The 155th ISIJ meeting (2008.3.

28) International organized session “Effects of alloying elements on microstructure formation in steels and other materials”

Incomplete transformation of bainite in microalloyed high strength low alloy steels

T. Furuhara, K. Takahashi, G. Miyamoto Inst. Mater. Res., Tohoku Univ., Japan

Industrial importance of bainitic steel - example
Welded structural steels
e.g., Bridge, Building, Vessel, Pipeline etc.

Transformation during fast cooling from coarse g grains

Formation of Martensite/Austenite (MA) constituent
Degradation of toughness • Decrease in carbon content down to less than 0.1mass% for better weldability • Use of bainitic structure to obtain high strength

Microalloying (B, Mo, Nb) for increasing in hardenability
but increase in the amount of MA Nb bearing steel - Incomplete transformation of bainite

Li.81Mo(mass%) Reynolds.19C-1.Transformation stasis (Incomplete transformation) Fe-0. Shui. Trans. Aaronson : Met. 1990 . A.

Explanation of the transformation stasis below the bay by SD(L)E (Reynolds et al : Met. Trans. A. 1990) 100 Austenite transformed (%) Restriction of ferrite growth by SD(L)E Sympathetic nucleation of degenerate ferrite Mo segregation at g/a interface (Humphery et al: MMTA. 2004.) Cease of sympathetic nucleation Interphase boundary carbide precipitation 0 Log t .

Trans. Maki: Netsushori.Bainite transformation in Si-added steels Suppression of Fe3C precipitation in g → Enrichment of carbon in g Increase of retained g TRIP Incomplete transformation γunstable γstable (C-rich) BF Enrichment of carbon up to T0’ → Loss of driving force for displacive transformation Carbide (Tsuzaki. 895.) Bhadeshia. . 10A(1979). 32(1992),70.. Edmonds: Met.

8 ks Microstructure observation : OM.05.15)C-1.(0.001)B Isothermal holding : 773 ~ 873 K ~ 1036.5Mn -(0.4ks Fe-(0. 0. Mo. 0. SEM.05. TEM Measurement of phase fraction : Point counting method .2Si-(0. 0.5)Mo .15)C-1. B) on transformation behavior of Fe-low C-1.5Mn -0.(Objective) To clarify effects of microalloying (Nb.030)Nb (mass%) Isothermal holding : 723 ~ 973 K ~86. 0. 0.5Mn steels (Experimental) Materials & Heat treatment Fe-(0.

Effect of Nb addition .

15C-1.Isothermal transformation (OM) Fe-0.5Mn (Nb free alloy) PF : Polygonal Ferrite P :Pearlite M : Martensite B : Bainite MA :Martensite-Austenite constituent 973K 823K 773K 0.03%Nb added alloy 973K 823K 773K .

15C-1.03%Nb added Bainite transformation with cementite precipitation No difference in the transformation kinetics with Nb addition . transformed at 773K Nb free 0. 0.03Nb) .Fe-0.5Mn-(0.

03%Nb added stasis Transformation stasis appears by Nb addition.15C-1.5Mn-(0. transformed at 853K Nb free 0. 0.Fe-0.03Nb). (Formation of carbide-free bainitic ferrite) .

8ks (TEM) BF : Bainitic Ferrite P :Pearlite α : Ferrite θ: Cementite MA :Martensite-Austenite constituent Dislocation-free ferrites of new orientations containing q forms after the stasis.15C-1.03Nb transformed at 853K for 10.Fe-0. θ BF BF α MA α P BF 1μm .5Mn-0.

05C-1.Fe-0. transformed at 853K Nb free 0.5Mn alloys.03%Nb A higher BF fraction at the stasis for a lower C content .

Fe-1.5Mn-C (para) phase diagram ○: Initial C content ●: C contents estimated at the stasis by a lever rule NPLE .

Mechanism for transformation stasis with Nb addition 773K : No differnce with Nb addition 853K : Stasis with Nb addition T0’ : Upper limit of BF formation Acm 773K BF BF BF BF BF γ γ c BF BF BF c c γ • BF formation • C enrichment in g 853K c Ae3 Temperature B T0 ’ θ θ 853K BF 773K BF BF BF Diffusional decomposition Suppression by Nb Carbon % Initial carbon content θ No stasis Stasis .

Ågren:Acta Mater. Suehiro. Sato:Mater. 35 (1994).N) precipitation .. Liu. Nanba. Morimoto. T. 44 (1996). N. J. 4241) Decrease in diffusion coefficient of carbon (S. 859) Decrease in BF/g bounday energy with Nb segregation On growth Solute drag effect by Nb (M. 8) Pinning by Nb(C. H. Y.Suppression of ferrite transformation with Nb addition On nucleation Decrease in g grain bounday energy with Nb segregation (M. JIM.. Rep. G. Enomoto. Trans. 47 (1997). Anami.. -K. Z. Nojiri. Towada: Kobe steel Eng.

Effect of (B. Mo) addition .

8ks BF BF α P M(A) 10mm 6 MA P 10mm 10 10 Mo-added 0.3ks Addition of Mo Suppression of diffusional transformation Negligible amount of carbide after the stasis M(A) M(A) BF 10mm α 20mm BF: Bainitic Ferrite.6ks BF Mo-added 259.%) 80 Base 60 40 20 0 1 10 10 10 10 Time (s) 2 3 4 5 Base 10s Mo-added (B. α: Ferrite MA: Martensite-Austenite constituent P: Pearlite M(A): Mertensite(untransformed austenite) .Isothermal transformation at 873K (OM) 100 B-added Fraction of austenite transformed (vol.Mo)added Base 10.

Isothermal transformation at 823K (OM) 100 Base B-added Base 10s DP BF Base 0.8ks After stasis P BF carbide MA θ 10mm 10mm MA 10mm BF: Bainitic Ferrite θ: Cementite Martensite-Austenite constituent M(A): Martensite (untransformed austenite) P: Pearlite DP: Degenerate Pearlite .4ks During stasis P BF Mo-added 1036.6ks P BF Fraction of austenite transformed (vol.Mo)-added MA DP M(A) θ 10mm 10mm 6 0 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Time (s) Mo-added 10s Before stasis BF M(A) Mo-added 86.%) 80 60 40 20 Mo-added (B.

Mo)-added alloy BF MA 1036.8 ks (after stasis) (B.TEM microstructure transformed at 823K 10.Mo)-added alloy α M23C6 BF 1mm BF BF 500nm Mo-added alloy θ untransformed austenite During the stasis → remainig as interlath MA After the stasis → decomposing to ferrite+carbide <diffusional transformation> BF α M23C6 BF 500nm BF: Bainitic Ferrite MA: Martensite-Austenite constituent α: Ferrite θ: Cementite M23C6 carbide .8 ks (during staisis) (B.

Mo)-added 60s BF Time(s) B-added 60s interlathθ interlath θ intralathθ DP BF intralathθ 10mm MA 5mm BF: Bainitic Ferrite MA: Martensite-Austenite constituent θ: Cementite DP: Degenerate Pearlite .Mo)-added 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 No transformation stasis (B.Isothermal transformation at 773K (SEM) 100 Fraction of austenite transformed (vol.%) 80 60 40 20 0 1 10 10 B-added Mo-added Fast transformation kinetics without much difference Bainite transformation with θ precipitation Base (B.

0226 T0’(⊿G=100Kj/mol) T0’(⊿G=200Kj/mol) T0’(⊿G=300Kj/mol) T0’(⊿G=400Kj/mol) T0’(⊿G=500Kj/mol) 0 0.5mass%Mn (para) 1073 para-Ae3 T0 Fraction of transformation at 823K ■0.6 0.8 0.Fe-C-1.Mo)-added alloy 92% Evaluation %C from the lever rule α 0.348 773 %C .Mo)-added alloy 60% ■0.05%C-(B.4 0.2 0.358 T0‘ content Temperature (K) 973 NPLE-γ 873 0.15%C-(B.0236 para-α γ 0.

%) 80 60 40 20 0 1 10 102 103 104 Time (s) 105 106 Mo-added (B.%) 80 60 Base 873K Mo-added Incomplete transformation by Mo addition Fe-0.5Mo) 40 20 0 1 10 Base (B.Mo)-added 102 103 104 105 106 Time (s) 100 Fraction of austenite transformed (vol.100 B-added Fraction of austenite transformed (vol.Mo)-added B-added 823K 873K,823K:Carbide-free BF formation → Stasis Restart by a formation at 873K by M23C6 precipitation at 823K 773K:Bainite transformation with cementite (no stasis) .15C-1.5Mn(-100ppmB-0.

(Summary) 1. Dislocation-free ferrites of which orientations are often different from those of adjacent BFs form with carbide precipitation after the stasis. . 2. Mo or Nb in solution suppress the nucleation of ferrite at BF/g interphase boundary in a temperature range where the incomplete transformation of bainite occurs. A transformation stasis in upper bainite transformation appears in Mn-containing low-alloy low-carbon steels microalloyed with Nb and Mo. 3.