

0 1

1 0

_

,

_

0 0

0 1

_

2. The basis vector construction process has been explained above. Note that it is not

unique. Now the basis extension method is very laborious job. So I am explaining

the procedure. Suppose you have a basis v

1

= (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

), v

2

= (a

5

, a

6

, a

7

, a

8

) and

you have been told to extend it to the basis of R

4

. Clearly you have to ﬁnd two more

linearly independent vectors which will be L.I. to both of v

1

, v

2

. One of the many

procedures is:

(a) Construct the matrix:

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

a

6

a

7

a

8

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

2

(b) See that the matrix has a rank 4. Now keep ﬁrst two rows intact and then

perform elementary row operations to make the as many of of the lower four

rows zero as possible. Example: Consider case of symmetric matrices. The basis

elements were {(1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 1, 1, 0), (0, 0, 0, 1)}. Now the matrix will look like:

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

R

4

−R

1

,R

7

−R

3

−→

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(R

6

,R

2

−R

6

)

−→

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

R

6

−R

5

−→

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(c) The new vector combined with the previous ones will form the basis of extended

vector space.

3. Similar to 2.

4. trivial

5. trivial.

6. trivial.

7. Consider X to be a 2 × 2 matrix formed by (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

). Find the four equations

of (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

). Thus construct the 4 × 4 matrix form those equations. Find the

null-space basis of this matrix. Arrange 4-tuples of each basis vectors in 2 ×2 matrix

form.

8. Compute the basis of X ∩ Y and X +Y

9. trivial

10. Concept of complementary subspace.

11. Let X be the subspace spanned by v

1

, v

2

. Now ﬁnd a basis of X. Let it be B

x

[note

that B

x

is a set of vectors]. Extend this basis to compute the basis of R

4

. Clearly they

will be of the form {B

x

, B

y

}. The subspace spanned by B

y

will be complementary

subspace to X. Thus will satisfy those two conditions

12. Let X = (0, 1), Y = (1, 0), Z = (1, 1) Now X and Y combined will span R

2

.

Similarly X and Z combined will span R

2

. Thus

X +Y = X +Z (3)

But Y and Z are not same. This exercise proves complementary subspaces are not

unique. Y and Z (in fact any line with certain non-zero angle with X axis) is a subspace

complementary to X axis.

3

a2. a1.n is independent. am ) and all ai ∈ Zp . a6 . . The basis vector construction process has been explained above. . v2 = (a5 .2 · · · an. 0 0 1 0 0 1 2. .2 = 1 then a2. Thus total no of independent entries are n(n + 1) (2) 2 The basis construction is shown for a 2 × 2.1 = 1.2 . θ0 = 1.1 is same as a1. Basis vector construction procedure is as previous.(d) similar to previous one. Note that it is not unique. . Thus if we try to rewrite the basis elements we get. which is a p ﬁeld when p is prime. θ2 . a2 . . .1 a1. . in the last row only an. (4) The unconstrained F (θ) has a natural basis (1. .. . an.n a2.1 is also 1. higher degree terms can be written in terms of the lower degree terms. .1 a2. θ8 = θ(1 + θ) = θ + θ2 . Thus in the ﬁrst row all n variables are independent. (3) Any element from Zm is a m-tuple (a1 . . So I am explaining the procedure. In second row a2. Clearly you have to ﬁnd two more linearly independent vectors which will be L. Thus number of independent variable is m. θ1 . to both of v1 . + 2 + 1 = 1 0 0 1 0 0 .1 an.. . 6} are independent.2 = 0. Now the basis extension method is very laborious job. . i.) which has an inﬁnite dimension. θ6 . . Thus proceeding same way.. .n = . Similarly when a1. Thus dimension is again 7. a3 .2 · · · a2. Hence rest (n − 1) terms are independent. . . (5) I am showing only for the symmetric matrix problem Let us consider a general n × n matrix. . . a7 . θ7 = 1 + θ.. The idea is similar as before: choose one independent element to be one rest independent elements to be zero and compute the dependent elements from them.2 · · · a1.I. θ. Thus you will ﬁnd that beyond θ6 . .n Now as it is a symmetric matrix ai. θ3 . . .j = aj. Thus the vectors of θi . . One of the many procedures is: (a) Construct the matrix: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 . .e.1 = 0. a2 .n An. . Thus these m variables can take any values from the ﬁeld.i .. 1. a2. But fortunately here the space is constrained and it is given that θ7 = θ+1. Suppose you have a basis v1 = (a1 . v2 . a8 ) and you have been told to extend it to the basis of R4 . the basis vectors will be n + (n − 1) + (n − 2) + . a1.2 = 0 is a basis. Thus say a1. θ2 . . a4 ). Thus proceeding same way. i ∈ {0.

Z = (1. Concept of complementary subspace. 0). Y = (1. This exercise proves complementary subspaces are not unique. 7. Let it be Bx [note that Bx is a set of vectors]. 1. Now keep ﬁrst two rows intact and then perform elementary row operations to make the as many of of the lower four rows zero as possible. trivial. Consider X to be a 2 × 2 matrix formed by (a1 . Compute the basis of X ∩ Y and X + Y 9. Let X = (0. 0. 0. 4. a4 ). The basis elements were {(1. trivial. a2 . 1)}. (0. a3 . Y and Z (in fact any line with certain non-zero angle with X axis) is a subspace complementary to X axis. By }. Thus will satisfy those two conditions 12. 6.(b) See that the matrix has a rank 4. 0). a3 . Similar to 2. Arrange 4-tuples of each basis vectors in 2 × 2 matrix form. (0. 1) Now X and Y combined will span R2 . Thus X +Y =X +Z (3) But Y and Z are not same. 8. 11. 0) . trivial 5. Example: Consider case of symmetric matrices. Find the null-space basis of this matrix. a2 .R7 −R3 0 −→ 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 (R6 . 0. 3 . Find the four equations of (a1 . Let X be the subspace spanned by v1 .R2 −R6 ) 0 0 0 −→ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 R6 −R 0 −→ 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 (c) The new vector combined with the previous ones will form the basis of extended vector space. 1. Now ﬁnd a basis of X. v2 . The subspace spanned by By will be complementary subspace to X. trivial 10. Now the matrix will look like: 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 R4 −R1 . Similarly X and Z combined will span R2 . Clearly they will be of the form {Bx . 1) . a4 ). 3. Extend this basis to compute the basis of R4 . Thus construct the 4 × 4 matrix form those equations. 0.

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