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Introduction to Symbolic Computation

Spring 2003

**7. Signal Processing in MATLAB
**

We have seen how to ﬁt data with polyﬁt and how to design shapes with spline. In this lecture we cover another way to deal with approximate data, which is particularly well suited for treating signals.

7.1 Fourier Transforms

Every signal can be written as a sum of sinusoids with diﬀerent amplitudes and frequencies. The MATLAB command to compute the Fourier Transform and its inverse are respectively ﬀt and iﬀt, for example: >> x = rand(1, 10); % suppose 10 samples of a random signal >> y = f f t(x); % Fourier transform of the signal >> iy = if f t(y); % inverse Fourier transform >> x2 = real(iy); % chop oﬀ tiny imaginary parts >> norm(x − x2); % compare original with inverse of transformed enter enter enter enter enter

The ﬀt is the abbreviation of Fast Fourier Transform. This algorithm implements the discrete Fourier transform to transform data from time into the frequency domain. The study of this algorithm is normally covered in a good linear algebra course. First we give an example of the meaning of the Fourier transform before showing how Fourier transforms can be used to ﬁlter noise from signals.

**7.2 Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum
**

Suppose we sample a signal during 4 seconds, at a sampling rate of 0.01: >> dt = 1/100; >> et = 4; >> t = 0 : dt : et; >> y = 3 ∗ sin(4 ∗ 2 ∗ pi ∗ t) + 5 ∗ sin(2 ∗ 2 ∗ pi ∗ t); A natural plot is that of amplitude versus time: >> subplot(2, 1, 1); % ﬁrst of two plots >> plot(t, y); grid on % plot with grid >> axis([0 et − 8 8]); % adjust scaling >> xlabel( T ime (s) ); % time expressed in seconds >> ylabel( Amplitude ); % amplitude as function of time enter enter enter enter enter % sampling rate % end of the interval % sampling range % sample the signal enter enter enter enter

With the Fourier Transform we can visualize what characterizes this signal the most. From the Fourier transform we compute the amplitude spectrum: >> Y = f f t(y); % compute Fourier transform enter >> n = size(y, 2)/2; % second half are complex conjugates enter >> amp spec = abs(Y )/n; % absolute value and normalize enter To visualize the amplitude spectrum, we execute the following commands >> subplot(2, 1, 2); % second of two plots >> f req = (0 : 79)/(2 ∗ n ∗ dt); % abscissa viewing window >> plot(f req, amp spec(1 : 80)); grid on % plot amplitude spectrum >> xlabel( F requency (Hz) ); % 1 Herz = number of cycles per second >> ylabel( Amplitude ); % amplitude as function of frequency enter enter enter enter enter

On the amplitude spectrum we see two peaks: at 2 and 4. The location of the peaks occurs at the two frequencies in the signal. The heights of the peaks (5 and 3) are the amplitudes of the sines in the signal. Jan Verschelde, April 21, 2003 UIC, Dept of Math, Stat & CS MATLAB Lecture 7, page 1

2). April 21. For this example. we use ﬁx to set all elements in eY less than 100 to zero: >> f Y = f ix(eY /100) ∗ 100. Dept of Math. grid on % plot amplitude spectrum >> xlabel( F requency (Hz) ). amp spec(1 : 80)). % abscissa viewing window >> plot(f req. r+ ) >> hold on >> plot(eY /n.MCS 320 Introduction to Symbolic Computation Spring 2003 7. 2)). Stat & CS MATLAB Lecture 7. >> eY = f f t(ey). % amplitude as function of frequency enter enter enter enter enter enter enter enter enter enter enter On the ﬁrst plot we recognize the shape of the signal. grid on % plot noisy signal with grid >> axis([0 et − 8 8]). 2003 UIC. >> ey = y + noise.3 Filtering Noise from Signals We will see now how to use ﬀt and iﬀt to ﬁlter out the noise from signals. % remove imaginary parts enter The vector cy contains the corrected samples. ey). % amplitude as function of time enter enter enter enter enter Here we ﬁltered out noise of low amplitude. >> n = size(ey. % second of two plots >> f req = (0 : 79)/(2 ∗ n ∗ dt). The command ﬁx rounds the elements of its argument to the nearest integers towards zero. So. The wobbles we see around the peaks show that the amplitude of the noise is less than that of the original signal. >> amp spec = abs(eY )/n. % time expressed in seconds >> ylabel( Amplitude ). % % % % % random noise samples with noise Fourier transform of noisy signal use size for scaling compute amplitude spectrum enter enter enter enter enter To interpret these calculations we make a plot of the waveform and amplitude spectrum: >> f igure % plots in new window >> subplot(2. 2)/2. In the plot of the amplitude spectrum. 1. % inverse Fourier transform of ﬁxed data enter >> cy = real(if Y ). the peaks and their heights are the same as on the plot of the amplitude spectrum of the original signal. page 2 . 1). bx ) % % % % new window for plot Fourier transform of original put more on same plot Fourier transform of noisy signal enter enter enter enter Via the inverse Fourier transform. >> noise = randn(1. % scale axes for viewing >> xlabel( T ime (s) ). % set numbers < 100 to zero enter >> if Y = if f t(f Y ). First we add random noise to our signal and compute the amplitude spectrum. size(y. ﬁnally we plot this corrected signal : >> f igure % new window for plot >> plot(t. Note we can also remove noise of high frequency. % amplitude as function of time >> subplot(2. We can visualize the output of the Fourier transforms: >> f igure >> plot(Y /n. 1. % ﬁrst of two plots >> plot(t. cy). % time expressed in seconds >> ylabel( Amplitude ). % adjust scale for viewing >> xlabel( T ime (s) ). % 1 Herz = number of cycles per second >> ylabel( Amplitude ). we ﬁlter out the noise. Jan Verschelde. grid on % plot corrected signal >> axis([0 et − 8 8]).

Make a function to plot waveform and amplitude spectrum of a signal. 2003 UIC. % et end of the range.4 Assignments 1. >> plot(t. April 21. Dept of Math.MCS 320 Introduction to Symbolic Computation Spring 2003 7. Stat & CS MATLAB Lecture 7. >> plot(t. % So specplot computes the amplitude spectrum of the signal. y ) % % Opens a new figure window with two plots: % the waveform and amplitude spectrum of a signal. y2). >> y1 = sin(2 ∗ pi ∗ t). et. y1). % % On entry : % t sampling range of the signal. Take the example signal from page 1. Jan Verschelde. enter enter enter enter enter enter Why is the output of the second plot like this? Find a better range for t to plot sin(20 ∗ pi ∗ t) right. Consider the following sequence of instructions: >> t = 0 : 0. For the abscissa viewing window you may take half of the range of t. plot the waveform spectrum of this signal. 4. >> hold on. 3. The function has prototype: function specplot ( t. In addition. page 3 . Can you ﬁnd a good lower bound for the sampling interval in terms of the frequency? 2. With ﬀt we can decompose a signal in low and high frequencies. % y samples of the signal over the range t. % dt sampling rate. dt. Test your specplot with the signal of the previous assignment. As noise we now add a sine of amplitude 4 and with frequency 50. Plot the waveform and amplitude spectrum of the new signal. Give the MATLAB commands to plot the amplitude spectrum for the signal 20 f (t) = k=10 (20 − k) sin(2πkt). >> y2 = sin(20 ∗ pi ∗ t).1 : 10. Use ﬀt and iﬀt to remove this high frequency noise.

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