# Applied Linear Algebra (EE635

)
Solutions: Quiz 1
1. For this type of problem the idea is to ﬁnd the number of independent variables. Value
of that will be dimension of the system.
(1) If f ∈ R
n
[X], then
f =
6

i=0
a
i
X
i
(a
i
∈ R)
Now, there is no restriction on choosing the (a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
6
). Hence all are inde-
pendent variable and dimension is 7.
(2) (a)
f(0) = a
0
f(1) = a
0
+a
1
+a
2
+a
3
+a
4
+a
5
+a
6
f(−1) = a
0
−a
1
+a
2
−a
3
+a
4
−a
5
+a
6
f(0) +f(1) −f(−1) = a
0
+ 2(a
1
+a
3
+a
5
)
Hence
a
0
= −2(a
1
+a
3
+a
5
) (1)
Thus here we can choose (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
6
) independently and a
0
will be a func-
tion of them. Hence dimension is 6.
Now how to compute the basis? The procedure is as follows:
Choose any one of (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
6
) to be ONE and rest zero. Say a
1
= 1, a
2
=
0, a
3
= 0, a
4
= 0, a
5
= 0, a
6
= 0 then a
0
= −2. Thus (-2,1,0,0,0,0,0) is a basis
vector.
Now repeat the procedure with choosing some other component to be one and
rest zero. For example: a
1
= 0, a
2
= 1, a
3
= 0, a
4
= 0, a
5
= 0, a
6
= 0. Then
a
0
= 0. Thus (0,0,1,0,0,0,0) is another basis element.
Thus the basis will be: (-2,1,0,0,0,0,0),(0,0,1,0,0,0,0),(-2,0,0,1,0, 0,0),(0,0,0,0,
1,0,0),(-2,0,0,0,0,1,0),(0,0,0,0,0,0,1)
(b) Compute the equation. Only single equation is there. Hence again one vari-
able can be expressed in terms of others. Hence dimension will be 6. Find
basis using similar construction method.
(c) For symmetric polynomial, coeﬃcients corresponding to odd power of X will
have to be zero. Hence no of independent elements will be no of even power
terms(a
0
, a
2
, a
4
, a
6
)
1
(d) similar to previous one.
(3) Any element from Z
m
p
is a m-tuple (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
) and all a
i
∈ Z
p
, which is a
ﬁeld when p is prime. Thus these m variables can take any values from the ﬁeld.
Thus number of independent variable is m.
(4) The unconstrained F(θ) has a natural basis (1, θ, θ
2
, θ
3
, ...) which has an inﬁnite
dimension. But fortunately here the space is constrained and it is given that θ
7
=
θ+1. Thus if we try to rewrite the basis elements we get, θ
0
= 1, θ
1
, θ
2
, . . . , θ
6
, θ
7
=
1 + θ, θ
8
= θ(1 + θ) = θ + θ
2
... Thus you will ﬁnd that beyond θ
6
, i.e. higher
degree terms can be written in terms of the lower degree terms. Thus the vectors
of θ
i
, i ∈ {0, 1, . . . , 6} are independent. Thus dimension is again 7.
Basis vector construction procedure is as previous.
(5) I am showing only for the symmetric matrix problem Let us consider a general
n ×n matrix.
A
n,n
=
_
_
_
_
_
a
1,1
a
1,2
· · · a
1,n
a
2,1
a
2,2
· · · a
2,n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n,1
a
n,2
· · · a
n,n
_
_
_
_
_
Now as it is a symmetric matrix a
i,j
= a
j,i
. Thus in the ﬁrst row all n variables
are independent. In second row a
2,1
is same as a
1,2
. Hence rest (n −1) terms are
independent. Thus proceeding same way, in the last row only a
n,n
is independent.
Thus total no of independent entries are
n + (n − 1) + (n − 2) +. . . + 2 + 1 =
n(n + 1)
2
(2)
The basis construction is shown for a 2 × 2. The idea is similar as before: choose
one independent element to be one rest independent elements to be zero and
compute the dependent elements from them. Thus say a
1,1
= 1, a
1,2
= 0, a
2,1
=
0, a
2,2
= 0 is a basis. Similarly when a
1,2
= 1 then a
2,1
is also 1. Thus proceeding
same way, the basis vectors will be
_
1 0
0 0
_
,
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
_
0 0
0 1
_
2. The basis vector construction process has been explained above. Note that it is not
unique. Now the basis extension method is very laborious job. So I am explaining
the procedure. Suppose you have a basis v
1
= (a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
), v
2
= (a
5
, a
6
, a
7
, a
8
) and
you have been told to extend it to the basis of R
4
. Clearly you have to ﬁnd two more
linearly independent vectors which will be L.I. to both of v
1
, v
2
. One of the many
procedures is:
(a) Construct the matrix:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5
a
6
a
7
a
8
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2
(b) See that the matrix has a rank 4. Now keep ﬁrst two rows intact and then
perform elementary row operations to make the as many of of the lower four
rows zero as possible. Example: Consider case of symmetric matrices. The basis
elements were {(1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 1, 1, 0), (0, 0, 0, 1)}. Now the matrix will look like:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
R
4
−R
1
,R
7
−R
3
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(R
6
,R
2
−R
6
)
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
R
6
−R
5
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(c) The new vector combined with the previous ones will form the basis of extended
vector space.
3. Similar to 2.
4. trivial
5. trivial.
6. trivial.
7. Consider X to be a 2 × 2 matrix formed by (a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
). Find the four equations
of (a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
). Thus construct the 4 × 4 matrix form those equations. Find the
null-space basis of this matrix. Arrange 4-tuples of each basis vectors in 2 ×2 matrix
form.
8. Compute the basis of X ∩ Y and X +Y
9. trivial
10. Concept of complementary subspace.
11. Let X be the subspace spanned by v
1
, v
2
. Now ﬁnd a basis of X. Let it be B
x
[note
that B
x
is a set of vectors]. Extend this basis to compute the basis of R
4
. Clearly they
will be of the form {B
x
, B
y
}. The subspace spanned by B
y
will be complementary
subspace to X. Thus will satisfy those two conditions
12. Let X = (0, 1), Y = (1, 0), Z = (1, 1) Now X and Y combined will span R
2
.
Similarly X and Z combined will span R
2
. Thus
X +Y = X +Z (3)
But Y and Z are not same. This exercise proves complementary subspaces are not
unique. Y and Z (in fact any line with certain non-zero angle with X axis) is a subspace
complementary to X axis.
3

a2. a1.n is independent. am ) and all ai ∈ Zp . a6 . . The basis vector construction process has been explained above. . v2 = (a5 .2 · · · an. 0 0 1 0 0 1 2. .2 = 1 then a2. Thus total no of independent entries are n(n + 1) (2) 2 The basis construction is shown for a 2 × 2.1 = 1.2 . θ0 = 1.1 is same as a1. Basis vector construction procedure is as previous.(d) similar to previous one. Note that it is not unique. . Thus if we try to rewrite the basis elements we get. which is a p ﬁeld when p is prime. θ2 . a2 . . .1 a1.   . in the last row only an. (4) The unconstrained F (θ) has a natural basis (1. .. . an.n  a2.1 is also 1. higher degree terms can be written in terms of the lower degree terms. .1 a2. θ8 = θ(1 + θ) = θ + θ2 . Thus in the ﬁrst row all n variables are independent. (3) Any element from Zm is a m-tuple (a1 . . So I am explaining the procedure. In second row a2. Clearly you have to ﬁnd two more linearly independent vectors which will be L. Thus number of independent variable is m. θ1 . to both of v1 . + 2 + 1 = 1 0 0 1 0 0 .1 an.. . 6} are independent.2 = 0. Now the basis extension method is very laborious job. . i.) which has an inﬁnite dimension. θ6 . . Thus proceeding same way.. .n =  . Similarly when a1. Thus dimension is again 7. a3 .2 · · · a2. Hence rest (n − 1) terms are independent. . . (5) I am showing only for the symmetric matrix problem Let us consider a general n × n matrix. . . a7 . θ7 = 1 + θ.. The idea is similar as before: choose one independent element to be one rest independent elements to be zero and compute the dependent elements from them.2 · · · a1.I. θ. Thus you will ﬁnd that beyond θ6 . .n Now as it is a symmetric matrix ai. θ3 . . .j = aj. Thus the vectors of θi . . One of the many procedures is: (a) Construct the matrix:   a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8    1 0 0 0   0 1 0 0   0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 . .e.1 = 0. a2 .n    An. . Thus these m variables can take any values from the ﬁeld.i .. 1. a2. But fortunately here the space is constrained and it is given that θ7 = θ+1. Suppose you have a basis v1 = (a1 . v2 . a8 ) and you have been told to extend it to the basis of R4 . the basis vectors will be n + (n − 1) + (n − 2) + .   a1.2 = 0 is a basis. Thus say a1. θ2 .  . a4 ). Thus proceeding same way. i ∈ {0.

Z = (1. Concept of complementary subspace. 0). Y = (1. This exercise proves complementary subspaces are not unique. 7. Let it be Bx [note that Bx is a set of vectors]. 1. Now keep ﬁrst two rows intact and then perform elementary row operations to make the as many of of the lower four rows zero as possible. trivial. Consider X to be a 2 × 2 matrix formed by (a1 . Compute the basis of X ∩ Y and X + Y 9. Let X = (0. 0. 0. 4. a4 ). The basis elements were {(1. trivial. a2 . 1)}. (0. a3 . Y and Z (in fact any line with certain non-zero angle with X axis) is a subspace complementary to X axis. By }. Thus will satisfy those two conditions 12. 6.(b) See that the matrix has a rank 4. 0). a3 . Similar to 2. Arrange 4-tuples of each basis vectors in 2 × 2 matrix form. (0. 1) Now X and Y combined will span R2 . Thus X +Y =X +Z (3) But Y and Z are not same. 8. 11. 0) . trivial 5. Example: Consider case of symmetric matrices. Find the null-space basis of this matrix. a2 .R7 −R3 0 −→   0 0 1  1 0  0  0  0  0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0   1 0  0 0   1  (R6 . 0. 3 . Find the four equations of (a1 . Let X be the subspace spanned by v1 .R2 −R6 ) 0 0 0 −→    0 0   0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  1  R6 −R 0 −→ 5  0  0 0  1 0  0  0  0  0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  1  0  0  0 0 (c) The new vector combined with the previous ones will form the basis of extended vector space. 1. Now ﬁnd a basis of X. v2 . The subspace spanned by By will be complementary subspace to X. trivial 10. Now the matrix will look like:  1 0  0  1  0  0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0  1  R4 −R1 . Similarly X and Z combined will span R2 . Clearly they will be of the form {Bx . 1) . a4 ). 3. Extend this basis to compute the basis of R4 . Thus construct the 4 × 4 matrix form those equations. 0.