International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 2319-2968

Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 2, August-2012 Page: 25-29

Tridiv Jyoti Neog, “An Application of Imprecise Soft Sets in Teaching Evaluation” 25


AN APPLICATION OF IMPRECISE SOFT SETS IN
TEACHING EVALUATION

Tridiv Jyoti Neog
Dept. of Mathematics, CMJ University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
E-mail: tridivjyoti@gmail.com


Abstract: In present times, mathematical modelling of various problems arising in the fields of engineering, management
sciences, social sciences etc. which involve impreciseness in data is of great importance for the researchers. The concept of
imprecise soft sets can be used in developing models for such problems. In this work, we have made an attempt to solve a
decision problem using imprecise soft sets by considering a hypothetical case study.

Keywords: Soft Set, Imprecise Soft Set, Imprecise Soft Relation, Decision Making.

1. Introduction
There are many complicated problems in the fields of engineering, social science, economics, medical science etc. that
involve uncertainties, impreciseness in data. There are tools such as The Theory of Probability, Evidence Theory, Fuzzy Set
Theory, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set Theory, Rough Set Theory etc. to deal with such problems. However these theories
sometimes fail to handle uncertainty properly. This limitation was pointed out by Molodtsov [6] in 1999 and accordingly he
initiated the novel concept of Soft Set. The absence of any restrictions on the approximate description in Soft Set Theory is
making this theory more convenient.
In the Zadehian definition of fuzzy sets [13], it is seen that the classical set theoretic axioms of contradiction and exclusion
are not satisfied. Accordingly, Baruah [2] put forward an extended definition of fuzzy sets. According to him, two functions,
namely fuzzy membership function and fuzzy reference function are necessary to represent a fuzzy set completely. The
fuzzy membership value is the difference between the fuzzy membership function and the fuzzy reference function.
Accordingly, the definitions of union and intersection of fuzzy sets have been proposed. The notion of complement of a
fuzzy set has been given a new look and using this new definition of complement, the classical set theoretic axioms of
contradiction and exclusion are found to be valid for fuzzy sets also. Neog and Sut [7] further studied the notions initiated by
Baruah [2] to avoid degenerate cases and generalized the notion of union and intersection of extended fuzzy sets with non-
zero reference function. Baruah [1] has also established that two independent laws of randomness are necessary and
sufficient to define a law of fuzziness. Accordingly, the theory of imprecise sets has been developed by Baruah [3] where
these mistakes arising in the literature of fuzzy sets are absent.
In recent times, fuzzification of Soft Set Theory is getting high importance among the researchers. Combining fuzzy sets and
soft sets, Maji [5] put forward a new model known as fuzzy soft set. He introduced some properties regarding fuzzy soft
union, intersection, complement of a fuzzy soft set, De Morgan Law etc. Neog and Sut [8, 9] have studied the theory of
fuzzy soft sets in a different way by replacing fuzzy sets with the extended fuzzy sets and initiated some results related to
fuzzy soft sets. They have proposed a matrix representation for fuzzy soft sets and applied the same in decision making
problems [10, 11]. Recently, Neog and Sut [12] have developed a new model known as Imprecise Soft Set by combining
imprecise sets with soft sets. In their work, a matrix representation for total imprecise soft sets has been put forward. They
have studied the notion of similarity of two total imprecise soft sets and applied the notion of similarity of two total
imprecise soft sets in a decision problem. In this work, an attempt has been made to apply the notion of imprecise soft
relation in teaching evaluation considering a hypothetical case study.
2. Preliminaries

In this section, we would recall some basic concepts and definitions which would be needed in the sequel.

Definition 2.1 [6]
A pair (F, E) is called a soft set (over U) if and only if F is a mapping of E into the set of all subsets of the set U.


International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 2319-2968
Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 2, August-2012 Page: 25-29

Tridiv Jyoti Neog, “An Application of Imprecise Soft Sets in Teaching Evaluation” 26

In other words, the soft set is a parameterized family of subsets of the set U. Every set E F e  ), ( , from this family may be
considered as the set of  - elements of the soft set (F, E), or as the set of  - approximate elements of the soft set.

Definition 2.2 [12]
Let U be the initial universe and E be the set of parameters. Let E A _ and ) (
~
U P denote the set of all imprecise subsets over
the universe U. Then a pair (F, A) is called an imprecise soft set over U where ) (
~
: U P A F ÷ is a mapping from A into
) (
~
U P .

Example 2.1 [12]
Let { }
4 3 2 1
, , , c c c c U = be the set of four cars under consideration and
{ } Luxurious) ( ), nology ModernTech ( , Efficient) Fuel ( ), Beautiful ( ), costly (
5 4 3 2 1
e e e e e E = be the set of parameters and
{ } E e e e A _ =
3 2 1
, , . Then
( ) A F, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { , 0 , 7 . 0 , , 0 , 2 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , ) (
4 3 2 1 1
c c c c e F = =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }, 0 , 5 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 7 . 0 , , 0 , 6 . 0 , ) (
4 3 2 1 2
c c c c e F =


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }} 0 , 6 . 0 , , 0 , 1 . 0 , , 0 , 2 . 0 , , 0 , 1 . 0 , ) (
4 3 2 1 3
c c c c e F =

is the imprecise soft set representing the ‘attractiveness of the car’ which Mr. X is going to buy.

Definition 2.3 [12]
Let U be the initial universe, E be the set of parameters and ) (
~
U P denote the set of all imprecise subsets over the universe U.
Then the pair (F, E) is called a total imprecise soft set over U where ) (
~
: U P E F ÷ is a mapping from E into ) (
~
U P .

Definition 2.4 [12]
An imprecise soft set (F, A) over U is said to be null imprecise soft set (with respect to the parameter set A), denoted by
( ) A ,
~
 if ) ( ,   F A e ¬ is the null set . The Null Imprecise Soft Set is not unique, it depends upon the set of parameters
under consideration.

Definition 2.5 [12]
An imprecise soft set (F, A) over U is said to be absolute imprecise soft set (with respect to the parameter set A), denoted by
( ) A U,
~
if ) ( ,   F A e ¬ is the absolute set U. The Absolute Imprecise Soft Set is not unique, it depends upon the set of
parameters under consideration.

Definition 2.6 [12]
Union of two imprecise soft sets (F, A) and (G, B) over (U, E) is an imprecise soft set (H, C) where B A C =

and C e ¬ ,
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
· e
÷ e
÷ e
=
B A G F
A B G
B A F
H
  
 
 

if ), ( ) (
if ), (
if ), (
) (

and is written as ( ) ( ) ( ) C H B G A F , ,
~
, = .

Definition 2.7 [12]
Let (F, A) and (G, B) be two imprecise soft sets over (U, E) with  = ·B A .Then intersection of the imprecise soft sets
(F, A) and (G, B) is an imprecise soft set (H, C) where B A C · = and C e ¬ , ) ( ) ( ) (    G F H · = . We
write ( ) ( ) ( ) C H B G A F , ,
~
, = · .

Definition 2.8 [12]
For two imprecise soft sets (F, A) and (G, B) over (U, E), we say that (F, A) is an imprecise soft subset of (G, B), if
(i) B A _
(ii) For all A e  , ( ) ( )   G F _ and is written as (F , A) _
~
(G, B).

Definition 2.9 [12]
For two imprecise soft sets (F, A) and (G, B) over (U, E), we say that (F, A) is equal to (G, B), if (F , A) _
~
(G, B) and
(G, B)

_
~
(F , A)

Definition 2.10 [12]
The complement of an imprecise soft set (F, A) is denoted by (F, A)
c
and is defined by (F, A)
c
= (F
c
, A) where
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 2319-2968
Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 2, August-2012 Page: 25-29

Tridiv Jyoti Neog, “An Application of Imprecise Soft Sets in Teaching Evaluation” 27

) (
~
: U P A F
c
÷ is a mapping given by ( )
c c
F F ) ( ) (   = , A e ¬ .
In other words,
{ } U x x x F A
F
e = e ¬ ; 0 ), ( , ) ( if ,
) (
   , then { } U x x x F
F
c
e = ); ( , 1 , ) (
) (
  .

Definition 2.11 [12]
If (F, A) and (G, B) be two imprecise soft sets, then “(F, A) AND (G, B)” is an imprecise soft set denoted by ( ) ( ) B G A F , , .
and is defined by ( ) ( ) ( ) B A H B G A F × = . , , , , where ( ) ( ) ( ) A G F H e ¬ · =      , , and B e ¬ , where · is the
operation intersection of two imprecise sets.

Definition 2.12 [12]
If (F, A) and (G, B) be two imprecise soft sets, then “(F, A) OR (G, B)” is an imprecise soft set denoted by ( ) ( ) B G A F , , v
and is defined by ( ) ( ) ( ) B A O B G A F × = v , , , , where ( ) ( ) ( ) A G F O e ¬ =      , , and B e ¬ , where is the
operation union of two imprecise sets.

Definition 2.13 [4]
If (F, A) and (G, B) are two fuzzy soft sets then the fuzzy soft subset (R, C) of (F, A) × (G, B) is called a fuzzy soft relation.
Here, C c A × B and ¬ (x, y) e A × B, R (x, y) is a fuzzy subset of P (x, y) where, P (x, y) = F (x) · G (y).

Definition 2.14 [4]
The fuzzy soft set (R, C) of (F
i
, A
i
) is called an n-ary fuzzy soft relation. Here, C c A
1
×…………×A
n
¬ (x
1
,……….,x
n
)
e A
1
×………×A
n
, R(x
1
,…….,x
n
) c O where, O(x
1
,……….,x
n
) = F
1
(x
1
) ·……….. · F
n
(x
n
).

3. Application of Imprecise Soft Sets in Decision Making

Analogous to Chaudhuri and Chatterjee [4], we first give the definition of imprecise soft relation in our way as follows-
Definition 3.1
Let (F, A) and (G, B) be two imprecise soft sets. Then the imprecise soft set (R, C) is called an imprecise soft relation, where
C c A × B and ¬ (x, y) e A × B, R (x, y) _ P (x, y) where P (x, y) = F (x) · G (y), · is the operation intersection of two
imprecise sets.

Definition 3.2
Let (F
1
, A
1
), (F
2
, A
2
)……………….. (F
n
, A
n
) be “n” imprecise soft sets. Then the imprecise soft set (R, C) is called an n - ary
imprecise soft relation, where C c A
1
×…………×A
n
and ¬ (x
1
,……….,x
n
) e A
1
×………×A
n
, R(x
1
,…….,x
n
) c O , where
O(x
1
,……….,x
n
) = F
1
(x
1
) ·……….. · F
n
(x
n
), · is the operation intersection of imprecise sets.

Now, in this section, we present an application of imprecise soft relation in the evaluation of teaching skill considering a
hypothetical case study. We assume the following teaching skills as parameters for quality teaching.
1
e = Probing Questions,
2
e = Reinforcement,
3
e = Using Black Board / Achieving Closure,
4
e = Introducing a Lesson,
5
e = Recognizing Attending Behaviour,
6
e = Stimulus Variation,
7
e = Explanation,
8
e = Illustration with Examples
We consider the set U = {T
1
, T
2
, T
3
, T
4
, T
5
} as our universal set consisting of five teachers in the same institution having
same direct students (say, no. of direct students is “n”) and the set E = {e
1
, e
2
, e
3
, e
4
, e
5
, e
6
, e
7
, e
8
} as the set of parameters.
We construct the imprecise soft sets (F
1
, E
1
), (F
2
, E
2
), (F
3
, E
3
), (F
4
, E
4
) , (F
5
, E
5
) , (F
6
, E
6
) , (F
7
, E
7
) and (F
8
, T
8
), where
{ },
1 1
e E = { },
2 2
e E = { },
3 3
e E = { },
4 4
e E = { },
5 5
e E = { },
6 6
e E = { },
7 7
e E = { }.
8 8
e E = In this process, we would try to
interact with the students and the presence level indicator function ) (
) ( j e F
T p
i i
of each T
j
in the imprecise set ) (
i i
e F is
calculated by the following formula-

) (
) ( j e F
T p
i i
n
T e
j i
in presence the stating students direct of No.
= and naturally the reference function of each T
j
in the
imprecise set ) (
i i
e F is 0.


International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 2319-2968
Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 2, August-2012 Page: 25-29

Tridiv Jyoti Neog, “An Application of Imprecise Soft Sets in Teaching Evaluation” 28
For example, we form the following imprecise soft sets taking n = 100.
( )
1 1
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 7 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 2 . 0 , , 0 , 6 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 1 1
T T T T T e F = =
( )
2 2
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 2 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 7 . 0 , , 0 , 5 . 0 , , 0 , 6 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 2 2
T T T T T e F = =
( )
3 3
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 5 . 0 , , 0 , 5 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 3 3
T T T T T e F = =
( )
4 4
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 7 . 0 , , 0 , 6 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 4 4
T T T T T e F = =
( )
5 5
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 6 . 0 , , 0 , 8 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 5 5
T T T T T e F = =
( )
6 6
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 8 . 0 , , 0 , 5 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 7 . 0 , , 0 , 8 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 6 6
T T T T T e F = =
( )
7 7
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 6 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 2 . 0 , , 0 , 5 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 7 7
T T T T T e F = =
( )
8 8
, E F ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } { } 0 , 7 . 0 , , 0 , 6 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , ) (
5 4 3 2 1 8 8
T T T T T e F = =

We construct the imprecise soft relation (R, C) of (F
i
, T
i
), where
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
E E E E E E E E C × × × × × × × = and we take

R(e
1
, e
2
,e
3
, e
4
, e
5
,e
6
, e
7
, e
8
) = F
1
(e
1
) · F
2
(e
2
) ·F
3
(e
3
) ·F
4
(e
4
) ·F
5
(e
5
) ·F
6
(e
6
) ·F
7
(e
7
) ·F
8
(e
8
)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } 0 , 2 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 , , 0 , 2 . 0 , , 0 , 4 . 0 , , 0 , 3 . 0 ,
5 4 3 2 1
T T T T T =

It follows that presence level for T
1
is 0.3, presence level for T
2
is 0.4, presence level for T
3
is 0.2, presence level for T
4
is 0.3
and presence level for T
5
is 0.2.

Thus T
2
has the largest presence level (0.4) and consequently we have the following order in
descending order of their teaching skill-

1. T
2

2. T
1
, T
4

3. T
3
, T
5


Conclusion
In our work, the concept of imprecise soft sets has been used in a hypothetical case study to develop a model for evaluation
of teaching skill. It is hoped that our model would certainly end up with a decision that would be nearest to the desired
objective.



REFERENCES

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International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences (IJBSS) ISSN: 2319-2968
Available Online at www.rfbss.org Vol.1, Issue 2, August-2012 Page: 25-29

Tridiv Jyoti Neog, “An Application of Imprecise Soft Sets in Teaching Evaluation” 29

AUTHOR
Tridiv Jyoti Neog received his M.Sc. degree in Mathematics from Dibrugarh University, India, in 2004. He is a research
scholar in the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, CMJ University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India. He was
awarded “BINANDI MEDHI MEMORIAL AWARD” for being the best graduate in B.Sc. examination, 2001, under
Dibrugarh University.