In addit ion, At -Tirmidhi said t hat ` Amin' means, "Do not disappoint our hope'', while t he maj orit y of scholars

said t hat it means. "Answer our invocat ion.'' Also, in his Musnad, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat ` A'ishah said t hat when t he Jews were ment ioned t o him, t he Messenger of Allah said,

ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ジ∇エΑ ∇リャ ユ⊥ ルま» ル ギ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ル ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ∩ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るバヨイ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰャ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤハ ヱ «リΒ͡ へ :ュゅ∠ み∇ャや ブ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ヤハ ヱ
(They will not envy us for anyt hing more t han t hey envy us for Friday which we have been guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for t he Qiblah which we were guided t o, while t hey were led ast ray from it , and for our saying ` Amin' behind t he Imam.) Also, Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he wording,

ヴ∠ハ ∇ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ユム∇ゎギジェ ゅ∠ » ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «リΒ͡ ∇ほわャや∠ ュゅ∠ジャや ͡ ョ z ヱ ͡ ヤz
(The Jews have never envied you more t han for your saying t he Salam (Islamic greet ing) and for saying Amin.)

Surat Al-Baqarah

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah
The Virt ues of Surat Al-Baqarah In Musnad Ahmad, Sahih Muslim, At -Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i, it is recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Prophet said,

ぺゲ∇ボゎ ヵ͡ ャや ろ∇Βら∇ャや ラみプ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ホ ∇ユムゎヲ⊥ よ やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ ゅ∠» ⊥∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ケ ら⊥ ⊥ ∠ Β⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ャ «ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ヮヤカ∇ギΑ ゅ∠ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ ヮΒ͡ ト z ⊥ ⊥⊥ ∠ ャ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ ͡ プ
(Do not t urn your houses int o graves. Verily, Shayt an does not ent er t he house where Surat AlBaqarah is recit ed.) At -Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. Also, ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said, "Shayt an flees from t he house where Surat Al-Baqarah is heard.'' This Hadit h was collect ed by An-Nasa'i in Al-Yawm wal-Laylah, and Al-Hakim recorded it in his Must adrak, and t hen said t hat it s chain of narrat ion is aut hent ic, alt hough t he Two Sahihs did not collect it . In his Musnad, Ad-Darimi recorded t hat Ibn Mas` ud said, "Shayt an depart s t he house where Surat Al-Baqarah is being recit ed, and as he leaves, he passes gas.'' Ad-Darimi also recorded t hat Ash-Sha` bi said t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said, "Whoever recit es t en Ayat from Surat Al-Baqarah in a night , t hen Shayt an will not ent er his house t hat night . (These t en Ayat are) four from t he beginning, Ayat Al-Kursi (255), t he following t wo Ayat (256-257) and t he last t hree Ayat .'' In anot her narrat ion, Ibn Mas` ud said, "Then Shayt an will not come near him or his family, nor will he be t ouched by anyt hing t hat he dislikes. Also, if t hese Ayat were t o be recit ed over a senile person, t hey would wake him up.'' Furt her, Sahl bin Sa` d said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,

∩⊥ ゲボら∇ャや ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ュゅ∠ シ ラまヱ ∩ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ シ ¬∇ヶセ あ ムャ ラま» り∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ z ͡∠ ョ レ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ヮ∇ヤカ∇ギΑ ∇ユャ るヤ∇Βャ ヮわ∇Βよ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ぺゲホ ∇リョ ラまヱ ⊥ ト z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ワ∠∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ヮ∇ヤカ∇ギΑ ∇ユャ や⇔ ゅ∠ ル ヮわ∇Βよ ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ぺゲホ ∇リョヱ ∩∃ ゅ∠ ャ ゐゅ∠を ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ケ ヰ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ワ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ メ Β∠ ∠ ヤ∠ «ュゅz ぺ るをゅ∠を ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや Α∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ト z
(Everyt hing has a hump (or, high peek), and Al-Baqarah is t he high peek of t he Qur'an. Whoever recit es Al-Baqarah at night in his house, t hen Shayt an will not ent er t hat house for t hree night s. Whoever recit es it during a day in his house, t hen Shayt an will not ent er t hat house for t hree days.) This Hadit h was collect ed by Abu Al-Qasim At -Tabarani, Abu Hat im Ibn Hibban in his Sahih and Ibn Marduwyah. At -Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah sent an expedit ion force comprising of many men and asked each about what t hey memorized of t he Qur'an. The Prophet came t o one of t he youngest men among t hem and asked him, ` What have you memorized (of t he Qur'an) young man' He said, ` I memorized such and such Surahs and also Al-Baqarah.' The Prophet said, ` You memorized Surat Al-Baqarah' He said, ` Yes.' The Prophet said, ` Then you are t heir commander.' One of t he not ed men (or chiefs) comment ed, ` By Allah! I did not learn Surat Al-Baqarah, for fear t hat I would not be able t o implement it . The Messenger of Allah said,

∇リヨャ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや モんョ ラみプ ∩⊥ ヱ⊥ ゲ∇ホや∠ ラへ∇ゲボャや やヲ⊥ ヤバゎ» ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ロ ¬∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ ヨz∠ ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ジョ ヲゼ∇エョ ゆや∠ ィ モんヨミ ヮよ ュゅ∠ ヱ ぺゲボプ ヮヨヤバゎ ム ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ゲ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ヮヨヤバゎ ∇リョ モんョヱ ∩∃ ゅ∠ ョ あ ミ ヶ͡ ヮエΑ͡ ゥヲ⊥ Α ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ラ ム∠ モ⊥ プ ⊥ ⊥ ケ ⊥ ヘ∠ ヴヤ∠ ヶミヱ⊥ ゆや∠ ィ モんヨミ ヮプ∇ヲィ ヶ͡ ヲワヱ ギホ∇ゲΒプ ハ ∠ ͡ ぺ ∃ ゲ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «マ∇ジョ ͡
(Learn Al-Qur'an and recit e it , for t he example of whoever learns t he Qur'an, recit es it and adheres t o it , is t he example of a bag t hat is f ull of musk whose scent fills t he air. The example of whoever learns t he Qur'an and t hen sleeps (i.e. lazy) while t he Qur'an is in his memory, is t he example of a bag t hat has musk, but is closed t ight .) This is t he wording collect ed by At -Tirmidhi, who said t hat t his Hadit h is Hasan. In anot her narrat ion, At -Tirmidhi recorded t his same Hadit h in a Mursal manner, so Allah knows best . Also, Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Usayd bin Hudayr said t hat he was once recit ing Surat AlBaqarah while his horse was t ied next t o him. The horse st art ed t o make some noise. When Usayd st opped recit ing, t he horse st opped moving about . When he resumed reading, t he horse st art ed moving about again. When he st opped recit ing, t he horse st opped moving, and when he resumed reading, t he horse st art ed t o move again. Meanwhile, his son Yahya was close t o t he horse, and he feared t hat t he horse might st ep on him. When he moved his son back, he looked up t o t he sky and saw a cloud radiat ing wit h light t hat looked like lamps. In t he morning, he went t o t he Prophet and t old him what had happened and t hen said, "O Messenger of Allah! My son Yahya was close t o t he horse and I feared t hat she might st ep on him. When I at t ended t o him and raised my head t o t he sky, I saw a cloud wit h light s like lamps. So I went , but I couldn't see it .'' The Prophet said, "Do you know what t hat was'' He said, "No.'' The Prophet said,

れ∇ぺゲホ ヲ∠ヱ マゎ∇ヲダャ ∇ろルキ るムもゅ∠ヨ∇ャや マ∇ヤゎ» ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ン∠ やヲ∠ ゎ ゅ∠ ∩ゅ∠ ∇Βャま サゅzャや ゲヌ∇レΑ ろ∇エら∇タほャ ヰ ͡ ケ わ∠ ャ ヰ ∠͡ ⊥ レ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠
(They were t he angels, t hey came close hearing your voice (recit ing Surat Al-Baqarah), and if you had kept reading, t he people would have been able t o see t he angels when t he morning came, and t he angels would not be hidden from t heir eyes.) This is t he narrat ion report ed by Imam Abu Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Salam in his book Fada'il AlQur'an.

Virtues of Surat Al-Baqarah and Surat Al ` Imran

Imam Ahmad said t hat Abu Nu` aym narrat ed t o t hem t hat Bishr bin Muhaj ir said t hat ` Abdullah bin Buraydah narrat ed t o him from his fat her, "I was sit t ing wit h t he Prophet and I heard him say,

ゅ∠ ミ∇ゲゎヱ ∩∀ ミゲよ ゅ∠ グ∇カぺ ラみプ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ヤバゎ» ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ る∠ ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ シ ヨz∠ ∠ «る∠トら∇ャや ゅ∠ バΒ͡ わ∇ジゎ ゅ∠ヱ ∩∀ ゲ∇ジェ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ト∠ ∠ ャ∠ り∠ ∠
(Learn Surat Al-Baqarah, because in learning it t here is blessing, in ignoring it t here is sorrow, and t he sorceresses cannot memorize it .) He kept silent for a while and t hen said,

ゅ∠ ヰルみプ ラや∠ ∇ヨハ メへ∠ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ヤバゎ» ヨ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ シ ヨz∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヰルほミ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ∠ ヰ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ラゅzヌΑ ∩͡ や∠ や∠ ∇ワゴャや ヨ⊥ z ∠∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ らェ タ ͡ ヤ͡ ⊥ ラ ヱ ゲ z ゲ∇Βデ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲプ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ Αゅ∠ ビ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ ョゅ∠ ビ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ホ ͡ ∠ ͡ わ∠ Β∠ ∠ ͡ わ∠ ヨ∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヮらェゅ∠ ヴボ∇ヤΑ ラへゲ⊥ ∇ャや ラまヱ ∩z や∠ タ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ タ ∠ ∠ ボ z ͡∠ フ ヲ∠ メヲ⊥ Βプ ょェゅz ャや モィゲャゅ∠ ロゲ∇らホ ヮ∇レハ ペゼ∇レΑ リΒ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゼ ͡ ⊥ z ミ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ェ ゅ∠ ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ .マプゲ∇ハぺ ゅ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨ヶ͡ プゲ∇バゎ ∇モワ :ヮャ ルぺ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲィや∠ ヰ∇ャや ヶ͡ マゎ∇ほヨ∇ニぺ ヵ͡ ャや ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや マらェゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ヲ∠ プ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ タ ∩͡ ゎケゅ∠ ゎ ¬や∠ ヱ ∇リョ ゲィゅ∠ z ミ ラまヱ マヤ∇Βャ れ∇ゲヰ∇シぺヱ ヮ͡ ∠ イ͡ ͡ ケ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ ゎ モ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ マ∇ヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ ∇バΒプ りケゅ∠ ゎ あ ミ ¬や∠ ヱ ∇リョ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや マルまヱ ∠ ⊥ ト ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ イ͡ モ⊥ ͡ ケ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ァゅ∠ ヮシ∇ぺケ ヴ∠ハ ノッヲ⊥ ヱ ヮャゅ∠ ゼよ ギ∇ヤガ∇ャや∠ ヮレΒ͡ Βよ ⊥ ゎ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ Α∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ͡ ヨ∠ ͡ モ∇ワぺ ゅ∠ ヰ∠ ュヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ラゅ∠ ヤェ ロや∠ ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ムΑ∠ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ヲ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ヨ⊥ ャ ⊥ ボ∠ ャ ͡ わz⊥ ⊥ ギ͡ ヱ ジ ⊥ ヱ ケ ホ∠ グ∇カほよ :メゅ∠ Βプ ∨や∠ ワ ゅ∠ Β͡ ミ ゅ∠ よ :ラゅ∠ヲ⊥ Βプ ∩ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ グ∠ レ ジ⊥ ヨ͡ ͡ ャ ボ∠ ∠ Β ぁ ァケキ ヶ͡ ∇ギバ∇タや∠ ∇ぺゲ∇ホや :メゅ∠ Α z を ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ミギャヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ プ ∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ユ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠∠

や6 ワ ぺゲ∇ボΑ ュや∠ ゅ∠ キヲ⊥ タ ヶ͡ ヲヰプ ∩ゅ∠ プゲビヱ るレイ∇ャや グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ キ ョ ∃ バ⊥ プ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ «ゅ⇔Β͡ ∇ゲゎ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ ヤゎ ∠ ∠∠ ミ
(Learn Surat Al-Baqarah and Al ` Imran because t hey are t wo light s and t hey shade t heir people on t he Day of Resurrect ion, j ust as t wo clouds, t wo spaces of shade or t wo lines of (flying) birds. The Qur'an will meet it s companion in t he shape of a pale-faced man on t he Day of Resurrect ion when his grave is opened. The Qur'an will ask him, 'Do you know me' The man will say, 'I do not know you.' The Qur'an will say, 'I am your companion, t he Qur'an, which has brought you t hirst during t he heat and made you st ay up during t he night . Every merchant has his cert ain t rade. But , t his Day, you are behind all t ypes of t rade.' Kingship will t hen be given t o him in his right hand, et ernal life in his left hand and t he crown of grace will be placed on his head. His parent s will also be grant ed t wo garment s t hat t he people of t his life could never afford. They will say, 'Why were we grant ed t hese garment s' It will be said, 'Because your son was carrying t he Qur'an.' It will be said (t o t he reader of t he Qur'an), 'Read and ascend t hrough t he levels of Paradise.' He will go on ascending as long as he recit es, whet her recit ing slowly or quickly.)'' Ibn Maj ah also recorded part of t his Hadit h from Bishr bin Al-Muhaj ir, and t his chain of narrat ors is Hasan, according t o t he crit eria of Imam Muslim. A part of t his Hadit h is also support ed by ot her Hadit hs. For inst ance, Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Abu Umamah Al-Bahili said t hat he heard t he Messenger of Allah say,

るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヮヤ∇ワほャ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヮルみプ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや やヱ⊥ゲ∇ホや» ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ノプ セ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ゅ∠ ヰル͡∠ ∩∠ や∠ ∇ヨハ メへ∠ りゲボら∇ャや ∩͡ ∇Αヱや∠ ∇ワゴャや やヱ⊥ゲ∇ホや ヨ⊥ z みプ ラ ゲ ͡ ∠ ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ リ ∠ ゲ z ぺ∠ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ ∇ヱぺ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ョゅ∠ ビ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ͡ ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ほ∠ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∠ ラ わ∠ ヨ∠ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ラ Βゎ Α ∩z や∠ タ ゲ∇Βデ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲプ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ ∇ヱぺ ラゅ∠ Αゅ∠ ビ フ ヲ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ホ ͡ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∠ ͡ わ∠ Β∠ «る∠ ゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ∠ ヰヤ∇ワぺ ∇リハ ラゅz ゅ∠ Α ョ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ィ エ⊥
(Read t he Qur'an, because it will int ercede on behalf of it s people on t he Day of Resurrect ion. Read t he t wo light s, Al-Baqarah and Al ` Imran, because t hey will come in t he shape of t wo clouds, t wo shades or t wo lines of birds on t he Day of Resurrect ion and will argue on behalf of t heir people on t hat Day.) The Prophet t hen said,

りゲ∇ジェ ゅ∠ ミ∇ゲゎヱ るミゲよ ゅ∠ グ∇カぺ ラみプ りゲボら∇ャや やヱ⊥ゲ∇ホや » ∀ ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ «る∠トら∇ャや ゅ∠ バΒ͡ わ∇ジゎ ゅ∠ヱ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ト∠ ∠ ャ∠
(Read Al-Baqarah, because in having it t here is blessing, and in ignoring t here is a sorrow and t he sorceresses cannot memorize it .) Also, Imam Muslim narrat ed t his Hadit h in t he Book of Prayer Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat An-Nawwas bin Sam` an said t hat t he Prophet said,

やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヮヤ∇ワぺヱ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ラへ∇ゲボャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇ぽΑ» ル ミ ∠ グz ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ ゎ ⊥ «ラや∠ ∇ヨハ メへ∠ りゲボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ ユ⊥ ョギ∇ボゎ ヮよ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゲ ͡ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ラ ヤヨ Α
(On t he Day of Resurrect ion t he Qur'an and it s people who used t o implement it will be brought fort h, preceded by Surat Al-Baqarah and Al ` Imran.) An-Nawwas said, "The Prophet set t hree examples for t hese t wo Surahs and I did not forget t hese examples ever since. He said,

ゅ∠ ヰレ∇Βよ ラや∠ や∠ ヲ∠ ラゅ∠ ヤニ ∇ヱぺ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ョゅ∠ ビ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ » ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヱ キ シ ͡ わz⊥ ∠ ラ わ∠ ヨ∠ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∩z や∠ タ ゲ∇Βデ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ∇ゲプ ゅ∠ ヰル∠∠ ∇ヱぺ ∩∀ ∇ゲセ フ ヲ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ホ ͡ ヨ⊥ z ほミ ∠ ベ ∠ «ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ゅ∠ ∇リハ ラゅz ゅ∠ Α ヨ ヰ ら ェ タ ∠ ͡ ィ エ⊥
(They will come like t wo clouds, t wo dark shades or t wo lines of birds arguing on behalf of t heir people.) It was also recorded in Sahih Muslim and At -Tirmidhi narrat ed t his Hadit h, which he rendered Hasan Gharib.

Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in Al-Madinah
There is no disagreement over t he view t hat Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in it s ent iret y in AlMadinah. Moreover, Al-Baqarah was one of t he first Surahs t o be revealed in Al-Madinah, while, Allah's st at ement ,

びヮヤャや ヴ∠ま ヮΒ͡ ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲゎ ゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ ぴ ͡ z ャ͡ ͡ プ ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ョ ∠ ボz ヱ

(And be afraid of t he Day when you shall be brought back t o Allah.) (2:281) was t he last Ayah t o be revealed from t he Qur'an. Also, t he Ayat about usury were among t he last Ayat t o be revealed. Khalid bin Ma` dan used t o call Al-Baqarah t he Fust at (t ent ) of t he Qur'an. Some of t he scholars said t hat it cont ains a t housand news incident s, a t housand commands and a t housand prohibit ions. Those who count said t hat t he number of Al-Baqarah's Ayat is t wo hundred and eight y-seven, and it s words are six t housand t wo hundred and t went y-one words. Furt her, it s let t ers are t went y-five t housand five hundred. Allah knows best . Ibn Jurayj narrat ed t hat ` At a' said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in AlMadinah.'' Also, Khasif said from Muj ahid t hat ` Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said; "Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed in Al-Madinah.'' Several Imams and scholars of Tafsir issued similar st at ement s, and t here is no difference of opinion over t his as we have st at ed. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Ibn Mas` ud kept t he Ka` bah on his left side and Mina on his right side and t hrew seven pebbles (at t he Jamrah) and said, "The one t o whom Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed (i.e. t he Prophet ) performed Rami (t he Haj j rit e of t hrowing pebbles) similarly.'' The Two Sahihs recorded t his Hadit h. Furt her, Ibn Marduwyah report ed a Hadit h of Shu` bah from ` Aqil bin Talhah from ` Ut bah bin Mart had; "The Prophet saw t hat his Companions were not in t he first lines and he said,

«り∠ ボら∇ャや りケヲ⊥ ゆゅ∠ ∇タぺ ゅ∠ » ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ シ ∠ エ ∠ Α
(O Companions of Surat Al-Baqarah.) I Think t hat t his incident occurred during t he bat t le of Hunayn when t he Companions ret reat ed. Then, t he Prophet commanded Al-` Abbas (his uncle) t o yell out ,

«り∠ イゼャや ゆゅ∠ ∇タぺ ゅ∠ » ゲ∠ z ∠ エ ∠ Α
(O Companions of t he t ree!) meaning t he Companions who part icipat ed in t he pledge of ArRidwan (under t he t ree). In anot her narrat ion, Al- ` Abbas cried, "O Companions of Surat AlBaqarah!'' encouraging t hem t o come back, so t hey ret urned from every direct ion. Also, during t he bat t le of Al-Yamamah, against t he army of Musaylimah t he Liar, t he Companions first ret reat ed because of t he huge number of soldiers in Musaylimah's army. The Muhaj irun and t he Ansar called out for each ot her, saying; "O people of Surat Al-Baqarah!'' Allah t hen gave t hem vict ory over t heir enemy, may Allah be pleased wit h all of t he companions of all t he Messengers of Allah.

び ユΒ͡ ゲャや リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮヤャや ユ∇ジよぴ ͡ ェz ͡ ヨ z ͡ z ͡ ͡ び ユャやぴ
(In t he Name of Allah, t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful) (1. Alif Lam Mim).

The Discussion of the Individual Letters

The individual let t ers in t he beginning of some Surahs are among t hose t hings whose knowledge Allah has kept only for Himself. This was report ed from Abu Bakr, ` Umar, ` Ut hman, ` Ali and Ibn Mas` ud. It was said t hat t hese let t ers are t he names of some of t he Surahs. It was also said t hat t hey are t he beginnings t hat Allah chose t o st art t he Surahs of t he Qur'an wit h. Khasif st at ed t hat Muj ahid said, "The beginnings of t he Surahs, such as Qaf, Sad, Ta Sin Mim and Alif Lam Ra, are j ust some let t ers of t he alphabet .'' Some linguist s also st at ed t hat t hey are let t ers of t he alphabet and t hat Allah simply did not cit e t he ent ire alphabet of t went y-eight let t ers. For inst ance, t hey said, one might say, "My son recit es Alif, Ba, Ta, Tha... '' he means t he ent ire alphabet alt hough he st ops before ment ioning t he rest of it . This opinion was ment ioned by Ibn Jarir.

The Letters at the Beginning of Surahs
If one removes t he repet it ive let t ers, t hen t he number of let t ers ment ioned at t he beginning of t he Surahs is fourt een: Alif, Lam, Mim, Sad, Ra, Kaf, Ha, Ya, ` Ayn, Ta, Sin, Ha, Qaf, Nun. So glorious is He Who made everyt hing subt ly reflect His wisdom. Moreover, t he scholars said, "There is no doubt t hat Allah did not reveal t hese let t ers for j est and play.'' Some ignorant people said t hat some of t he Qur'an does not mean anyt hing, (meaning, such as t hese let t ers) t hus commit t ing a maj or mist ake. On t he cont rary, t hese let t ers carry a specific meaning. Furt her, if we find an aut hent ic narrat ion leading t o t he Prophet t hat explains t hese let t ers, we will embrace t he Prophet 's st at ement . Ot herwise, we will st op where we were made t o st op and will proclaim,

びゅ∠ よケ ギレ͡ ∇リョ モミ ヮよ ゅz ョや∠ ぴ レあ ∠ ͡ ハ あ x ⊥ ͡ ͡ レ∠ ¬
(We believe in it ; all of it (clear and unclear verses) is from our Lord) (3:7). The scholars did not agree on one opinion or explanat ion regarding t his subj ect . Therefore, whoever t hinks t hat one scholar's opinion is correct , he is obliged t o follow it , ot herwise it is bet t er t o refrain from making any j udgment on t his mat t er. Allah knows best .

These Letters testify to the Miraculous Qur'an
The wisdom behind ment ioning t hese let t ers in t he beginning of t he Surahs, regardless of t he exact meanings of t hese let t ers, is t hat t hey t est ify t o t he miracle of t he Qur'an. Indeed, t he servant s are unable t o produce somet hing like t he Qur'an, alt hough it is comprised of t he same let t ers wit h which t hey speak t o each ot her. This opinion was ment ioned by Ar-Razi in his Tafsir who relat ed it t o Al-Mubarrid and several ot her scholars. Al-Qurt ubi also relat ed t his opinion t o Al-Farra' and Qut rub. Az-Zamakhshari agreed wit h t his opinion in his book, Al-Kashshaf. In addit ion, t he Imam and scholar Abu Al-` Abbas Ibn Taymiyyah and our Shaykh Al-Hafiz Abu AlHaj j aj Al-Mizzi agreed wit h t his opinion. Al-Mizzi t old me t hat it is also t he opinion of Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah. KAz-Zamakhshari said t hat t hese let t ers, "Were not all ment ioned once in t he beginning of t he Qur'an. Rat her, t hey were repeat ed so t hat t he challenge (against t he creat ion) is more daring. Similarly, several st ories were ment ioned repeat edly in t he Qur'an,

and also t he challenge was repeat ed in various areas (i.e., t o produce somet hing like t he Qur'an). Somet imes, one let t er at a t ime was ment ioned, such as Sad, Nun and Qaf. Somet imes t wo let t ers were ment ioned, such as

び ユ⇒ェぴ
(Ha Mim) (44:1) Somet imes, t hree let t ers were ment ioned, such as,

び ユャやぴ
(Alif Lam Mim (2: 1)) and four let t ers, such as,

びゲヨャやぴ
(` Alif Lam Mim Ra) (13:1), and

び ゾヨャやぴ
(Alif Lam Mim Sad) (7:1). Somet imes, five let t ers were ment ioned, such as,

び ゾバΒヰミぴ
(Kaf Ha Ya ` Ayn Sad) (19:1), and;

び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ヮヤャや リョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モΑ͡ レ∠ - ユ⇒ェぴ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ゴ ゎ
(Ha Mim. ` Ayn Sin Qaf) (42:1-2). This is because t he words t hat are used in speech are usually comprised of one, t wo, t hree, four, or five let t ers.'' Every Surah t hat begins wit h t hese let t ers demonst rat es t he Qur'an's miracle and magnificence, and t his fact is known by t hose well-versed in such mat t ers. The count of t hese Surahs is t went y-nine. For inst ance, Allah said,

びヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク ユャやぴ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠

(Alif Lam Mim) This is t he Book (t he Qur'an), wherein t here is no doubt (2:1-2),

リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク - ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ びヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅホあ ダョ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ メゴル ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⇔ ギ∠ ⊥ あ ∠ よ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z ∠
(Alif Lam Mim. Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has t he right t o be worshipped but He), AlHayyul-Qayyuum (t he Ever Living, t he One Who sust ains and prot ect s all t hat exist s). It is He Who has sent down t he Book (t he Qur'an) t o you (Muhammad ) wit h t rut h, confirming what came before it .) (3:1-3), and,

ポケ∇ギタ ヴ͡ リ⊥ Α Κプ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ゾヨャやぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ょ わ ミ びヮ∇レあ ァゲェ ⊥ ョ∀∠∠
(Alif Lam Mim Sad. (This is t he) Book (t he Qur'an) sent down unt o you (O Muhammad ), so let not your breast be narrow t herefrom) (7:1-2). Also, Allah said,

リョ サゅz ャや ァゲ∇ガわャ マ∇Βャま ヮ⇒∠ ∇ャゴル∠ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゲャやぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ぺ ゆ わミ び∇ユヰよケ ラ∇クみよ ͡ ヲぁ ャや ヴ∠ま ろ⇒∠ ヤヌャや ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ͡͡ ケ レ ャ͡ ͡ ヨ⊥ぁ
(Alif Lam Ra. (This is) a Book which We have revealed unt o you (O Muhammad ) in order t hat you might lead mankind out of darkness (of disbelief and polyt heism) int o t he light (of belief in t he Oneness of Allah and Islamic Monot heism) by t heir Lord's leave) (14:1),

び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク - ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠
(Alif Lam Mim. The revelat ion of t he Book (t his Qur'an) in which t here is no doubt , is from t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all t hat exist s)!) (32:1-2),

び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ヮヤャや リョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モΑ͡ レ∠ - ユ⇒ェぴ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ゴ ゎ
(Ha Mim. A revelat ion from (Allah) t he Most Gracious, t he Most Merciful) (41:1-2), and,

- ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ヮヤャや リョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モΑ͡ レ∠ - ユ⇒ェぴ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ゴ ゎ ン͡ ゆゅ∠ バ∇ャや ギΑ͡ セ ゆ∇ヲわャや モよゅ∠ ヱ ょルz ャや ゲプゅ∠ ク ͡ ボ͡ ͡ ギ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡ ホ∠ ͡ グ ͡ ͡ ビ び ゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヮ∇Βャま ヲワ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι メ∇ヲトャや ⊥ ダ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ͡ z
(Ha Mim. ` Ain Sin Qaf. Likewise Allah, t he Almight y, t he Wise sends revelat ion t o you (O Muhammad ) as (He sent revelat ion t o) t hose before you.) (42:1-3). There are several ot her Ayat t hat t est ify t o what we have ment ioned above, and Allah knows best .

び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャクぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠
(2. That is Book in which t here is no Rayb, guidance for t he Mut t aqin).

There is no Doubt in the Qur'an
The Book, is t he Qur'an, and Rayb means doubt . As-Suddi said t hat Abu Malik and Abu Salih narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas, and Murrah Al-Hamadani narrat ed from Ibn Mas` ud and several ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah t hat ,

びヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ιぴ ͡ プ∠ ∠ ∠
(In which t here is no Rayb), means about which t here is no doubt . Abu Ad-Darda', Ibn ` Abbas, Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Nafi` ` At a', Abu Al-` Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muqat il bin Hayyan, As-Suddi, Qat adah and Isma` il bin Abi Khalid said similarly. In addit ion, Ibn Abi Hat im said, "I do not know of any disagreement over t his explanat ion.'' The meaning of t his is t hat t he Book, t he Qur'an, is wit hout a doubt revealed from Allah. Similarly, Allah said in Surat As- Saj dah,

び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク - ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠
(Alif Lam Mim). The revelat ion of t he Book (t his Qur'an) in which t here is no doubt , is from t he Lord of all t hat exist s) (32:1-2). Some scholars st at ed t hat t his Ayah - 2:2 - cont ains a prohibit ion meaning, "Do not doubt t he Qur'an.'' Furt hermore, some of t he recit ers of t he Qur'an pause upon reading,

びょ∇Αケ Ιぴ ∠ ∠ ∠

(t here is no doubt ) and t hey t hen cont inue;

びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ
(in which t here is guidance for t he Mut t aqin (t he pious and right eous persons)). However, it is bet t er t o pause at ,

びヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ιぴ ͡ プ∠ ∠ ∠
(in which t here is no doubt ) because in t his case,

びン⇔ ワぴ ギ⊥
(guidance) becomes an at t ribut e of t he Qur'an and carries a bet t er meaning t han,

びン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ぴ ギ⊥ ͡ プ
(in which t here is guidance).

Guidance is granted to Those Who have Taqwa
Hidayah - correct guidance - is only grant ed t o t hose who have Taqwa - fear of Allah. Allah said,

Ι リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ン⇔ ワ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ヲワ ∇モホぴ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ ¬ ヘセヱ ギ⊥ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヴ⇔ ハ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ヲワヱ ∀ ∇ホ∠ ∇ユヰルや∠ や∠ ヴ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ヨ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲ ヱ ͡ ͡ ク ¬ プ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ びギΒ͡ よ ラゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ラ∇ヱキゅ∠ Α マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ∃ バ∠ ∃ ムz ョ ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥
(Say: It is for t hose who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for t hose who disbelieve, t here is heaviness (deafness) in t heir ears, and it (t he Qur'an) is blindness for t hem. They are t hose who are called from a place far away (so t hey neit her list en nor underst and)) (41:44), and,

るヨ∇ェケヱ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ヲワ ゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや リョ メあ レルヱぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヘセ ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ∠ び や⇔ ゅ∠ カ Ιま リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ギΑ͡ Α Ιヱ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ケ ジ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ

Qat adah said t hat . t he Qur'an. and a healing for t hat (disease of ignorance. means. hypocrisy and differences) which is in your breast s. e. They also hope in Allah's mercy by believing in what He revealed.(And We send down of t he Qur'an t hat which is a healing and a mercy t o t hose who believe (in Islamic Monot heism and act on it ). j ust as Allah said. This is a sample of t he numerous Ayat indicat ing t hat t he believers. ∇ユムよケ リz るヌハ∇ヲョ ∇ユム∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ギホ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Α∠∠ ぴ ⊥ あ z ョ ∀ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠ ⊥ レ ヰぁ ほΑ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ るヨ∇ェケヱ ン⇔ ワヱ ケヱ⊥ ダャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ャ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ͡ ギぁ プ ヨあ ¬ ヘセヱ び (O mankind! There has come t o you a good advice from your Lord (i.'' Furt her. a light for t hose who have Taqwa. びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ (guidance for t he Mut t aqin (t he pious and right eous persons). That is because t he Qur'an is it self a form of guidance. which would result if t hey abandoned t he t rue guidance t hat t hey recognize and know. "Those who fear Allah's punishment . in part icular. doubt . The Meaning of Al-Muttaqin Ibn ` Abbas said about . "They are t he believers who avoid Shirk wit h Allah and who work in His obedience. a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful t hings) for t he believers) (10:57). . and it increases t he Zalimin (wrongdoers) in not hing but loss) (17:82).'' Ibn ` Abbas also said t hat Al-Mut t aqin means. Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah said. but t he guidance in it is only grant ed t o t he right eous. びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ (guidance for t he Mut t aqin) t hat it means. びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ (Al-Mut t aqin). enj oining all t hat is good and forbidding all t hat is evil). benefit from t he Qur'an. are t hose whom Allah has described in His st at ement .

for him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) t o lead him (t o t he right pat h)) (18:17).びりヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱ ょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz (Who believe in t he Ghayb and perform t he Salah) (2:3). びろ∇らら∇ェぺ ∇リョ ン͡ ∇ヰゎ Ι マルまぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ z͡ (Verily. you (O Muhammad ) guide not whom you like) (28:56). he is t he right ly guided.'' There are Two Types of Hidayah (Guidance) Huda here means t he fait h t hat resides in t he heart . . ゅ∠ゅ∠ ネギΑ ヴz ェ リΒ͡ zヨ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ Α ∇ラぺギ∇らバ∇ャや ヒヤ∇らΑ ゅ∠» ャ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∠ ボわ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ム∠ ∠⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ «サ∇ほよ ヮよ ゅz ョ や⇔ グェ ヮよ サ∇ほよ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ͡ ケ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ (The servant will not acquire t he st at us of t he Mut t aqin unt il he abandons what is harmless out of fear of falling int o t hat which is harmful. び∇ユワや∠ ワ マ∇Βヤハ ザ∇Βャぴ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z (Not upon you (Muhammad ) is t heir guidance) (2:272). びヮャ ヵキゅ∠ Κプ ヮヤャや モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ぴ ⊥∠ ∠ ͡ ワ ∠ ∠ ⊥z ͡ ͡ ⊥ ョ (Whomsoever Allah sends ast ray. Also.) At -Tirmidhi t hen said "Hasan Gharib. ヮャ ギイゎ リ∠プ ∇モヤ∇ツΑ リ∠ ヱ ギわ∇ヰヨ∇ャや ヲヰプ ヮzャや ギ∇ヰΑ リ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ョ びや⇔ セ∇ゲョ ゅ6 ャヱ ギ͡ ぁ Β͡∠ (He whom Allah guides. and t he following Ayat . and t his is t he correct view. At -Tirmidhi and Ibn Maj ah narrat ed t hat ` At iyah As-Sa` di said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. Ibn Jarir st at ed t hat t he Ayah (2:2) includes all of t hese meanings t hat t he scholars have ment ioned. but he whom He sends ast ray. Allah said. and. and only Allah is able t o creat e it in t he heart of t he servant s. none can guide him) (7:186).

and t o every people t here is a guide) (13:7). Also.) (90:10) This is t he view of t he scholars who said t hat t he t wo ways refer t o t he pat hs of right eousness and evil. We showed and made clear t o t hem t he pat h of t rut h (Islamic Monot heism) t hrough Our Messenger (i.'' Ubayy said.Huda also means t o explain t he t rut h. Allah said. びキゅ∠ ュ∇ヲホ モムャヱ ∀ ͡ レ⊥ ろル∠ べ∠ ルまぴ ∃ ワ ∃ ∠ あ ⊥ ͡∠ ケグ ョ ∠ ぺ ヨz ͡ (You are only a warner. you (O Muhammad ) are indeed guiding (mankind) t o t he st raight pat h (i.'' Ubayy said. Ubayy said. which is also t he correct explanat ion.e. び リΑ∠ ∇イレャや ヮ⇒∠ ∇Αギワヱぴ ͡ ギ z ⊥ レ ∠∠ ∠ (And shown him t he t wo ways (good and evil). "I rolled up my sleeves and st ruggled. Meaning of Taqwa The root meaning of Taqwa is t o avoid what one dislikes. Allah. びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ン͡ ∇ヰわャ マルまヱぴ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ (And verily. And Allah knows best . give direct ion and lead t o it . but t hey preferred blindness t o guidance) (41:17). Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism)) (42: 52). said. and. "Yes.'' びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz . "What did you do t hen'' He said. "Have you ever walked on a pat h t hat has t horns on it '' ` Umar said. showed t hem t he way of success). It was report ed t hat ` Umar bin AlKhat t ab asked Ubayy bin Ka` b about Taqwa. t he Exalt ed.e. "That is Taqwa. t est ifying t o t his meaning. ヴ∠ハ ヴ∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヲぁ エわ∇シゅ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Αギヰプ キヲ⊥ を ゅz ぺヱぴ ヤ∠ ヨ∠ ら∠ ∠ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ョ∠∠ びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ギ⊥ (And as for Thamud.

However. and it is used t o mean t hat somet imes in t he Qur'an. びろ⇒∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや Ιまぴ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz z ͡ (Save t hose who believe (in Islamic Monot heism) and do right eous deeds) (95:6). deeds. Hence. such as Allah said. t he word Iman is somet imes ment ioned along wit h deeds. The Meaning of Iman Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi said t hat Al-` Ala' bin Al-Musayyib bin Rafi` narrat ed from Abu Ishaq t hat Abu Al-Ahwas said t hat ` Abdullah said. and t rust s (yu'minu) in t he believers. "The prefered view is t hat t hey be described as having fait h in t he Unseen by t he t ongue. Ma` mar said t hat Az-Zuhri said. . t hey fear (Allah). when Iman is used in an unrest rict ed manner. Ibn Jarir (At -Tabari) comment ed. In t his case. for inst ance. deed and creed. びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ (who have fait h) means t hey t rust .We should st at e here t hat Iman increases and decreases.'' In addit ion.) (9: 61) Prophet Yusuf's brot hers said t o t heir fat her. means. "Iman is t he deeds.(3. and realizing t his affirmat ion t hrough adhering t o t he implicat ions of what t he t ongue ut t ers and affirms. and st at ement s of t he t ongue. Allah t he Exalt ed said. in t he absolut e sense. His Books and His Messengers.'' Linguist ically. ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. "Iman is t o t rust . Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi said t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat . びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ リョ∇ぽΑヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョ∇ぽΑぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ (He t rust s (yu'minu) in Allah. Iman merely means t rust . which necessit at es following deeds of t he t ongue by implement at ion. fear of Allah is included in t he general meaning of Iman.''. Also. Iman is a general t erm t hat includes affirming and believing in Allah. びリΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ゅz ミ ∇ヲャヱ ゅ∠ ャ リョ∇ぽヨよ ろル∠ べ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ホ ͡ タ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ レz ∃ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ぺ ョ ∠ (But you will never believe us even when we speak t he t rut h) (12:17). it includes beliefs. Furt her. ` They have fait h'.Those Who have fait h in t he Ghayb).

"We were sit t ing wit h ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud when we ment ioned t he Companions of t he Prophet and t heir deeds being superior t o our deeds. For inst ance. His angels. indicat ing t he same general meaning. び ょΒ͡ ョ ょ∇ヤボよ ¬べ∠ ヱ ょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヴゼカ ∇リョぴ ∃ レぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ィ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ヨ z ∠ ͡ ∠ z (Who feared t he Most Gracious (Allah) in t he Ghayb (unseen) and brought a heart t urned in repent ance (t o Him and absolut ely free from every kind of polyt heism)) (50: 33). t he Last Day. The Meaning of Al-Ghayb As for t he meaning of Ghayb here. and. For inst ance. びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ よケ ラ∇ヲゼ∇ガΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ ∠ よ ヰz ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ (Verily.' He t hen recit ed. all favors are from Allah. Allah said.e. j ust as Allah t he Exalt ed said. They also believe in life aft er deat h and in Resurrect ion. . no person will ever acquire a bet t er t ype of fait h t han believing in Al-Ghayb. t he Salaf have different explanat ions of it . Fear is t he core of Iman and knowledge. nor His punishment in t he Hereaft er)) (67:12). i びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑぴ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ((Those who) have fait h in t he Ghayb).'' Qat adah bin Di` amah said similarly. Fire and in t he meet ing wit h Him. All of t his is t he Ghayb. "They believe in Allah. t hose who fear t heir Lord unseen (i. all of which are correct . t hey do not see Him. report ing from Abu Al-` Aliyah about Allah's st at ement . By He ot her t han Whom t here is no God. ` Abdullah said. His Paradise. Messengers. Some scholars explained t hat Iman means Khashyah (fear of Allah). Books. び¬ゅ∠ ヤバ∇ャや ロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ヴ∠ ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ルまぴ ⊥ ヨ∠⊥ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ z ゼ ∠ ヨz ͡ (It is only t hose who have knowledge among His servant s t hat fear Allah) (35:28).There are many narrat ions and Hadit hs on t his subj ect . and we discussed t hem in t he beginning of our explanat ion of Sahih Al-Bukhari. ` The mat t er of Muhammad was clear for t hose who saw him. Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi quot ed Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Sa` id bin Mansur report ed from ` Abdur-Rahman bin Yazid who said.

t en people including Mu` adh bin Jabal. from Salih bin Jubayr who said: ` Abu Jumu` ah Al-Ansari. unt il. When he was about t o leave. Once we had lunch wit h t he Messenger of Allah .' He said. Ibn Marduwyah and Al-Hakim. Ahmad recorded a Hadit h wit h similar meaning from Ibn Muhayriz who said: I said t o Abu Jumu` ah. bringing you t he revelat ion from heaven There are people who will come aft er you and who will be given a book . "O Messenger of Allah! Are t here people who will acquire great er rewards t han us We believed in Allah and followed you. a guidance for t he Mut t aqin. I will narrat e a Hadit h for you t hat I heard from t he Messenger of Allah. and may Allah grant you mercy. we went out t o greet him. "We were wit h t he Messenger of Allah.did not collect it . t hose who will come aft er you.)'' This Hadit h has anot her rout e collect ed by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah in his Tafsir. so when Abu Jumu` ah finished.' He said. This is t he Book. Abu ` Ubaydah. t he Companion of t he Messenger of Allah . '' We said. '' Ibn Abi Hat im. said. who was wit h us. Those who believe in t he Ghayb). びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘヨ∇ャやぴ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ (t he successful). while t he Messenger of Allah is among you. Al-Hakim comment ed t hat t his Hadit h is aut hent ic and t hat t he Two Shaykhs .リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク . wherein t here is no doubt .ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ びょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz (Alif Lam Mim. Raj a' bin Haywah was wit h us. «ヶ͡ ∇ヱゲΑ ∇ユャヱ ヶ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ∇ユミギ∇バよ ∇リョ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∇ユバル» ル ∠ ∠ ∠∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ュ ホ ∠ ∠ (Yes. "Do so. in his Must adrak. ` O Messenger of Allah! Are people bet t er t han us We embraced Islam wit h you and performed Jihad wit h you. "Narrat e a Hadit h for us t hat you heard from t he Messenger of Allah. I will narrat e a good Hadit h for you.'' He said. We said.'' He said. "You have a gift and a right . who will believe in me alt hough t hey did not see me.AlBukhari and Muslim . "Yes. came t o Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) t o perform t he prayer. recorded t his Hadit h. alt hough it meet s t heir crit eria. he said. ∇ユミゲヰ∇ニぺ リ∇Βよ ぶや メヲ⊥ ケヱ マャク ∇リョ ∇ユムバレ∇ヨΑ ゅ∠ » ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ シ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ほΑ ∇ユミギ∇バよ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∇モよ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ジャや リョ ヶ∇ェヲ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ユムΒ͡ ∇ほΑ ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ュ ホ ∠ ¬ ヨz ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ゎ ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ラヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑヱ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リ∇Βェ∇ヲャ リ∇Βよ ∇リョ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ヨよ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゆ わミ «リ∇Βゎゲョ や⇔ ∇ィぺ ∇ユム∇レョ ユヌ∇ハぺ マゃャヱ⊥ ∩͡ Β͡ ∠z ∠ ゲ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヮ プ (What prevent s you from doing so.

They have a great er reward t han you.'' As-Suddi said t hat Abu Malik and Abu Salih narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas. This was before t he obligat ion of Zakah was revealed.'' Qat adah said. It includes singling Him out for one's devot ion. and it displays one's dependence upon Him. Prayer is a right of Allah as well as a form of worshipping Him.'' In many inst ances. This is Iqamat As-Salah. and t hose people most deserving of t his charit y are t he relat ives. t he wife. invoking Him. Unt il t he obligat ion of charit y was revealed in t he seven Ayat of Surat Bara'ah (chapt er 9). and t hey will believe in it and implement it s commands. and complet ing t he bowings. recit at ion of t he Qur'an.bet ween t wo covers (t he Qur'an). These abrogat ed t he previous case. as well as complet ing ones purit y for it .)'' びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅヨョヱ りヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱぴ ∠ ボ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ (And perform Salah. "Iqamat As-Salah means t o preserve punct ualit y. Spending is form of kindness t owards creat ures by giving t hem what will benefit t hem. and t he ablut ion. means. "A man's spending on his family. and prost rat ions of t he prayer. Allah ment ioned prayer and spending wealt h t oget her.'' Muqat il bin Hayyan said Iqamat As-Salah means "To preserve punct ualit y for it . even t wice as much. supplicat ing t o Him.'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. "The Zakah due on t heir wealt h. glorifying Him. as well as Murrah from Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah . "General spending (in charit y) was a means of drawing nearer t o Allah. "Iqamat As-Salah means t o complet e t he bowings. びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ぴ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (And spend out of what We have provided for t hem) means. bowings. prost rat ions. recit at ion. "Perform t he prayer wit h all of t he obligat ions t hat accompany it . びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ぴ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (And spend out of what We have provided for t hem) means. t he . and spend out of what we have provided for t hem) Meaning of Iqamat As-Salah Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . praising Him. Tashahhud and blessings for t he Prophet . t hat . humbleness and at t endance for t he prayer. according t o one's discret ion and capabilit y. びりヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱぴ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ (And perform t he Salah).'' The Meaning of "Spending'' in this Ayah Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. prost rat ions. were revealed.'' Juwaybir narrat ed from Ad-Dahhak.

In religious t erminology.servant s and t hen t he rest of t he people. giving Zakah. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Ibn ` Umar said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. リ͡ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ョ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ びマヤ∇らホ ∠ ͡∠ . And who have fait h in what is revealed t o you and in what was revealed before you. Salah is used t o refer t o t he act s of bowing and prost rat ion. wit h t hose known condit ions. and in t he Hereaft er t hey are cert ain. specificed at cert ain t imes. est ablishing t he prayer. t he basic meaing of Salah is supplicat ion. t he remaining specified act s associat ed wit h it . びラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ぴ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (And spend out of what we have provided for t hem). So all t ypes of required charit y and required spending are included in Allah's saying. ぶや ゅzま ヮャ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ラぺ りキゅ∠ セ :ザ∇ヨカ ヴ∠ハ ュゅ∠∇シみ∇ャや ヶレよ» ⊥ ャ͡ ∠ ま ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ¬ゅ∠ Α͡ヱ ∩͡ ゅ∠ダャや ュゅ∠ まヱ ∩͡ や メヲ⊥ ケ やギヨエョ ラぺヱ ͡ わ ま∠ り ヤz ͡ ホ͡∠ ぶ ⊥ シ∠ ⇔ z ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ «ろ∇Βら∇ャや アェヱ ∩∠ ゅ∠ ョケ ュ∇ヲタヱ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ゴャや ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ラ ツ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ り ミz (Islam is built upon five (pillars): Test ifying t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah and t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah. fast ing Ramadan and Haj j t o t he House. and t he charact erist ics. The Meaning of Salah In t he Arabic language.) Ibn ` Abbas said t hat .) There are many ot her Hadit hs on t his subj ect . リ͡ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ョ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ∇ユワ りゲカ∇Εゅ͡ ヱ マヤ∇らホ ∠ レ͡ Α ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (4. and requirement s t hat are well-known about it .

. and t he Book (t he Qur'an) which He has revealed t o t he Messenger. For inst ance.) means. t he st anding (on t he Day of Resurrect ion). t wo describe t he disbelievers. The Hereaft er is so named because it comes aft er t his eart hly life. Paradise. and t hirt een describe t he hypocrit es. nor do t hey rej ect what t hey brought from t heir Lord. "They believe in what Allah sent you wit h. whet her an Arab. Attributes of the Believers The people described here (2:4) are t hose whom Allah described in t he preceding Ayah. t he Fire. and in what t he previous Messengers were sent wit h. t his is not correct wit hout t hat . All of t hese at t ribut es complement each ot her and require t he exist ence of t he ot her at t ribut es. performs t he prayer and gives Zakah wit hout believing in what t he Messenger of Allah and t he previous Messengers were sent wit h. t he reckoning and t he t he Scale t hat weighs t he deeds (t he Mizan). ヮャヲ⊥ ケヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ レ͡ ¬ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α ン͡ ャや ͡ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ャや∠ ヮャヲ⊥ ケ ヴ∠ハ メゴル ン͡ ャや ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや∠ グz ょ わム ヱ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z ∠ グz ͡ わ͡ ヱ びモ∇らホ リ͡ メゴ∠ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ル∠ (O you who believe! Believe in Allah. and spend out of what we have provided for t hem.) Muj ahid once st at ed. ゅz ョヱ りヲヤz ャや ラヲ⊥ Β͡ Αヱ ょ∇Βピ∇ャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ヨ͡ ∠ ∠ ダ ∠ ヨ ボ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz び ラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ∠ ボ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ (Those who have fait h in t he Ghayb and perform Salah. whet her t hey are Jinns or humans. The same wit h cert aint y in t he Hereaft er. or a person of a previous Script ure. "Four Ayat at t he beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah describe t he believers. non-Arab.(And who have fait h in what is revealed t o you and in what was revealed before you. and His Messenger.'' The four Ayat ment ioned in t his st at ement are general and include every believer. for Allah has commanded t he believers. it is not possible t hat one believes in t he Unseen. t hey do not dist inguish bet ween (believing) t hem. and t he Book which He sent own t o t hose before (him)) (4:136).'' びラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ∇ユワ りゲカ∇Εゅ͡ ヱぴ ∠ レ͡ Α ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ∠ (And in t he Hereaft er t hey are cert ain) t hat is t he resurrect ion.

リジ∇ェぺ ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ Ιま ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇やヲ⊥ギ⇒∠ ゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ わz よ z ͡ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ イ⊥ ∠ ∠ メゴル⊥ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ∠ ͡ ぺ グz よ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz z ͡ び∀ ͡ や∠ ∇ユムヰ⇒∠まヱ ゅ∠ ヰ⇒∠まヱ ∇ユム∇Βャま メゴル⊥ヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま ギェ ヱ ⊥ ⊥ ャ͡∠ レ⊥ ャ͡∠ ⊥ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ∠ レ ∠͡ (And argue not wit h t he People of t he Book. Also. ヮよケ リ͡ ヮ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ͡ メヲ⊥ ゲャや リョや∠ ぴ ͡ あz ョ ͡ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨよ ⊥ シz ∠ ∠ ¬ ヮらわミヱ ヮわムゃ⇒∠ョヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ モミ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ x ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ヱ びヮヤシケ リあ ギェぺ リ∇Βよ ベあ ヘル Ι ヮヤシケヱ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ぁ ョ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (The Messenger (Muhammad ) believes in what has been revealed t o him from his Lord. ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや べ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ レ z ル ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ヰ ぁ ∠ Α び∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅホあ ダョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⇔ ギ ∠ ⊥ (O you who have been given t he Book (Jews and Christ ians)! Believe in what We have revealed (t o Muhammad ) confirming what is (already) wit h you) (4:47). unless it be in (a way) t hat is bet t er. and. Allah)') (29:46).e. our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i. and (so do) t he believers. t he Inj il (Gospel). His Angels. and say (t o t hem): "We believe in t hat which has been revealed t o us and revealed t o you. His Books.) "We make no dist inct ion bet ween any of His Messengers'') (2: 285). . and His Messengers. and. Each one believes in Allah. (They say. Allah t he Exalt ed described t he believers.'') (5:68). ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ゎ ヴz ェ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユわ∇ジャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワほ⇒∠ ∇モホぴ ヨ ボ⊥ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ Α ⊥ び∇ユムよケ リあ ∇ユム∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ⊥ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ イ Η ヱ ∠ ケ z (Say (O Muhammad ): "O People of t he Book (Jews and Christ ians)! You have not hing unt il you act according t o t he Tawrah (Torah). except wit h such of t hem as do wrong. and what has (now) been revealed t o you from your Lord (t he Qur'an).

ゅ∠ヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ グムゎ ゅ∠プ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇ユムをギェ や∠ ま» ャ∠ ⊥ よあ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴ∇ルぺ ヵ͡ ャゅ͡ ゅz ョへ :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ∇リムャ∠ ∇ユワヲ⊥ ギダゎ レ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ グz よ レ∠ ャ ホ ͡ ヱ ⊥ ホ͡ ∠ ⊥ «ユ⊥ ∇Βャま メゴ∇ルぺヱ ム ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ (When t he People of t he Book narrat e t o you. t hen t hey will get t wo rewards. ot her Muslims who have firmer Islamic fait h might gain an equal reward t hat compares t o t he t wo t he People of t he Book gain (upon embracing Islam). 'We believe in what was revealed t o us and what was revealed t o you. As for t he ot hers. neit her rej ect nor affirm what t hey say.') However. say. t he fait h t hat many Arabs have in t he religion of Islam as it was revealed t o Muhammad might be more complet e.ギェぺ リ∇Βよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ∇ユャヱ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ び∇ユヰ∇レョ ⊥ あ (And t hose who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no dist inct ion bet ween any of t hem (Messengers)) (4:152). . if t he believers in Islam among t he People of t he Book gain t wo rewards.) Guidance and Success are awarded to the Believers Allah said. encompassing and firmer t han t he fait h of t he People of t he Book who embraced Islam. since t hey believe in t heir Books and in all of t he det ails relat ed t o t hat . and t hey are t he successful. Therefore. Rat her. The fait hful among t he People of t he Book. For inst ance. t he Prophet st at ed. This is a sample of t he Ayat t hat indicat e t hat t he t rue believers all believe in Allah. so when such people embrace Islam and sincerely believe in t he det ails of t he religion. have a special significance here. His Messengers and His Books. And Allah knows best . They are on guidance from t heir Lord. ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺヱ ∇ユヰよケ リあ ン⇔ ワ ヴ∠ハ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ͡ あ z ョ ギ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ∠ エ͡ ⊥ (5. t hey can only believe in t he previous religious t eachings in a general way.

believe in what Allah has revealed t o t he Messenger and t he Messengers before him. Therefore. et ernal life in Paradise. and prepare t he necessary requirement s for t he Hereaft er by performing good deeds and avoiding t he prohibit ions. it is t he same t o t hem whet her you warn t hem or do not warn t hem. Allah t hen said. t hey will not believe. びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺヱぴ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ (And t hey are t he successful) meaning. t hose who disbelieve) meaning. and safet y from t he t orment t hat Allah has prepared for His enemies. ∇ユャ ∇ュぺ ∇ユヰゎ∇ケグル∠¬ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ へ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ¬ ヲシ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワ∇ケグレ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ -(6. t hose who disbelieve. believe in t he Hereaft er wit h cert aint y.ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろボェ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡ び ユΒ͡Ιや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱゲΑ ヴz ェ るΑや¬ ぁ ミ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∠ ャx ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠∠ . They shall have what t hey seek and be saved from t he evil t hat t hey t ried t o avoid. est ablish t he prayer. in t his world and t he Hereaft er. t hey are (following) a light .びマゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ∠ ͡ャ ⊥ (They are) refers t o t hose who believe in t he Unseen. . t hey will have rewards. guidance.) Allah said. び∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ (Verily. Similarly. t hey would st ill have disbelieved in what you were sent wit h. it does not mat t er if you (O Muhammad ) warn t hem or not . Since Allah has writ t en t hat t hey would do so. びン⇔ ワ ヴ∠ハぴ ギ⊥ ヤ∠ (On guidance) meaning. and have insight from Allah. spend from what Allah has grant ed t hem. Allah said. covered t he t rut h and hid it . Verily.

whoever among t hem accept s t he Message. About t he rebellious People of t he Book. will not believe. ∇ユャ ∇ュぺ ∇ユヰゎ∇ケグル∠¬ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ へ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ¬ ヲシ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワ∇ケグレ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ (Verily. Allah said.O Muhammad . Even if every sign should come t o t hem. び∀ Β͡ ヱ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや∠ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ろル∠ べ∠ ルまぴ モ ミ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ヱ ゲ グル ∠ ぺ ヨz ͡ (But you are only a warner. and whomever Allah direct s t o misguidance. t hey would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direct ion)) (2:5). So do not pit y t hem . for びゆゅ∠ エ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハヱ ヒ⇒∠ら∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ジ͡ レ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ (Your dut y is only t o convey (t he Message) and on Us is t he reckoning) (13: 40). do not feel sad for t hem or concerned about t hem. ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said about Allah's st at ement . and. And Allah is a Wakil (Disposer of affairs.'' . and none would st ray except t hose who Allah has decreed t o do so in t he first place.(Truly. Allah informed him t hat none would believe except for t hose whom He decreed happiness for in t he first place. ゅz るΑや∠ あ ムよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ろ∇Βゎぺ ∇リゃャヱぴ ョ ∃ ∠ ¬ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ びマわヤ∇らホ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ͡ ∠ (And even if you were t o bring t o t he People of t he Book (Jews and Christ ians) all t he Ayat . Guardian) over all t hings) (11:12). t hose who disbelieve. it is t he same t o t hem whet her you (O Muhammad ) warn t hem or do not warn t hem. Trust ee.deliver t he Message t o t hem. t hey will not believe) "That t he Messenger of Allah was eager for all t he people t o believe and follow t he guidance he was sent wit h. t hey shall never find anyone t o guide t hem t o happiness. As for t hose who t urn away in rej ect ion. he shall never find anyone t o guide him. t hen he shall gain t he best rewards. unt il t hey see t he painful t orment ) (10:96-97). t hose against whom t he Word (wrat h) of your Lord has been j ust ified. Cert ainly. These Ayat indicat e t hat whomever Allah has writ t en t o be miserable.

«マ͡ Α͡ ヴヤ∠ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇ろらを ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや ょヤボョ ゅ∠ » レ キ ハ レ∠ ヤ⊥ あ ∠ ͡ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ Α . びヮヤャや ユわカぴ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ (Khat ama Allah) means. "A st amp. Ibn Jurayj said.'' Al-Qurt ubi said. meaning a seal. "Shayt an cont rolled t hem when t hey obeyed him.meaning t he open palm. Theirs will be a great t orment ).'' Qat adah said t hat t his Ayah means. unt il he rolled up all of his fingers. "The st ain is not as bad as t he st amp. comprehend or underst and. It occurs when sin resides in t he heart and surrounds it from all sides. and on t heir eyes t here is a covering.' Muj ahid also said t hat t his is t he descript ion of t he Ran (refer t o 83:14). "Allah has sealed. as a punishment for t heir disbelief.'' Ibn Jurayj said t hat Muj ahid said. a part of t he heart will be rolled up' . t he heart will be sealed. Allah said. When t he servant commit s a sin.'' Al-A` mash said. In addit ion. When t he servant commit s anot her sin. "The Ummah has agreed t hat Allah has described Himself wit h sealing and closing t he heart s of t he disbelievers. (in which t he Prophet supplicat ed). t hat ` Abdullah bin Kat hir narrat ed t hat Muj ahid said.and he rolled up anot her finger. び∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮzャや ノらデ ∇モよぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ヰ ∠∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Nay. a part of t he heart will be rolled up . Similarly.and he rolled up his index finger. Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s and on t heir hearing. ` Then.'' He t hen ment ioned t he Hadit h about changing t he heart s. び∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ユわカぴ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s). ` They used t o say t hat t he heart is j ust like t his . Then he said. "Muj ahid demonst rat ed wit h his hand while saying. Therefore. hearing and sight .ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨシ ヴ∠ハヱ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮzャや ユわカぴ ヤハヱ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ ハ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャヱ ∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ユ ヌ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠∠ りヲ ゼビ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠ (7. Allah sealed t heir heart s. and t hey could neit her see t he guidance nor hear.'' Ibn Jurayj also said t hat t he seal is placed on t he heart and t he hearing. t he st amp is not as bad as t he lock which is t he worst t ype. Meaning of Khatama As-Suddi said t hat . and t his submersion of t he heart in sin const it ut es a st amp. Allah has set a seal upon t heir heart s because of t heir disbelief) (4:155).

The heart s will t herefore become t wo cat egories: whit e. ヶ͡ ¬や∠ ∇ヲシ るわ∇ムル ∇ろルゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ルク ょル∇クぺ や∠ ま リョぽ⊥ ∇ャや ラま» プ ∠ キ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ミ ら ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∠ ͡ ヨ z ͡ ∇ラまヱ ヮら∇ヤホ モボタ ょわ∇バわ∇シや∠ ネゴルヱ ゆゅ∠ ∇ラみプ ∩͡ ら∇ヤホ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ͡ ∠ ヮ͡ ∠ メゅ∠ ヵ͡ ャや ラやz ャや マャグ∠ ∩⊥ ら∇ヤホ ヲヤ∇バゎ ヴz ェ ∇れキや∠ キやコ ∠ ホ グz ⊥ ゲ ∠ ͡ プ ヮ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ わ∠ ∠ コ ∠ ∠ :ヴャゅ∠ ゎ ぶや バ∠ ⊥ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ラや∠ ∇モよ Κミぴ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ル ミ ョ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ケ ∠ z ∠ . Any heart t hat accept s t he Fit an. one aft er anot her. make our heart s firm on Your religion. j ust as t he cup t hat is t urned upside down. "The t rut h regarding t his subj ect is what t he aut hent ic Hadit h from t he Messenger of Allah st at ed. Any heart t hat rej ect s t he Fit an. t est s) are offered t o t he heart s. for t his heart does not recognize right eousness or renounce evil. in which t he Messenger of Allah said.) He also ment ioned t he Hadit h by Hudhayfah recorded in t he Sahih. j ust like t he barren rock. t hen a whit e dot will be engraved on it . や⇔ ヲ⊥ ゲΒ͡ エ∇ャゅ∠ ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ リわヘ∇ャや チゲ∇バゎ» キ ハ ͡ ダ∠ ミ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ¬や∠ ∇ヲシ ∀ ∠ ∇ムル ヮΒ͡ ろムル ゅ∠ ∠ ͡ ∇セぺ ょ∇ヤホ ヵほプ ∩や⇔ ヲ⊥ ⊥ キ ∠ る わ ⊥ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヰ よゲ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ キ ハ ヴわ∠ ¬ゅ∠ ∇Βよ ∀ ∠ ∇ムル ヮΒ͡ ろムル ゅ∠ ゲム∇ルぺ ょ∇ヤホ ヵぺヱ ェ ⊥ ツ ∠ るわ ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ワ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ぁ ∠∠ ゅ∠プ ∩ゅ∠ ダャや モ∇んョ ヂΒ∇よぺ ヴヤ∠ :リ∇Βら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ゲΒ͡ ゎ ヤ∠ ヘz ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ハ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ダ∠ ゲカべ∇ャや∠ チ∇ケほ∇ャや∠ れや∠ ヨジャや ろョや∠ ゅ∠ るレ∇わプ ロぁ ツゎ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ヲ∠ z ͡ ∠ キ ョ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ゅ⇔ ヱ⊥ ∇バョ フゲ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ガ∠ ョ コヲ⊥ ∇ャゅ∠ や6 ゅ∠ ∇ゲョ キヲ∇シぺ プ ゲ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ Βあ イ ⊥ ͡ ム ミ キ よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «や⇔ ム∇レョ ゲム∇レΑ ゅ∠ヱ ゲ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ∠ (The Fit an (t rials. ) Ibn Jarir said. Anot her cat egory is black. j ust as t he st raws t hat are sewn int o a woven mat . t hen a black dot will be engraved on it . no Fit nah shall ever harm t his cat egory as long as t he heavens and eart h st ill exist .(O You Who changes t he heart s. Abu Hurayrah narrat ed t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.

Allah said. and At -Tirmidhi said t hat it is Hasan Sahih. An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h.(When t he believer commit s a sin. In his Tafsir. Each of t he charact erist ics t hat Allah used t o described t hem wit h is a t ype of hypocrisy it self. Aft erwards. He also ment ioned t he hypocrit es in Surat An-Nur (24) and ot her Surahs. t he dot s will increase unt il t hey cover his heart . This is t he Ran (st ain) t hat Allah described. At -Tirmidhi. "So t hat t hey neit her underst and nor hear. Allah also said t hat He placed a covering on t heir sight . Allah ment ioned t heir descript ion in det ail. t he covering. び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ラや∠ ∇モよ Κミぴ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ル ミ ョ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ケ ∠ z ∠ (Nay! But on t heir heart s is t he Ran (st ain) which t hey used t o earn)'' (83:14). The Meaning of Ghishawah Recit ing t he Ayah. a black dot will be engraved on his heart . Since t he mat t er of t he hypocrit es is vague and many people do not realize t heir t rue realit y.'' The Hypocrites We ment ioned t hat four Ayat in t he beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah described t he believers. is appropriat ely placed on t he eyes. The t wo last Ayat (2:6-7) describe t he disbelievers. Allah revealed Surat Bara'ah (chapt er 9) and Surat Al-Munafiqun (chapt er 63) about t he hypocrit es. refrains and regret s. び∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ぴ りヲ ゼビ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠ ヤハヱ (And on t heir eyes t here is a Ghishawah (covering)) is accurat e. and so. meaning eyes. for t he st amp is placed on t he heart and t he hearing while t he Ghishawah. t hey do not see. び∇ユヰバ∇ヨシ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ユわカぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤハヱ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s and on t heir hearing). his heart will be polished again. び∇ユヰバ∇ヨシ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ユわカぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヤハヱ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah has set a seal on t heir heart s and on t heir hearing). . Allah begins t o describe t he hypocrit es who show belief and hide disbelief. If he repent s. t hen pausing. t hen cont inuing wit h. If he commit s more errors. so t hat t heir descript ion would be known and t heir ways and errors could be avoided. As-Suddi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud said about Allah's st at ement .

And of mankind. Nifaq has several t ypes: Nifaq in t he creed t hat causes it s people t o reside in Hell for et ernit y. They t ry t o deceive Allah and t hose who believe. "His act ual deeds are different from what he publicizes. along wit h many of t hose who were j ust like him. When t he bat t le of Badr t ook place. It was t hen t hat hypocrisy began in Al-Madinah and among t he surrounding nomad t ribes. Soon aft er.Aws and Khazraj . offspring and land. They used t o worship idols during t he preIslamic period of ignorance. as we will explain soon. since t hey emigrat ed willingly (seeking t he pleasure of Allah). he would be forced t o abandon all of his wealt h. They were about t o appoint him t heir king when t he Message reached Al-Madinah. t he Messenger of Allah migrat ed t o Al-Madinah. . when a Muslim would emigrat e from Makkah. t he Messenger of Allah conduct ed peace t reat ies wit h t he Jews and several ot her Arab t ribes around Al-Madinah. Three Jewish t ribes resided in Al-Madinah. (9. he would do so seeking Allah's reward in t he Hereaft er. while t hey only deceive t hemselves. t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey do not believe). Banu An-Nadir and Banu Qurayzah-allies of t he Aws. such as ` Abdullah bin Salam. Rat her t he opposit e was t he sit uat ion in Makkah. and during t he period of Jahiliyyah he was t he mast er of bot h t ribes . as well as many among t he People of t he Book. t he bat t le of Badr occurred and Allah gave vict ory t o Islam and it s people. j ust as t he rest of t he Arab idolat ors. Many members of t he Aws and Khazraj t ribes embraced Islam.'' So he pret ended t o be Muslim. Ibn Salul's heart was filled wit h hat red against Islam and it s people. t his is because t here were no hypocrit es in Makkah. he said. none of t hem were hypocrit es. "Allah's religion has become apparent . During t he early st age in Al-Madinah. Rat her.ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α .or agreement . only a few Jews embraced Islam. Allah willing. which is one of t he maj or sins. while t heir heart s concealed t heir fait h. Aft erwards. He was AlKhazraj 's chief. his ent rance and presence are not t he same as his exit and absence. and perceive (it ) not !) Meaning of Nifaq Nifaq means t o show conformit y . ` Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul was a leader in Al-Madinah.'' The Beginning of Hypocrisy The revelat ions about t he charact erist ics of t he hypocrit es were revealed in Al-Madinah. Banu Qaynuqa` -allies of Al-Khazraj . and many in Al-Madinah embraced Islam. However. As for t he Emigrant s. t here weren't any hypocrit es because t he Muslims were not st rong enough t o be feared yet .リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ギ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ∠ ハ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (8.and t o conceal evil. Ibn Jurayj said of t he hypocrit e t hat . what he conceals is different from what he ut t ers. since some people were forced t o pret end t hat t hey were disbelievers. where t he Ansar from t he t ribes of Aws and Khazraj resided. On t he cont rary. and Nifaq in deed.

The hypocrit es emphasize t heir belief in Allah and t he Last Day wit h t heir words. ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ (And of mankind. when in realit y t hey are disbelievers. not because t hey act ually believe what t hey are saying. and. t hus saving t he believers from a great evil.) (63:1). ヮヤャや メヲ⊥ ゲャ マルま ギヰ∇ゼル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ポ¬べ∠ や∠ まぴ ͡ z ⊥ シ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ホ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ ィ ク͡ びヮャヲ⊥ ゲャ マルま ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや∠ ⊥ ⊥ シ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ (When t he hypocrit es come t o you (O Muhammad ). Allah st at ed t hat t he hypocrit es lie in t heir t est imony of creed. Allah said.'' This is how Abu Al-` Aliyah. t he believers might t hink t hat t he hypocrit es were believers. . ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ (And of mankind.The Tafsir of Ayah 2:8 Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . t hey say: "We bear wit ness t hat you are indeed t he Messenger of Allah. Qat adah and As-Suddi explained t his Ayah. To consider t he sinners as right eous people is ext remely dangerous. so t hat t he believers would not be deceived by t heir out er appearance. Therefore. This Ayah means t hat t he hypocrit es ut t er t hese st at ement s only when t hey meet you. Al-Hasan. j ust as Allah said. t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey do not believe) meaning. t hey ut t er t hese false st at ement s only wit h t heir t ongues. Allah revealed t he charact erist ics of t he hypocrit es. when t hat is not t he case in realit y. when He said. びラヲ⊥ グ⇒∠ ャ リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラま ギヰ∇ゼΑ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ∠ よ͡ ム∠ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ (And Allah bears wit ness t hat t he hypocrit es are indeed liars. Ot herwise.'' Allah knows t hat you are indeed His Messenger) (63:1). t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey do not believe) "This refers t o t he hypocrit es among t he Aws and Khazraj and t hose who behaved as t hey did.

and perceive (it ) not !) Allah st at ed t hat t he hypocrit es only deceive t hemselves by t his behavior. but it is He Who deceives t hem) (4:142).びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ (while in fact t hey believe not ) Allah said. t hey are liars!) (58:18). and t his is an indicat ion of t heir t ot al ignorance. び∇ユヰハキゅ∠ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ カ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ . Allah refut ed t heir way by saying. び∇ユヰハキゅ∠ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ カ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ (Verily. t hey will mislead Allah. Allah also said. alt hough t hey are unaware of t his fact . t hen t hey will swear t o Him as t hey swear t o you. Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Ibn Jurayj comment ed on Allah's st at ement . びやヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Αぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ (They t ry t o deceive Allah and t hose who believe). And t hey t hink t hat t hey have somet hing (t o st and upon). Also. or t hat t he st at ement s t hey ut t er will help t hem wit h Allah. The hypocrit es show belief out wardly while concealing disbelief. Allah said. j ust as it might deceive some of t he believers. Verily. t he hypocrit es t ry t o deceive Allah. They t hink t hat such behavior will deceive Allah. Similarly. They t hink t hat by doing t his. aHence. びラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ギ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ∠ ハ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (While t hey only deceive t hemselves. ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ヮャ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇エΒプ ゅバΒ͡ ィ ヮヤャや ユヰんバ∇らΑ ュ∇ヲΑぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ιぺ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰルぺ ラヲ⊥ ジ∇エΑヱ ∇ユムャ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ グ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ よ͡ ム (On t he Day when Allah will resurrect t hem all t oget her.

In t heir heart s is a disease and Allah has increased t heir disease. .''Sa` id said t hat Qat adah said. They t ry t o deceive Allah and t hose who believe. and perceive (it ) not !) "This is t he descript ion of a hypocrit e. and goes t o sleep in a different condit ion t han t he one he wakes up in.) The Meaning of ` Disease' in this Ayah As-Suddi narrat ed from Abu Malik and (also) from Abu Salih. Al-Hasan AlBasri. ` Ikrimah. he says t he t rut h wit h his t ongue and defies it wit h his heart and deeds. He is devious. Muj ahid. A painful t orment is t heirs because t hey used t o t ell lies. and (also) Murrah Al-Hamdani from Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions t hat t his Ayah.'' ∇ユヰャヱ ゅ⇔ ゲョ ヮzャや ユワキや∠ プ ∀ ∠ ョ ユ͡ ͡ ヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ッ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ チゲz ヰよ ヤ⊥ プ び ラヲ⊥ グ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∠ よ͡ ∠ ル ミ ヨよ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ (10. from Ibn ` Abbas. ` There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah' seeking t o ensure t he sanct it y of t heir blood and money.(Verily. t here are some who say: "We believe in Allah and t he Last Day'' while in fact t hey believe not . Abu Al-` Aliyah. びゅ⇔ ゲョ ヮzャや ユワキや∠ プぴ ッ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ (And Allah has increased t heir disease) also means ` doubt '. all t he while concealing disbelief. び∀ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ぴ チゲz ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ (In t heir heart s is a disease) means. He changes his mind j ust like a ship t hat moves about whenever a wind blows. He wakes up in a condit ion ot her t han t he one he goes t o sleep in. but it is He Who deceives t hem). while t hey only deceive t hemselves. ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam comment ed on. and.リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ワ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ギ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ∠ ハ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And of mankind. "The hypocrit es pronounce. t he hypocrit es seek t o deceive Allah. ゲカ∇Εや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ メヲ⊥ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ボ ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α . Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah also said similarly. ` doubt '.

びラヲ⊥ グ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よぴ ∠ よ͡ ∠ ル ミ ヨ͡ (Because t hey used t o t ell lies).'' He also recit ed. He increases t heir guidance and grant s t hem t heir piet y) (47:17). "A disease in t he religion. and t hey rej oice. increased t hem in shameful behavior. They planned t o excit e t he Prophet 's camel. The hypocrit es have t wo charact erist ics. j ust as t he earlier scholars st at ed. and it const it ut es a punishment t hat is compat ible t o t he sin. it will add disgrace t o t heir disgrace. it has increased t heir fait h. The scholars who st at ed t hat t he Prophet knew t he hypocrit es of his t ime have only t he Hadit h of Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman as evidence. びゅ⇔ ゲョ ヮzャや ユワキや∠ プぴ ッ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ (And Allah has increased t heir disease) meaning. . These hypocrit es plot t ed t o assassinat e t he Prophet during t he night on a hill in t hat area. In it t he Prophet gave him t he names of fourt een hypocrit es during t he bat t le of Tabuk. not a physical disease.'' This st at ement by ` Abdur-Rahman is t rue. ∇ユワヱ ゅレ⇒∠ Α͡ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや¬ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプぴ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヨ ま ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ レ∠ ∠ グ z ョ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∀ ∠ ョ ユ͡ よヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ぺヲルヱ⊥ ゼ∇らわ∇ジΑ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ チゲz ヰ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ び∇ユヰジ∇ィケ ヴ∠ま ゅ⇔ ∇ィケ ͡ ͡ ͡ ャ͡ ジ ͡ (As for t hose who believe. so t hat she would t hrow him down t he hill. Allah said. び ∇ユワや∠ ボゎ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ や∠ ヱ ン⇔ ワ ∇ユワキや∠ ∇や∇ヱギわ∇ワや リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ゎ ¬∠ ギ⊥ ⊥ ∠ コ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ (While as for t hose who accept guidance.び∀ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴプぴ チゲz ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ͡ (In t heir heart s is a disease).) (9:124-125) and comment ed. t hey lie and t hey deny t he Unseen. They are t he hypocrit es and t he disease is t he doubt t hat t hey brought t o Islam. Allah said next . Similarly. "Evil t o t heir evil and deviat ion t o t heir deviat ion. But as for t hose in whose heart s is a disease. Allah informed t he Prophet about t heir plot . and t he Prophet t old Hudhayfah t heir names.

モ∇ワぺ ∇リョヱ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ョ ゆや∠ ∇ハx や リョ ユ⊥ ャ∇ヲェ ∇リヨョヱぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ͡ ゲ Ι ∠ あ ム∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ リ∇エル ∇ユヰヨヤ∇バゎ Ι ベゅ∠ レャや ヴ∠ハ ∇やヱ⊥ ゲョ るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘz ヤ∠ キ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ ∠ び∇ユヰヨヤ∇バル ⊥⊥∠ ∠ (And among t he bedouins around you. We could have shown t hem t o you. Zayd bin Arqam t he Companion . but surely. and he used t o assume t hat some people possessed t hese charact erist ics. The most not orious hypocrit e at t hat t ime was ` Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul. Similarly. ∇ユヰ⇒∠ Β͡ よ ユ⊥ わ∇プゲバヤプ ∇ユヰム⇒∠ ∇ΑケΕ ¬べ∠ ル ∇ヲャヱぴ ⊥ ヨ ジ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゼ∠ ∠∠ びメ∇ヲボ∇ャや リ∇エャ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰレプゲ∇バわャヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ (Had We willed. who said. and. Accursed. We shall cert ainly let you overpower t hem. In addit ion. some are hypocrit es. and t hose in whose heart s is a disease. ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab once ment ioned t he mat t er of Ibn Salul t o t he Prophet .As for t he ot her hypocrit es. These Ayat prove t hat t he Prophet was not informed about each and everyone among t he hypocrit es of his t ime. We know t hem) (9:101). and you should have known t hem by t heir marks. Allah said. Rat her. and t hose who spread false news among t he people in Al-Madinah do not cease. and killed wit h a (t errible) slaught er) (33:60-61). you will know t hem by t he t one of t heir speech!) (47:30). ∀ ∠ ョ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ヮわレ∠ ∇ユャ リ͡ ャぴ チゲz ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α z ゃz Ι z を ∇ユヰよ マレΑゲ∇ピレャ るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヴ͡ ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲヨ∇ャや∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ∠ プ ∠ ヘ͡ ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ボを ゅ∠ レ∇Αぺ ∠ Β͡ ヲ⊥ ∇ヤョ . t he Prophet was only informed about t heir charact erist ics.ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま べ∠ Β͡ マルヱ⊥ ヱゅ∠ Α ヘ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ リ ル バ z ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ケ͡ イ⊥ び ΚΒ͡ ∇ボゎ ∇やヲ⊥わホヱ ∇やヱ⊥ カぺ ⇔ わ ∠ ヤ あ ⊥ ∠ グ͡ ⊥ (If t he hypocrit es. Allah said about t hem. and so are some among t he people of Al-Madinah who persist in hypocrisy. t hen t hey will not be able t o st ay in it as your neighbors but a lit t le while. you (O Muhammad ) know t hem not .gave t rut hful t est imony t o t hat effect . . t hey shall be seized wherever found.

It was recorded in t he Sahih t hat t he Prophet said. so I chose. t hen I would do t hat .) Yet . when Ibn Salul died. As-Suddi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud comment ed. And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h.) ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲャゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ⊥ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ラヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ι∠ . but t hey perceive not . t hey are t he ones who make mischief. t he Prophet said. t he Prophet performed t he funeral prayer for him and at t ended his funeral j ust as he used t o do wit h ot her Muslims. Verily.ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ム ャ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z ͡ ぺ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ Ι ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ z (11.) Meaning of Mischief In his Tafsir.'') (12.) In anot her narrat ion.モわ∇ボΑ や⇔ ヨエョ ラぺ ゆゲバ∇ャや ゐギエわゎ ∇ラぺ ロゲ∇ミぺ ヶあ ま» ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ギz ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ «ヮ∠ ゅ∠ ∇タぺ よエ ∠ (I would not like t he Arabs t o say t o each ot her t hat Muhammad is killing his Companions. .'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers. «れ∇ゲわ∇カゅ∠ れ∇ゲあ カ ヶあ ま» ∠ プ ⊥ Β⊥ ル͡ (I was given t he choice (t o pray for him or not ). ヮャ ゲヘ∇ピΑ リΒ͡ ∇らジャや ヴ∠ハ れ∇キコ ∇ヲャ ヶあ ぺ ユヤ∇ハぺ ∇ヲャ» ⊥∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ バ z ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ル∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ «れ∇キゴャ ͡∠ (If I knew t hat by asking (Allah t o forgive Ibn Salul) more t han sevent y t imes t hat He would forgive him.

he has commit t ed mischief on t he eart h. びチ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ιぴ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ("Do not make mischief on t he eart h''). t here will be t urmoil and oppression on t he eart h. Types of Mischief that the Hypocrites commit Ibn Jarir said.'') "They are t he hypocrit es.'' The st at ement by Ibn Jarir is t rue. means. Peace on bot h t he eart h and in t he heavens is ensured (and earned) t hrough obedience (t o Allah). The hypocrit es also lie t o t he believers by saying cont rary t o t he doubt and hesit at ion t heir heart s harbor. and support t hose who deny Allah.) (8:73).'' Abu Ja` far said t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Allah's st at ement . Their mischief is disobeying Allah. even t hough He does not accept a deed from anyone except wit h fait h in His religion and cert aint y of it s t rut h. Allah said. This is how t he hypocrit es commit mischief on eart h. In t his way Allah severed t he loyalt y bet ween t he believers and t he disbelievers. .'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah said similarly.''). while t hinking t hat t hey are doing right eous work on eart h. びチ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク ͡ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h. Similarly. if you do not do t his (help each ot her). Allah said. "Do not commit act s of disobedience on t he eart h. ロヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ Ιま ヂ∇バよ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑグzや∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ⊥ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ヱ び ∀ Β͡ ミ ∀ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ るレ∇わプ ∇リムゎ ゲ ら∠ キ ジプヱ ͡ x プ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ (And t hose who disbelieve are allies of one anot her. t aking t he disbelievers as friends is one of t he cat egories of mischief on t he eart h.ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ャ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h. t hat is disbelief and act s of disobedience. because whoever disobeys Allah on t he eart h. against Allah's loyal friends. They give as much aid as t hey can. As for. "The hypocrit es commit mischief on eart h by disobeying t heir Lord on it and cont inuing in t he prohibit ed act s. or commands t hat Allah be disobeyed. and great mischief.'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers. His Books and His Messengers. They also abandon what Allah made obligat ory and doubt His religion.

he confuses t he t rue believers. and t o have peace wit h bot h part ies. t he evil t hat result s from him would be less. Even bet t er. Allah said. If t he hypocrit e remains a disbeliever (rat her t han pret ending t o be Muslim). ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ャ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h. "We seek t o be friends wit h bot h part ies. because t hey deceive t he believers by claiming what t hey do not believe in. Hence. if t he hypocrit e becomes sincere wit h Allah and makes t he st at ement s t hat he ut t ers conform t o his deeds.'') meaning. and because t hey give support and loyalt y t o t he disbelievers against t he believers. ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ Ι ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ヨz ͡ ャ ホ ͡ ∠ プ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ダョ リ∇エル ∠ エ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ .'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. Since t he out ward appearance of t he hypocrit e displays belief. he will gain success. t he hyprocrit es will be in t he lowest dept h of t he Fire. t he believers and t he disbelievers.'' Similarly. リ∠ヱ ケゅz ャや リョ モヘ∇シΙや ポ∇ケギャや ヴ͡ リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ ャ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ x ͡ z プ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ び やゲΒ͡ ル ∇ユヰャ ギイゎ ⇔ ダ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Verily.¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∇やヱ⊥ ͡ わ∠ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ム グガz ゎ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ ゎぺ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ キ ョ び ゅレΒ͡ ョ ゅルゅ∠ ∇ヤシ ⇔ らぁ ⇔ ト ⊥ (O you who believe! Do not t ake disbelievers as Awliya' (prot ect ors or helpers or friends) inst ead of believers. no helper will you find for t hem) (4:145). Do you wish t o offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves) (4: 144). t he deceit ful behavior of t he hypocrit es is an act of mischief. Allah t hen said.

This is also t he Tafsir of Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. t hey are t he ones who make mischief. ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ サゅz ャや リョや∠ べ∠ ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ャ ホ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヨ∠ レ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ιぺ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや リョへ べ∠ ミ リョ∇ぽルぺ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ラ ヨヤ Α z ム ャ ∠ (13. Ibn Mas` ud and ot her Companions. et c. Allah used t he t erm foolish t o include children.) Allah said t hat if t he hypocrit es are t old.(And when it is said t o t hem: "Do not make mischief on t he eart h. when He said. according t o t he maj orit y of t he scholars. wit h a chain of narrat ion t o Ibn ` Abbas. '' Allah said. His Messengers. His angels. is it self mischief. Resurrect ion aft er deat h. t hey do not see it t o be mischief. . びサゅz ャや リョや∠ べ∠ ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ぴ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヨ∠ レ͡ ¬ ("Believe as t he people believe.'' t hey say: "We are only peacemakers. And when it is said t o t hem: Believe as t he people believe. following t he same pat h. and t heir claim t hat it is for peace. The hypocrit es said. "Us and t hem having t he same st at us. This Ayah means t hat t he hypocrit es' behavior. "We seek t o make amends bet ween t he believers and t he People of t he Book. And obey Allah and His Messenger by heeding t he commandment s and avoiding t he prohibit ions. び¬べ∠ ヘジャや リョへ べ∠ ミ リョ∇ぽルぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ("Shall we believe as t he fools have believed'') t hey meant (may Allah curse t he hypocrit es) t he Companions of t he Messenger of Allah .' Yet t he hypocrit es answer by saying. but t hey perceive not . This is why. ` Believe j ust as t he believers believe in Allah. This is t he same Tafsir given by Abu Al-` Aliyah and AsSuddi in his Tafsir.'' They say: "Shall we believe as t he fools have believed'' Verily. び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ Ι リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ラヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘヨ∇ャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ι∠ぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ z ム ャ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z͡ ぺ (Verily. t hey are t he fools. but t hey do not know.).'') means. simple-minded person who has lit t le knowledge in areas of benefit and harm. meaning. His Books. while t hey are fools!'' ` The fool' is t he ignorant . Paradise and Hellfire.''). alt hough in t heir ignorance.

Allah mocks at t hem and leaves t hem increasing in t heir deviat ion t o wander blindly. び¬べ∠ ヘジャや ユワ ∇ユヰルま Ιぺぴ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ z͡ ∠ ∠ (Verily.ラヱ⊥ ゴ∇ヰわ∇ジョ プ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ゴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ¬͡ ∠ ⊥ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ (14. t o t he foolish) (4:5). And when t hey meet t hose who believe. t hey say: "We believe.'' but when t hey are alone wit h t heir Shayat in (devils). Allah said here. and such sit uat ion is more dangerous. which Allah has made a means of support for you. Allah answered t he hypocrit es in all of t hese inst ances. Allah t hus affirmed t hat t he hypocrit es are indeed t he fools. Yet . and furt her from t he t rut h t han one who is aware. yet . Since t hey are so t horoughly ignorant .) The Hypocrites' Cunning and Deceit Allah said t hat when t he hypocrit es meet t he believers. They do t his t o misdirect .∇ユムャ ヮzャや モバィ ヴ͡ ャや ユムャヲ∇ョぺ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ぽゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ わz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ぁ ゎ ⊥ ∠∠ びゅヨ⇒∠ ホ ⇔ Β͡ (And do not give your propert y. t he hypocrit es are unaware of t heir degree of deviat ion and ignorance. t hey proclaim t heir fait h and pret end t o be believers. verily. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リ͡ ⇒∠ヱぴ ラ ヨヤ Α z ム ャ ∠ (But t hey know not ). mislead and deceive t he believers. The hypocrit es also want t o have a share of t he benefit s and gains t hat t he believers might possibly acquire. ∇や∇ヲヤカ や∠ まヱ ゅz ョや∠ やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ ∠∠ ク͡∠ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま ∇ユムバョ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇ユヰレΒ͡ ⇒∠ セ ヴャま ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ルま ャ ホ ͡ ͡ ト Β∠ ∠͡ ヶ͡ ∇ユワぁ ヨΑヱ ∇ユヰよ ¬ン͡ ∇ヰわ∇ジΑ ヮzャや . loyalist s and friends. t hey say: "Truly. we are wit h you. For inst ance. a severer case of blindness. t hey are t he fools).'') (15. we were but mocking. び∇ユヰレΒ͡ ⇒∠ セ ヴ∠ま ∇や∇ヲヤカ や∠ まヱぴ ͡ ͡ ト Β∠ ャ͡ ∠∠ ク͡∠ .

Allah said. .(But when t hey are alone wit h t heir Shayat in). "We (meaning t he hypocrit es) were mocking t he Companions of Muhammad. Human and Jinn Devils Ibn Jarir said. hypocrit es and idolat ors. meaning.'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah. we were but mocking). び∇ユムバョ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ルま ャ ホ (They say: "Truly. means. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah said similarly. we are wit h you''). びラヱ⊥ ゴ∇ヰわ∇ジョ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルまぴ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ (Verily. we only mock people (t he believers) and deceive t hem. ザ∇ルΗや リΒ͡ ⇒∠ セ やヱギハ ヴらル あ ムャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ト Β∠ ⇔∂ ⊥ ∠ y ͡ ͡ モ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ メ∇ヲボ∇ャや フゲ∇カコ ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ リイ∇ャや∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ェ Α あ ͡ ヱ びやケヱ⊥ ビ ⇔ ゲ⊥ (And so We have appoint ed for every Prophet enemies Shayat in (devils) among mankind and Jinn. The Meaning of ` Mocking Allah said. such as t heir leaders and mast ers among t he rabbis of t he Jews. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah means. we were but mocking). Allah's st at ement . "The devils of every creat ion are t he mischievous among t hem. There are bot h human devils and Jinn devils.'' Also. if t hey are alone wit h t heir devils. inspiring one anot her wit h adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of decept ion)) (6:112). "We are wit h you. びラヱ⊥ ゴ∇ヰわ∇ジョ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルまぴ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ (Verily. meaning.

"This. and it s like.) (57:13). Allah said. wit h a gat e t herein.'' He t hen said. alt hough t he meaning is different . Inside it will be mercy.∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ヶ͡ ∇ユワぁ ヨΑヱ ∇ユヰよ ¬ン͡ ∇ヰわ∇ジΑ ヮzャやぴ ͡͡Β ⊥ プ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ゴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ (Allah mocks at t hem and leaves t hem increasing in t heir deviat ion t o wander blindly) answers t he hypocrit es and punishes t hem for t heir behavior. "Allah ment ioned what He will do t o t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion. using t he same t erms t o describe bot h t he deed and it s punishment . and. ∀ ∇Β∠ ∇ユヰャ ヴ͡∇ヨル ゅ∠ ルぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや リらジ∇エΑ Ιヱぴ ゲ カ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びゅヨ∇をま ∇やヱ⊥ や∠ ∇ゴΒャ ∇ユヰャ ヴ͡∇ヨル ゅ∠ ルま ∇ユヰジヘル6 ⇔ ∠ ͡ キ キ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ヨz ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ Ι (And let not t he disbelievers t hink t hat Our post poning of t heir punishment is good for t hem. is Allah's mockery of t he hypocrit es and t he people of Shirk. We post pone t he punishment only so t hat t hey may increase in sinfulness. Similarly. ウヤ∇タぺヱ ゅ∠ ハ ∇リヨプ ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ るゃΒシ るゃΒシ ¬へ∠ ィヱぴ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヘ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ あ ∀ ∠ あ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ びヮヤャや ヴ∠ハ ロゲ∇ィほプ ͡ z ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ . ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ろ⇒∠ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや メヲ⊥ Α ュ∇ヲΑぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ⊥ ボ͡ レ⊥ ヱ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬へ∠ ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ィ∇ケや モΒ͡ ∇ユミケヲぁ リ͡ ∇ザらわ∇ボル ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ヌルや ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ バ͡ ∠ ホ ⊥ ͡ ル ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ ル ゲ⊥ ∀ ゅ∠ ヮz ケヲ⊥ よ ユ⊥ レ∇Βよ ゆゲツプ やケヲ⊥ ∇やヲジヨわ∇ャゅ∠ ゆ よ ⊥ ャ ∃ ジ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ル ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ び ゆや∠ ∠ ∇ャや ヮヤらホ リ͡ ロゲヰ⇒∠ ヱ るヨ∇ェz ャや ヮΒ͡ ヮレデゅ∠ ⊥ グバ ͡ ͡∠ ͡ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ニ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲ ͡ プ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ よ (On t he Day when t he hypocrit es men and women will say t o t he believers: "Wait for us! Let us get somet hing from your light !'' It will be said: "Go back t o your rear! Then seek a light !'' So a wall will be put up bet ween t hem. Ibn Jarir comment ed. and out side it will be t orment .) (3:178). when He said.'' The Hypocrites suffering for their Plots Allah st at ed t hat He will punish t he hypocrit es for t heir mockery.

. び∇ユワギヨΑヱぴ ⊥ ぁ ⊥ ∠∠ (and leaves t hem increasing) means. according t o t he consensus of t he scholars. but whoever forgives and makes reconciliat ion. cunning and mocking when at t ribut ed t o Allah in t he Qur'an. As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas.'' Allah said.) (23:55-56). but t hey perceive not . "The correct meaning of t his Ayah is ` We give t hem increase from t he view of giving t hem respit e and leaving t hem in t heir deviat ion and rebellion.リΒ͡ よヱ メゅz リ͡ ヮよ ∇ユワぁ ヨル ゅ∠ ルぺ ラヲ⊥ ジ∇エΑぺぴ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∃ ョ ョ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ギ͡ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼΑ Ι モ∠ れゲ∇Βガ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャ ネケゅ∠ ル ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ z よ ͡ ∠ ∠ プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ジ⊥ (Do t hey t hink t hat by t he wealt h and t he children wit h which We augment t hem. (That ) We hast en t o give t hem wit h good t hings. but as a j ust form of punishment for cert ain evil act s. Ibn Mas` ud and several ot her Companions of t he Messenger of Allah said t hat . Allah said. t ransgress likewise against him) (2:194). Meaning of ` Leaves them increasing in their deviation to wander blindly Allah said. while being different in realit y. びラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ヶ͡ ∇ユワぁ ヨΑヱぴ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ プ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Allah mocks at t hem and leaves t hem increasing in t heir deviat ion t o wander blindly). Allah exact s revenge for cert ain evil act s wit h a punishment t hat is similar in nat ure t o t he act it self. . He gives t hem respit e. Ibn Jarir comment ed. Muj ahid said. We should affirm here t hat Allah does not do t hese t hings out of j oyful play. and. びヮ∇Βヤハ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ハゅ∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ン∠ わ∇ハや リヨプぴ ͡ ∠∠ ギ∠ プ ⊥ ∠∠ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Then whoever t ransgresses (t he prohibit ion) against you. So bot h act ions carry t he same name.' Similarly. This is how t he scholars explain deceit . while t he second act is an act of j ust ice.(The recompense for an offense is an offense equal t o it . Also. "He (causes t heir deviat ion) t o increase. Nay. The first act is an act of inj ust ice. his reward is wit h Allah) (42:40). Surely.

'' Muj ahid said. This is because Allah has st amped t heir heart s. Therefore. び るΑケゅ∠ ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤヨェ ¬べ∠ ∇ャや ゅ∠ デ ゅz ∠ ゅz ͡ぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ イ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ ピ∠ ヨャ ルま (Verily.ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ∇ユャ ゅ∠ ミ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ∇ユヰゎギゃ∇プぺ ょあボルヱぴ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰルゅ∠ ∇ピデ ヴ͡ ∇ユワケグルヱ りゲョ メヱぺ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ z ∠ ∠ z ∠ (And We shall t urn t heir heart s and t heir eyes away (from guidance). And t hey were not guided. j ust as Allah said in anot her Ayah. Tughyan used in t his Ayah means t o t ransgress t he limit s. in t he Ayah means.'' while Qat adah said. "They pursued misguidance and abandoned guidance. and blinded t heir vision. '' (6:110). sealed t hem. We carried you in t he ship) (69:11). びラヲ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇ピデ ヶ͡ ぴ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β ⊥ プ (in t heir deviat ion t o wander).'' Qat adah's st at ement is similar in meaning t o Allah's st at ement about Thamud. As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Mas` ud comment ed on. when t he wat er Tagha (rose) beyond it s limit s. Also. Ibn Jarir said t hat t he t erm ` Amah. These are t hey who have purchased error wit h guidance. "They believed and t hen disbelieved. as t hey refused t o believe in it t he first t ime.'' ゅ∠ プ ン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ヨ∠ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ び リΑ͡ わ∇ヰョ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰゎゲ⇒∠ ゎ ろ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イあ エよケ (16. t hey do not recognize guidance or find t he way out of t heir deviat ion. ` deviat ion'. . He also said about Allah's st at ement . びン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (These are t hey who have purchased error wit h guidance) saying it means. and We shall leave t hem in t heir t respass t o wander blindly). so t heir commerce was profit less. causing t hem t o be confused and unable t o find a way out of it . "They preferred deviat ion t o guidance. "In t he misguidance and disbelief t hat has encompassed t hem.) In his Tafsir.

We grant ed t hem guidance. In addit ion. This meaning includes t hose who first believed. In summary. This meaning explains Allah's st at ement . Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Qat adah comment ed on t he Ayah. leaving safet y for fear. t he st at ement s t hat we have ment ioned from t he scholars of Tafsir indicat e t hat t he hypocrit es deviat e from t he t rue guidance and prefer misguidance. . び∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ∠ハ ノらトプ やヱ⊥ ヘミ z を やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルほよ マャクぴ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∂ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z ∠͡ ∠ ͡∠ (That is because t hey believed. but t hey preferred blindness t o guidance) (41:17). leaving t he Jama` ah (t he communit y of t he believers) for t he sect s. びン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (These are t hey who have purchased error wit h guidance). t hen lat er disbelieved. The Ayah also includes t hose who preferred deviat ion over guidance. And t hey were not guided). whom Allah described. meaning t heir t rade did not succeed nor were t hey right eous or right ly guided t hroughout all t his. びリΑ͡ わ∇ヰョ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰゎゲ⇒∠ ゎ ろ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イあ エよケ ヨ∠ (So t heir commerce was profit less. meaning. The hypocrit es fall int o several cat egories. subst it ut ing wickedness in place of right eousness. And t hey were not guided). びリΑ͡ わ∇ヰョ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰゎゲ⇒∠ ゎ ろ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イあ エよケ ヨ∠ (So t heir commerce was profit less. This is why Allah said.ヴ∠ハ ヴ∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヲぁ エわ∇シゅ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Αギヰプ キヲ⊥ を ゅz ぺヱぴ ヤ∠ ヨ∠ ら∠ ∠ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ョ∠∠ びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ギ⊥ (And as for Thamud. and t he Sunnah for innovat ion.'' Ibn Abi Hat im also report ed ot her similar st at ement s. "By Allah! I have seen t hem leaving guidance for deviat ion. and t hen disbelieved. t herefore t heir heart s are sealed) (63:3). t hey exchanged guidance t o buy misguidance.

This is why he cannot ret urn t o t he st at e t hat he was in before t his happened t o him. Their likeness is as t he likeness of one who kindled a fire. び∇ユワケヲ⊥ よ ヮzャや ょワクぴ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Allah removed t heir light ) means.∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∇らΑ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヴ ⊥ ユ ⊥ x ⊥ ラ ゲダ ⊥ (17. t o t he example of a person who st art ed a fire. t ot al darkness covered t his person. t he person benefit ed from it and felt safe. In addit ion. びユタぴ x⊥ . j ust as Allah st at ed in ot her part s of t he Qur'an. Furt her. and He left t hem wit h what harms t hem. Allah said. When t he fire was lit .ゅ∠ ∇れ¬ゅ∠ ぺ べz ヤプ やケゅ∠ ギホ∇ヲわ∇シや ン͡ ャや モんヨミ ∇ユヰヤんョぴ ョ ∠ ッ∠ ヨ∠∠ ⇔ ル ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ Ι ろ⇒∠ ヤニ ヶ͡ ∇ユヰミゲゎヱ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ よ ヮヤャや ょワク ヮャ∇ヲェ z ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ Ι ∇ユヰプ ∀ ∇ヨハ ∀ ∇ムよ ユタ . t he darkness and smoke. Allah removed what benefit s t hem. t his person could not hear or speak and became so blind t hat even if t here were light . and illumnit at ed t he surrounding area. and t his is t he light . t hen disbelieved. Such is t he case wit h t he hypocrit es who preferred misguidance over guidance. disbelief and hypocrisy. びろ⇒∠ ヤニ ヶ͡ ∇ユヰミゲゎヱぴ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And left t hem in darkness). when it illuminat ed all around him. (18. he would not be able t o see. They are deaf. t hey are unable t o find t he correct pat h or find it s direct ion. t hat is. (So) t hey could not see). t hen. t hus acquiring ut t er blindness. Allah removed t heir light and left t hem in darkness. and blind. t hey are. t hat is t heir doubt s. dumb. deviat ion over right eousness.) The Example of the Hypocrites Allah likened t he hypocrit es when t hey bought deviat ion wit h guidance. so t hey ret urn not (t o t he right pat h). Allah's st at ement . Therefore. and he became unable t o see anyt hing or find his way out of it . Then t he fire was suddenly ext inguished. びラヱ⊥ ダ∇らΑ Ιぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ z ((So) t hey could not see) meaning. This parable indicat es t hat t he hypocrit es first believed.

He could have t aken away t heir hearing and t heir sight . Or like a rainst orm in t he sky. t hey st and st ill. ベ∇ゲよヱ ギ∇ハケヱ ∀ ⇒∠ ヤニ ヮΒ͡ ¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ろ ヨ⊥⊥ ͡ プ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ペハヲダャや リョ ユ͡ ルや∠ や∠ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰバら⇒∇タぺ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑ ͡ ͡ ∠z ∠ あ ヰ͡ ク ¬ プ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ベ∇ゲら∇ャや キゅ∠ Α . And if Allah willed. bringing darkness.) Another Parable of the Hypocrites . びヴ⇔ ハぴ ヨ∠ (and blind) in t ot al darkness and deviat ion. t hey walk t herein.(deaf) and t hus cannot hear t he guidance. Allah has power over all t hings. and when darkness covers t hem. ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや ヴ∠ ∇バゎ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ゲ⇒∠ ∇よΙや ヴ∠ ∇バゎ Ι ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ヨ ∠ ム ャ ∠ ⊥ ダ x ヨ ∠ ∠ ヰz みプ びケヱ⊥ ダャや ヴ͡ ヴ͡ ャや ͡ ギぁ プ わz (Verily. But Allah ever encompasses t he disbelievers. Allah said.リΑ͡ ヘ⇒ム∇ャゅ͡ ∀ Β͡ ョ ヮヤャや∠ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ケグェ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ゲ͡ よ テ エ⊥ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ へ∠ まヱ ヮΒ͡ ∇や∇ヲゼョ ユ⊥ ャ ¬べ∠ ぺ べ∠ ヤミ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ブト∇ガΑ ク͡∠ ͡ プ ∠ z ヰ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ヨz⊥ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨジよ ょワグャ ヮzャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ユヤ∇ニぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ∠∠ ョ ホ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠∠ (19. Similarly. び∇ユムよぴ ⊥͡ (dumb) and cannot ut t er t he words t hat might benefit t hem. They t hrust t heir fingers in t heir ears t o keep out t he st unning t hunderclap for fear of deat h. it is not t he eyes t hat grow blind. and light ning. Cert ainly. The light ning almost snat ches away t heir sight . since t hey sold it for misguidance. but it is t he heart s which are in t he breast s t hat grow blind) (22:46) and t his why t hey cannot get back t o t he st at e of guidance t hat t hey were in. whenever it flashes for t hem.) (20. t hunder.

` At iyah Al-` Awfi. and several ot her Companions have confirmed as well as Abu Al-` Aliyah. びベ∇ゲら∇ャやぴ ∠ ∠ (The light ning). t he most accept ed opinion is t hat it means t he rain t hat comes down during. "The rain". びギ∇ハケヱぴ ∀ ∠∠ (t hunder) t hat shocks t he heart s wit h fear. As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Should t hey find refuge. Ibn ` Abbas. disbelief and hypocrisy. When t hey suffer from doubt . びろ⇒∠ ヤニぴ ͡ ヨ⊥⊥ (darkness). Ad-Dahhak said "It is t he clouds. ` At a'." However. ∇ユヰレム⇒∠ヱ ∇ユムレあ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムレ͡ ャ ∇ユヰルま ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇エΑヱぴ ⊥ z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ョ ワ ョ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ z よ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ∇ヱぺ れや∠ ⇒∠ ョ ∇ヱぺ ゅゃ∠ ∇ヤョ ラヱ⊥ イΑ ∇ヲャ . The hypocrit es are usually full of fear and anxiet y. or a place of concealment . びょΒダミぴ ∃ あ∠ ∠ (Like a Sayyib). or caves. t hey would t urn st raight way t heret o in a swift rush) (9:56-57). but t hey are a people who are afraid. . ` At a' Al-Khurasani. Muj ahid. and. t he doubt s. び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ るエ∇Βタ z ミ ラヲ⊥ ジ∇エΑぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ モ⊥ ∠ ら∠ ∠ (They t hink t hat every cry is against t hem) (63: 4). j ust as Allah described t hem. Qat adah. as Ibn Mas` ud. Sa` id bin Jubayr. here. meaning. is in reference t o t he light of fait h t hat is somet imes felt in t he heart s of t he hypocrit es.This is anot her parable which Allah gave about t he hypocrit es who somet imes know t he t rut h and doubt it at ot her t imes. t heir heart s are. Al-Hasan Al-Basri.ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ヘΑ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∠ ∃ ゲ ピ∠ ∠ ⇔ イ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ュ ホ び ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇イΑ ∇ユワヱ ヮ∇Βャま ∇や∇ヲャヲャ Κカギョ ∠ エ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ z∠ z ⇔ ∠ z ⊥ (They swear by Allah t hat t hey are t ruly of you while t hey are not of you. meaning. confusion and disbelief.

Similarly. But Allah ever encompasses t he disbelievers). モよ . び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ブト∇ガΑ ベ∇ゲら∇ャや キゅ∠ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ F(The light ning almost snat ches away t heir sight ) meaning. Allah t hen said.∃ Α͡ ∇ム∠ ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ͡ ͡ ケ∠ ョ ⊥ z ヱ ょ グ ゎ プ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz び ∀ Β͡ ョ テ エぁ (Has t he st ory reached you of t wo host s. Also. Of Fir` awn (Pharaoh) and Thamud Nay! The disbelievers (persist ed) in denying. びヮΒ͡ ∇や∇ヲゼョ ユ⊥ ャ ¬べ∠ ぺ べ∠ ヤミぴ ͡ プ ∠ z ヰ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ヨz⊥ (Whenever it flashes for t hem.キヲ⊥ イ∇ャや ゑΑ͡ ェ ポゅ∠ ぺ モワぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∇ユヰもへ∠ ヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや∠ . And Allah encompasses t hem from behind!) (85:17-20). t hey walk t herein). び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺ ブト∇ガΑ ベ∇ゲら∇ャや キゅ∠ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ダ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ (The light ning almost snat ches away t heir sight ). Allah said. Similarly. "Whenever t he hypocrit es acquire a share in t he vict ories of Islam.''. "The Qur'an ment ioned almost all of t he secret s of t he hypocrit es. because t he light ning is st rong it self. t hey are cont ent wit h t his share. .'' ` Ali bin Abi Talhah also narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said.キヲ⊥ をヱ ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ . t hey are ready t o revert t o disbelief. ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah. and because t heir comprehension is weak and does not allow t hem t o embrace t he fait h. t heir caut iousness does not benefit t hem because t hey are bound by Allah's all-encompassing will and decision. Allah said.ペハヲダャや リョ ユ͡ ルや∠ や∠ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰバら⇒∇タぺ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑぴ ͡ ͡ ∠z ∠ あ ヰ ͡ ク ¬ プ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒ム∇ャゅ͡ ∀ Β͡ ョ ヮヤャや∠ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ケグェ ∠ ゲ͡ よ テ エ⊥ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (They t hrust t heir fingers in t heir ears t o keep out t he st unning t hunderclap for fear of deat h. Whenever Islam suffers a calamit y. meaning.

t herefore. Consequent ly. . some less. he is cont ent wit h t hat . Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. t hey walk t herein. "They recognize t he t rut h and speak about it . some more. Some people will have no light at all. Some of t hem will gain light t hat illuminat es over a dist ance of several miles.) (22:11). So t heir speech is upright .'' This was also said by Abu Al-` Aliyah. on t he Day of Judgment . and Allah knows best . t hey st and st ill). Allah described t he believers. and when darkness covers t hem. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi. "Go back t o you rear! Then seek a light !'') (57:13). and it is t he most obvious and most correct view. t he believers will be given a light according t o t he degree of t heir fait h. ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ユヤ∇ニぺ へ∠ ͡∠ ヮΒ͡ ∇や∇ヲゼョ ユ⊥ ャ ¬べ∠ ぺ べ∠ ヤミぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ クまヱ ͡ プ ∠ z ヰ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ヨz⊥ び∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ョホ (Whenever it flashes for t hem. t hese are t he hypocrit es whom Allah described when He said. They will. ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ろ⇒∠ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ラヲ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや メヲ⊥ Α ュ∇ヲΑぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ⊥ ボ͡ レ⊥ ヱ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬へ∠ ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ィ∇ケや モΒ͡ ∇ユミケヲぁ リ͡ ∇ザらわ∇ボル ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ヌルや ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ バ͡ ∠ ホ ⊥ ͡ ル ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ ル ゲ⊥ びやケヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨわ∇ャゅ∠ ⇔ ル ジ͡ ∠ プ (On t he Day when t he hypocrit es men and women will say t o t he believers: "Wait for us! Let us get somet hing from your light !'' It will be said t o t hem. AlHasan Al-Basri. t hey again fall int o confusion. who narrat ed it from t he Companions. walk on t he Sirat (t he bridge over t he Fire) in t he light . Qat adah.∇ラみプ フ∇ゲェ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ギら∇バΑ リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ͡∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ びヮよ ラほヨ∇デや ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮよゅ∠ ぺ ͡ ͡ z ∠∠ ゲ カ ⊥ ∠ タ∠ (And among mankind is he who worships Allah on t he edge: If good befalls him. Also. but when t hey revert t o disbeleif. Some people's light will glow somet imes and be ext inguished at ot her t imes. st opping when it is ext inguished.

and. t hey will supplicat e. t hey will feel anxious. his light will be ext inguished. As for t he hypocrit e. while t he light of ot hers will be as big as a dat e t ree. びゅ∠ ケヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユヨ∇ゎぺ べ∠ よケぴ ル∠ ル レャ ͡ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us). Glad t idings for you t his Day! Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)) (57:12). You are Able t o do all t hings'') (66:8). Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud comment ed on. When t he believers wit ness t he hypocrit e's light being ext inguished. Verily. Hence. according t o t heir deeds. They will say: "Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us and do not put it off t ill we cross over t he Sirat (a slippery bridge over t he Hell) safely and grant us forgiveness. び∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ リ∇Βよ ヴ∠ ∇ジΑ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ ぴ ͡ ギ∠∠ ∠ バ ∠ ⊥⊥ ル (Their Light will run forward before t hem). everyone who has embraced t he fait h will be given a light .'' Ibn Abi Hat im also report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. "Every person among t he people of Tawhid (Islamic Monot heism) will gain a light on t he Day of Resurrect ion.ユ⊥ ケヲ⊥ ヴ∠ ∇ジΑ ろ⇒∠ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや∠ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ン∠ ゎ ュ∇ヲΑぴ ワ⊥ ル バ ∠ ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ヱ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ ∀ ⇒z ∠ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや ユミや∠ ∇ゼよ ユ͡ レ⇒∠ ∇Αほよヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ リ∇Βよ ゲ ∠ ろ レィ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ⊥ ヰ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ びゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΙや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ⊥ ヰ x ヰわ ゎ ョ (On t he Day you shall see t he believing men and t he believing women t heir light running forward before t hem and by t heir right hands.'' Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said. "They will pass on t he Sirat . The light t hat some people have will be as big as a mount ain. ヮバョ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヴらレャや ヮzャや ン͡ ∇ガΑ Ι ュ∇ヲΑぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ z ͡ z ⊥ ヤ ゴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ べ∠ よケ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ∇ユヰレ⇒∠ ∇Αほよヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ リ∇Βよ ヴ∠ ∇ジΑ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ バ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ マルま べ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ビや∠ ゅ∠ ケヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユヨ∇ゎぺ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z ͡ レャ ͡ ヱ ル∠ ル レャ ͡ ∠ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ゲ ギホ (The Day t hat Allah will not disgrace t he Prophet (Muhammad ) and t hose who believe wit h him. When t hey arrive at . Their Light will run forward before t hem and (wit h t heir Records Books of deeds) in t heir right hands. "On t he Day of Resurrect ion. The people who will have t he least light are t hose whose index fingers will somet imes be lit and ext inguished at ot her t imes.

And t here are t wo cat egories of hypocrit es: t he complet e hypocrit es who were ment ioned in t he parable of t he fire. whose heart is built on fait h and receiving it s support from t he divine legislat ion t hat was revealed t o it .t he Sirat .'' Types of Believers and Types of Disbelievers Consequent ly. When t he believers see t his. He said. ヮホ∇ヲプ リあ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ヮ⇒∠ ∇ピ∠ ヴイャ ゲ∇エよ ヴ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤヌミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ァ ョ ⊥ ゼ Α y あ ぁ ∃ ∠ プ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ ベ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ツ∇バよ ∀ ⇒∠ ヤニ ∀ ゅ∠ ∠ ヮホ∇ヲプ リあ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ∠ ろ ヨ⊥⊥ ゆ エシ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ァ ョ モバ∇イΑ ∇ユャ リ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ や∠ Α ∇ギムΑ ∇ユャ ロギΑ ァゲ∇カぺ へ∠ ま ヂ∇バよ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ョ∠ ワ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∃ ∠ び ケヲ⊥ リ͡ ヮャ ゅ∠ プ やケヲ⊥ ヮャ ヮzャや ∃ ル ョ ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ⇔ ル ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ . Allah gave a parable of t he disbelievers who t hink t hat t hey have somet hing. Allah willing. There are t he believers whom t he first four Ayat (2:2-5) in Surat Al-Baqarah describe. j ust like a rising st ar. Allah said. and t he hesit ant hypocrit es. t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert . The parable of t he rain was revealed about t his cat egory. as we will come t o know. びゅ∠ ケヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユヨ∇ゎぺ べ∠ よケぴ ル∠ ル レャ ͡ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Keep perfect our Light for us). t hey will feel anxious and supplicat e. This is t he believer. wit hout any impurit ies or imperfect ions. such people are t hose who have compounded ignorance. The t hirst y one t hinks it t o be wat er. while in realit y t hey have not hing. compared t o a bright ly illuminat ed lamp. he finds it t o be not hing) (24:39). There are t he disbelievers who were described in t he next t wo Ayat . t he light of t he hypocrit es will be ext inguished. This is similar t o t he parables t hat were given in Surat An-Nur (chapt er 24). t here are several t ypes of people. which is not as evil as t he first cat egory. simple in t heir ignorance. ヮらジ∇エΑ るバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ びゅゃ∇Βセ ロ∇ギイΑ ∇ユャ ロ¬べ∠ や∠ ま ヴz ェ ¬べ∠ ラべ∇ヨヌャや ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ク͡ わ∠ ⇔ ョ ⊥ z (As for t hose who disbelieved. Like t he example of t he believer and t he fait h t hat Allah put in his heart . unt il he comes up t o it . Allah t hen gave t he example of ignorant disbelievers. whose light of fait h is somet imes lit and somet imes ext inguished.

∇リョヱ ∩ゅ⇔ ャゅ∠ ゅ⇔ プゅ∠ ョ ラゅ∠ ヮΒ͡ z ミ ∇リョ ∀ ゅ∠∠ » ∠ ∠ ダ͡ カ ボ͡ レ⊥ ∠ ミ ͡ プ リ⊥ ∠ ゐ ヤを リョ るヤ∇ダカ ヮΒ͡ ∇ろルゅミ z ヰ∇レョ りギェや∠ ヮΒ͡ ∇ろルゅ∠ ∠ ͡ ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ ヱ ͡ プ ∠ ミ や∠ ͡∠ ∩∠ グミ ゐギェ や∠ ま ∇リョ :ゅ∠ ハギΑ ヴz ェ ベゅ∠ レャや クまヱ ゆ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ク͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ͡ ヘあ «ラゅ∠ リヨわ∇もや や∠ まヱ ∩∠ ヤ∇カぺ ギハヱ カ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ク ͡ ∠ ブ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Whoever has t he following t hree (charact erist ics) will be a pure hypocrit e. ノらわΑヱ ユ∇ヤハ ゲ∇Βピよ ヮヤャや ヴ͡ メギ⇒∠ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∃ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ z プ ⊥ ͡ イ⊥ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ び ギΑ͡ ョ リ⇒∠ ∇Βセ z ミ ∃ ゲz ∃ ト ∠ モ⊥ (And among mankind is he who disput es about Allah. for him t here is no light ) (24:40). t opped by dark clouds. (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man st ret ches out his hand. Allah has divided t he group of t he believers in t he beginning of Surat Al-Waqi` ah (56) and at t he end. In summary. t hey are t he "near ones" (Muqaribun) and Ashab Al-Yamin (t he companions of t he right ). unless and .(Or (t he st at e of a disbeliever) is like t he darkness in a vast deep sea. The Two Sahihs record t hat ` Abdullah bin ` Amr said t hat t he Prophet said. Ιヱ ユ∇ヤハ ゲ∇Βピよ ヮヤャや ヴ͡ メギ⇒∠ Α リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ ∠ ∠ ∃ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ z プ ⊥ ͡ イ⊥ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ び ゲΒ͡ ョ ょ⇒∠ ミ Ιヱ ン⇔ ワ ∃ レぁ ∃ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ (And among men is he who disput es about Allah. t he near ones and right eous. and whoever has one of t he following t hree charact erist ics will have one charact erist ic of hypocrisy. and t hey are right eous (Abrar). In addit ion. Allah ment ioned t hese t wo groups in t he beginning of Surat Al-Haj j . Allah divided t he camp of t he disbelievers int o t wo groups. and. wit hout knowledge. t hese Ayat divide t he believers int o t wo cat egories. or a Book giving light (from Allah)) (22:8). Also. t he Sabiqun (t hose who preceded). Furt hermore. and follows every rebellious (disobedient t o Allah) Shayt an (devil) (devoid of every kind of good)) (22:3). wit hout knowledge or guidance. he can hardly see it ! And he for whom Allah has not appoint ed light . advocat es and followers. advocat es and followers. Therefore. pure hypocrit es and t hose who have some hypocrisy in t hem. t he hypocrit es are divided int o t wo t ypes. He also divided t hem in Surat Al-Insan (76) int o t wo groups. overwhelmed by waves. t he disbelievers are of t wo t ypes.

Allah said. a heart t hat is t urned upside down and a wrapped heart . The heart t hat is t urned upside down is t he heart of t he pure hypocrit e. because he had knowledge but denied it . it will have t he upper hand on t hat heart ). whet her in deed. The example of hypocrisy in it . Whichever of t he t wo subst ances has t he upper hand.unt il he gives it up. is t he example of an ulcer t hat t hrives on puss and blood. Whenever he makes a covenant . it is a heart t hat cont ains belief and hypocrisy. as t his Hadit h st ipulat es. he proves t reacherous. man might have bot h a part of fait h and a part of hypocrisy. This Hadit h has a Jayid Hasan (good) chain of narrat ion. or in t he creed. he breaches t he t rust ) Hence. The example of fait h in t his heart . a sealed heart wit h a knot t ied around it s seal. is t he example of t he herb t hat is sust ained by pure wat er. As for t he polished heart . it is t he heart of t he believer and t he lamp is t he light of fait h. he t ells a lie. Types of Hearts Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Sa` id saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said ͡ や∠ ジャや モ∇んョ ヮΒ͡ キゲ∇ィぺ ∀ ∇ヤ∠ :るバよ∇ケぺ ゆヲ⊥ボ∇ャや» ァ ゲあ ⊥ ͡ ͡ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ょ ホ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ょ∇ヤホヱ ヮプゅ∠ビ ヴヤ∠ ヅヲ⊥ ∇ゲョ ブヤ∇ビぺ ょ∇ヤホヱ ゲワ∇ゴΑ ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヤ͡ ハ ∀ よ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ょ∇ヤボプ キゲ∇ィほ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ほプ ∩∀ ヘ∇ダョ ょ∇ヤホヱ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∇レョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ウ∠ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ サ ム ∠ ブヤ∇ビほ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱ ∩⊥ ケヲ⊥ ヮΒ͡ ヮィや∠ ジプ リョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠∠ ロ⊥ ル ͡ プ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ペプゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボプ サヲ⊥ ∇レ∠ ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱ ∩͡ プゅ∠ ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボプ ͡ ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ム ヨ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠∠ ゲ͡ ム ⊥ ∠ ∠ ウヘ∇ダヨ∇ャや ょ∇ヤボ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱ ゲム∇ルぺ z を フゲハ ゾャゅ∠ ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ガ モんヨミ ヮΒ͡ ラゅ∠ Αみ∇ャや モんョヱ ∀ ゅ∠ ルヱ ラゅ∠ Αま ヮΒ͡ ょ∇ヤボプ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ͡ ヨ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ベ ヘ͡ ∠ ∀ ヨ ͡ プ ∀ ∠ ∠ モんヨミ ヮΒ͡ ベゅ∠ レャや モんョヱ ょΒトャや ¬ゅ∠ ∇ャや ゅ∠ ギヨ∠ るヤ∇ボら∇ャや ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ͡ ヘ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ z ⊥ ヨ ワぁ ⊥ Α ͡ ∠ ∠ ∇ろらヤビ リ∇Βゎキゅ∠ ∇ャや ヵほプ ュz ャや∠ ウ∇Βボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ギヨΑ るェ∇ゲボ∇ャや ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ z ヨ ぁ ∠∠ ⊥ ギ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ワぁ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ «ヮ∇Βヤハ ∇ろらヤビ ン∠ ∇カほ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ ⊥ ヤ∠ (The heart s are four (t ypes): polished as shiny as t he radiat ing lamp. as t he Ayah (2:20) st ipulat es. . The sealed heart is t he heart of t he disbeliever. Whenever he is ent rust ed. Whenever he speaks. As for t he wrapped heart .

"Allah is able t o punish or pardon His servant s as He wills. He would have t aken away t heir hearing and t heir sight ). He would have t aken away t heir hearing and t heir sight . Cert ainly. charact erist ics. and t o inform t hem t hat His abilit y complet ely encompasses t hem and t hat He is able t o t ake away t heir hearing and sight .' Allah gave t hese t wo examples of t he hypocrit es. び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨジよ ょワグャ ヮzャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ∠∠ (And if Allah willed. because t hey bot h perfect ly describe t hem. Allah has power over all t hings). t hese descript ions are relat ed t o t he t ype of hypocrit e. st at ement s and deeds. Also.'' Ibn Jarir and several ot her scholars of Tafsir st at ed t hat t hese t wo parables are about t he same kind of hypocrit e. "Allah only described Himself wit h t he abilit y t o do everyt hing in t his Ayah as a warning t o t he hypocrit es of His cont rol over everyt hing. ` so it means each of t hese persons is t he same as t he ot her. For inst ance. So t he ` or' ment ioned in. ` or' in t he Ayah includes a choice of using eit her example for t he hypocrit es. "And among t hem'' t hree t imes.'' I (Ibn Kat hir) say.ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ ∇よぺヱ ∇ユヰバ∇ヨジよ ょワグャ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱぴ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ダ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ セ ∠∠ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ (And if Allah willed. Ibn ` Abbas said. "Because t hey abandoned t he t rut h aft er t hey had knowledge in it .' According t o t he view of Az-Zamakhshari. because t here is a difference bet ween t hem as we st at ed. So t he t wo examples ment ioned here describe t wo t ypes of hypocrit es whose charact erist ics are similar. ` Sit wit h Al-Hasan or Ibn Sirin.'' び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ (Cert ainly.'' Ibn Jarir comment ed. "To show compat ibilit y of t he t wo choices.' The meaning of ` or' t hus becomes ` eit her. describing t heir t ypes. so you may sit wit h eit her one of t hem. For inst ance. びやケヲ⊥ ミ ∇ヱぺ ゅヨ͡ や∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇ノトゎ Ιヱぴ ⇔ ヘ∠ ∠ ⇔ を ¬ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And obey neit her a sinner or a disbeliever among t hem). Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement . Therefore. Allah ment ioned t hese t ypes in Surat Bara'ah (chapt er 9) when He repeat ed t he st at ement . Allah has power over all t hings). び¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Or like a rainst orm from t he sky) means ` and'. Allah . j ust as t he Ayah. j ust as when one says. Al-Qurt ubi said t hat ` or' means.

one for t he advocat es of disbelief and one for t he followers of disbelief. He also surrounded t hem wit h blessings. and t he sky as a canopy. unt il. びヴイャ ゲ∇エよ ヴ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤヌミ ∇ヱぺぴ y あ ぁ ∃ ∠ プ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ (Or (t he st at e of a disbeliever) is like t he darkness in a vast deep sea) (24:40). j ust like t he bed.) Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah Allah next ment ioned His Oneness in divinit y and st at ed t hat He has favored His servant s by bringing t hem t o life aft er t hey did not exist . O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah). Who creat ed you and t hose who were before you so t hat you may acquire Taqwa.ラヲ⊥ わゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムヤ∇らホ リ͡ ∠ x ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ボz ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ョ ¬べ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや リョ メゴル∠ヱ ¬べ∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや∠ ゅセや∠ プ ⇔ ョ ͡ ヨz ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ ⇔ レ͡ ∠ ヨz ヱ ⇔ ゲ͡ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ Κプ ∇ユムャ ゅホ∇コケ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮよ ァゲ∇カほプ ͡ z ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ⇔ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ やキや∠ ル∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ⇔ ギ ぺ (21. while t he second is about t he followers who have simple ignorance. He made t he eart h a rest ing place for t hem. リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇ユムボヤカ ∇ングャや ユムz ケ ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ グz ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ ⊥ よ∠ ギ⊥ ⊥ レ ヰぁ ∠ Α チ∇ケΙや ユムャ モバィ ン͡ ャや . t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert ) (24:39). st able wit h t he firm mount ains. Allah knows best .) (22. He said.gave t wo examples in Surat An-Nur. びるバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ (As for t hose who disbelieved. Then do not set up rivals unt o Allah (in worship) while you know (t hat He alone has t he right t o be worshipped). Who has made t he eart h a rest ing place for you. bot h hidden and apparent . and sent down wat er (rain) from t he sky and brought fort h t herewit h fruit s as a provision for you. び¬べ∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや∠ ぴ ⇔ レ͡ ∠ ヨz ヱ . The first example is of t he advocat es of disbelief who have complex ignorance.

The Two Sahihs record t hat Ibn Mas` ud said. Hence. winds. ゅ∠ わ⇒∠ や∠ ∇リハ ∇ユワヱ ゅニヲ⊥ ∇エョ ゅヘ∇ボシ ¬べ∠ ジャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱぴ ヰ͡ Α ¬ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヘ z ⇔ ∠ ∠ ヨz レ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇バョ ∠ ッ͡ ⊥ (And We have made t he heaven a roof. clouds)) (21:32).(And t he sky as a canopy) meaning. and has given you shape and made your shapes good (looking) and has provided you wit h good t hings. He alone deserves t o be worshipped. There is anot her Ayah t hat is similar t o t his Ayah (2:22). all t hat is in and on it . when t hey need t he rain. That is Allah. Yet t hey t urn away from it s signs (i. Allah said in anot her Ayah. Hence. ¬べ⇒∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや∠ やケや∠ ⇒∠ チ∇ケΙや ユ⇒⊥ ャ モ⇒∠ ィ ン͡ ャやぴ ⇔ レ͡ ∠ ヨz ヱ ⇔ ゲ ホ ∠ x ⊥ ム∠ ∠ バ∠ グz リョ ∇ユ⇒⊥ ホコケヱ ∇ユ⇒⊥ ケヲタ リジ∇ェほプ ∇ユ⇒⊥ ケヲタヱ ∠ あ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ミ∠ z ∠ ∠ ゆケ ヮzャや ポゲ⇒∠ ⇒∠ プ ∇ユ⇒⊥ よケ ヮzャや ユムャク ろ⇒∠ Βトャや ぁ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ら わ∠ ムぁ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ͡ らあ z びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ヨ∠ バ (It is He Who has made for you t he eart h as a dwelling place and t he sky as a canopy. t he Owner and Provider of t his life. t he Sust ainer. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ やキや∠ ル∠ ヮヤャ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇イゎ Κプぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ⇔ ギ ぺ ͡ z ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Then do not set up rivals unt o Allah (in worship) while you know (t hat He alone has t he right t o be worshipped)) (2:22). ` a ceiling'. and no one and not hing is t o be associat ed wit h Him. Allah caused t he various t ypes of veget at ion and fruit s t o grow as a means of sust enance for people and t heir cat t le. . your Lord. This is why Allah said next . び¬べ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ∇ユムャ メゴル∠ヱぴ ⇔ ョ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ∠ (And sends down for you wat er (rain) from t he sky) meaning. Similarly. t he Lord of all t hat exist s) (40:64). moon.e. "I said t o t he Messenger of Allah . t hrough t he clouds. Allah reit erat ed t his bount y in various part s of t he Qur'an. ` Which evil deed is t he worst wit h Allah' He said. so Blessed be Allah. sun. safe and well-guarded. Allah's st at ement . The meaning t hat is reit erat ed here is t hat Allah is t he Creat or. t hat is.

while He alone creat ed you.) Hadith with the same MeaningImam Ahmad narrat ed t hat t hat t he Prophet of Allah said.«マ∠ ヤカ ヲワヱ や6 ル ぶ モバ∇イゎ ∇ラぺ» ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (To t ake an equal wit h Allah. let him say. ゅ∠ヱ ロヱ⊥ ら∇バΑ ∇ラぺ ∨͡ キゅ∠ ハ ヴ∠ハ ぶや ペェ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇ギゎぺ» ャ∠ ⊥ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ロ͡ ら͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ぁ ∠ ョ ケ ∠ ∠ «ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ヮよ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼΑ ゃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ (Do you know Allah's right on His servant s They must worship Him alone and refrain from associat ing anyt hing wit h Him in worship. and t hen what so-and-so person wills. ∇リムャ∠ ∩∀ ゅ∠プ ¬ゅ∠ ヱ ぶや ¬ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ユミギェぺ リャヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠» ͡ ヱ ラ ヤ⊥ ∠ セ∠ ⊥ ∠ セ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ボ∠ ャ «ラゅ∠プ ¬ゅ∠ z を ぶや ¬ゅ∠ ゅ∠ :∇モボΒャ ヤ ⊥ ∠ セ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ セ ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ (None of you should say. ` What Allah and so-and-so person wills.) Anot her Hadit h st at es. ` What Allah wills. Mu` adh narrat ed t he Prophet 's st at ement .)'' Also. Rat her. Al-Harit h Al-Ash` ari said ヮ∇Βヤハ ゅz ゲミコ リ∇よ ヴ∠ ∇エΑ ゲョぺ モィヱゴハ ぶや ラま» ͡ ∠ ∠ Α͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠∠ z ∠ ∠z ∠ ∠ z ͡ ゲョ∇ほΑ ∇ラぺヱ ∩z ヰよ モヨ∇バΑ ∇ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤミ ザ∇ヨガよ ュゅ∠ジャや ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ リ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤz ¬ヴ͡ ∇らΑ ∇ラぺ キゅ∠ ヮルぺヱ リヰよ やヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ ∇ラぺ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ヶ͡ よ ∠ ト ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ z ∠∠ z ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ レ∠ れ∇ゲョぺ ∇ギホ マルま :ュゅ∠ジャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ヴ∠ Β͡ ヮャ メゅ∠ プ∩ゅ∠ よ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ヤz ͡ ∠∠ ジ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ヰ͡ ヶ͡ よ ゲョ∇ほゎヱ リヰよ モヨ∇バゎ ∇ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤミ ザ∇ヨガよ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∇ラぺ ゅz ま∠ ∇ユヰピヤらゎ ∇ラぺ ゅz みプ リヰよ やヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ ∇ラぺ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ∠ ョ ヱ ⊥ ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ͡∠ z ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ ∇ラぺ ヶ͡ わ∇ボらシ ∇ラま ヴ∠ ∇カぺ ヶあ ま ヶ͡ ぺ ゅ∠ :メゅ∠ プ ∩z ヰピヤよぺ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゼ ∠ ル͡ カ∠ Α ∠ ボ∠ リ⊥ ∠ あ∠ ⊥ .

ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ヮよ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ ゅ∠ヱ ロヱ⊥ ら∇ハゅ∠ ∇ユムホコケヱ ∇ユムボヤカ ゃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ギ⊥ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ヮ∇ィヲャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ょダ∇レΑ ぶや ラみプ りゅ∠ダャゅ͡ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤz よ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ .マ∇ジヨ∇ャや ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z よ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ͡ ロヲ⊥ ギホヱ ヮボレハ ヴャ͡ ヮ∇ΑギΑ やヱぁ ゼプ ぁ ギバ∇ャや ロゲシぺ モィケ ⊥ ョz ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ま ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ヱ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ヵギわ∇プぺ ∇ラぺ ∇ユムャ ∇モワ :∇ユヰャ メゅ∠ プ ヮボレハ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ツΒャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ よ͡ ∠ ͡ .やヲ⊥ ヘわ∇ヤゎ ゅ∠プ ∇ユわ∇Βヤタ や∠ みプ ∇ろヘわ∇ヤΑ ∇ユャ ゅ∠ ロギ∇らハ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ z∠ ク͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∀ ゲタ ヮバョ モィケ モんヨミ マャク モんョ ラみプ ュゅ∠ ダャゅ͡ りz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ͡ Βあ よ ラまヱ マ∇ジヨ∇ャや ウΑ͡ ギイΑ ∇ユヰぁミ るよゅ∠ ハ ヶ͡ マ∇ジョ ∇リョ z ͡∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∃ ∠ ダ͡ プ ∃ ͡ ͡ ウΑ͡ ∇リョ ぶや ギ∇レハ ょΒ∇デぺ ユ͡ ゅz ャや ユプ フヲ⊥カ ͡ ケ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ も ダ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ モんヨミ マャク モんョ ラみプ るホギダャゅ͡ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ .リ∇よ ヴ∠ ∇エΑ ノヨイプ :メゅ∠ ヶ͡ ブジ∇ガΑ ∇ヱぺ ゆグハぺ ⊥ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ よ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ほヤわ∇ョや ヴz ェ サギ∇ボヨ∇ャや ろ∇Βよ ヶ͡ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ヶ͡ よ ゅz ゲミコ ∠ ∠∠ わ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ も ゲ ͡ レ∠ Α͡ ∠ ∠ ヴ∠ ∇をぺヱ ぶや ギヨエプ フゲゼャや ヴ∠ハ ギバボプ ∩⊥ イ∇ジヨ∇ャや レ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ∠ ∇ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤミ ザ∇ヨガよ ヶ͡ ゲョぺ ぶや ラま :メゅ∠ z を ヮ∇Βヤハ ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ホ ユ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∇ラぺ :z ヰャz ぺ リヰよ やヲ⊥ヨ∇バゎ ∇ラぺ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ リヰよ モヨ∇ハぺ ∠ リ⊥ ⊥ヱ∠ z ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヱ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ マャク モんョ ラみプ ∩ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ヮよ やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ ゅ∠ヱ ぶや やヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ゃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ベケヲよ ヮャゅ∠ ゾャゅ∠ ∇リョ や⇔ ∇らハ ン∠ わ∇セや モィケ モんヨミ ∃ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ョ ͡ ͡ カ ͡ ギ ∠ ゲ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ∇Βビ ヴャ͡ ヮわヤビ ヵあ ぽΑヱ モヨ∇バΑ モバイプ ょワク ∇ヱぺ ͡ ∠ ま ⊥ ∠ z∠ キ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぶや ラまヱ ∩∠ ャグ∠ ロギ∇らハ ラヲ⊥ Α ∇ラぺ ロぁ ジΑ ∇ユムΑほプ ∩͡ ギΒシ ∠ z ͡∠ マ͡ ミ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠∠ ロ͡ あ ∠ .

worship Him alone and do not associat e anyt hing wit h Him. I also command you t o always remember Allah. ` You were ordered t o implement five commands and t o order t he Children of Israel t o implement t hem. all of t he group smells t he scent of t he wrapped musk. I also command you t o pray. The first is t hat you worship Allah alone and not associat e any wit h Him. Who among you would like his servant t o do t hat Allah creat ed you and sust ains you. 'Can I pay a ransom for myself' He kept ransoming himself wit h small and large amount s unt il he liberat ed himself. The example of t his deed is t hat of a man who t he enemy is t irelessly pursuing. he will be resort ing t o t he best refuge from Sat an. for Allah direct s His Face t owards His servant 's face. They t ied his hands t o his neck and brought him fort h t o cut off his neck. The servant st art ed t o work for t he mast er. The example of t his command is t he example of a man who bought a servant from his money wit h paper or gold. but was paying t he profit s t o anot her person. do not t urn your heads t o and fro. but Yahya was slow in carrying out t hese commands.' Yahya said. Therefore. I will be punished or t he eart h will be shaken under my feet . He sat on t he balcony.ぶや ∠ ∠ ∃ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ͡ .モΒ͡ボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ヮジ∇ヘル ヵ͡ ∠ ∇ヘΑ モバイプ ∇ユム∇レョ ヶ͡ ∇ヘル ͡ ヤ∠ よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ギわ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ジ ∠ や⇔ Β͡ ミ ぶや ゲ∇ミグよ ∇ユミゲョへ∠ . I also command you t o give charit y. Yahya bin Zakariya called t he Children of Israel t o Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). t hanked Allah and praised him and t hen said. and consequent ly.ヮジ∇ヘル マプ ヴz ェ ゲΒ͡ ム∇ャや∠ ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ わ∠ ͡ ん∠ ヱ ヶ͡ ゅ⇔ や∠ シ ぁ ギバ∇ャや ヮらヤデ モィケ モんヨミ マャク モんョ ラまヱ プ ハ ゲ͡ ヱ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ラまヱ ヮΒ͡ リダエわプ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ゅ⇔ ∇ダェ ヴ∠ ほプ ロゲをぺ z ͡∠ ͡ プ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ダ∠ レ ͡ ゎ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヶ͡ ラゅ∠ や∠ ま ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや リョ ラヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ リダ∇ェぺギ∇らバ∇ャや プ ∠ ミ ク͡ ͡ ト z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ム∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ «ぶや ゲ∇ミク ͡ ͡ (Allah commanded Yahya bin Zakariya t o implement five commands and t o order t he Children of Israel t o implement t hem.) Al-Harit h t hen narrat ed t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. When t he servant remembers Allah. The example of t his is t he example of a man who was capt ured by t he enemy. I also command you t o fast . or I will do it . So when you pray. Verily. ` Allah ordered me t o implement five commandment s and t hat I should order you t o adhere t o t hem. The example of it is t he example of a man in a group of men and he has some musk wrapped in a piece of clot h. He said t o t hem.' Hence. 'My brot her! I fear t hat if you do it before me. unt il t hey filled t he Masj id. So eit her order. He t akes refuge in a fort ified fort . るハゅ∠ イ∇ャや :リヰよ ヶ͡ ゲョぺ ぶや ザ∇ヨガよ ∇ユミゲョへ ゅ∠ ぺヱ» ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ z ͡ ͡ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ル∠∠ モΒ͡ シ ヶ͡ キゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ りゲ∇イヰ∇ャや∠ るハゅz ャや∠ ノ∇ヨジャや∠ ͡ ら∠ プ ͡ ヰ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ ト ヱ ͡ z ヱ ∇ギボプ ゲ∇らセ ギΒ͡ るハゅ∠ イ∇ャや リョ ァゲカ ∇リョ ヮルみプ . as long as t he servant does not t urn away. ` Isa said t o Yahya. t he odor of t he mout h of a fast ing person is bet t er before Allah t han t he scent of musk.

it s expanse. Whoever abandons t he Jama` ah. some of which appear st at ionary in t he sky . and t he various kinds of planet s in it . so worship Him and do not associat e anyt hing wit h Him in worship. wit hout part ners. and t he t rack t est ifies t o t he fact t hat someone was walking. list en and obey (your leaders) and perform Hij rah (migrat ion) and Jihad for t he sake of Allah. (Even if he prays. "O Messenger of Allah! Even if he prays and fast s'' He said. Once a bedouin was asked about t he evidence t o Allah's exist ence. does not all of t his t est ify t hat t he Most Kind. fast s and claims t o be Muslim. like Ar-Razi and ot hers. wisdom.whoever gazes at t he seas t hat surround t he land from all sides. unless he ret urns. and it cont ains t he st at ement . St ick t o t he Jama` ah (communit y of t he fait hful).') This is a Hasan Hadit h. "Allah has creat ed and sust ains you. a land t hat has fairways and a sea t hat has waves. t he believing servant s of Allah. knowledge.∇リョヱ ノィや∠ Α ∇ラぺ ゅzま ヮボレハ ∇リョ ュゅ∠∇シみ∇ャや るボ∇よケ ノヤカ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ャ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヤ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ «ユz ヰィ ヴ∠ ィ ∇リョ ヲヰプ るΒヤワゅ∠ ン∠ ∇ハギよ ゅ∠ キ レ∠ ∠ ん⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ z ͡͡ ィ ヲ ∠ ͡ ハ∠ : : やヲ⊥ ∇キゅ∠ ∩∀ ヤ∇ジョ ヮz ぺ ユハコヱ ュゅ∠ ヱ ヴzタ ラまヱ» ハ プ ユ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ タ∠ ヤ∠ z ͡∠ モィヱ ゴハ ぶや ユワゅz シ ゅ∠ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰもゅ∠ ∇シほよ リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや z ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ «ぶや キゅ∠ ハ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや ∠ ら͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ (And I order you wit h five commandment s t hat Allah has ordered me. he responded. Several scholars of Tafsir. t heir various shapes. Most Knowledgeable exist s'' Hence. behavior. colors. and it is a most wort hy met hod of argument . even t he dist ance of a hand span. So call t he Muslims wit h t heir names t hat Allah has called t hem: ` The Muslims.) They said. Whoever uses t he slogans of Jahiliyah (t he pre-Islamic period of ignorance) he will be among t hose kneeling in Jahannam (Hellfire). whoever gazes at t he sky in it s immensit y. whoever ponders over t he t hings t hat exist . t he higher and lower creat ures. so t hat . A sky t hat holds t he giant st ars. Indeed. t hen he will realize t he abilit y. perfect ion and maj est y of t heir Creat or. "All praise is due t o Allah! The camel's dung t est ifies t o t he exist ence of t he camel. will have removed t he t ie of Islam from his neck. and t he mount ains t hat were placed on t he eart h t o st abilize it . used t hese Ayat as an argument for t he exist ence of t he Creat or.'' This st at ement is relevant in t he Ayat (2:21-22) we are discussing here and support s singling Allah in worship. benefit s and ecological roles.

t hen produce a Surah (chapt er) of t he like t hereof and call your wit nesses (support ers and helpers) besides Allah.whoever reads Allah's st at ement . if you are t rut hful). Jews. what ever t heir shape and color. ゅ∠ ルヲ∇ャぺ ブヤわ∇ガョ ∀ ∇ヨェ∠ ∀ Β͡ ∀ ∠ ィ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや リョヱぴ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∀ ͡∠ ぁ ゲ ⊥ ヱ ヂ よ キギ⊥ ͡ ら͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ユ⇒∠ ∇ルΙや∠ ゆへ∠ ギャや∠ サゅz ャや リョヱキヲ⊥ ょΒ͡ や∠ ビヱ ͡ バ x ヱ あ ヱz ヱ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∀ シ ⊥ よ ゲ∠ ∠ ロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ヴ∠ ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ ルま マャグミ ヮルヲ∇ャぺ ブヤわ∇ガョ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ z ゼ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∀ ͡∠ ⊥ び¬ゅ∠ ヤバ∇ャや ⊥ ヨ∠⊥ (And among t he mount ains are st reaks whit e and red. t hen fear t he Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and st ones. kindness. of varying colours and (ot hers) very black. Whoever t hinks about t he running rivers t hat t ravel from area t o area bringing benefit . wisdom. scent s. and you can never do it .e. (24. various animals and plant s of different t ast es. mercy. beast s) and cat t le are of various colours. His perfect abilit y. are able t o live and t hrive . generosit y and His overall compassion for His creat ion. ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ら∠ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅz ョ ょ∇Αケ ヴ͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ヱぴ ゎ ∠ ルギ ハ ヤ ∠ レ z ル ヨ あ ∃ ∠ プ ⊥ ミ ま ∠ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ヮヤ∇んョ リあ りケヲ⊥ よ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ミ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ハ ヱ ͡ ͡ あ ョ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ リ∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ ∇ユャ ラ͡プ . and Christ ians) are in doubt concerning t hat which We have sent down (i.) . t he Qur'an) t o Our servant (Muhammad ). There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. men and Ad-Dawabb (moving (living) creat ures.リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z み∠ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ∇れギハぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャやヱ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ キヲ⊥ ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ケゅz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イ͡ ∠ ⊥ レ ワ⊥ ホヱ わz ∠ レ ボz プ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ (23. prepared for t he disbelievers. nor is t here a Lord besides Him. There are numerous Ayat in t he Qur'an on t his subj ect . whoever ponders over what Allah has creat ed on eart h. upon Him we rely and t o Him we t urn in repent ance. And likewise. And if you (Arab pagans.whoever lives on land. But if you do it not . It is only t hose who have knowledge among His servant s t hat fear Allah) (35: 27-28). whoever t hinks about all of t his t hen he will realize t hat t hese fact s t est ify t o t he exist ence of t he Creat or. shapes and colors t hat are a result of unit y bet ween land and wat er.

Muhammad . wise and eloquent men who will provide t he t est imony t hat you seek. "Your part ners. meaning. As-Suddi report ed t hat Abu Malik said t he Ayah means. using t he help of anyone you wish inst ead of Allah. Allah said in Surat Al-Isra' (17:88). Meaning t hen go and seek t he help of your deit ies t o support and aid you. Jews. and Christ ians) are in doubt concerning t hat which We have sent down (i. びゅ∠ ͡ ∇ら∠ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅz ョ ょ∇Αケ ヴ͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ヱぴ ルギ ハ ヤ∠ レ z ル ヨあ ∃ ∠ プ ⊥ ミ ま∠ (And if you (Arab pagans. However. Allah said in Surat Al-Qasas (28:49).e. t he Qur'an) t o Our servant ) meaning. meaning. you will not be able t o succeed in t his quest . Allah said t o t he disbelievers. t hat I may follow it . O Muhammad ): "Then bring a Book from Allah. For inst ance.'' The Challenge Allah challenged t he disbelievers in various part s of t he Qur'an. which is a bet t er guide t han t hese t wo (t he Tawrah (Torah) and t he Qur'an). びユミ¬へ∠ ヰセぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ (your wit nesses) means "Aids. びりケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠ (t hen produce a Surah (chapt er)) meaning.The Message of Messenger of Allah is True Allah begins t o prove t he t rut h of prophet hood aft er He st at ed t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Him. Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . Hence. some ot her people t o help you in t hat . "People.'' Also. t hen produce somet hing similar t o what he has brought t o you. びユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ぴ ミ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ハ ヱ (and call your wit nesses) means. similar t o what he brought t o you. if you claim t hat what he was sent wit h did not come from Allah. . べ∠ ヰ∇レョ ン∠ ∇ワぺ ヲワ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ょ⇒∠ ムよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ∇モホぴ ヨ⊥ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ∃ わ ͡ ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ヮ∇バらゎぺ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ⊥ ͡ z ∠ (Say (t o t hem. if you are t rut hful''). Also.'' Also. Muj ahid said t hat .

Allah also challenged t he disbelievers in t he Ayat t hat were revealed in Al-Madinah.'' Say: "Bring you t hen t en forged Surahs (chapt ers) like it . ヮヤ∇んョ ケヲシ ゲ∇ゼバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ∇モホ ロや∠ わ∇プや ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ∇ュぺぴ ͡ ͡ あ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ラ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∇ユわ∇バトわ∇シや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ∃ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ヘョ ま ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ハ ヱ れ Αゲ わ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ (Or t hey say. but it is a confirmat ion of (t he revelat ion) which was before it (i. In t his Ayah. if you are t rut hful!''). . "He (Prophet Muhammad ) forged it (t he Qur'an). and a full explanat ion of t he Book (i.∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ ラ∠ ヴ∠ハ リイ∇ャや∠ ザル͡ や ろバヨわ∇ィや リゃャ モ⊥ ぴ ゎ ∠ ぺ ヤ∠ ぁ ͡ ヱ ⊥ Η ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ z ホ ラゅ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ヮヤ∇んヨよ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ Ι ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ モ∇んヨよ ∠ ミ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ ⊥ グ ワ ͡ ͡ ͡ び や⇔ Β͡ ニ ヂ∇バらャ ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ゲ ヰ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (Say: "If mankind and t he Jinn were t oget her t o produce t he like of t his Qur'an. ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ン∠ わ∇ヘΑ ラ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ゲ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ¬ ⊥ グ ワ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや モΒ͡ ∇ヘゎヱ ヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ン͡ ャや ペΑ͡ ∇ダゎ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ダ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ギ ∠ ム ャ∠ ロや∠ わ∇プや ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ∇ュぺ .'') Allah said in Surat Hud (11:13).e.e. and call whomsoever you can. t he Tawrah. Allah said. if you speak t he t rut h!''). All of t hese Ayat were revealed in Makkah. t hey could not produce t he like t hereof. and in Surat Yunus (10:37-38).リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ リ͡ ヮΒプ ょ∇Αケ Ι ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ z ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ リあ ∇ユわ∇バトわ∇シや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇キや∠ ヮヤ∇んョ りケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ∇モホ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ハ ヱ ͡ ͡ あ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ͡ z ͡ キ (And t his Qur'an is not such as could ever be produced by ot her t han Allah (Lord of t he heavens and t he eart h). Laws decreed for mankind) wherein t here is no doubt from t he Lord of all t hat exist s. ot her t han Allah (t o your help). and call upon whomsoever you can besides Allah. even if t hey helped one anot her. and t he Inj il).) (Or do t hey say: "He (Muhammad ) has forged it '' Say: "Bring t hen a Surah (chapt er) like it .

Yet . when t he Qur'an is t he Word of Allah Who creat ed everyt hing How can t he words of t he creat ed ever be similar t o t he Words of t he Creat or . Ibn Mas` ud. indicat ing t hat t hey will never be able t o answer t he challenge. especially since t hey had t remendous hat red and enmit y for t he Prophet and his religion. for et ernit y. and Christ ians) are in Rayb) meaning. t his is a general challenge t o t he Arab disbelievers. びヮヤ∇んョ ケヲシ ゲ∇ゼバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ͡͡ あ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡ ゎ ∠ (Bring you t hen t en forged Surahs (chapt ers) like it ) (11:13). Therefore. t he Qur'an) t o Our servant ) meaning. This is why Allah said. and t his is why Allah said. Ibn ` Abbas. This t ype of challenge is more daring t han simply challenging t he disbelievers who might not be lit erat e or knowledgeable. Qat adah. t he most eloquent among all nat ions. and you can never do it ). びヮヤ∇んヨよ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ Ιぴ ͡͡ ͡͡ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ (They could not produce t he like t hereof) (17:88). in t hat . t hus making t he challenge t ruly complet e. Muhammad . Ibn Jarir At -Tabari. Allah clearly st at ed wit hout doubt t hat t he Qur'an will never be opposed or challenged by anyt hing similar t o it . This is anot her miracle. How can anyone be able t o produce somet hing like t he Qur'an.びょ∇Αケ ヴ͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ヱぴ ∃ ∠ プ ⊥ ミ ま∠ (And if you (Arab pagans. and. Allah challenged t he Arab disbelievers bot h in Makkah and Al-Madinah several t imes. びゅ∠ ͡ ∇ら∠ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴ∠ ゅz ョぴ ルギ ハ ヤ ∠ レ z ル ヨ あ (Concerning t hat which We have sent down (i. Jews. Al-Hasan Al-Basri and t he maj orit y of t he scholars. similar t o t he Qur'an. And he gave preference t o t his view and ment ioned t he fact t hat Allah has challenged t he disbelievers as individuals and as groups. Az-Zamakhshari and Ar-Razi. This is a t rue st at ement t hat has not been changed unt il t he present and shall never change. t hey were unable t o succeed in answering t he challenge.e. Ar-Razi said t hat t his is t he Tafsir of ` Umar. whet her lit erat e or illit erat e. びヮヤ∇んョ リあ りケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ͡ ͡ あ ョ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠ (t hen produce a Surah (chapt er) t he like t hereof) meaning. This is t he Tafsir of Muj ahid. doubt . び∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ リ∠ヱ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ ∇ユャ ラ͡プぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ z み∠ (But if you do it not .

and t hese account s and st ories occurred exact ly as t he Qur'an st at ed. ユΒ͡ ェ ∇ラギャ リ͡ ∇ろヤダプ z を ヮわ⇒∠ や¬ ∇ろヨム∇ェほら⇒∠ ミゲャやぴ ∃ ム∠ ⊥ z ョ ∠あ ⊥ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ Α ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ わ͡ びゲΒ͡ カ ∃ ら∠ (Alif Lam Ra. and t hen explained in det ail from One (Allah). conform wit h t he popular st at ement . t he poem might cont ain praise or t he descript ion of a cert ain person. it is ent irely eloquent in t he most perfect manner. unlike Arabic and ot her t ypes of poems t hat cont ained lies. horses or alcohol. it opens t he heart s and t he ears. every word and meaning in t he Qur'an is eloquent and cannot be surpassed. Yet . incident .and t o be t he neighbors of t he Throne of t he Most Beneficent . The Qur'an also ment ioned t he st ories of t he people of t he past . When t he Qur'an ment ions t he subj ect of warning and promises. Allah said. meaning. lies or falsehood. t he more fruit ful and beaut iful t hey become. As for t he Qur'an. as t hose who have knowledge in such mat t ers and underst and Arabic met hods of speech and expressions concur. except shed light on t he poet 's abilit y t o clearly and eloquent ly describe such it ems. These poems. one would find a long poem t hat mainly cont ains descript ions of women. while t he rest of t he poem cont ains insignificant descript ions and repet it ions.). j ust as Allah st at ed. (This is) a Book. Also. Or. The Qur'an does not become old when one repeat s recit ing it . For inst ance. so what about t he comprehending.Paradise . When one reads t hrough t he st ories in t he Qur'an. Such praise or descript ions do not bring any benefit . t he Qur'an commanded every t ype of right eousness and forbade every t ype of evil. one will only be able t o find one or t wo sent ences in many long poems t hat elaborat e on t he main t heme of t he poem. t he Qur'an said. making t hem eager t o at t ain t he abode of peace . びΙ∇ギハヱ ゅホ∇ギタ マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ろヨゎヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ͡ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ z ∠ ∠ (And t he Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in t rut h and in j ust ice) (6:115). t he verses whereof are perfect (in every sphere of knowledge. nor do t he scholars ever get bored wit h it . fear. it present s t rut hs t hat would make solid.Examples of the Miracle of the Qur'an Whoever reads t hrough t he Qur'an will realize t hat it cont ains various levels of superiorit y t hrough bot h t he apparent and hidden meanings t hat it ment ions. . war. j ust and full of guidance. The Qur'an is t rue. firm mount ains shake. lion. It does not cont ain exaggerat ions. horse. he will find t hem fruit ful. on t he subj ect of promises and encouragement . Who is Wise and well-acquaint ed (wit h all t hings)) (11:1) So t he expressions in t he Qur'an are perfect and it s meanings are explained. The more t hese st ories are repeat ed. whet her t hey were in ext ended or short forms. et c. camel. "The most eloquent speech is t he one t hat cont ains t he most lies!'' Somet imes. repeat ed or not . underst anding heart s When t he Qur'an promises. or ot her t ypes of it ems and obj ect s. t rue in t he st ories it narrat es and j ust in it s Laws. Furt her.

¬へ∠ ィ リΒ∇ハぺ りゲホ リあ ユ⊥ ャ ヴヘ∇カぺ べz ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ユヤ∇バゎ Κプぴ ⇔ ゴ∠ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ョ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ ザ ル ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よ ラ ヤヨ Α ル ミ ヨ͡
(No person knows what is kept hidden for t hem of j oy as a reward for what t hey used t o do) (32:17), and,

ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユわル∠ヱ リΒ∇ハΙや グヤゎヱ ザヘ∇ルΙや ヮΒ͡ わ∇ゼゎ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヱぴ ヰ プ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ⊥ x ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ x ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ プ ∠ びラヱギヤ⇒∠ ∠ ⊥͡ カ
((There will be) t herein all t hat inner selves could desire, and all t hat eyes could delight in and you will abide t herein forever) (43:71). On t he subj ect of warning and discouragement ;

びゲら∇ャや ょルゅ∠ ∇ユムよ ブジ∇ガΑ ラ∠ ∇ユわレ͡ ∠∠ ∠ぴ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ィ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ョほプぺ
(Do you t hen feel secure t hat He will not cause a side of t he land t o swallow you up) (17:68), and,

チ∇ケΙや ユムよ ブジ∇ガΑ ラ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リz ∇ユわレ͡ ¬ぺぴ ∠ x ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ヨz プ ョ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ラ∠ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リあ ∇ユわレ͡ ぺ ∇ュぺ - ケヲ⊥ ゎ ヴワ や∠ みプ ぺ ͡ ヨz プ ョ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ͡ ク͡∠ び ゲΑ͡ ル ブ∇Βミ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バわジプ ゅら͡ ⇒∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ モシ∇ゲΑ ͡ グ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ダ ェ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥
(Do you feel secure t hat He, Who is over t he heaven (Allah), will not cause t he eart h t o sink wit h you, and t hen it should quake Or do you feel secure t hat He, Who is over t he heaven (Allah), will not send against you a violent whirlwind Then you shall know how (t errible) has been My warning) (67:16-17). On t he subj ect of t hreat s, t he Qur'an said,

びヮらル∠ よ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ 6 ムプぴ ͡ ͡ グ͡ ル ∠ ∠ Κ⊥ ∠
(So We punished each (of t hem) for his sins) (29:40). Also, on t he subj ect of soft advice, t he Qur'an said,

∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ z を - リΒ͡ シ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇バわョ ラ͡ ろ∇Αぺゲプぺぴ ル ミ ョ ワ∠ ィ ユ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ レ z z ま ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ わヨΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ∇ユヰ∇レハ ヴ∠ ∇ビぺ べ∠ - ラヱ⊥ ハヲ⊥ ∠ バz ∠ ⊥ ル ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ョ ∠ ギ∠ Α
(Tell Me, (even) if We do let t hem enj oy for years. And aft erwards comes t o t hem t hat (punishment ) which t hey had been promised. All t hat wit h which t hey used t o enj oy shall not avail t hem) (26:205-207). There are many ot her examples of t he eloquence, beaut y, and benefit s of t he Qur'an. When t he Qur'an is discussing Laws, commandment s and prohibit ions, it commands every t ype of right eous, good, pleasing and beneficial act . It also forbids every t ype of evil, disliked and amoral act . Ibn Mas` ud and ot her scholars of t he Salaf said, "When you hear what Allah said in t he Qur'an, such as,

び∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α
(O you who believe!), t hen list en wit h full at t ent ion, for it eit her cont ains a t ype of right eousness t hat Allah is enj oining, or an evil t hat He is forbidding.'' For inst ance, Allah said,

モエΑヱ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇レΑヱ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑぴ ぁ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ ワ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ノツΑヱ ゑゃ⇒∠ ガ∇ャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ュあ エΑヱ ろ⇒∠ Βトャや ユヰャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ら∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ らあ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろルゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや モ⇒∠∇ビΙや∠ ∇ユワゲ∇タま ∇ユヰ∇レハ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ わz ∠ ヤ x ヱ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠
(He (Muhammad ) commands t hem for Al-Ma` ruf (i.e. Islamic Monot heism and all t hat Islam has ordained); and forbids t hem from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polyt heism of all kinds, and all t hat Islam has forbidden); he allows t hem as lawful At -Tayyibat (i.e. all good and lawful t hings), and prohibit s t hem as unlawful Al-Khaba'it h (i.e. all evil and unlawful t hings), he releases t hem from t heir heavy burdens and from t he fet t ers (bindings) t hat were upon t hem) (7:157). When t he Ayat ment ion Resurrect ion and t he horrors t hat will occur on t hat Day, and Paradise and t he Fire and t he j oys and safe refuge t hat Allah prepared for His loyal friends, or t orment and Hell for His enemies, t hese Ayat cont ain glad t idings or warnings. The Ayat t hen call t o perform good deeds and avoid evil deeds, making t he life of t his world less favorable and t he Hereaft er more favorable. They also est ablish t he correct met hods and guide t o Allah's st raight pat h and j ust legislat ion, all t he while ridding t he heart s of t he evil of t he cursed devil.

The Qur'an is the Greatest Miracle given to the Prophet
The Two Sahihs record t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Prophet said,

れゅ∠ Γや リョ ヶト∇ハぺ ∇ギホ ゅzま ¬ゅ∠ ら∇ルほ∇ャや リョ ヶらル ∇リョ ゅ∠ » ͡ Α ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ャ͡ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ ヮ⊥ Β͡ ヱ⊥ ヵ͡ ャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ルま∠ ∩⊥ ゼら∇ャや ヮヤ∇んョ ヴ∠ハ リョへ ゅ∠ わ ゎ ぺ グz ∠ ミ ヨz ヱ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ ラヲ⊥ ぺ ∇ラぺ ヲ⊥ ∇ケほプ ヶャま ぶや ロゅ∠ ∇ヱぺ ゅ⇔ ∇ェ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ィ ∠∠ z ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ェ ∠ Β ヱ «る∠ ゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ョ Β͡ ∠ ∠ バよ ゎ
(Every Prophet was given a miracle, t he t ype of which brings mankind t o fait h. What I was given is a revelat ion t hat Allah sent down t o me. Yet , I hope t hat I will have t he most following on t he Day of Resurrect ion.) This is t he wording narrat ed by Muslim. The Prophet st at ed t hat among t he Prophet s he was given a revelat ion, meaning, he was especially ent rust ed wit h t he miraculous Qur'an t hat challenged mankind t o produce somet hing similar t o it . As for t he rest of t he divinely revealed Books, t hey were not miraculous according t o many scholars. Allah knows best . The Prophet was also aided wit h innumerable signs and indicat ions t hat t est ify t o t he t rut h of his prophet hood and what he was sent wit h, all t hanks and praise is due t o Allah.

Meaning of ` Stones

Allah said,

りケゅ∠ エ∇ャや∠ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ キヲ⊥ ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ケゅz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ イ͡ ヱ ⊥ レ ワ⊥ ホヱ わz ∠ レ ボz プ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∇れギハぺ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ z ͡ ⊥
(Then fear t he Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and st ones, prepared for t he disbelievers) (2:24). ` Fuel' is wood, or similar subst ances, used t o st art and feed a fire. Similarly, Allah said,

び ゅら∠ ェ ユレヰイャ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ プ ラヲ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゅz ぺヱぴ ⇔ ト∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ∠ ト͡ ボ ョ∠∠
(And as for t he Qasit un (disbelievers who deviat ed from t he right pat h), t hey shall be firewood for Hell) (72:15), and,

ユレヰィ ょダェ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムルまぴ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ z ͡ び ラヱ⊥ ケや∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユわル∠ ∠ キ͡ ヱ ヰャ ⊥ ぺ ゅ∠ Β͡ モミヱ ゅ∠ ヱ⊥ ケヱ ゅz るヰャや∠ ¬Ι⊥ ⇒∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ヲャぴ ヰ プ x ⊥ ∠ ワ キ∠ ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ¬ ͡ ぽ ワ ∠ ミ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∠ ギ͡ カ
(Cert ainly you (disbelievers) and t hat which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but ) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you ent er it . Had t hese (idols) been alihah (gods), t hey would not have ent ered t here (Hell), and all of t hem will abide t herein) (21:98-99). The st ones ment ioned here are t he giant , rot t en, black, sulfuric st ones t hat become t he hot t est when heat ed, may Allah save us from t his evil end. It was also report ed t hat t he st ones ment ioned here are t he idols and rivals t hat were worshipped inst ead of Allah, j ust as Allah said,

びユレヰィ ょダェ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムルまぴ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ z ͡
(Cert ainly you (disbelievers) and t hat which you are worshipping now besides Allah,are (but ) fuel for Hell!) (21:28). Allah's st at ement ,

びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∇れギハぺぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ z ͡ ⊥
(prepared for t he disbelievers) It appears most obvious t hat it refers t o t he Fire t hat is fueled by men and st ones, and it also may refer t o t he st ones t hemselves. There is no cont radict ion bet ween t hese t wo views, because t hey are dependent upon each ot her. ` Prepared' means, it is ` kept ' and will surely t ouch t hose who disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger . Ibn Ishaq narrat ed t hat Muhammad said t hat ` Ikrimah or Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said,

びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ∇れギハぺぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡ z ͡ ⊥
(prepared for t he disbelievers), "For t hose who embrace t he disbelief t hat you (disbelievers) have embraced.''

Jahannam (Hellfire) exists now
Many of t he Imams of t he Sunnah used t his Ayah t o prove t hat t he Fire exist s now. This is because Allah said,

び∇れギハぺぴ z͡ ⊥
(prepared) meaning, prepared and kept . There are many Hadit hs on t his subj ect . For inst ance, t he Prophet said,

«ケゅzャや∠ るz イ∇ャや ろィゅ∠ ゎ» レ ヱ ⊥ レ∠ ͡ z エ∠
(Paradise and t he Fire had an argument ..) Also, t he Prophet said,

ヶ͡ バ∠ モミぺ ゆケ :∇ろャゅ∠ プ ゅ∠ よケ ケゅz ャや ろルク∇ほわ∇シや» ツ よ ∠ ∠∠ あ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ヰz ∠ ⊥ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ザヘルヱ ¬ゅ∠ ゼャや ヶ͡ ザヘル :リ∇Βジヘレよ ゅ∠ ャ ラクほ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇バよ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ わあ プ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ツ ∠ «ブ∇Βダャや ヶ͡ z プ
(The Fire sought t he permission of her Lord. She said, 'O my Lord! Some part s of me consumed t he ot her part s.' And Allah allowed her t wo periods t o exhale, one in wint er and one in summer.) Also, t here is a Hadit h recorded from Ibn Mas` ud t hat t he Companions heard t he sound of a falling obj ect . When t hey asked about it , t he Messenger of Allah said,

リΒ͡ ∇らシ グ∇レョ ユレヰィ ゲΒ͡ セ ∇リョ ヮよ ヶボ∇ャぺ ゲイェ や∠ ワ» ∠ バ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ グ∠ «ゅ∠ ゲ∇バホ ヴャ͡ モタヱ ラべ∇ャや ∩⇔ レシ ワ͡ ∠ ま ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ る∠ ∠
(This is a st one t hat was t hrown from t he t op of Jahannam sevent y years ago, but only now reached it s bot t om.) This Hadit h is in Sahih Muslim. There are many Hadit hs t hat are Mut awat ir (narrat ed by many different chains of narrat ions) on t his subj ect , such as t he Hadit hs about t he eclipse prayer, t he night of Isra' et c. Allah's st at ement s,

びヮヤ∇んョ リあ りケヲ⊥ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ほプぴ ͡ ͡ あ ョ ∃ ∠ ジ͡ ゎ ∠
(Then produce a Surah (chapt er) of t he like t hereof) (2:23), and,

びヮヤ∇んョ りケヲ⊥ よぴ ͡ ͡ あ ∃ ∠ ジ͡
(A Surah (chapt er) like it ) (10:38) t his includes t he short and long Surahs of t he Qur'an. Therefore, t he challenge t o creat ion st ands wit h regards t o bot h t he long and short Surahs, and t here is no disagreement t hat I know of on t his fact bet ween t he scholars of old and new. Before he became Muslim, ` Amr bin Al-` As met Musaylimah t he Liar who asked him, "What has recent ly been revealed t o your fellow (meaning Muhammad ) in Makkah'' ` Amr said, "A short , yet eloquent Surah.'' He asked, "What is it '' He said,

び ゲ∇ジカ ヴ͡ ャ リ⇒∠ ル͡ や ラま - ゲ∇ダバ∇ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ⊥ ヘ∠ ∠ ジ Η z ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ
(By Al-` Asr (t he t ime). Verily, man is in loss,) (103:1-2) Musaylimah t hought for a while and said, "A similar Surah was also revealed t o me.'' ` Amr asked, "What is it '' He said, "O Wabr, O Wabr (i.e. a wild cat ), you are but t wo ears and a chest , and t he rest of you is unwort hy and t hin.'' ` Amr said, "By Allah! You know t hat I know t hat you are lying.''

∇ユヰャ ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゲゼよヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ コケ ゅ∠ ヤミ ゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ン͡ ∇イゎ ろ⇒z ィ ヰ ͡ ホ͡ ⊥ ヨz⊥ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ヰわ ゎ ョ ゲ ∠ ∃ レ∠ モ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ホコケ ン͡ ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ゅホ∇コケ りゲヨを リ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ レ ͡ ⊥ グz グ ワ ャ ホ ⇔ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∇ユワヱ りゲヰトョ ァヱ∇コぺ べ∠ Β͡ ∇ユヰャヱ ゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱ ⊥ ∠ ∀ ∠ z ∠ ぁ ∀ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ
(25. And give glad t idings t o t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, t hat for t hem will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). Every t ime t hey will be provided wit h a fruit t herefrom, t hey will say: "This is what we were provided wit h before,'' and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance (i.e. in t he same form but different in t ast e) and t hey shall have t herein Azwaj un Mut ahharat un (purified mat es or wives), and t hey will abide t herein forever.)

Rewards of Righteous Believers

Aft er ment ioning t he t orment t hat Allah has prepared for His miserable enemies who disbelieve in Him and in His Messengers, He ment ions t he condit ion of His happy, loyal friends who believe in Him and in His Messengers, adhere t o t he fait h and perform t he good deeds. This is t he reason why t he Qur'an was called Mat hani, based on t he correct opinion of t he scholars. We will elaborat e upon t his subj ect lat er. Mat hani means t o ment ion fait h and t hen disbelief, or vice versa. Or, Allah ment ions t he miserable and t hen t he happy, or vice versa. As for ment ioning similar t hings, it is called Tashabbuh, as we will come t o know, Allah willing. Allah said,

∇ユヰャ ラぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゲゼよヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ͡ あ ∠ ∠ びゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ン͡ ∇イゎ ろ⇒z ィ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ヰわ ゎ ョ ゲ ∠ ∃ レ∠
(And give glad t idings t o t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds, t hat for t hem will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)). Consequent ly, Allah st at ed t hat Paradise has rivers t hat run beneat h it , meaning, underneat h it s t rees and rooms. From Hadit hs it is learned t hat t he rivers of Paradise do not run in valleys, and t hat t he banks of Al-Kawt har (t he Prophet 's lake in Paradise) are made of domes of hollow pearls, t he sand of Paradise is made of scent ed musk while it s st ones are made from pearls and j ewels. We ask Allah t o grant Paradise t o us, for verily, He is t he Most Beneficent , Most Gracious. Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,

メゅ∠ ィ ろ∇エゎ ∇リョ ∇ヱぺ メゅ∠ゎ ろ∇エゎ ゲイヘゎ るレイ∇ャや ケゅ∠ ∇ルぺ» ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∃ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ «マ∇ジヨ∇ャや ͡
(The rivers of Paradise spring from beneat h hills, or mount ains of musk.) He also report ed from Masruq t hat ` Abdullah said, "The rivers of Paradise spring from beneat h mount ains of musk.''

The similarity between the Fruits of Paradise

Allah said next ,

や∠ ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅホ ゅホ∇コケ りゲヨを リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ コケ ゅ∠ ヤミぴ グ ワ ャ ∠ ⇔ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ ͡ ホ͡ ⊥ ヨz⊥ びモ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ホコケ ン͡ ャや ⊥ ∠ ョ レ ͡ ⊥ グz
(Every t ime t hey will be provided wit h a fruit t herefrom, t hey will say: "This is what we were provided wit h before'').

Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Yahya bin Abi Kat hir said, "The grass of Paradise is made of saffron, it s hills from musk and t he boys of everlast ing yout h will serve t he believers wit h fruit s which t hey will eat . They will t hen be brought similar fruit s, and t he people of Paradise will comment , ` This is t he same as what you have j ust brought us.' The boys will say t o t hem, ` Eat , for t he color is t he same, but t he t ast e is different . Hence Allah's st at ement ,

びゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱぴ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠
(and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance). Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi narrat ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat ,

びゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱぴ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠
(and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance) means, "They look like each ot her, but t he t ast e is different .'' Also, ` Ikrimah said,

びゅヰ͡ ⇒∠ わョ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ぺヱぴ ⇔ ら ゼ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ゎ⊥∠
(and t hey will be given t hings in resemblance) "They are similar t o t he fruit s of t his life, but t he fruit s of Paradise t ast e bet t er. '' Sufyan At h-Thawri report ed from Al-A` mash, from Abu Thubyan, t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Not hing in Paradise resembles anyt hing in t he life of t his world, except in name.'' In anot her narrat ion, Ibn ` Abbas said, "Only t he names are similar bet ween what is in t his life and what is in Paradise.''

The Wives of the People of Paradise are Pure
Allah said,

びりゲヰトョ ァヱ∇コぺ べ∠ Β͡ ∇ユヰャヱぴ ∀ ∠ z ∠ ぁ ∀ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠∠
(and t hey shall have t herein Azwaj un Mut ahharat un). Ibn Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Purified from filt h and impurit y.'' Also, Muj ahid said, "From menst ruat ion, relieving t he call of nat ure, urine, spit , semen and pregnancies.'' Also, Qat adah said, "Purified from impurit y and sin.'' In anot her narrat ion, he said, "From menst ruat ion and pregnancies.'' Furt her, ` At a', Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, ` At iyah and As-Suddi were report ed t o have said similarly. Allah's st at ement ,

びラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワヱぴ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠
(and t hey will abide t herein forever) meaning ult imat e happiness, for t he believers will enj oy everlast ing delight , safe from deat h and disrupt ion of t heir bliss, for it never ends or ceases.

We ask Allah t o make us among t hese believers, for He is t he Most Generous, Most Kind and Most merciful.

るッヲ⊥ よ ゅz Κんョ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ラ∠ ヴ∇エわ∇ジΑ Ι ヮヤャや ラまぴ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮz ぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプ ゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ プ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ラ ヨヤ Βプ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ キや∠ ぺ へ∠ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ぺヱ ∇ユヰよケ リ͡ ∠ ケ∠ ク ョ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ͡ あ z ョ や⇔ Β͡ ミ ヮよ ヵ͡ ∇ヰΑヱ や⇔ Β͡ ミ ヮよ ぁ ツΑ Κんョ や∠ ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ∠ グ ヰ͡ ⊥ ヤ ギ∇ヰハ ラヲ⊥ ボレ∠ リΑ͡ ャや - リΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや Ιま ヮよ ぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ グz ∠ ボ͡ ヘ z ͡ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱ ヮボ⇒∠ Β͡ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮヤャや ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ん ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ z ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ チ∇ケΙや ヶ͡ ラヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑヱ モタヲ⊥ ⊥⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ͡ x プ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α び ラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ガ
(26. Verily, Allah is not ashamed t o set fort h a parable even of a mosquit o or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) t han it . And as for t hose who believe, t hey know t hat it is t he t rut h from t heir Lord, but as for t hose who disbelieve, t hey say: "What did Allah int end by t his parable'' By it He misleads many, and many He guides t hereby. And He misleads t hereby only t he Fasiqin (t he rebellious, disobedient t o Allah). (27. Those who break Allah's covenant aft er rat ifying it , and sever what Allah has ordered t o be j oined and do mischief on eart h, it is t hey who are t he losers.) In his Tafsir, As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas, Ibn Mas` ud, and some Companions said; "When Allah gave t hese t wo examples of t he hypocrit es'' meaning Allah's st at ement s,

びやケゅ∠ ギホ∇ヲわ∇シや ン͡ ャや モんヨミ ∇ユヰヤんョぴ ⇔ ル ∠∠ ∠ グz ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠
(Their likeness is as t he likeness of one who kindled a fire), and,

び¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠
(Or like a rainst orm from t he sky), "The hypocrit es said, ` Allah's far more exalt ed t han for Him t o make such examples.' So Allah revealed t hese Ayat (2:26-27) up t o:

びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥
(Who are t he losers)''. Sa` id said t hat Qat adah said, "Allah does not shy away from t he t rut h when He ment ions a mat t er as a parable, whet her t his mat t er is significant or not . When Allah ment ioned t he flies and t he spider in His Book, t he people of misguidance said, ` Why did Allah ment ion t hese t hings.' So Allah revealed;

るッヲ⊥ よ ゅz Κんョ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ラぺ ヴ∇エわ∇ジΑ Ι ヮヤャや ラまぴ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ びゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ プ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨ∠
(Verily, Allah is not ashamed t o set fort h a parable even of a mosquit o or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) t han it ).''

A Parable about the Life of This World
Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi report ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas comment ed on t his Ayah (2:26); "This is an example t hat Allah has given for t he life of t his world. The mosquit o lives as long as it needs food, but when it get s fat , it dies. This is also t he example of people whom Allah ment ioned in t he Qur'an: when t hey acquire (and collect t he delight s of) t he life of t his world, Allah t hen t akes t hem away.'' Aft erwards, he recit ed,

あ ミ ゆや∠ ∇よぺ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇エわプ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ミク ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ル ゅz ヤプぴ モ⊥ ∠ ヲ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲあ ⊥ ョ ジ∠ ヨ∠∠ び¬∇ヴセ ∃ ∠
(So, when t hey forgot (t he warning) wit h which t hey had been reminded, We opened for t hem t he gat es of every (pleasant ) t hing) (6:44) In t his Ayah (2:26) Allah st at ed t hat He does not shy away or hesit at e in making an example or parable of anyt hing, whet her t he example involves a significant or an insignificant mat t er. Allah's st at ement ,

びゅ∠ ∠ ∇ヲ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ヰホ プ ヨ ∠
(Or so much more when it is bigger t han it ) Fama fawqaha means, somet hing bigger t han t he mosquit o, which is one of t he most insignificant and t iniest of creat ures. Muslim narrat ed t hat Aishah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said,

∇ろらわミ ゅzま ゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ∠ るミヲ∠ ポゅ∠ Α ユヤ∇ジョ ∇リョ ゅ∠ » ∠ ͡ ⊥ ャ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨプ ⇔ ∠ セ ⊥ ゼ⊥ ∃ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ョ «る∠ Β͡ カ ゅ∠ よ ヮ∇レハ ∇ろΒエョヱ ∩∀ ィケキ ゅ∠ よ ヮャ ゃ ト∠ ヰ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ る∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ⊥ ∠
(No Muslim is harmed by a t horn, Fama fawqaha (or somet hing larger), but a good deed will be writ t en for him and an evil deed will be erased from his record.) So Allah has informed us t hat t here is no mat t er t hat is t oo small t hat is exempt from being used as an example, even if it was as insignificant as a mosquit o or a spider. Allah said,

リΑ͡ ャや ラま ヮャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨわ∇シゅ∠ モんョ ゆゲッ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ グ z z ͡ ⊥ ∠ バ͡ ∠ プ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ヰ ぁ ほ ヲャヱ ゅよゅ∠ ク ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガΑ リ∠ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ラヲ⊥ ∇ギゎ ͡ ∠∠ ⇔ よ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ャ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ∠ ハ ∠ ロヱ⊥ ボレ∠ ∇ジΑ Ι ゅゃ∇Βセ ゆゅ∠ グャや ユヰ∇らヤ∇ジΑ ラ͡ヱ ヮャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨわ∇ィや ⊥ グ͡ わ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ⊥ よぁ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ま∠ ⊥ ∠ バ∠ ∠ び ゆヲ⊥∇トヨ∇ャや∠ ょャゅz ャや ブバッ ヮ∇レョ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ト ∠ ⊥∠ ⊥ ͡
(O mankind! A similit ude has been coined, so list en t o it (carefully): Verily, t hose on whom you call besides Allah, cannot creat e (even) a fly, even t hough t hey combine t oget her for t he purpose. And if t he fly snat ches away a t hing from t hem, t hey will have no power t o release it from t he fly. So weak are (bot h) t he seeker and t he sought .) (22:73),

モんヨミ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ∠ ゎや リΑ͡ ャや モんョぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ グガz ∠ グz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ろ∇Βらャ ͡ ヲ⊥ ら∇ャや リワ∇ヱぺ ラまヱ ゅわ∇Βよ ∇れグガゎや れヲ⊥ ムレ∠ ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ れ Β⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ら∠ バ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ れヲ⊥ ムレ∠ ∇ャや ラ ヨヤ Α ル ミ ∠ ͡ ら∠ バ
(The likeness of t hose who t ake (false deit ies as) Awliya' (prot ect ors, helpers) ot her t han Allah is t he likeness of a spider who builds (for it self) a house; but verily, t he frailest (weakest ) of houses is t he spider's house if t hey but knew.) (29:41), and,

るらΒデ るヨヤミ Κんョ ヮzャや ゆゲッ ブ∇Βミ ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ⇔ ∠ あ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ - ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ハ∇ゲプヱ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヤ∇タぺ るらΒデ りゲ∠ ゼミ ¬ ヨz プ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ ろよ を ヰ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ∠ ∃ イ∠ ∠ ヮヤャや ゆゲ∇ツΑヱ ゅ∠ よケ ラ∇クみよ リΒ͡ z ミ ゅ∠ ヤミぺ ヴ͡ ∇ぽゎ ⊥ z ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰあ ∠ ͡ ͡͡ ∃ ェ モ⊥ ヰ∠⊥ ⊥ ゎ ⊥

るヨヤミ モん∠ ヱ - ラヱ⊥ ミグわΑ ∇ユヰヤバャ サゅz ヤ͡ メゅ∠ ∇ョΕや ∃ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ゲz ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ん ∠ ゅ∠ チ∇ケΙや ベ∇ヲプ リ͡ ∇ろんわ∇ィや るんΒ͡ カ りゲイゼミ るんΒ͡ カ ョ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ョ z ⊥ ∃ ∠ ら∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ら∠ メ∇ヲボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヮzャや ろあ んΑ - ケや∠ ホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ャ ͡ ∠ よ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ ∃ ゲ∠ ョ ヰ∠ ヮzャや モツΑヱ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ヴ͡ ろよゅz ャや ⊥ ヤ ぁ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ∠ Β ぁ ͡ Β∠ プ͡ ͡ん び ¬べ∠ Α ゅ∠ ヮzャや モバ∇ヘΑヱ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ
(See you not how Allah set s fort h a parable A goodly word as a goodly t ree, whose root is firmly fixed, and it s branches (reach) t o t he sky (i.e. very high). Giving it s fruit at all t imes, by t he leave of it s Lord, and Allah set s fort h parables for mankind in order t hat t hey may remember. And t he parable of an evil word is t hat of an evil t ree uproot ed from t he surface of eart h, having no st abilit y. Allah will keep firm t hose who believe, wit h t he word t hat st ands firm in life of t his world (i.e. t hey will keep on worshipping Allah alone and none else), and in t he Hereaft er. And Allah will cause t he Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers) t o go ast ray t hose and Allah does what He wills.) (14:24-27). Allah said,

ヴ∠ハ ケギ∇ボΑ Ι ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥∇ヨョ や⇔ ∇らハ Κんョ ヮヤャや ゆゲッぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ z ミ ヤ z ギ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ び¬∇ヴセ ∃ ∠
(Allah put s forward t he example of (t wo men a believer and a disbeliever); a servant under t he possession of anot her, he has no power of any sort ) (16:75). He t hen said,

ケギ∇ボΑ Ι ユム∇よぺ べ∠ ワギェぺ リ∇Βヤィケ Κんョ ヮヤャや ゆゲッヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠⊥ z ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Ι ヮヰあ ヲΑ ゅ∠ レ∇Αぺ ロΙ∇ヲョ ヴ∠ハ モミ ヲワヱ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∠ ぁ ィ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ∠ x ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ びメ∇ギバ∇ャゅ͡ ゲョ∇ほΑ リ∠ ヱ ヲワ ン͡ ∠ ∇ジ∠ ∇モワ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほΑ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヲ わ Α ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠
(And Allah put s forward (anot her) example of t wo men, one of t hem dumb, who has no power over anyt hing, and he is a burden on his mast er; whichever way he direct s him, he brings no good. Is such a man equal t o one who commands j ust ice) (16:76). Also, Allah said,

びや⇔ Β͡ ミ ヮよ ぁ ツΑぴ ゲ ん∠ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ (By it He misleads many). and fait h t o t heir fait h. wit h t he parables. and Allah guides t he believers by t hese parables. Allah guides t he believers wit h t hese parables. びリΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや Ιま ヮよ ぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ボ͡ ヘ z ͡ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ . t he parables t hat Allah has ment ioned.ゅz リあ ∇ユムャ ∇モワ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇リョ Κんョ ∇ユムャ ゆゲッぴ ョ ョ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ぺ あ ⇔ ∠z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ¬べ∠ ゲセ リあ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇Αぺ ∇ろムヤョ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ョ プ ∠ ミ∠ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (He set s fort h for you a parable from your own selves: Do you have part ners among t hose whom your right hands possess (i. びやゲΒ͡ ミぴ ⇔ ん∠ (many) from among t he people of fait h and convict ion. whet her t hey involve large mat t ers or small. and t he st raying of t he hypocrit es increases when t hey rej ect t he parables t hat Allah ment ioned for t hem which t hey know are t rue. Muj ahid comment ed on Allah's st at ement . your servant s) t o share as equals in t he wealt h we have best owed on you) (30:28). "Meaning t he hypocrit es.'' びヮよ ヵ͡ ∇ヰΑヱぴ ͡ ͡ ギ ∠∠ (And He guides t hereby) meaning. Ibn Mas` ud and ot her people among t he Companions said. るッヲ⊥ よ ゅz Κんョ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ラ∠ ヴ∇エわ∇ジΑ Ι ヮヤャや ラまぴ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ョ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ びゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ プ ヰ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ (Verily.'' In his Tafsir. Allah is not ashamed t o set fort h a parable even of a mosquit o or so much more when it is bigger t han it . because t hey know t hat t hey are t he t rut h from t heir Lord. t hat is. because t hey firmly believe in what t hey know t o be t rue. Allah adds guidance t o t heir guidance. This is guidance t hat Allah grant s t hem. As-Suddi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas. This is how Allah misleads t hem.) "The believers believe in t hese parables.e.

and sever what Allah has ordered t o be j oined and do mischief on eart h.ょ⇒∠ ∇ャΕや ∇やヲ⊥∇ヱぺ ゲミグわΑ ゅ∠ ルま ヴ∠ ∇ハぺ ヲワ ∠ グz ͡ ら∠ ャ ⊥ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨz ͡ ヨ ∠ ∠ ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや∠ . includes t he disbeliever and t he disobedient . t he mouse and t he rabid dog. meaning. who knows t hat what has been revealed unt o you (O Muhammad ) from your Lord is t he t rut h. and t hey must be killed during Ihram and ot herwise: t he crow. The Two Sahihs recorded ` A'ishah saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. t hey are .) eFasiq. when it comes out of it s skin. because it leaves it s den t o cause mischief. and t his is t he t ype of Fasiq t hat t he Ayah is describing here. covenant ). The Arabs say t hat t he dat e has Fasaqat .(And He misleads t hereby only t he Fasiqin (t he rebellious. t he Fisq of t he disbeliever is worse. disobedient t o Allah)). t he hypocrit es. t he kit e.) These are t he charact erist ics of t he disbelievers and t hey cont radict t he qualit ies of t he believers. ゆや∠ ピャや :ュゲエ∇ャや∠ モエ∇ャや ヶ͡ リ∇ヤわ∇ボΑ ペシや∠ プ ∀ ∇ヨカ» ⊥ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヱ あ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ヲ∠ ザ ∠ «ケヲ⊥ バ∇ャや ょ∇ヤム∇ャや∠ りケ∇ほヘ∇ャや∠ ゆゲ∇ボバ∇ャや∠ りぺギエ∇ャや∠ ボ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ヱ (Five animals are Fawasiq. ∇リヨミ ペエ∇ャや マよケ リ͡ マ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ルぺ ユヤ∇バΑ リ∠ ∠ ∠ぴ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨz ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨプぺ リΑ͡ ャや . and t hey call t he mouse a Fuwaysiqah. And t hose who j oin t hat which Allah has commanded t o be j oined (i. Similarly. However. t he scorpion. ヮボ⇒∠ Β͡ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮヤャや ギ∇ヰハ ラヲ⊥ ボレ∠ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ͡ ん ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ グz ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∇ヘΑ∠ モタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱ ラ ギジ ⊥ ヱ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ チ∇ケΙや ヶ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ͡ x プ (Those who break Allah's covenant aft er rat ifying it . it is t hey who are t he losers.ペ⇒∠ Β͡ ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ボレ͡ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ギ∇ヰバよ ラヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ん ヨ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ Α ラ∇ヲゼ∇ガΑヱ モタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ダΑ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ び ゆゅ∠ エャや ¬ヲ⊥ ラヲ⊥ ゅ∠ Αヱ ∇ユヰよケ ͡ ジ͡ ∠ シ ∠ プ ガ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ (Shall he t hen. be like him who is blind But it is only t he men of underst anding t hat pay heed. Allah said in Surat Ar-Ra` d. Those who fulfill t he covenant of Allah and break not t he Mit haq (bond. t reat y.e. because Allah described t hem as.

Ignoring t his covenant const it ut es breaking it . The covenant was broken when t he disbelievers denied what was proven t o t hem t o be aut hent ic and rej ect ed Allah's Prophet s and Books. and t hey hid t his t rut h from people. as Qat adah assert ed.) (13:19-21)) unt il. and t o believe in him. Breaking Allah's covenant in t his case occured when t he People of t he Book rej ect ed t he Prophet aft er t hey knew t he t rut h about him.e.e. idol worshippers and hypocrit es. Allah informed us t hat t hey t hrew t he covenant behind t heir backs and sold it for a miserable price. and in what he was sent wit h. and it is very good. and for t hem is t he unhappy (evil) home (i.good t o t heir relat ives and do not sever t he bond of kinship). knowing t hat His Messengers would bring proofs and miracles t hat none among t he creat ion could ever produce. Hell).e. and work mischief in t he land. t hat is. t o obey Him and avoid t he sins t hat He prohibit ed. and dread t he t errible reckoning. even t hough t hey swore t o Allah t hat t hey would do ot herwise. These miracles t est ified t o t he t rut h of Allah's Messengers. It was said t hat t he Ayah (2:27) is about t he disbelievers and t he hypocrit es among t he People of t he Book. and fear t heir Lord. ヮボ⇒∠ Β͡ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮヤャや ギ∇ヰハ ラヲ⊥ ボレ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ん ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∇ヘΑ∠ モタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮzャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱ ラ ギジ ⊥ ヱ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ び ケやz ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャヱ るレ∇バzャや ユヰャ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ͡ ギ ⊥ シ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ x プ (And t hose who break t he covenant of Allah. In t his case. t hey sever t he bond of kinship and are not good t o t heir relat ives). It was also report ed t hat t he Ayah (2:27) refers t o all disbelievers. He also t ook a covenant from t hem t o obey His commands and refrain from His prohibit ions. チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ジ∇ヘゎ ラ∠ ∇ユわ∇Βャヲゎ ラ͡ ∇ユわ∇Βジハ ∇モヰプぴ ͡ x プ ギ͡ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ま ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∇ユムョゅ∠ ∇ケぺ ∇やヲ⊥ トボゎヱ ⊥ ∠ ェ ∠ バあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ . t hey will be far away from Allah's mercy). aft er it s rat ificat ion. びモタヲ⊥ ラ∠ ヮよ ヮヤャや ゲョぺ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ト∇ボΑヱぴ ∠ ∠ Α ぺ ͡ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ (And sever what Allah has ordered t o be j oined) is in reference t o keeping t he relat ions wit h t he relat ives. showing t hem t he signs t hat t est ify t o His Lordship. t he covenant t hat t hey broke is t he pledge t hat Allah t ook from t hem in t he Tawrah t o follow Muhammad when he is sent as a Prophet . alt hough t hey knew t hat t hey were t he t rut h. It is also t he view t hat Az-Zamakhshari held. This Tafsir was report ed from Muqat il bin Hayyan. Allah's st at ement next . This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement .) (13:25) The covenant t hat t hese deviant people broke is Allah's covenant wit h His creat ion. Allah t ook t heir pledge t o believe in His Oneness. and sever t hat which Allah has commanded t o be j oined (i. This covenant was reit erat ed in Allah's Books and by t he words of His Messengers. on t hem is t he curse (i.

) "` Losers is plural for loser. t hen t hese t erms refer t o sin. びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ (It is t hey who are t he losers) "In t he Hereaft er. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. t hey will be far away from Allah's mercy). t hen again will bring you t o life (on t he Day of Resurrect ion) and t hen unt o Him you will ret urn.'' z を ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ェほプ ゅ⇔ ヲ∇ョぺ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎ ブ∇Βミぴ ユ⊥ ⊥ Β ∠∠ ゎ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲゎ ヮ∇Βャま z を ∇ユムΒ͡ ∇エΑ z を ∇ユムわΒ͡ Α ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡ ユ⊥ ⊥ Β ⊥ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ⊥ (28. "Every charact erist ic t hat Allah describes t hose ot her t han t he people of Islam .'' Ibn Jarir comment ed on Allah's st at ement .(Would you t hen. びケやz ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャヱ るレ∇バヤャや ユヰャ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ギ ⊥ シ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (On t hem is t he curse (i. if you were given t he aut horit y.t hen it refers t o disbelief. The Meaning of ` Loss Muqat il bin Hayyan comment ed on Allah's st at ement .e. and t he people severed. and sever your t ies of kinship) (47:22) Ibn Jarir At -Tabari preferred t his opinion. However. Such is t he case wit h t he hypocrit e and t he disbeliever who lose t heir share of t he mercy t hat Allah has in st ore for His servant s on t he Day of Resurrect ion. Hell)) (13:25). it has been said t hat t he meaning of t he Ayah (2:27) here is more general. Hence. and for t hem is t he unhappy (evil) home (i. How can you disbelieve in Allah seeing t hat you were dead and He gave you life Then He will give you deat h. do mischief in t he land. .e. Also. And t hat is when t he disbeliever and t he hypocrit e most desperat ely need Allah's mercy.such as being losers . t his word refers t o whoever decreased his own share of Allah's mercy by disobeying Him.) Allah t est ifies t o t he fact t hat He exist s and t hat He is t he Creat or and t he Sust ainer Who has full aut horit y over His servant s. when t hey are at t ribut ed t o t he people of Islam. is included in it s meaning.'' Similarly. Allah said. everyt hing t hat Allah has commanded t o nurt ure. However. びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ (It is t hey who are t he losers. j ust as t he merchant loses in his t rade by sust aining capit al loss.

ラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ ∇ュぺ ¬∇ヴセ ゲ∇Βビ ∇リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤカ ∇ュぺぴ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ボ͡⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ Ι モ∠ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヤカ ∠ レ͡ Α z よ ∠ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ボ∠∠ (Were t hey creat ed by not hing Or were t hey t hemselves t he creat ors Or did t hey creat e t he heavens and t he eart h Nay.'' Ibn ` Abbas t hen said. Ibn Jarir report ed from ` At a' t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat .びヮヤャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎ ブ∇Βミぴ ͡ z よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (How can you disbelieve in Allah) How can anyone deny Allah's exist ence or worship ot hers wit h Him while. びリ∇Βわレ∇をや ゅ∠ わ∇ΒΒ∇ェぺヱ リ∇Βわレ∇をや ゅ∠ わョぺ べ∠ よケ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ レz ∠ ∠ レz ∠ ャ ホ (They will say: "Our Lord! You have made us t o die t wice and You have given us life t wice.'') (40:11)'' . There are many ot her Ayat on t his subj ect . Similarly. Allah said. You were not hing unt il Allah creat ed you. He brought t hem from t he st at e of nonexist ence t o life. リ⊥ Α ∇ユャ ゲ∇ワギャや リョ ∀ Β͡ リ⇒∠ ル͡ や ヴ∠ハ ヴ∠ ぺ ∇モワぴ ム∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ あ リ ェ ͡ ジ Η ヤ∠ ゎ∠ ∠ び やケヲ⊥ ∇グョ ゅゃ∇Βセ ⇔ ミz ⇔ ∠ (Has t here not been over man a period of t ime. び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ェほプ ゅ⇔ ヲ∇ョぺ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヱぴ ⊥ Β ∠∠ ゎ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ (Seeing t hat you were dead and He gave you life) means. "This is similar t o Allah's st at ement . "You did not exist beforehand. ∇ュぺ . び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ェほプ ゅ⇔ ヲ∇ョぺ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヱぴ ⊥ Β ∠∠ ゎ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ (You were dead and He gave you life) meaning. He will bring deat h t o you and t hen bring you back t o life during Resurrect ion. when he was not a t hing wort h ment ioning) (76:1). but t hey have no firm belief) (52:35-36) and.

t he creat ion of t he heavens and eart h. びz ワやz ジプぴ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ (And made t hem) meaning. Allah said. びペヤカ ∇リョ ユヤ∇バΑ Ιぺぴ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Should not He Who has creat ed know) (67:14). Allah said. The Beginning of the Creation This Ayah (2:29) is explained in det ail in Surat As-Saj dah where Allah said. He ment ioned anot her proof t hat t hey can wit ness. t hat He made t he heaven. and what t hey can wit ness in t hemselves as proof of t hat .) Evidence of Allah's Ability Aft er Allah ment ioned t he proofs of His creat ing t hem.z を ゅバΒ͡ ィ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ペヤカ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ x プ ョ ム∠ ∠ ∠∠ グz ∠ ⊥ ヲワヱ れや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨz ャ͡ ヲ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ムよ ユ ヤハ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ (29. z を ゅバΒ͡ ィ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ペヤカ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ x プ ョ ム∠ ∠ ∠∠ グz ∠ ⊥ びれや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨz ャ͡ ヲ∠ (He it is Who creat ed for you all t hat is on eart h. Then He Ist awa ila t he heaven and made t hem seven heavens) meaning. Then He Ist awa ila t he heaven and made t hem seven heavens and He is t he Knower of everyt hing. He t urned t owards t he heaven. He it is Who creat ed for you all t hat is on eart h. び∀ Β͡∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ムよ ヲワヱ れや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプぴ ユ ヤハ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ (And made t hem seven heavens and He is t he Knower of everyt hing) meaning. j ust as He said in anot her Ayah. . t hat is. His knowledge encompasses all His creat ion. seven heavens.

all t hese four ` days' were equal in t he lengt h of t ime) for all t hose who ask (about it s creat ion). as t he scholars of Tafsir reit erat ed. This is how building usually st art s. and measured t herein it s sust enance (for it s dwellers) in four Days equal (i. He placed t herein (i.リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ マャク やキや∠ ル∠ ヮャ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇イ∠ ∠ リ∇Βョ∇ヲΑ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ぁ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ギ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ラ ヤ バ ゎ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ケギホヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ポゲ⇒∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ホ∇ヲプ リ͡ ヴシや∠ ケ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバィヱ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ よ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ヱ∠ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z を .e. and said t o it and t o t he eart h: "Come bot h of you willingly or unwillingly. t hen He made heaven int o seven heavens.'' They bot h said: "We come willingly.ゅ∠ ⇒∠ キ マャク ギ∇バよ チ∇ケΙや∠ ワ∠ ョ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ ェ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ x ヱ .e.ヴ͡ チ∇ケΙや ペヤカ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムわャ ∇ユムル¬ぺ ∇モホぴ プ ∠ x ∠ ∠∠ グz よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ . as we will come t o know. ゅ∠ ム∇ヨシ ノプケ . Allah willing. t he eart h) firm mount ains from above it . t he Knower) (41:9-12).ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ッ ァゲ∇カぺヱ ゅ∠ ヤ∇Βャ ズト∇ビぺヱ . And We adorned t he nearest (lowest ) heaven wit h lamps (st ars) t o be an adornment as well as t o guard (from t he devils by using t hem as missiles against t he devils).リΒ͡もべジヤあ ¬へ∠ シ ュゅz ぺ るバよ∇ケぺ ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ゎヲ∇ホぺ べ∠ Β͡ ユ⊥ ∠ ヤ͡ z ャ ⇔ ヲ∠ ∃ Α∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ゅ∠ ャ メゅ∠ プ ∀ ゅ∠ キ ヴワヱ ¬べ∠ ジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや ヰ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ラ カ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヨz ャ͡ ヲ∠ リΒ͡ もべ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎぺ べ∠ ャゅ∠ ゅワ∇ゲミ ∇ヱぺ ゅハ∇ヲデ ゅ∠ わ∇もや チ∇ケΚャヱ ∠ バ͡ デ レ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ホ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ Β͡ ͡ x ͡∠ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ ∇ヱ∠∠ リ∇Βョ∇ヲΑ ヴ͡ れヲ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワゅ∠ ボプ プ ェ ぺヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ プ ∃ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ツ∠ ∠ ウΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨよ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ∠ べ∠ ジャや ゅz Αコヱ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ョぺ ¬べ∠ シ あ ミ ∠ ら ダ∠ ͡ Β ぁ ¬ ヨz レz ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ∠ ∃ ヨ∠ モ⊥ び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゴΑ͡ バ∇ャや ゲΑ͡ ∇ボゎ マャク ゅヌ∇ヘェヱ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ゴ∠ ⊥ ギ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⇔ ͡ ∠ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who creat ed t he eart h in t wo Days And you set up rivals (in worship) wit h Him That is t he Lord of all t hat exist s. wit h t he lower floors first and t hen t he t op floors. These Ayat indicat e t hat Allah st art ed creat ion by creat ing eart h.'' Then He finished t hem (as) seven heavens in t wo Days and He made in each heaven it s affair.ゅ∠ ⇒∠ よ ¬べ∠ ジャや ュぺ ゅボ∇ヤカ ギセぺ ∇ユわル∠ ぺぴ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ レ∠ ⊥ ヨz ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ¬∠ . and He blessed it . Then He Ist awa ila t he heaven when it was smoke.ゅ∠ やz ジプ ヰ エ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ワ ヲ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲ∇カぺ . Such is t he decree of t he Almight y. Allah also said.

And brought fort h t herefrom it s wat er and it s past ure. Several Tafsir scholars of old and recent t imes also said similarly.ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ゲョヱ ⊥ z ⇔ わ∠ ヰ シ ∠ ∠ ら͡ ヱ ヰハ ∠∠ び ∇ユムヨ⇒∠ ∇ルΙヱ ⊥͡ バ 6 ∠ (Are you more difficult t o creat e or is t he heaven t hat He const ruct ed He raised it s height . t his was report ed from Ibn ` Abbas by ` Ali bin Abi Talhah.ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ケぺ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ . smoke burst out of it . This is why Allah said. and has perfect ed it .∇ユムャ ゅバ⇒∠ ョ . The Earth was created before Heaven Muj ahid comment ed on Allah's st at ement . The result of t hat discussion is . And t he mount ains He has fixed firmly. びゅバΒ͡ ィ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ペヤカ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ⇔ ヨ∠ ͡ x プ ョ ム∠ ∠ ∠∠ グz ∠ ⊥ (He it is Who creat ed for you all t hat is on eart h) "Allah creat ed t he eart h before heaven. It is said t hat "Then'' in t he Ayah (2:29) relat es only t o t he order of recit ing t he informat ion being given.'' This Ayah t est ifies t o t he fact t hat t he eart h was creat ed before heaven. aft er t hat . he said t hat t he eart h was creat ed before heaven. as Allah has indicat ed in t he Ayat in Surat As-Saj dah. and t he eart h was spread out only aft er t he creat ion of t he heaven. and when He creat ed t he eart h. one below t he ot her. as we have elaborat ed on in t he Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi` at (chapt er 79). び∀ ゅ∠ キ ヴワヱ ¬べヨジャや ヴ∠ま ン∠ わ∇シや z をぴ ラ カ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ャ͡ ヲ∠ ユ⊥ (Then He Ist awa ila (t urned t owards) t he heaven when it was smoke. Spreading the Earth out after the Heavens were created Sahih Al-Bukhari records t hat when Ibn ` Abbas was quest ion about t his mat t er.) (41:11) びれや∠ ⇒∠ シ ノ∇らシ z ワやz ジプぴ ∃ ヲ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ リ⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ (And made t hem seven heavens) means. And t he eart h. It s night He covers wit h darkness and it s forenoon He brings out (wit h light ). (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cat t le) (79:27-33). it does not relat e t o t he order t hat t he event s being ment ioned t ook place. one above t he ot her. He spread it out . while t he ` seven eart hs' means.

The st ars st art ed rot at ing along wit h t he planet s t hat rot at e around t hem.) (79:30-32) Therefore. "O Muhammad ! Ment ion t o your people what Allah said t o t he angels. And (remember) when your Lord said t o t he angels: "Verily.ゅ∠ ⇒∠ キ マャク ギ∇バよ チ∇ケΙや∠ ぴ ワ∠ ョ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ ェ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ x ヱ び ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ケぺ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ . Generation after Generation Allah reit erat ed His favor on t he Children of Adam when He st at ed t hat He ment ioned t hem in t he highest of height s before He creat ed t hem. ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲ∇カぺ . びるムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ マよケ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡∠ (And (remember) when your Lord said t o t he angels. I am going t o place (mankind) generat ions aft er generat ions on eart h.'') Adam and His Children inhabited the Earth. Daha means t hat t he eart h's t reasures were brought t o it s surface aft er finishing t he j ob of creat ing what ever will reside on eart h and heaven.'' He (Allah) said: "I know t hat which you do not know. And t he mount ains He has fixed firmly. And Allah knows best .'' They said: "Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood. チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヶあ ま るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ マよケ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ ∠ プ モハ ィ ル͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡∠ マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ るヘΒ͡カ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ホ ⇔ ∠ ヤ∠ ヶあ ま メゅ∠ マャ サあ ボルヱ ポギ∇ヨエよ ウあ ジル リ∇エルヱ ¬べ∠ ギャや ル͡ ∠ ホ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョあ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (30.) This Ayah means. And brought fort h t herefrom it s wat er and it s past ure. colors.ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ゲョヱ ヰ シ ∠ ∠ ら͡ ヱ ヰ ハ ∠ ∠ (And t he eart h. He spread it out . . Allah said. shapes and kinds of plant s grew. while we glorify You wit h praises and t hanks and sanct ify You. aft er t hat .t hat t he word Daha (t ranslat ed above as "spread'') is ment ioned and explained in Allah's st at ement . t he wat er burst out t o it s surface and t he various t ypes. When t he eart h became Daha.

according t o t heir underst anding of human nat ure. び¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood).) (43: 60) and. It appears t hat Allah was not refering t o Adam specifically as Khalifah. Or. replacing each ot her on t he eart h) (6:165). forbidding t hem from inj ust ice and sin. cent ury aft er cent ury. t he angels underst ood t his fact from t he word Khalifah. We would have (dest royed you (mankind all.びるヘΒ͡カ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヶあ まぴ ⇔ ∠ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ プ モハ ィ ル͡ (Verily. The angels knew of t his fact . チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ るムゃ⇒∠ョ ∇ユムレ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバイャ ¬べ∠ ル ∇ヲャヱぴ ͡ x プ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ヤz ⊥ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゼ∠ ∠∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガΑ ∠ ヘ⊥ ∠ (And if it were Our will. which also means t he person who j udges disput es t hat occur bet ween people. び∀ ∇ヤ∠ ∇ユワギ∇バよ リ͡ ブヤガプぴ ブ カ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ (Then aft er t hem succeeded an (evil) generat ion (Khalf)) (7:169). as Al-Qurt ubi said. for Allah st at ed t hat He would creat e man from clay. The angels meant t hat t his t ype of creat ure usually commit s t he at rocit ies t hey ment ioned. びチ∇ケΙや ブゃ⇒∠カ ∇ユムヤバィ ン͡ ャや ヲワヱぴ ͡ x ∠ ͡ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ⊥ ∠ (And it is He Who has made you (Khala'if) generat ions coming aft er generat ions. . j ust as Allah said. and) made angels t o replace you (Yakhlufun) on t he eart h. びチ∇ケΙや ¬べ∠ ヤェ ∇ユムヤバ∇イΑヱぴ ͡ x ∠ ヘ∠⊥ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ (And makes you (Khulafa') inherit ors of t he eart h) (27:62). ot herwise he would not have allowed t he angels' st at ement . Meaning people reproducing generat ion aft er generat ion. I am going t o place a Khalifah on eart h).

meaning t hat t hey do not ask Allah anyt hing wit hout His permission. t he modest .The st at ement t he angels ut t ered was not a form of disput ing wit h Allah's. t he scholars who implement t heir knowledge. as Qat adah ment ioned. び¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood) This is only a quest ion for t he sake of learning about t he wisdom of t hat . mart yrs. while having bet t er knowledge. humble people and t hose who love Allah and follow His Messengers. ) Hence. Allah asks t hem. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know.) meaning. "We came t o t hem while t hey were praying and left t hem while t hey were praying. t he pious. we praise and glorify You (meaning we pray t o You) we never indulge in mischief. so why creat e ot her creat ures'' Allah said t o t he angels in answer t o t heir inquiry. and t he deeds of t he morning before t he night falls. Allah has described t hem as t hose who do not precede Him in speaking. . "I know t hat t he benefit of creat ing t his t ype of creat ure out weighs t he harm t hat you ment ioned. The angels who descended will remain wit h us. right eous believers. and t hey had knowledge t hat t his creat ion would commit mischief on it . The Messenger of Allah said.'' The Sahih recorded t hat when t he angels ascend t o Allah wit h t he records of t he servant 's deeds.'' explains Allah's st at ement . while t he angels who have remained wit h us ascend wit h our deeds. as if t hey said. I will also creat e among t hem t rut hful. When Allah informed t hem t hat He was going t o creat e a creat ion on t he eart h. ケゅ∠ レャや モヨハヱ ケゅ∠ レャや モ∇らホ モ∇Βヤャや モヨハ ヮ∇Βャま ノプ∇ゲΑ» ͡ ヰz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヰz ∠ ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ «モ∇Βヤャや モ∇らホ z ∠ ∠ (The deeds of t he night are elevat ed t o Allah before t he morning. t hey said. I will creat e among t hem Prophet s and send Messengers.'' This is because t he angels work in shift s wit h mankind. Our Lord! What is t he wisdom of creat ing such creat ures since t hey will cause t rouble in t he eart h and spill blood "If t he wisdom behind t his act ion is t hat You be worshipped. as some mist akenly t hought . t he angels' st at ement . "How did you leave My servant s'' They will say. "We came t o t hem while t hey were praying and left t hem while t hey were praying. and t hey change shift s during t he Faj r and ` Asr prayers. t hat which you have no knowledge of. nor out of envy for t he Children of Adam. worshippers.

) is.'' It was also said t hat it is in answer t o. t o aid t he oppressed against t he oppressor.) is t heir request t hat t hey should be allowed t o inhabit t he eart h. while we glorify you wit h praises and t hanks and sanct ify You. and what is necessary . Allah knows best . inst ead of t he Children of Adam. alt hough he is among you. リ∇エルヱ ¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ びマャ サあ ボルヱ ポギ∇ヨエよ ウあ ジル ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ "(Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood. So Allah said t o t hem. "I have a specific wisdom in creat ing t hem. There are many ot her t asks t hat can only be fulfilled by appoint ing t he Imam.) It was said t hat t he meaning of Allah's st at ement . t o implement t he Islamic penal code and t o forbid evil. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know). The Obligation of appointing a Khalifah and some related Issues Al-Qurt ubi.'' Ot hers said. which you do not have knowledge of. as well as ot her scholars. びマャ サあ ボルヱ ポギ∇ヨエよ ウあ ジル リ∇エルヱぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (While we glorify You wit h praises and t hanks and sanct ify You) aft er which Allah said. or worse for you. "I know t hat Iblis is not as you are. said t hat t his Ayah (2:30) proves t he obligat ion of appoint ing a Khalifah t o pass j udgement s on mat t ers of disput e bet ween people. Meaning. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know) if your inhabit ing t he heavens is bet t er. びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know.'' Ar-Razi as well as ot hers said t his.び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ まぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ (I know t hat which you do not know.

It is not permissible t o appoint t wo Imams for t he world or more at t he same t ime. able t o perform Ij t ihad (independent legal j udgment s). should he be impeached There is disagreement over t his mat t er.by t he Prophet . according t o t he maj orit y of t he scholars. as Abu Bakr did wit h ` Umar.in t he case of Abu Bakr. When t he Khalifah becomes an immoral person (Fasiq). or t hat he be immune from error. bodily able. and Al-Hasan was praised for t his act ion. Or. Imam Al-Haramayn himself was indecisive about t his view. because t he Messenger of Allah said. right eous. ∇ユムレ∇Βよ ベゲヘΑ ∇ラぺ ギΑ͡ Α ∀ Β͡ ィ ∇ユミゲ∇ョぺヱ ∇ユミ¬ゅ∠ ∇リョ» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ノ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠ «ラゅ∠ ∇リョ ゅ⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ロヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ミ ∠ レも ミ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ プ (Whoever came t o you while you are unit ed and t ried t o divide you. The Khalifah must be a responsible adult Muslim male. t he Khalifah might leave t he mat t er in t he hands of t he Muslim consult at ive council. is an obligat ion it self. However.) This is t he view of t he maj orit y of scholars. t he current Khalifah names a cert ain person as Khalifah aft er him. It is a fact t hat Al-Hasan bin ` Ali removed himself from t he posit ion of Khalifah and surrendered it t o Mu` awiyah. no mat t er who he is. but t he correct view is t hat he is not t o be removed. However. or t hey could select one among t hem t o choose t he candidat e. Imam Al-Haramayn st at ed t hat Abu Ishaq allowed t he appoint ment of t wo or more Imams when t he various provinces are far away from each ot her. Or. . He also must be from t he t ribe of Quraysh. as t he Rafidah (Shiit es) falsely claim. t he people of aut horit y could gat her around a cert ain person t o whom t hey give t he pledge of allegiance. wit h knowledge of warfare. This is not allowed because t he Messenger of Allah said. Or. t his occurred because of a necessit y. but it is not necessary t hat he be from t he t ribe of Bani Hashim. or hint ing t o a successor. ) Does t he Khalifah have t he right t o resign from his post There is a difference on t his issue. t hen execut e him. j ust as ` Umar did. We should st at e here t hat Imamah occurs by eit her naming a successor. as a group among Ahl As-Sunnah scholars said occurred .in performing an obligat ion. ヮΒ͡ ぶや リョ ∇ユミギ∇レハ ゅ⇔ や∠ よ や⇔ ∇ヘミ や∇ヱゲゎ ∇ラぺ ゅzま» ͡ プ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ェ ヲ∠ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ «ラゅ∠ ∇ゲよ ワ ⊥ (Unless you wit ness a clear Kufr regarding which you have clear proof from Allah. polit ics. according t o t he correct view. or a group of right eous men.

ユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ろル∠ マルま ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ∠ ホ ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ ∇ユムャ モ⊥ ぺ ∇ユャぺ メゅ∠ ユ͡ もべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ほらルぺ べz ヤプ ∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ⊥ z ホ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ホ ヰ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ワ∠∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れや∠ ⇒∠ ジャや ょ∇Βビ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ ま ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ヲ ヨz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ び ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ (31. So Allah informed t he angels t hat He knows what t hey do not know. and t hen He ment ioned t his t o show t hem Adam's superiorit y over t hem in knowledge. rat her t han t hem. Verily.リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ レ∠ z∠ ョ z ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ャ ホ ∠ ホ͡ タ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ メゅ∠ . This occurred aft er t hey prost rat ed t o him. This discussion precedes t hat event here. t he names of everyt hing. only t o show t he import ance of his posit ion. because He t aught Adam. They (angels) said: "Glory is t o You. びゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ .ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰッゲハ z を ゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ¬べ∠ ∇シほよ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ らル∠ メゅ∠ プ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや ⊥ ミ ま ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ル ゃ͡ ぺ ∠ ボ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ べ∠ わ∇ヨヤハ ゅ∠ Ιま べ∠ ∠ ユ∇ヤハ Ι マレ⇒∠ ∇らシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ . Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah. and t he absence of t he angels' knowledge about creat ing t he Khalifah when t hey asked about it .'') (33. "Tell Me t he names of t hese if you are t rut hful. and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing'') The Virtue of Adam over the Angels Allah st at ed t he virt ue of Adam above t he angels.'' and when he had informed t hem of t heir names. we have no knowledge except what you have t aught us. He said: "Did I not t ell you t hat I know t he Ghayb (unseen) in t he heavens and t he eart h. You are t he Knower. Allah said.'') (32. t hen He showed t hem t o t he angels and said. びゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ (And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing)). He said: "O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names. And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing). t he Wise.

animal. j ust as Ibn ` Abbas st at ed about t he t erms for passing gas. びゅ∠ ヤミ ¬べ∠ ∇シΕや ュキや∠ ユヤハヱぴ ヰz⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z∠ ∠ (And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing)) "Did Allah t each him t he names of t he plat e and t he pot '' He said.(And He t aught Adam all t he names (of everyt hing)) "Meaning. t he names of t heir charact erist ics. Al-Bukhari explained t his Ayah in t he Book of Tafsir wit h a report from Anas bin Malik who said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. and so fort h.'' Ibn Abi Hat im and Ibn Jarir report ed t hat ` Asim bin Kulayb narrat ed from Sa` id bin Ma` bad t hat Ibn ` Abbas was quest ioned. horse. t heir proper names. land. and even t he t erms for breaking wind!'' Allah t aught Adam t he names of everyt hing. sea. In his Sahih. ヲャ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ラヲ⊥ ョぽ⊥ ∇ャや ノヨわ∇イΑ» ͡ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ヨ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥ ぺ ろ∇ルぺ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ュキへ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ ゅ∠ よケ ヴ∠ま ゅ∠ ∇バヘ∇ゼわ∇シや よ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ レあ ∠ ャ͡ レ ∠ ∠ マヨヤハヱ ヮわムもゅ∠ョ マャ ギイ∇シぺヱ ロギΒよ ぶや マボヤカ サゅz ャや ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ レ ヴz ェ マよケ ギ∇レハ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ノヘ∇セゅ∠ ∩∃ ∇ヶセ あ ミ ¬ゅ∠ ∇シぺ わ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ レャ ∠ プ ¬ ∠ モ⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∇ユミゅ∠ ワ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∩やグ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇リョ ゅ∠ エΑゲ⊥ ⊥ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ワ レル ムョ ͡ レ∠ Α メz ぺ ヮz みプ ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ∇もや ヶ͡ ∇エわ∇ジΒプ ヮら∇ルク ゲミ∇グΑヱ ⊥ ヱ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ェ ル わ Β ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∩ヮ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ほ∠ ∠ ∩͡ ∇ケほ∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ヴ∠ま ぶや ヮんバよ メヲ⊥ ケ ル ゎ Βプ チ ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ シ∠ ヮャ ザ∇Βャ ゅ∠ ヮz ケ ヮ∠や∠ シ ゲ⊥ ∇グΑヱ ∇ユミゅレ⊥ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ よ∠ ャ ぽ⊥ ミ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ リヨ∇ェゲャや モΒ͡カ やヲ⊥ ∇もや :メヲ⊥ Βプ ヶ͡ ∇エわ∇ジΒプ ユ∇ヤハ ヮ͡ z ∠ ヤ∠ わ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ よ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ やヲ⊥ ∇もや :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∇ユミゅ∠ ワ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Β∠ ヮルヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ シ ョ わ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ プ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Β∠ ∩∠ や∠ ∇ヲわャや ロゅ∠ ∇ハぺ∠ ぶや ヮヨヤミ や⇔ ∇らハ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ プ り ケ z ⊥ ト ヱ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ギ ∠ ∇リョ ヶ͡ ∇エわ∇ジΒプ ザ∇ヘル ゲ∇Βピよ ザ∇ヘレャや モ∇わホ ゲミ∇グΒプ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ワ ͡ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ レ⊥ . and what t hey do. sky. "Yes. including t he names of t he ot her species. such as human. t he names t hat people use. donkey. eart h.

a servant t o whom Allah spoke direct ly and gave t he Tawrah.' They will come t o me.' They will go t o Nuh and ask him. ` I cannot do what you have asked'. and I will go t o Allah and seek His permission and He will give me His permission.' Musa will say. ask.るヨヤミヱ ヮャヲ⊥ ケヱ ぶや∠ ∇らハ ヴジΒ͡ やヲ⊥ ∇もや :メヲ⊥ Βプ ヮよケ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ハ わ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ やヲ⊥ ∇もや ∇ユミゅ∠ ワ ろ∇ジャ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ヮルヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ ∩⊥ ェヱ⊥ ヱ ぶや わ ⊥ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヮ∠ ケ ͡ ∩∠ カほゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮら∇ルク ∇リョ ュz ボゎ ゅ∠ ヮャ ゲヘビ や⇔ ∇らハ や⇔ ヨエョ ゲz ∠∠ ョ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ギ ∠ ギz ∠ ⊥ ラク∇ほΒプ ヶあ ケ ヴ∠ハ ラクほわ∇シぺ ヴz ェ ペヤト∇ルほプ ヶあ ヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ よ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ル ゎ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヶ͡ ハギΒプ や⇔ ィゅ∠ ろ∇バホヱ ヶあ ケ ろ∇Αぺケ や∠ みプ ∩ヶ͡ ョ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ シ ⊥ ∠ ∠ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ク͡ ャ ∇モホヱ ∇ヮト∇バゎ ∇モシヱ マシ∇ぺケ ∇ノプ∇ケや :メゅ∠ Α z を ぶや ¬ゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ セ ギΒ͡ ∇エわよ ロギヨ∇ェほプ ヶ͡ ∇ぺケ ノプ∇ケほプ ∩∇ノヘゼゎ ∇ノヘ∇セや∠ ∇ノヨ∇ジΑ ∃ ヨ ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ シ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ∠ ⊥ z を るレイ∇ャや ユヰヤカ∇キほプ や6 ェ ヶ͡ ギエΒプ ノヘ∇セぺ z を ヮΒ͡ ヨあバΑ ユ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ャ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ レ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヶ͡ ギエΒプ ノヘ∇セぺ z を ヮヤ∇んョ ヶあ ケ ろ∇Αぺケ や∠ み∠ ヮ∇Βャま キヲ⊥ ぺ ャ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ よ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ク プ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ハ∠ キヲ⊥ ぺ z を るんャゅz ャや キヲ⊥ ぺ z を るレイ∇ャや ユヰヤカ∇キほプ や6 ェ ⊥ ハ ユ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ん ⊥ ハ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥͡ ⊥ ギ ヮジらェ ∇リョ ゅzま ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ヶボよ ゅ∠ :メヲ⊥ ほプ るバよやz ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ レ プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ホ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ «キヲ⊥ガ∇ャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ょィヱヱ ラへ∇ゲボ∇ャや ヤ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ (The believers will gat her on t he Day of Resurrect ion and will say. ` Go t o Musa. ` I cannot do what you have asked. Then I will be addressed.' They will go t o Ibrahim and he will also say. and will also be embarrassed. for you will be . for he is t he first of Allah's Messengers whom Allah sent t o t he people of t he eart h. He will say. Allah's servant and Messenger and His Word and a spirit of His. ` I cannot do what you have asked. ` We should seek a means of int ercession wit h our Lord' They will go t o Adam and say. a servant whose previous and lat t er errors were forgiven.' He will remember t hat he killed a person wit hout j ust ificat ion and will be embarrassed before his Lord. ` Go t o Nuh. ` Go t o ` Isa. Go t o Muhammad. ` O Muhammad! Raise your head.' He will recall asking Allah what he was not t o know. ` Go t o Khalil Ar-Rahman.' They will go t o ` Isa and he will say. Will you not int ercede for us wit h your Lord.' He will say. When I gaze at my Lord. saying. I will prost rat e myself and Allah will allow me t o remain like t hat as much as He will. ` I will not do what you asked. He will say. so t hat he relieve us from t his gat hering place' On t hat Adam will reply. ` O Adam! You are t he fat her of all mankind. He will say. ordered t he angels t o prost rat e for you and t aught you t he names of everyt hing. Allah creat ed you wit h His Own Hand. He will have remembered his error and will be embarrassed. ` I cannot do what you have asked.

び¬べ∠ ギャや マヘ∇ジΑヱ ゅ∠ Β͡ ギジ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ モバ∇イゎぺぴ ∠ ョあ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Will You place t herein t hose who will make mischief t herein and shed blood). "Tell Me t he names of t hese if you are t rut hful''). follow My command and honor and glorify Me. ` Abdur-Razzaq narrat ed t hat Ma` mar said t hat Qat adah said. ` Are You appoint ing a Khalifah from us or from ot her creat ions We praise and glorify You.') This Hadit h was collect ed by Muslim. びリΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ¬べ∠ ∇シほよ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ らル∠ メゅ∠ プぴ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ル ゃ͡ ぺ ∠ ボ∠ (And said. I will int ercede and He will grant me a quant it y of people t hat He will admit int o Paradise.given what you ask. but if I designat e you t he Khalifahs you will obey Me. since you . commit mischief and shed blood. びるムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰッゲハ z をぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then He showed t hem t o t he angels) meaning. ぶや マボヤカ サゅz ャや ヲ⊥ ぺ ろ∇ルぺ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ュキへ ラヲ⊥ ∇ほΒプ» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ レ よ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ あ ミ ¬ゅ∠ ∇シぺ マヨヤハヱ ヮわムもゅ∠ョ マャ ギイ∇シぺヱ ロギΒよ モ⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ «¬∇ヶセ ∠ (They will go t o Adam and say. t hat if I appoint a non-angel Khalifah on t he eart h. I will go back t o Him. This is why Allah said. and int ercede. and when I see my Lord. O angels who said. ` O Adam! You are t he fat her of all mankind. This part of t he Hadit h t est ifies t o t he fact t hat Allah t aught Adam t he names of all creat ures. and Allah creat ed you wit h His Own Hand. However. I will do t hat for a t hird and t hen a fourt h t ime. "If you say t he t rut h.'' Allah's st at ement means. Therefore. ordered t he angels t o prost rat e for you. and t aught you t he names of everyt hing). t he obj ect s or creat ions. fThe reason why we ment ioned t his Hadit h here is t he Prophet 's st at ement . I will int ercede and He will allow me a quant it y t hat He will admit int o Paradise. he and his offspring will disobey Me. An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah. for your int ercession will be accept ed. "Allah paraded t he obj ect s before t he angels. You asked. I will say. ` There are no more people left in Hell except t hose whom t he Qur'an has incarcerat ed and have t hus acquired et ernit y in Hell. Allah said. "Tell Me t he names of what I paraded before you.' I will raise my head and t hank and praise Allah wit h such praise as He will inspire me.

you are Israfil. Most Wise about His creat ion. and perfect ion above every kind of deficiency. "You are Jibril. t he Wise. and He makes t he wisest decisions. you are Mika'il. This is why t hey said. He said: "Did I not t ell you t hat I know t he Ghayb (unseen) in t he heavens and t he eart h.'' ろル∠ マルま べ∠ わ∇ヨヤハ ゅ∠ Ιま べ∠ ∠ ユ∇ヤハ Ι マレ⇒∠ ∇らシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ∠ z∠ ョ z ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ャ ホ び ユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ (They (angels) said: "Glory is t o You. affirming t hat no creat ure could ever acquire any part of Allah's knowledge. t he Knower. . t he Wise) meaning.'' and when he had informed t hem of t heir names. and He t eaches and deprives whom He wills from knowledge.'' Muj ahid said t hat Allah's st at ement . ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ろル∠ マルま べ∠ わ∇ヨヤハ ゅ∠ Ιま べ∠ ∠ ユ∇ヤハ Ι マレ⇒∠ ∇らシぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ∠ z∠ ョ z ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ びユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ⊥ ム∠ ("Glory is t o You. it is You. we have no knowledge except what you have t aught us. Verily. Verily You are t he Knower.''). except by His permission. unt il he ment ioned t he name of t he crow.do not know t he names of t he obj ect s I paraded before you. Here t he angels are praising Allah's holiness. t hen you have even less knowledge of what will occur on t he eart h t hat does not exist yet . ユ⊥ ほらル∠ べz ヤプ ∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ メゅ∠ ぴ ワ∠∠ ぺ ヨ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ∠ ホ ょ∇Βビ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ ま ∇ユムャ モ⊥ ぺ ∇ユャぺ メゅ∠ ユ͡ もべ∠ ∇シほよ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ ⊥ z ホ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ホ ヰ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れや∠ ⇒∠ ジャや ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ヲ ヨz び ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ (He said: "O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names. Verily. Allah's wisdom and j ust ice in all mat t ers is perfect . Allah is knowledgeable of everyt hing. and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing'') Zayd bin Aslam said. we have no knowledge except what you have t aught us. nor could anyone know anyt hing except what Allah t eaches t hem. Adam's Virtue of Knowledge is demonstrated Allah said.

t hat it said t o Sulayman. and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) This means. ヴ͡ ¬∇ょガ∇ャや ァゲ∇ガΑ ン͡ ャや ヮヤャ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇ジΑ Ιぺぴ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ グz ͡ z ギ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ラヲ⊥ ∇ガゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョヱ ∠ ヘ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz び ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや ス∇ゲバ∇ャや ゆケ ヲワ Ιま ∠ ⇒∠͡ Ι ヮヤャや ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ヮ ャま ∠ ⊥ z ( As Shayt an (Sat an) has barred t hem from Allah's way so t hey do not prost rat e before Allah. チ∇ケΙや∠ れや∠ ⇒∠ ジャや ょ∇Βビ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヶあ ま ∇ユムャ モ⊥ ぺ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ヲ ヨz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ ⊥ z ホ∠ ∠∠ びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (Did I not t ell you t hat I know t he Ghayb (unseen) in t he heavens and t he eart h. La ilaha illa Huwa (none has t he right t o be worshipped but He). Allah said about t he hoopoe. Al-Hasan. and knows what you conceal and what you reveal. t he crow and everyt hing. t he Lord of t he Supreme Throne!) (27:25-26). びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing).'' St at ement s of a similar meaning were report ed from Sa` id bin Jubayr. and Qat adah. . "Did I not st at e t hat I know t he seen and unseen mat t ers. Allah said. Who brings t o light what is hidden in t he heavens and t he eart h.び∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ メゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ∠ ホ (He said: "O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names. び ヴ∠ ∇カぺヱ ゲジャや ユヤ∇バΑ ヮルみプ メ∇ヲボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ゲヰ∇イゎ ラ͡ヱぴ ヘ ∠ ∠ z あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ∠ ま∠ (And if you (O Muhammad ) speak (t he invocat ion) aloud. t hen verily.'') "The name of t he pigeon. Allah said t o t he angels. '' Similarly. Allah. Also. They also have comment s ot her t han what we have said about t he meaning of Allah's st at ement . When Adam's virt ue over t he angels became apparent . He knows t he secret and t hat which is yet more hidden) (20:7). as he ment ioned t he names t hat Allah t aught him.

And (remember) when We said t o t he angels: "Prost rat e yourselves before Adam. when we ment ion t he Tafsir of Allah's st at ement .'' When Musa met Adam.'' Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi narrat ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat .and pret ending . j ust as I know t he apparent t hings. and t his is why he was also included in t he command t o t he angels t o prost rat e before Adam. as we will explain wit h det ail. "The apparent part of what t hey said was: ` Do you creat e in it t hat which would commit mischief and shed blood' The hidden meaning was: ` We have more knowledge and honor t han any creat ion our Lord would creat e. Sat an was crit icized for defying t hat command. blew life int o and commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before'' Iblis was among Those ordered t o prost rat e before Adam. Alt hough Iblis was not an angel. びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱ⊥ ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means. and Allah reminded Adam's offspring of t his fact .'' Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ イジプ ュキΙ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇シや るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ z ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ 6 ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ムわ∇シや∠ ヴ∠ ぺ ザΒ͡∇よま ∠ ゲ͡ ム ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ よ∠ ∠ ヤ ͡ (34. "O my Lord! Show me Adam who caused us and himself t o be t hrown out of Paradise. alt hough He was not an Angel When Allah commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before Adam.) Honoring Adam when the Angels prostrated before Him This Ayah ment ions t he great honor t hat Allah grant ed Adam. Allah commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before Adam.It is report ed from Ad-Dahhak t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . Allah willing.' But t hey came t o know t hat Allah favored Adam above t hem regarding knowledge and honor. he refused and was proud and was one of t he disbelievers (disobedient t o Allah). びヮよケ ゲ∇ョぺ ∇リハ ペジヘプ リイ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ザΒ͡∇よま Ιまぴ ͡ あ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ . he said t o him. "` I know t he secret s. There is a Hadit h about t he supplicat ion of Musa. such as. what Iblis concealed in his heart of arrogance and pride.'' And t hey prost rat ed except Iblis (Shayt an). he was t rying . Iblis was included in t his command. as t his Ayah and many Hadit hs t est ify. such as t he Hadit h about t he int ercession t hat we discussed. "Are you Adam whom Allah creat ed wit h His Own Hands. びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱギ∇らゎ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺヱぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means.t o imit at e t he angels' behavior and deeds.

peace and honor. This fact caused him t o be arrogant . I would command t he wife t o prost rat e before her husband because of t he enormit y of his right on her. O Messenger of Allah. びュキΙ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇シや るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ∠ 6 ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ ∠ ͡ レ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (And (remember) when We said t o t he angels: "Prost rat e yourselves before Adam.'') "The obedience was for Allah and t he prost rat ion was before Adam. Qat adah said about Allah's st at ement .(Except Iblis (Sat an).) Ar-Razi agreed wit h t his view. Mu` adh said t o t he Prophet . . Iblis was from a genus called Jinn.'' The Prophet said. he disobeyed t he command of his Lord.) (18:50) Similarly.'' Some people said t hat t his prost rat ion was j ust a prost rat ion of greet ing. メゅ∠ ヱ や∠ イシ ヮャ ∇やヱぁ カヱ ス∇ゲバ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヮ∇Αヲよぺ ノプケヱぴ ∠ ホ∠ ギz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヴあ ケ ゅ∠ ヤバィ ∇ギホ モ∇らホ リ͡ ヴ⇒∠ ∇ぼケ モΑ͡ ∇ほゎ や∠ ⇒∠ ろよほΑ よ∠ ヰ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ Α ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ∠ グ ワ ͡ ∠ ∠ びゅ6 ェ ボ∠ (And he (Prophet Yusuf) raised his parent s t o t he t hrone and t hey fell down before him prost rat e.'' The Prostration was before Adam but the Obedience was to Allah Qat adah comment ed on Allah's st at ement . You. "I visit ed Ash-Sham and found t hat t hey used t o prost at e before t heir priest s and scholars. are more deserving of prost rat ion. hence Allah's st at ement .' He was among t he resident s of t he eart h and was one of t he most act ive worshippers and knowledgeable persons among t he angels. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. Also. And he said: "O my fat her! This is t he int erpret at ion of my dream aforet ime! My Lord has made it come t rue!'') (12:100) The pract ice of prost rat ing was allowed for previous nat ions. "Before he undert ook t he pat h of sin. He was one of t he Jinn. れ∇ゲョほャ ゲゼらャ ギイ∇ジΑ ∇ラぺ や⇔ ゼよ や⇔ ョへ ろ∇レミ ∇ヲャ ゅ∠» ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ «ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮボェ ユヌハ ∇リョ ゅ∠ ィヱ∠ ャ ギイ∇ジゎ ∇ラぺ りぺ∇ゲヨ∇ャや ヰ ∠∠ ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヰ͡ ゴ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (No. Iblis was wit h t he angels and was called ` Azazil. If I was t o command any human t o prost rat e before anot her human. but was repealed for ours. Allah honored Adam and commanded t he angels t o prost rat e before him.

) "Iblis.' Therefore. for t he enemy of Allah was t oo arrogant t o prost rat e before Adam. He said.) Iblis had disbelief. t he enemy of Allah. but come not near t his t ree or you bot h will be of t he Zalimin (wrongdoers). all. On eart h will be a dwelling place for you and an enj oyment for a t ime.リョ ラゅ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ムわ∇シや∠ ヴ∠ ぺ ザΒ͡∇よま Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ イジプぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ よ∠ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ム (And t hey prost rat ed except Iblis (Shayt an). ∇リョ るらェ メゅ∠ ∇んョ ヮら∇ヤホ ヶ͡ ラゅ∠ ∇リョ るレイ∇ャや モカ∇ギΑ ゅ∠» ͡ ∃ z∠ ⊥ ボ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ «ゲ∇らミ ∇リョ メキ∇ゲカ ͡ ͡ ∃∠ ∠ (No person who has t he weight of a must ard seed of arrogance in his heart shall ent er Paradise. '') (36.リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ∇ャや リョ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ わプ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ト z ヨ⊥ z∠ ∠∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ∠ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホヱ ヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ヰィゲ∇カほプ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ト ͡ レ ⊥ ∠ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ ͡ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヴ∠ま ∀ ⇒∠ ョヱ ゲボわ∇ジョ チ∇ケΕや ヴ͡ ∇ユムャヱ ヱギハ ヂ∇バらャ ャ͡ ノ わ∠ ∠ x ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ ⊥ ∠∠ x ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ び リΒ͡ ∃ ェ (35.'' I . Then t he Shayt an made t hem slip t herefrom (t he Paradise). envied Adam because Allah honored Adam. arrogance. and His mercy. t he following is recorded in t he Sahih. And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in t he Paradise and eat bot h of you freely wit h pleasure and delight . he refused and was proud and was one of t he disbelievers (disobedient t o Allah). ` I was creat ed from fire. We said: "Get you down. and he was creat ed from clay. Κミヱ るレイ∇ャや マィ∇ヱコヱ ろ∇ルぺ ∇リム∇シや ュキや∠ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α レ ⊥ ∠ りゲイゼャや ログ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ボ∠ Ιヱ ゅ∠ わ∇ゃセ ゑ∇Βェ や⇔ ビケ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ワ よ ゲ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ヰ ͡ ゅ∠ ∇レハ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ゅ∠ ヰャコほプ . all of which caused him t o be expelled from t he holy presence of Allah. t he first error ever commit t ed was arrogance. wit h enmit y bet ween yourselves. and rebellion. and got t hem out from t hat in which t hey were. of t hings t herein wherever you will.Ibn Kat hir say.'') .

He said. When Allah married Adam t o Hawwa' and gave him comfort . he said.' Hence. ` O Messenger of Allah! Was Adam a Prophet ' He said. it was claimed. He was a Prophet and a Messenger t o whom Allah spoke direct ly). while Adam was asleep and unaware. meaning びるレイ∇ャや マィ∇ヱコヱ ろル∠ ∇リム∇シやぴ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ((O Adam!) Dwell you and your wife in t he Paradise. t he Wise. "I said. Allah said t o him direct ly. and aft er t eaching Adam t he names of everyt hing. You are t he Knower. «ゅ⇔らホ ヮzャや ヮヨヤミ ゅ⇔ヲ⊥ ケ ゅ6 らル ∇ユバル» ヤ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ャ シ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Yes. Hawwa'.) Then Adam fell asleep. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa' next t o him. so t hat she could be a comfort for him. my wife. びユΒ͡ エ∇ャや ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ろル∠ マルまぴ ⊥ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ (Verily. び∇ユヰもべ∠ ∇シほよ ユ⊥ ∇ゃらル∠ ュキや∠ ゅ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ヨ ∠͡ ヰ ͡ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α (O Adam! Inform t hem of t heir names) unt il. Ibn Ishaq said. from his rib and made her a woman. as t he People of t he Book and ot her scholars such as Ibn ` Abbas have st at ed. "Aft er Allah finished crit icizing Iblis. as Muhammad bin Ishaq st at ed. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah report ed Abu Dharr saying. so t hey all complied except for Iblis. ` My flesh and blood. Allah t ook one of Adam's left ribs and made flesh grow in it s place.)'' Hawwa' was created before Adam entered Paradise The Ayah (2:35) indicat es t hat Hawwa' was creat ed before Adam ent ered Paradise. Adam reclined wit h Hawwa'.Adam was honored again Allah honored Adam by commanding t he angels t o prost rat e before him. Allah t hen allowed Adam t o live and eat wherever and what ever he wished in Paradise. . Allah t hen creat ed Adam's wife.

j ust as Allah said. It was also said t hat it was a t ree from which t he angels eat so t hat t hey live for et ernit y. "He t ripped t hem. t his is knowledge t hat does not bring any benefit . In t his case. grape. Allah's st at ement . j ust as being ignorant in it s nat ure does no harm. "The correct opinion is t hat Allah forbade Adam and his wife from eat ing from a cert ain t ree in Paradise. Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir said.'' In t his case. Allah knows best . Some said t hat it was t he grape t ree.ゅ∠ ∇レョ Κミヱ るレイ∇ャや マィ∇ヱコヱ ろ∇ルぺ ∇リム∇シや ュキや∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ¬ Α ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ わプ りゲイゼャや ログ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ボゎ Ιヱ ゅ∠ わ∇ゃセ ゑ∇Βェ や⇔ ビケ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ワ よ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ∇ャや リョ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ ("O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in t he Paradise and eat bot h of you freely wit h pleasure and delight .''). because Allah has not ment ioned anyt hing in t he Qur'an or t he aut hent ic Sunnah about t he nat ure of t his t ree. or a fig t ree.'' This is similar t o what ArRazi st at ed in his Tafsir. of t hings t herein wherever you will. but come not near t his t ree or you bot h will be of t he Zalimin (wrongdoers). and in t his case. びりゲイゼャや ログ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ボゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ワ よ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (but come not near t his t ree) is a t est for Adam. as ` Asim bin Abi An-Naj ud recit ed it . Some said t hat it was a cert ain t ree. It was said t hat it was barley. t he Ayah would mean. Yet . and whoever eat s from it will be relieved of t he call of nat ure. びゅ∠ ∇レハ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ゅ∠ ヰャ∠ ∠∠ ぴ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ト z ヨ⊥ zコほプ (Then t he Shayt an made t hem slip t herefrom) eit her refers t o Paradise. and t his is t he correct opinion. It is possible t hat it was one of t hose t rees. as Al-Hasan and Qat adah st at ed. but t hey at e from it . barley. fig t ree.'' Allah tests Adam Allah's st at ement t o Adam. and so fort h. dat e t ree. びゅ∠ ∇レハ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ゅ∠ ヰャ∠ ∠∠ ぴ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ト z ヨ⊥ zコほプ (Then t he Shayt an made t hem slip t herefrom) means. We do not know which t ree t hat was. it means t hat Shayt an led Adam and Hawwa' away from it . "Because of t he t ree''. . There are conflict ing opinions over t he nat ure of t he t ree ment ioned here. It is also possible t hat t his Ayah refers t o t he forbidden t ree.

all.e. サ∇ぺゲャや ゲ∇バセ ゲΒ͡ ミ ゅ⇔や∠ デ ゅ⇔ィケ ュキへ ペヤカ ぶや ラま» ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ん∠ ャ ヲ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z ͡ ヮ∇レハ テボシ りゲイゼャや ベや∠ ゅz ヤプ ∩∀ ヲ⊥ シ るヤ∇ガル ヮルほミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ク ヨ∠∠ ベ エ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ ヴャま ゲヌル ゅz ヤプ ∩⊥ ゎケ∇ヲハ ヮ∇レョ や∠ よ ゅ∠ メヱほプ ヮシゅ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ヮ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ギ∠ ョ ⊥ z ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ ら͡ ロゲ∇バセ ∇れグカほプ るレイ∇ャや ヶ͡ ギわ∇ゼΑ モバィ ヮ͡ ケ∇ヲハ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ z∠ プ ぁ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ∠ ヶあ ョ ュキへ ゅ∠ :リヨ∇ェゲャや ロや∠ ゅ∠ プ ∩ゅ∠ ハコゅ∠ プ りゲイセ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ Α ⊥ z ⊥ キ レ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ レ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ゆケ ゅ∠ :メゅ∠ リヨ∇ェゲャや ュΚ∠ ノヨシ ゅz ヤプ ∨ぁ ヘゎ ャ あ ∠ Α ∠ ホ ͡ z ∠ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ゲ͡ ∠ «¬ゅ∠ ∇エわ∇シや リムャヱ Β ͡ ͡ ͡∠ . spacious dwelling and comfort able sust enance.び マプぺ ∇リョ ヮ∇レハ マプ∇ぽΑぴ ∠ ͡⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ (Turned aside t herefrom (i. dwelling. from Muhammad and t he Qur'an) is he who is t urned aside (by t he decree and preordainment of Allah)) (51:9) meaning.from t he t rut h because of so and so reason.'') meaning.or slips . びヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ヰィゲ∇カほプぴ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ ͡ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And got t hem out from t hat in which t hey were) meaning. On eart h will be a dwelling place for you and an enj oyment for a t ime. wit h enmit y bet ween yourselves. t he clot hes. This is why t hen Allah said. ヴ͡ ∇ユムャヱ ヱギハ ヂ∇バらャ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホヱぴ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ x ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ト͡ レ ⊥ ∠ びリΒ͡ ヴ∠ま ∀ ⇒∠ ョヱ ゲボわ∇ジョ チ∇ケΕや ∃ ェ ャ ͡ ノ わ∠ ∠ x ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (We said: "Get you down. t he deviant person becomes t urned aside . unt il t he commencement of t he Day of Resurrect ion Adam was very Tall Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Ubayy bin Ka` b said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. sust enance and limit ed life.

On Friday. while Hawwa' was sent t o Jeddah. alt hough he was expelled from it by Allah's decision (when he refused t o prost rat e before Adam)'' Basically. "If t he Paradise t hat Adam was t hrown out of was in heaven. "Adam was allowed t o reside in Paradise during t he t ime period bet ween t he ` Asr (Aft ernoon) prayer. as we explained in t he beginning of our book Al-Bidayah wanNihayah. as st at ed by Az-Zamakhshari. but t hey did not include it in t heir collect ions. 'No. he ran away in Paradise and his hair got caught in a t ree. ヮΒ͡ るバヨイ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ザ∇ヨz ャや ヮΒ͡ ∇ろバヤデ ュ∇ヲΑ ゲ∇Βカ» ͡ プ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ゼ ͡ プ ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ∠ «ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲ∇カぺ ヮΒ͡ ヱ るレイ∇ャや モカ∇キぺ ヮΒ͡ ヱ ュキへ ペヤカ ヰ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ プ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ プ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ (Friday is t he best day on which t he sun has risen. t hen is it possible for Iblis t o ent er Paradise.'' Also.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat Adam was sent down t o India. Some scholars said t hat it is possible t hat Shayt an led Adam and Hawwa' ast ray on his way out of Paradise. t he snake was sent down t o Asbahan. admit t ed him int o Paradise. Muslim and An-Nasa'i recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. Allah creat ed Adam. He t ried t o free himself and Ar-Rahman called him. unt il sunset . he said. his cover fell off.') Adam remained in Paradise for an Hour Al-Hakim recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. several miles from Basra. When he saw his privat e area. wit h t hick hair.) A Doubt and a Rebuttal If one asks. 'O Adam! Are you running away from Me' When Adam heard t he words of Ar-Rahman (Allah). not on t he eart h. t he Tawrah st at ed t hat Iblis hid inside t he snake's mout h and ent ered Paradise. but t here were t imes when he sneaked int o it in secret . For inst ance. The maj orit y of scholars said t hat Shayt an was originally prohibit ed from ent ering Paradise. Dahna. ヲワ ヮz ま ヮ∇Βヤハ ゆゅ∠ プ れゅ∠ ヤミ ヮよケ リ͡ ュキや∠ ヴz ヤわプぴ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ¬ ボ∠∠ ∠ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz . as t he maj orit y of t he scholars assert . When Adam at e from t he forbidden t ree. Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned several beneficial Hadit hs here about snakes and t he ruling on killing t hem. and expelled him from it . bet ween Makkah and At -Ta'if. was in t he heavens. t he response t o t his would be t hat t he Paradise which Adam was in. j ust as a dat e t ree wit h full branches.(Allah creat ed Adam t all. O my Lord! But I am shy. Some scholars said t hat he led Adam and Hawwa' ast ray when he was on eart h. "Allah sent Adam t o eart h t o an area called. Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Ibn ` Abbas saying. and t he first t hing t hat appeared was his privat e area. while t hey were st ill in heaven. Furt her. Iblis was sent down t o Dust umaysan. Also.'' Al-Hakim t hen comment ed t his is "Sahih according t o t he Two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim). This was report ed by Ibn Abi Hat im.

and Ibn ` Abbas. Sa` id bin Jubayr. ` Yes. If You forgive us not . ` And blow life int o me' He said. Verily. ` If I repent . ` And You dest ined me t o commit t his evil act ' He was t old.' He said. And his Lord pardoned him (accept ed his repent ance). we shall cert ainly be of t he losers. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Then Adam received from his Lord Words. Kha lid bin Ma` dan. ` May Allah grant you His mercy. "It s chain is Sahih and t hey (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it . Abu Al-` Aliyah. and best ow not upon us Your mercy. t he Most Merciful) (2:37) means t hat Allah forgives whoever regret s his error and ret urns t o Him in repent ance.'' Allah's st at ement . ` Yes. He is t he One Who forgives (accept s repent ance). ` At a' Al-Khurasani and ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam have st at ed. びユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ヲワ ヮz まぴ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ (Verily. Sa` id bin Jubayr. This meaning is similar t o Allah's st at ement s. Sa` id bin Ma` bad.(37. Al-Hasan. t he Most Merciful.) Adam repents and supplicates to Allah It was report ed t hat t he above Ayah is explained by Allah's st at ement . Al-Hakim recorded t his Hadit h in his Must adrak from Ibn Jubayr. As-Suddi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on. . They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves.' He said.' He said. who narrat ed it from Ibn ` Abbas. びれゅ∠ ヤミ ヮよケ リ͡ ュキや∠ ヴz ヤわプぴ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ¬ ボ∠∠ ∠ (Then Adam received from his Lord Words) "Adam said. ` And when I sneezed. Qat adah. ` Yes.' Does not Your mercy precede Your anger' He was t old. ` Yes. ` Yes. He is t he One Who forgives (accept s repent ance). ゅ∠ ∇ヨェ∇ゲゎヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ピゎ ∇ユャ ラ͡ヱ ゅ∠ ジヘル∠ べ∠ ∇ヨヤニ ゅ∠ よケ Ιゅ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レャ ͡ ∠ z ま∠ レ∠ ⊥ ぺ レ ∠∠ レz ∠ ∠ ホ び リΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ リルヲ⊥ レャ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ (37. ` O Lord! Did You not creat ed me wit h Your Own Hands' He said. You said. AlHakim said. びロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リハ るよ∇ヲわャや モら∇ボΑ ヲワ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z z ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (Know t hey not t hat Allah accept s repent ance from His servant s) (9:104).' Adam said. Muhammad bin Ka` b Al-Qurazi. will You send me back t o Paradise' Allah said.'') (7:23) as Muj ahid.''' Similar is report ed from Al-` Awfi.

"Al-Huda. We said: "Get down all of you from t his place (t he Paradise). There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. whoever accept s what is cont ained in My Books and what I send t he Messengers wit h. t est ify t o t he fact t hat Allah forgives t he sins of whoever repent s.) (39. He warned t hem t hat He will reveal Books and send Prophet s and Messengers t o t hem. Abu Al-` Aliyah said. revelat ions. t here shall be no fear on t hem.'') Allah st at ed t hat when He sent Adam. demonst rat ing His kindness and mercy t owards His creat ion and servant s. and whoever follows My guidance. i. But t hose who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat (proofs. t hen whenever t here comes t o you Hudan (guidance) from Me. ン⇔ ワ ヴあ ョ ユ⊥ レΒゎ∇ほΑ ゅz みプ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホぴ ギ⊥ レあ ムz ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ͡∠ バ ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ ト͡ レ ⊥ ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプ ヵや∠ ワ ノらゎ リ∠ プ ∠ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ べ∠ わ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ グミヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ レ͡ Α よ よz ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ レ (38. lessons. et c. evidences. and Shayt an t o eart h from Paradise.'' びヵや∠ ワ ノらゎ リ∠ プぴ ∠ ギ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ (And whoever follows My guidance) meaning. . refers t o t he Prophet s. verses. t he Most Forgiving.. び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプぴ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ (There shall be no fear on t hem) regarding t he Hereaft er.) such are t he dwellers of t he Fire. signs. The Ayat ment ioned above.びヮジ∇ヘル ∇ユヤ∇ヌΑ ∇ヱぺ や¬ヲ⊥ ∇モヨ∇バΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⇔ シ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And whoever does evil or wrongs himself) (4:110) and びゅエ͡⇒∠ モヨハヱ ゆゅ∠ リ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ヤ タ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ョ∠ (And whosoever repent s and does right eous good deeds) (25:71). nor shall t hey grieve. They shall abide t herein forever. Messengers. t he Most Merciful. t he clear signs and plain explanat ion.e. t o t heir offspring. Hawwa'.

) (20:123) Ibn ` Abbas comment ed. Allah said. meaning. nor shall he be dist ressed. and We shall raise him up blind on t he Day of Resurrect ion. t hen whoever follows My guidance. Then if t here comes t o you guidance from Me. They shall abide t herein forever). ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ べ∠ わ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ グミヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ レ͡ Α よ よz ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ レ (But t hose who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat such are t he dwellers of t he Fire. t hey will remain in Hell for et ernit y and will not find a way out of it . some of you are an enemy t o some ot hers.e. t oget her. for him is a life of hardship. ヱギハ ヂ∇バらャ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ゅバΒ͡ ィ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ワや メゅ∠ ぴ x ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ トら ∠ ホ モツΑ Κプ ンや∠ ワ ノらゎや リヨプ ン⇔ ワ ヴあ ョ ユ⊥ レΒゎ∇ほΑ ゅz みプ ぁ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ レあ ムz ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ͡∠ び ヴ∠ ∇ゼΑ Ιヱ ボ ∠∠∠ (He (Allah) said: "Get you down (from t he Paradise t o t he eart h). ゅムレ∠ るゼΒ͡ ョ ヮャ ラみプ ン͡ ∇ミク リ∠ チゲ∇ハぺ ∇リョヱぴ ⇔ ッ ⇔ ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ͡∠ ゲ ͡ ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ヴ∠ ∇ハ∠ るヨ⇒Β͡ ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ロゲゼ∇エルヱ ヨ ぺ ͡ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ (But whosoever t urns away from My Reminder (i. Similarly.) (20:124) is similar t o what Allah st at ed here.'' The Ayah. in Surat Ta Ha. he shall neit her go ast ray.びラヲルゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor shall t hey grieve) regarding t he life of t his world.ラヲ⊥ ワ∇ケゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨよ レ͡ ¬∠ ͡ ら∠ プ . bot h of you. "He will not be misguided in t his life or miserable in t he Hereaft er. ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ ら⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ Α ヴ⇒z まヱ ∇ユミギ∇ヰバよ フヱ⊥ ン͡ ∇ヰバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ヱぺヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ぺ ギ ∠ ͡ プ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ヱ . neit her believes in t his Qur'an nor act s on it s t eachings) verily.

following t he t rut h. Allah said.) Encouraging the Children of Israel to embrace Islam Allah commanded t he Children of Israel t o embrace Islam and t o follow Muhammad . and fear Me and Me alone.'' or "O son of t he scholar. And believe in what I have sent down (t his Qur'an). び や⇔ ヲ⊥ セ や⇔ ∇らハ ラゅ∠ ヮz ま ゥヲ⊥ ノョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヨェ ∇リョ ∠ Αケクぴ ケ ム∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ル͡ ∃ ル ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ るz あ ⊥ (O offspring of t hose whom We carried (in t he ship) wit h Nuh (Noah)! Verily. "Yes. «∨⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇バΑ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ラぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇モワ» ゆ ボ ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ z ∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ (Do you know t hat Israel is Jacob) They said. he was a grat eful servant ) (17:3). Israel is Prophet Ya` qub (Jacob) Israel is Prophet Ya` qub. get t ing a small gain by selling My verses). as if saying. seek t he knowledge.e.' . «ギヰ∇セや ユヰヤャや» ∠ z⊥ z (O Allah! Be wit ness. ` t he servant of Allah.ゅ⇔ ヨを ヶ͡ ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ゼゎ Ιヱ ヮよ ゲプゅ∠ メヱぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιヱ レ∠ ∠ わ Α よ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∃ ͡ ミ ∠ z ∠ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱ ΚΒ͡ホ ͡ ボz プ ∠ Α͡∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ (40.) (41.'' He said. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I best owed upon you. confirming t hat which is wit h you (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il). Similarly. and be not t he first t o disbelieve t herein.'' and so fort h. and fulfill (your obligat ions t o) My covenant (wit h you) so t hat I fulfill (My obligat ions t o) your covenant (wit h Me). "O you son of t hat generous man! Do t his or t hat '' or. Allah's Prophet Ya` qub. "O children of t he pious. engage t he st rong fight ers. and fear none but Me.)'' At -Tabari recorded t hat ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas said t hat ` Israel' means. by Allah. right eous servant of Allah who obeyed Allah! Be like your fat her. for Abu Dawud At -Tayalisi recorded t hat ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas said. "O son of t he brave man. "A group of Jews came t o t he Prophet and he said t o t hem.'' This st at ement is similar t o one's saying. He also reminded t hem wit h t he example of t heir fat her Israel. and buy not wit h My verses (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il) a small price (i.

and saved t hem from being enslaved by Pharaoh. Muj ahid comment ed. I will t hen remove t he chains and rest rict ions t hat were placed around your necks. and revealing Books t o t hem. Muhammad bin Ishaq said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said.) means. "Allah's favor ment ioned here is His sending Prophet s and Messengers among t hem.'' t hat is saving t hem from Pharaoh and his people.' Also. Also. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah also said. during t heir t ime. び∇ユミギ∇ヰバよ フヱ⊥ ン͡ ∇ヰバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ヱぺヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ぺ ギ ∠ ͡ プ ∠∠ (And fulfill (your obligat ions t o) My covenant (wit h you) so t hat I fulfill (My obligat ions t o) your covenant (wit h Me).Allah's Blessings for the Children of Israel Allah said. び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ (Remember My favor which I best owed upon you.say t hat t his Ayah is similar t o what Musa said t o t he Children of Israel.'' I . "The ` covenant ' is in reference t o Allah's st at ement . made you kings. Reminding the Children of Israel of Allah's Covenant with Them Allah's st at ement .) means.Ibn Kat hir . and gave you what He had not given t o any ot her among t he nat ions (of t heir t ime) (5:20) meaning. when he is sent t o you. i . ` My covenant t hat I t ook from you concerning Prophet Muhammad . ∇ユムΒ͡ モバィ ∇クま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや るヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α やギ∠ ぺ れ∇ぽΑ ∇ユャ ゅz ∇ユム⇒∠ や∠ ヱ ゅミヲ⊥ョ ∇ユムヤバィヱ ¬べ∠ ら∇ルぺ ⇔ ェ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゎ ¬∠ ⇔ ヤぁ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや リあ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ョ (O my people! Remember t he favor of Allah t o you: when He made Prophet s among you. "Allah's favor t hat He grant ed t he Jews is t hat He made wat er gush from st ones. び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ (Remember My favor which I best owed upon you). because of t he errors t hat you commit t ed. sent down manna and quails for t hem. so t hat I grant you what I promised you if you believe in him and follow him. "My support for you and your fat hers.

He will send a great Prophet .ユヰレ͡ ゅ∠ ∇んバよヱ モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ よ ペ⇒∠ Β͡ ヮzャや グカぺ ∇ギボャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ ∠ ん ョ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ユわ∇ヨホぺ ∇リゃャ ∇ユムバョ ヴあ ま ヮヤャや メゅ∠ ヱ ゅらΒ͡ ル ゲゼハ ∇ヴレ∇をや ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ ⊥ z ∠ ホ∠ ⇔ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヴ͡シゲよ ∇ユわレ∠ や∠ ヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇ユわ∇Βゎや∠ ヱ りヲヤz ャや ヤ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ョ ¬∠ ∠ ミz ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ∠ ダ ゅレ∠ ェ ゅッ∇ゲホ ヮヤャや ユわ∇ッゲ∇ホぺヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ ゎ∇ケゴハヱ ⇔ ジ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ ろ⇒z ィ ∇ユムレヤカ∇キΕ∠ ∇ユムわ⇒∠ Βシ ∇ユム∇レハ ラ∠ ヘ∠ Ε ゲ ∠ ∃ レ∠ ⊥ z ∠͡ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ゃあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ゲあ ミ⊥ びゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΙや ゅ∠ ͡ ∇エ∠ リ͡ ⊥ ヰ x ヰわ ゎ ョ (Indeed.''' AsSuddi. Allah first called t he Children of Israel. j ust as I did wit h your fat hers. honor and assist t hem. whoever obeys him. "Fear t he t orment t hat I might exert on you. Ad-Dahhak. I will expiat e your sins and admit you t o Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise)) (5:12). followed by warning. Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat . like t he mut at ion. "His covenant wit h His servant s is t o embrace Islam and t o adhere t o it . ent er him int o Paradise and award him t wo rewards. Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly. Furt her. "The covenant is what Allah t ook from t hem in t he Tawrah. Therefore. . びン͡ ∇ヰバよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ヱぺヱぴ ギ ∠ ͡ プ ∠∠ (And fulfill (your obligat ions t o) My covenant (wit h you)) means. びラヲ⊥ ワ∇ケゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱぴ ͡ ら∠ プ ∠ Α͡∠ (And fear Me and Me alone.'' Ot her scholars said. and We appoint ed t welve leaders among t hem.'' We should ment ion here t hat Ar-Razi ment ioned several cases of informat ion brought by t he earlier Prophet s regarding t he coming of Muhammad . using encouragement . t hen Allah will forgive his sins. follow t he Messenger . t hen He warned t hem. et c. Surely. heed t he Qur'an's prohibit ions and commands and believe in it s cont ent . Allah said next . in t hat .meaning Muhammad .) means. and lend a good loan t o Allah. who will be obeyed by all peoples. verily. ` I (Allah) will be pleased wit h you and admit you int o Paradise. And Allah said: "I am wit h you if you perform As-Salah and give Zakah and believe in My Messengers.'' This Ayah cont ains encouragement .from among t he offspring of Isma` il.'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. Allah guides whom He wills t o t he st raight pat h. Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement . so t hat t hey might ret urn t o t he Trut h. Allah t ook t he covenant from t he Children of Israel (Jews). "` I fulfill My obligat ions t o you' means.

' This is because t hey find t he descript ion of Muhammad recorded in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il. "` Do not become t he first t o disbelieve in Muhammad. The Qur'an cont ains t he Trut h from Allah and affirms what was revealed beforehand in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il (t he Gospel). We should st at e here t hat t he Ayah is t alking about t he Children of Israel in specific. ` aft er you hear t hat he was sent as a Prophet . びろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ よぴ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ (in what I have sent down (t his Qur'an). Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Allah's st at ement . For inst ance.び∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬∠ (And believe in what I have sent down. Ibn ` Abbas comment ed. for t here were people from Quraysh and t he Arabs in general who rej ect ed Muhammad before t he People of t he Book disbelieved in him. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah. t he Qur'an t hat Allah sent down t o Muhammad . t he unlet t ered Arab Prophet . び∇ユムバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ろ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬∠ (And believe in what I have sent down (t his Qur'an). whoever disbelieves in t he Qur'an will have disbelieved in Muhammad . Allah said. while you have more knowledge in it t han ot her people.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah comment ed. びヮよ ゲプゅ∠ メヱぺぴ ͡͡ ∃ ͡ ミ ∠ z∠ (t he first t o disbelieve t herein) means.) Bot h st at ement s are correct because t hey are int er-relat ed. ' meaning from among t he People of t he Book. confirming t hat which is wit h you (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il)) "means. as bringer of glad t idings. and whoever disbelieves in Muhammad will have disbelieved in t he Qur'an. confirming t hat which is wit h you (t he Tawrah and t he Inj il)) meaning.'' Similar st at ement s were at t ribut ed t o Muj ahid.''' Similar st at ement s were at t ribut ed t o AlHasan. ` O People of t he Book! Believe in what I sent down t hat conforms t o what you have. Allah's st at ement . ment ioned earlier in t he Ayah. びヮよ ゲプゅ∠ メヱぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∃ ͡ ミ ∠ z ∠ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ (and be not t he first t o disbelieve t herein). Ibn Jarir st at ed t hat t he Ayah (disbelieve t herein 2:41) refers t o t he Qur'an. a warner and a light . As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. because t he Jews in Al-Madinah were . "Do not become t he first t o disbelieve in t he Qur'an (or Muhammad ). do not become t he first among t he Children of Israel t o disbelieve in it .

∇ユわル∠ヱ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎヱ モト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ z ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ら よ z ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ へ∠ りヲヤz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱ . Allah's st at ement . びラヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱぴ ͡ ボz プ ∠ Α ͡ ∠ (and fear Me and Me alone) means. And perform As-Salah.'' Allah's st at ement .) The Prohibition of hiding the Truth and distorting It with Falsehood Allah forbade t he Jews from int ent ionally dist ort ing t he t rut h wit h falsehood and from hiding t he t rut h and spreading falsehood. as well as.) (43. . and t o avoid Allah's disobedience. びラヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ヴ⇒z まヱぴ ͡ ボz プ ∠ Α͡∠ (and have Taqwa of Me and Me alone). on a light from Allah. Hence. '' Allah said. hoping in Allah's mercy. fearing Allah's punishment . びΚΒ͡ホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヶ͡ ⇒∠ べ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ゼゎ Ιヱぴ ⇔ ヤ∠ レ∠ ∠ わ Α よ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (and buy not wit h My verses a small price. "Taqwa is t o work in Allah's obedience.∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ミz ゎヱ ∠ ダ ヨ ホ∠ ∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ び リΒ͡ ミやz ャや ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ ∠ バ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ (42. and bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in. "Do not subst it ut e fait h in My Ayat and belief in My Prophet wit h t he life of t his world and it s lust s which are minut e and bound t o end. on a light from Allah.) means. nor conceal t he t rut h while you know (t he t rut h). Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Talq bin Habib said. against defying t he Messenger . And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood. and give Zakah.t he first among t he Children of Israel t o be addressed by t he Qur'an. t heir disbelief in t he Qur'an means t hat t hey were t he first among t he People of t he Book t o disbelieve in it . t hat Allah warns t he People of t he Book against int ent ionally hiding t he t rut h and spreading t he opposit e of it .

".'' It was report ed t hat Al-Hasan AlBasri said similarly.'' Qat adah said t hat .) means. So Allah forbade t hem from t wo t hings.'' ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ へ∠ りヲヤz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ ∠ ミz ゎヱ ∠ ダ ヨ ホ∠ ∠ び リΒ͡ ミやz ャや ∠ バ͡ ゲ . びモト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ͡͡ ら よz ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood) and said.∇ユわル∠ヱ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎヱ モト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ z ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ら よ z ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ラ ヨヤ ゎ (And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood. which you know about . び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ (while you know (t he t rut h). "Do not mix t he t rut h wit h falsehood and t he fact s wit h lies. can be found writ t en in t he Books t hat you have.) t hat t he religion of Allah is Islam. "Do not mix Judaism and Christ ianit y wit h Islam. as well as explaining it . nor conceal t he t rut h while you know (t he t rut h)). His descript ion.. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas ment ioned t he Ayah.'' It is possible t hat it means.alt hough you know t he t remendous harm t hat t his evil will cause people. びモト⇒∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ヤゎ Ιヱぴ ͡͡ ら よz ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And mix not t rut h wit h falsehood) means. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ペエ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎヱぴ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ∠ z ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor conceal t he t rut h while you know (t he t rut h). misguiding t hem and leading t hem t o t he Fire. Also. "Do not hide t he knowledge t hat you have of My Messenger and what he was sent wit h. because t hey will follow t he falsehood t hat you mixed wit h t he t rut h in your claims. and t hat Judaism and Christ ianit y are innovat ions t hat did not come from Allah. He ordered t hem t o make t he t rut h known. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat .

O People of t he Book. Allah willing. びリΒ͡ ミやz ャや ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ ぴ ∠ バ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ (And bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in) means. which encompasses all t ypes of right eousness. while you recit e t he Script ure (Tawrah))! Have you t hen no sense) The Condemnation of commanding Others to observe Righteousness while ignoring Righteousness Allah said.'' Many scholars said t hat t his Ayah (2:43) is proof for t he obligat ion of performing t he prayer in congregat ion (for men only). t hat you command people t o perform Al-Birr. "Allah's st at ement t o t he People of t he Book. Enj oin you Al-Birr (piet y and right eousness and every act of obedience t o Allah) on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves. Allah t herefore commands t he People of t he Book t o be wit h. ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わゎ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ (44. and foremost . I will explain t his ruling in det ail in Kit ab Al-Ahkam Al-Kabir. .) Muqat il said. "How is it . and bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in. "And be among t he believers performing t he best deeds t hey perform. びりヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲゎへ∠ ぴ ∠ ミz ⊥ ∠ ヱ (and give Zakah) commands t hem t o pay t he Zakah t o t he Prophet . t he prayer. such as. Allah's st at ement . and びリΒ͡ ミやz ャや ノョ ∇やヲ⊥ ミ∇ケや∠ ぴ ∠ バ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヱ (and bow down along wit h Ar-Raki` in) commands t hem t o bow down wit h t hose who bow down among t he Ummah of Muhammad .(And perform As-Salat and give Zakah. yet forget yourselves and do not heed what you call ot hers t o And you read Allah's Book (t he Tawrah) and know what it promises t o t hose who do not fulfill Allah's commandment s. びりヲ∠ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ∠ ヤz ヨ ホ∠ ∠ (And perform As-Salah) commands t hem t o perform t he prayer behind t he Prophet . and among t he Ummah of Muhammad .'' In addit ion.

So whoever commands people right eousness. びラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わゎ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ (While you recit e t he Script ure (Tawrah)! Have you t hen no sense) You forbid t he people from rej ect ing t he prophet hood and t he covenant t hat you have ment ioned wit h you in t he Tawrah.) "The Children of Israel used t o command people t o obey Allah. while you yourselves have forgot en it . They t hey t o do Also. yet refraining t hemselves from right eousness. You have breeched My covenant . We should st at e t hat Allah is not crit icizing t he People of t he Book for ordering right eousness. t he scholar is himself required t o heed. and rej ect ed what you know is in My Book.' '' Therefore. so Allah reminded t hem of t his fact .'' As-Suddi said similarly. Ibn Jurayj said t hat t he Ayah: びゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr on t he people) "Is about t he People of t he Book and t he hypocrit es. and adhere t o. t hey did not pract ice what commanded ot hers. meaning t hat ` you have forgot t en t he covenant t hat I made wit h you t hat you will accept My Messenger.) means. because enj oining good is a part of right eousness and is an obligat ion for t he scholars. so t hat you might become aware of your slumber and rest ore your sight from blindness'' ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ma` mar st at ed t hat Qat adah comment ed on Allah's st at ement . Prophet Shu` ayb said. Allah admonished t he Jews for t his behavior and alert ed t hem t o t he wrongs t hat t hey were perpet rat ing against t hemselves by ordering right eousness.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . び∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ (And you forget yourselves. However. Allah reminded t hem of t his behavior. . び∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr (piet y and right eousness and every act of obedience t o Allah) on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves. However. used t o command people t o pray and fast . t hey cont radict ed t hese orders. For inst ance. Yet . let him be among t he first of t hem t o implement t hat command. fear Him and perform Al-Birr. what he invit es ot hers t o.びラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺぴ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Have you t hen no sense) of what you are doing t o yourselves. "You forget t o pract ice it yourselves.

but refrained from performing right eousness. in Him I t rust and unt o Him I repent ) (11:88). in cont radict ion t o you. And my guidance cannot come except from Allah. and I will not st art somet hing t hat I would hat e t o be t he first t o st art .∇ラま ヮ∇レハ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ルぺ べ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇ユムヘャゅ∠ ぺ ∇ラぺ ギΑ͡ ぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ョ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ カ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ケ⊥ ョ∠ Ιま ヴ͡ Β͡ ∇ヲゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ろ∇バトわ∇シや ゅ∠ ウ⇒∠∇タΗや Ιま ギΑ͡ ぺ z ͡ ボ プ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ ⊥ ケ⊥ びょΒ͡ ぺ ヮ∇Βャまヱ ろ∇ヤミヲゎ ヮ∇Βヤハ ヮヤャゅ͡ ⊥ ル⊥ ͡ ∠͡∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ z よ (I wish not . and I used t o forbid you t o perform from evil while I myself did it . aft er what I heard from t he Messenger of Allah . "I hesit at e in advising people because of t hree Ayat : .'). Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Abu Wa'il said. eAlso. I only desire reform t o t he best of my power. "While I was riding behind Usamah. ` Why not advise ` Ut hman' He said. j ust as t he donkey goes around t he pole. ` Yes. I will not say t o a man. t o do t hat which I forbid you. he was asked. enj oining right eousness and performing right eousness are bot h required.''' This Hadit h was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. ` What did he say' He said. I used t o enj oin right eousness. Therefore. according t o t he most correct view of t he scholars among t he Salaf (predecessors) and t he Khalaf. The people of t he Fire will go t o t hat man and ask him. Neit her cat egory is rendered not necessary by t he pract ice of t he ot her.' They said. ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ヴ∠ ∇ヤΒプ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ モィゲャゅ͡ ¬ゅ∠ Α» レ プ ボ ⊥ ∠ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ z よ ⊥ イ⊥ ケヱ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ミ ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ よ ケヱ⊥ Βプ ヮよゅ∠ ∇ホぺ ヮ͡ ペャギ∇レわプ ⊥ ギ∠ ヨ ∠ レ プ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ ∠ よ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ ヮよ ブΒ͡ Βプ ロゅ∠ ゲよ ケゅ∠ エ∇ャや Α ャ ボ∠ ∠ レ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ト⊥ ⊥ ェ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ ゲョ∇ほゎ ∇リムゎ ∇ユャぺ ∨∠ よゅ∠ ぺ ゅョ ラゅ∠プ ゲ ∠ よ ル⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ マ∠ タ∠ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∇ユミゲョへ ろ∇レミ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨͡ ム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レゎヱ ⊥⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ル ヰ ∠ ∠ «ヮΒ͡ へ∠ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ∇ユミゅ∠ ∇ルぺヱ ヮΒ͡ へ ゅ∠ヱ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅよ ゎ ヱ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ャ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ ͡ (A man will be brought on t he Day of Resurrect ion and t hrown in t he Fire. ` Do you t hink t hat if I advise him I should allow you t o hear it I advise him in secret . His int est ines will fall out and he will cont inue circling pulling t hem behind him. Ibrahim An-Nakha` i said.' even if he was my leader. ` I heard him say. ` What happened t o you Did you not used t o command us t o do right eous act s and forbid us from commit t ing evil' He will say. ` You are t he best man.

And my guidance cannot come except from Allah. Muqat il bin Hayan said t hat t his Ayah means.) (46 (They are t hose) who are cert ain t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord. And seek help in pat ience and As-Salat (t he prayer) and t ruly. "Ut ilize pat ience and t he obligat ory prayer in seeking t he Hereaft er.び∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves). I only desire reform t o t he best of my power.'' And Allah informed us t hat t he Prophet Shu` ayb said. Ιま ∀ ゲΒ͡ ムャ ゅ∠ ルまヱ りヲ∠ダャや∠ ゲ∇らダャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ わ∇シや∠ ぴ z ͡ り∠ ら∠ ∠ ヰz ͡∠ ͡ ヤz ヱ ͡ z よ レ バ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰよケ やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑ リΑ͡ ャや .リΒ͡ ゼ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ͡ あ ∠ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ バ͡ ガ ヤ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィケ ヮ∇Βャま ∇ユヰルぺヱ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠∠ (45. in Him I t rust and unt o Him I repent ) (11:88).ラヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ Ι ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ユャ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ほ び ラヲ⊥バ∇ヘゎ Ι ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ゅわ∇ボョ ゲらミ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ャ ボ∠ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (O you who believe! Why do you say t hat which you do not do Most hat eful it is t o Allah t hat you say t hat which you do not do) (61:2-3). ∇ラま ヮ∇レハ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ルぺ べ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇ユムヘャゅ∠ ぺ ∇ラぺ ギΑ͡ ぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ョ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ カ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ケ⊥ ョ∠ Ιま ヴ͡ Β͡ ∇ヲゎ ゅ∠ ヱ ろ∇バトわ∇シや ゅ∠ ウ⇒∠∇タΗや Ιま ギΑ͡ ぺ z ͡ ボ プ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ ͡ z ͡ ⊥ ケ⊥ びょΒ͡ ぺ ヮ∇Βャまヱ ろ∇ヤミヲゎ ヮ∇Βヤハ ヮヤャゅ͡ ⊥ ル⊥ ͡ ∠͡∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ z よ (I wish not .) The Support that comes with Patience and Prayer Allah commanded His servant s t o use pat ience and prayer t o acquire t he good of t his life and t he Hereaft er. t o do t hat which I forbid you. it is ext remely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashi` in. As for pat ience (here). . and t hat unt o Him t hey are going t o ret urn. t hey say t hat it means . in cont radict ion t o you.

t he prayer. j ust as Allah said. great sins of every kind). "There are t wo t ypes of pat ience: good pat ience when t he disast er st rikes. It is possible t hat t he pronoun might be referring t o t he advice .fast ing.'' as is ment ioned in t he Hadit h lit erat ure.'' There are similar t ext s report ed from Muj ahid. Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab said. and Al-Munkar and t he remembrance of (praising) of (you by) Allah is great er indeed) (29:45). Also.) The prayer is one of t he best means of assist ance for firmly adhering t o Allah's orders. Al-Qurt ubi and ot her scholars comment ed. As-Salah (t he prayer) prevent s from Al-Fahsha' (i. . and perform As-Salah. refraining from evil. びりヲ∠ダャやヱぴ ͡ ヤz (And As-Salah (t he prayer). especially and foremost .ment ioned in t he same Ayah. and it was also t he choice of Ibn Jarir. as Muj ahid is report ed t o have said. it is ext remely heavy and hard) refers t o prayer. and a bet t er pat ience while avoiding t he prohibit ions of Allah. ラま りヲ∠ダャや ユホぺヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや リョ マ∇Βャま ヴェ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ モ∇ゎやぴ z ͡ ∠ ヤz ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ヮヤャや ゲ∇ミグャヱ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや∠ ¬べ∠ ∇エヘ∇ャや リハ ヴ∠ ∇レゎ りヲ∠ダャや ͡ z ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ゼ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ヤz びゲら∇ミぺ ⊥∠ ∠ (Recit e (O Muhammad ) what has been revealed t o you of t he Book (t he Qur'an). The personal pronoun in t he Ayah. and t his is why ` pat ience' was ment ioned along wit h pract icing act s of worship. It was also said t hat ` pat ience' in t he Ayah means. Allah said about Qarun (Korah).'' Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat Al-Hasan Al-Basri was report ed t o have said similarly. Allah t hen said. び∀ ゲΒ͡ ムャ ゅ∠ ルまヱぴ り∠ ら∠ ∠ ヰz ͡∠ (And t ruly.t o observe pat ience and t he prayer .e. Verily. Similarly. "This is why Ramadan is called t he mont h of pat ience.

Allah's st at ement here means. ヮ∇Βャま ∇ユヰルぺヱ ∇ユヰよケ やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠∠ ͡ あ ∠ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz び ラヲ⊥ ィケ ∠ バ͡ ∠ . prayer is ` heavy and burdensome'. none shall at t ain except As-Sabirun (t he pat ient ). (will become) as t hough he was a close friend. But none is grant ed it (t he above qualit y) except t hose who are pat ient and none is grant ed it except t he owner of t he great port ion (of happiness in t he Hereaft er and) in t his world.'') (28:80). ヴワ ヴ͡ ャゅ͡ ∇ノプ∇キや る∠ Βジャや Ιヱ るレジエ∇ャや ン͡ ∠ ∇ジ∠ Ιヱぴ ∠ ͡ わz よ ∠ ⊥ ゃあ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヲわ ゎ ∠ ∠ ヴャヱ ヮルほミ ∀ ∠ や∠ ∠ ヮレ∇Βよヱ マレ∇Βよ ン͡ ャや や∠ みプ リジ∇ェぺ x ͡∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ りヱ ギハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ク͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ らタ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ゅ∠ ゅz ヤΑ ゅ∠ ヱ .) (41:34-35) meaning. and t his.) Ibn Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t his Ayah. Repel (t he evil) wit h one which is bet t er t hen verily he. びリΒ͡ ゼ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ Ιまぴ ∠ バ͡ ガ ヤ∠ z ͡ (except for Al-Khashi` in. "They (Al-Khashi` in) are t hose who believe in what Allah has revealed. bet ween whom and you t here was enmit y. Allah said. In any case.'' Allah's st at ement .∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ゆや∠ を ∇ユムヤ∇Αヱ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑグャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ カ ͡ z ⊥ ヲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ホ∠ Ιま べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ Ιヱ ゅエ͡⇒∠ モヨハヱ リョや∠ ∇リヨャ z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ タ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ あ び ラヱ⊥ ら⇒z ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ダ (But t hose who had been given (religious) knowledge said: "Woe t o you! The reward of Allah (in t he Hereaft er) is bet t er for t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds. t his advice is only implement ed by t hose who are pat ient and t he fort unat e.∀ Β͡ ェ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョヱ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ョ∠ ユ ヨ∠ び ユΒ͡ ハ ナェ ヱ⊥ Ιま ∃ ヌ∠ あ ∠ ク z ͡ (The good deed and t he evil deed cannot be equal. Also.

. so He has forgot t en t hem) (9:67). Therefore. sinners). j ust as you forgot Me. Ibn Jarir comment ed on Allah's st at ement . (They are t hose) who are cert ain (Yazunnuna) t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord.'' Allah will say. びゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ホや∠ ョ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇やヲぁ ヌプ ケゅz ャや ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇イヨ∇ャや ン∠ケヱぴ ワ バ͡ ヲぁ ⊥ z ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ョ͡ ⊥ ぺ∠ ∠ (And t he Muj rimun (criminals. I will forget you. やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑ リΑ͡ ャゅ∠ Β͡ ゼ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ Ιまぴ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz レ バ͡ ガ ヤ∠ z ͡ び∇ユヰよケ ͡ あ∠ (except for Al-Khashi` in. t hey know t hat t hey will be gat hered and face t heir Lord on t he Day of Resurrect ion. For inst ance. honored you. t he prayer. びラヲ⊥ ィケ ヮ∇Βャま ∇ユヰルぺヱぴ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠∠ (and t hat unt o Him t hey are going t o ret urn. polyt heist s.(They are t hose who are cert ain t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord. "Have I not allowed you t o marry. "No. Allah will say t o a servant . and t hat unt o Him t hey are going t o ret urn.'' If Allah wills.) meaning. It is recorded in t he Sahih t hat on t he Day of Resurrect ion. it is easy for t hem t o perform t he act s of obedience and refrain from t he prohibit ions. or t he advice t o observe it is heavy. t heir affairs are all subj ect t o His will and He j ust ly decides what He wills. び∇ユヰΒジレプ ヮヤャや ∇やヲ⊥ ルぴ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ジ∠ (They have forgot t en Allah.) cont inues t he subj ect t hat was st art ed in t he previous Ayah.) meaning. shall see t he Fire and Zannu (apprehend) t hat t hey have t o fall t herein)''(18:53). "This Day.'' Allah will say. we will furt her elaborat e on t his subj ect when we explain Allah's st at ement . Allah said. Zann. "Yes. There are similar inst ances in t he Arabic language where a subj ect as well as it s opposit e share t he same name. "The Arabs call cert aint y as well as doubt . made t he horses and camels subservient t o you and allowed you t o become a chief and a mast er'' He will say. "Did you have Zann (t hink) t hat you will meet Me'' He will say. び∇ユヰよケ やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ョ ユ⊥ ルぺ ラヲぁ ヌΑぴ ͡ あ ∠ ボ ヤぁ ヰz ∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ (Yazunnuna t hat t hey are going t o meet t heir Lord) Ibn Jarir said. Since t hey are cert ain t hat t hey will be ret urned t o Allah and be reckoned.

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. "The kingship. more so t han any of t he ot her previous nat ions. how He showed preference t o t hem by sending t hem Messengers from among t hem and revealing Books t o t hem. inst ead of grant ing such t o t he ot her kingdoms t hat exist ed during t heir t ime. Similarly. び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ユ∇ヤハ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ゲわ∇カや ギボャヱぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ∃ ͡ ヤ∠ ⊥ ル ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ (And We chose t hem (t he Children of Israel) over t he ` Alamin. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I best owed upon you and t hat I preferred you over t he ` Alamin (nat ions)) Reminding the Children of Israel that They were preferred above the Other Nations Allah reminds t he Children of Israel of t he favors t hat He grant ed t heir fat hers and grandfat hers.'') (5:20). Qat adah and Isma` il bin Abi Khalid said similarly. for every period t here is a nat ion. びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユムわ∇ヤz プ ヴあ ∠∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ツ∠ ルぺヱ (and t hat I preferred you over t he ` Alamin) means. honored you above t he ` Alamin (nat ions).) (44:32) and. Allah said.ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ ら⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz わ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ Α び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユムわ∇ヤz プ ヴあ ∠∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ツ∠ ルぺヱ ⊥ ∠∠ (47. (nat ions) wit h knowledge. ヮヤャや るヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ョ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ゅミヲ⊥ョ ∇ユムヤバィヱ ¬べ∠ ら∇ルぺ ∇ユムΒ͡ モバィ ∇クま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ⇔ ヤぁ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや リあ やギ∠ ぺ れ∇ぽΑ ∇ユャ ゅz ∇ユム⇒∠ や∠ ヱ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ョ ⇔ ェ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゎ ¬∠ (And (remember) when Musa (Moses) said t o his people: "O my people! Remember t he favor of Allah t o you: when He made Prophet s among you. . Messengers and Books t hat were grant ed t o t hem. made you kings.'' It was also report ed t hat Muj ahid. Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi report ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Allah's st at ement .

it would have been bet t er for t hem) (3:110). and you believe in Allah. Ιヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ザ∇ヘル リ∠ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ Ι ゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ∠ ゃ ∠ ∃ z ハ ザ ル ゴ ∠ z ョ ∠ ボz ヱ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∀ ∇ギ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ グカ∇ぽΑ Ιヱ ∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ ⊥ ∠ ∠ メ ハ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ るバ ヘセ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ び ラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ Α (48. Also. And fear a Day (of Judgement ) when a person shall not avail anot her. nor will compensat ion be t aken from him. And had t he People of t he Book (Jews and Christ ians) believed. as Allah said.The Ummah of Muhammad is Better than the Children of Israel This is t he only way t he Ayah can be underst ood.) . you enj oin good and forbid evil. but you are t he best and most honored of t hem according t o Allah.) There are many Hadit hs on t his subj ect . ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇ろィゲ∇カぺ るョぺ ゲ∇Βカ ∇ユわレ⊥ ぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∃z⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽゎヱ ゲム∇レヨ∇ャや リハ ラ∇ヲヰ∇レゎヱ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ͡ z よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ び∇ユヰャ やゲ∇Βカ ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ リョや∠ ∇ヲャヱ ⊥ z ⇔ ∠ ラ ムャ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠∠ (You are t he best of people ever raised up for mankind. nor will t hey be helped. ゅ∠ ョゲ∇ミぺヱ ゅ∠ ゲ∇Βカ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ るョぺ リΒ͡ ∇らシ ラヲぁ ヲゎ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ» ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ワ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ∠ バ ∠ ∠ プ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ «ぶや ヴ∠ハ ヤ∠ (You (Muslims) are t he sevent iet h nat ion. and t hey will be ment ioned when we discuss Allah's st at ement . びサゅz ヤ͡ ∇ろィゲ∇カぺ るョぺ ゲ∇Βカ ∇ユわレ⊥ ぴ ͡ レャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∃z⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ (You are t he best of peoples ever raised up for mankind) (3:110). because t his Ummah is bet t er t han t heirs. nor will int ercession be accept ed from him. t he Musnad and Sunan Collect ions of Hadit h recorded t hat Mu` awiyah bin Haydah AlQushayri said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.

He said. He warned t hem about t he durat ion of t he t orment which He will punish t hem wit h on t he Day of Resurrect ion. びン∠ ∇カぺ ケ∇コヱ りケコや∠ ケゴゎ Ιヱぴ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∀∠ ͡ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And no bearer of burdens shall bear anot her's burden) (35:18) び ヮΒ͡ ∇ピΑ ∀ ∇ほ∠ グゃョ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ¬ン͡ ∇ョや あ ムャぴ ͡ レ ⊥ ラ セ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ∃ ゲ モ⊥ ͡ (Every man t hat Day will have enough t o make him careless of ot hers. no person shall be of any help t o anot her. びゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ ぴ ョ ∠ ボz ヱ (And fear a Day) meaning. and fear a Day when no fat her can avail aught for his son. or Assistance will be accepted on behalf of the Disbelievers Allah said. Neither Intercession. Ransom.Aft er Allah reminded t he Children of Israel of t he favors t hat He has grant ed t hem. on t hat Day. Similarly. t he Day of Resurrect ion. ン͡ ∇イΑ Ι ゅョ∇ヲΑ ∇や∇ヲゼ∇カや∠ ∇ユムよケ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ゴ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ z ∠ ボz ⊥ レ ヰ ぁ ほ ロギャや∠ リ∠ コゅ∠ ヲワ ∀ ヲ⊥∇ヲョ Ιヱ ロギャヱ リ∠ ∀ ャや∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヱ ハ ∃ ィ ∠ ⊥ キ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ハ ギ͡ ヱ びゅゃ∇Βセ ⇔ ∠ (O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord (by keeping your dut y t o Him and avoiding all evil). . nor a son avail aught for his fat her) (31: 33). This indeed should serve as a great warning t hat bot h t he fat her and t he son will not be of help t o each ot her on t hat Day. びゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ザ∇ヘル リ∠ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ Ιぴ ゃ∠ ∃ z ハザル ゴ ∠z (When a person shall not avail anot her) meaning.) (80:37) and. Allah said.

it would never be accept ed of t hem. Allah said. Similarly. Nor a close friend (t o help us)) (26:100-101). t hose who disbelieved. and t heirs would be a painful t orment ) (5:36) . Allah said. び リΒ͡ ヘ⇒z ャや るバ⇒∠ セ ∇ユヰバヘレ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∠ バ͡ ゼ ⊥ ∠ ヘ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ヨ∠ (So no int ercession of int ercessors will be of any use t o t hem) (74:48) and described t he people of t he Fire saying. from t he disbelievers. t hose who disbelieve. if t hey had all t hat is in t he eart h. and as much again t herewit h t o ransom t hemselves from t he t orment on t he Day of Resurrect ion. ∇リョ モら∇ボΑ リ∠プ ∀ ゅz ミ ∇ユワヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ケ ヘ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ョ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ びヮよ ン∠ わ∇プや ヲャヱ ゅ⇔ ワク チ∇ケΙや ¬∇モあ ユ͡ ギェぺ ͡ ͡ ギ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ら∠ ∠ ͡ x ⊥ ョ ワ͡ ∠ ∠ (Verily. and died while t hey were disbelievers.び∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ Ιヱぴ るバ ヘセ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will int ercession be accept ed from him) meaning. Allah's st at ement here (2:48) び∀ ∇ギ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ グカ∇ぽΑ Ιヱぴ メ ハ ヰ ͡ ⊥∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will compensat ion be t aken from him) means. び ユΒ͡ ェ ペΑ͡ タ Ιヱ . t hat Allah does not accept t he disbelievers t o ransom t hemselves. Similarly.リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ プぴ ∃ ヨ∠ ∃ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ バ͡ セ ョ レャ ヨ∠ (Now we have no int ercessors. t he (whole) eart h full of gold will not be accept ed from anyone of t hem even if t hey offered it as a ransom) (3:91) チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ∇ユヰャ ラぺ ∇ヲャ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ x プ ョ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ュ∇ヲΑ ゆや∠ ハ ∇リョ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ヘΒャ ヮバョ ヮヤ∇んョヱ ゅバΒ͡ ィ ͡ ∠ ͡ グ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャヱ ∇ユヰ∇レョ モあ ボゎ ゅ∠ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ら⊥ ⊥ ョ ͡ ∠ Β͡ (Verily.

nor will any ransom be accept ed for t hem. neit her t he relat ive. Your abode is t he Fire. nor persons of aut horit y will feel pit y for t he disbelievers. It will not be accept ed of t hem. びヮ∇Βヤハ ケゅ∠ Α Ιヱ ゲΒ∇イΑ ヲワヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ イ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ .on t heir behalf and offer t hem any help. t heir family lineage and/ or t he int ercession of t heir mast ers will not help t hem at all. Allah's st at ement next . びラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will t hey be helped. nor friendship. ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや リョ Ιヱ るΑ∇ギプ ∇ユムレ͡ グカ∇ぽΑ Ι ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ∠ ぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ び∇ユム⇒∠∇ヲョ ヴワ ケゅz ャや ユミや∠ ∇ほョ ⊥ ャ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ⊥⊥ ヱ ∠ (So t his Day no ransom shall be t aken from you (hypocrit es). nor of t hose who disbelieved.'' As st at ed earlier on t hat Day. Allah said.) means. Allah st at ed t hat if t he people do not believe in His Messenger and follow what He sent him wit h. び∀ ⇒∠͡ Ιヱ ヮΒ͡ ∀ ∇Β∠ Ιぴ モ ヤカ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ノ よ z (On which t here will be neit her mut ual bargaining nor befriending) (19:31). Similarly. Ιヱ ∀ ヤカ Ιヱ ヮΒ͡ ∀ ∇Β∠ Ι ∀ ∇ヲ∠ ヴゎ∇ほΑ ラ∠ モ∇らホ リあ ぴ ∠ ∠ るz⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ノ よ z ュ Α ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠ ョ び∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ るバ ヘセ (Before a Day comes when t here will be no bargaining. Consequent ly. "no person shall get angry . Allah said. t hey will receive no help from ot hers and t hey will be helpless t hemsleves. even if t hey paid t he eart h's fill of gold as ransom. it will not be accept ed from him) (6:70) and. aft er remaining on t he pat h of disbelief. nor int ercession) (2:254) and. t hen when t hey meet Him on t he Day of Resurrect ion.びべ∠ ∇レョ ∇グカ∇ぽΑ Ι メ∇ギハ z ミ ∇メギ∇バゎ ラ͡ヱぴ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ z ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ ま∠ (And even if he offers every ransom.or anxious . or t ry t o save t hem from Allah's punishment . That is your Mawla (friend proper place)) (57:15).

The j udgment will.ギェぺ ヮよや∠ ハ ゆあ バΑ Ι グゃョ∇ヲΒプぴ ⊥ ∠ を∠ ⊥ ͡ Α ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ グ∠ ⊥ グ∠ ⊥ z ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ギェぺ ∀∠ ∠ (So on t hat Day none will punish as He will punish. びラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will t hey be helped. Also. And none will bind (t he wicked. but t hat Day t hey shall surrender) (37:25-26) and. against whom no int ercessor or helper can ever assist . but t hey vanished complet ely from t hem) (46:28). t hey shall neit her be helped by any helper. This is similar t o Allah's st at ement . disbelievers and polyt heist s) as He will bind) (89:25-26) ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジわ∇ジョ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや ユワ ∇モよ . but none grant s refuge from Him) (23:88) ヮホゅ∠ ヱ ペをヲ⊥ Ιヱ .) meaning. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement . on t hat Day. び ラヱ⊥ ダ⇒∠ ゎ Ι ∇ユムャ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ("What is t he mat t er wit h you Why do you not help one anot her'') (37:25) means. as a way of approach (t o Allah) not help t hem Nay. on t hat Day. Not t his Day. be up t o t he Most Great . t he Most Just .(While He (Allah) grant s refuge (or prot ect ion). nor shall anyone int ercede on t heir behalf. all court esy t owards t hem will have ceased. He will t hen award t he evil deed it s kind and will mult iply t he good deeds. you shall not have a refuge from Us. No repeal or ransom will be accept ed for t hem. "This Day. . ゅルゅ∠ ∇ゲホ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや リΑ͡ ャや ユワゲダル Ι∇ヲヤプぴ ⇔ よ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ グ∠ z ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ び∇ユヰ∇レハ ∇やヲぁッ ∇モよ るヰャや∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ (Then why did t hose whom t hey had t aken for alihah (gods) besides Allah. along wit h any helpful int ercession. No t ype of help or cooperat ion will be available for t hem on t hat Day.'' Ibn Jarir said t hat Allah's st at ement .ラヱ⊥ ダ⇒∠ ゎ Ι ∇ユムャ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ び ("What is t he mat t er wit h you Why do you not help one anot her (as you used t o do in t he world)'' Nay.

who were afflict ing you wit h a horrible t orment .ラヱ⊥ ダ⇒∠ ゎ Ι ∇ユムャ ゅ∠ . aft er t hey subj ect ed you t o horrible t ort ure. Aft er t he dream.∀ Β͡ ∠ ∇ユムよケ リあ ¬Κよ ∇ユムャク ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ユ ヌハ ⊥ あ z ョ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ メや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲ∇ビぺヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇Βイル∠プ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ¬ レ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ほ∠ (49. And (remember) when We separat ed t he sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people while you were wat ching.' This favor came aft er t he cursed Pharaoh had a dream in which he saw a fire emerge from Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). Allah willing. ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ メや∠ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βイル ∇クまヱぴ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ¬ あ ム レ z ∠ ͡∠ ヴ͡ ヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇エ∠ ∇ジ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ よ∠ Α ゆや∠ バ∇ャや プ∠ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ラ Β わ Αヱ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ラ エあ グ⊥ ͡ グ∠ ゲ∇エら∇ャや ユムよ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲプ ∇クまヱ . And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people. ` I . "Remember My favor on you ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ メや∠ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βイル ∇クまヱぴ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ¬ あ ム レ z ∠ ͡∠ びゆや∠ バ∇ャや ͡ グ∠ (And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people.) The Children of Israel were saved from Pharaoh and His Army Who drowned Allah said t o t he Children of Israel. Pharaoh ordered t hat every newborn male among t he Children of Israel be killed . It s purport was t hat his kingship would be t oppled by a man among t he Children of Israel. verily. who were afflict ing you wit h a horrible t orment .ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ∇ジョ ∇ユヰルま ∇ユワヲ⊥ ホヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ャ ゃ z ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ ヘ͡ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジわ∇ジョ ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや ユワ ∇モよ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (But st op t hem. It was also said t hat some of Pharaoh's ent ourage said t hat t he Children of Israel were expect ing a man among t hem t o arise who would est ablish a st at e for t hem. and t hen t he fire ent ered t he houses of t he Copt ics in Egypt .) meaning.Allah . killing your sons and sparing your women. and t herein was a might y t rial from your Lord.. "What is t he mat t er wit h you Why do you not help one anot her'' Nay.saved you from t hem and delivered you from t heir hands in t he company of Musa. We will ment ion t he Hadit h on t his subj ect when we explain Surat Ta Ha (20). wit h t he except ion of t he Children of Israel.) (50. t hey are t o be quest ioned. but t hat Day t hey shall surrender) (37:24-26).

びゆや∠ バ∇ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ͡ グ∠ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ (who were afflict ing you wit h horrible t orment ) t hen it explains t he meaning of t he favor He gave t hem. Allah willing. He also commanded t hat t he Children of Israel be given t asks of hard labor and assigned t he most humiliat ing j obs. and our reliance and t rust are wit h Him. In Surat Ibrahim (14) t his meaning is clearly ment ioned. As for what Allah said in Surat Ibrahim.'' as Abu ` Ubaydah st at ed.) (14:6). ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ラヲ⊥ よグΑヱ ͡ や∠ ∠ ∇ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ エあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゆ グバ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ び∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ラヲ⊥ ∇エわ∇ジΑヱ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ (Who were afflict ing you wit h horrible t orment . The meaning of. It was also said t hat it means. びヮヤャや ュゅz ほよ ∇ユワ∇ゲミクヱぴ ͡ z ͡ Α∠ ͡ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ . "They humiliat ed you. The t orment here refers t o killing t he male infant s. as ment ioned in His st at ement . "They used t o exaggerat e in t orment ing you'' according t o Al-Qurt ubi. We will explain t his Ayah in t he beginning of Surat Al-Qasas (28). び∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ (who were afflict ing you) is.and t hat t he girls be left alone. As for Allah saying. and were slaught ering your sons and let t ing your women live. び∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ラヲ⊥ ∇エわ∇ジΑヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ よ∠ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ラ エあ グ⊥ (killing your sons and sparing your women) t hat explains His st at ement . び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヶわヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ (Remember My favor which I best owed upon you).

びるレ∇わプ ゲ∇Βガ∇ャや∠ ゲゼャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ヲ⊥∇らルヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ あ z よ ミ ヤ ∠∠ (And We shall make a t rial of you wit h evil and wit h good) (21:35) and.(And remind t hem of t he annals of Allah) (14:5) meaning. t he favors and blessing He grant ed t hem. He t hen said. び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∇ユムよケ リあ ¬Κよ ∇ユムャク ヴ͡ ヱぴ ユ ヌ ハ ⊥ あ z ョ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ プ∠ (And t herein was a might y t rial from your Lord. びラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ ∇ユヰヤバャ れゅ∠ Βジャや∠ ろ⇒∠ ジエ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ヲヤよヱぴ ∠ バ͡ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ ゃあ z ヱ ͡ レ∠ ∠ よ ⊥ ル ∠∠ ∠ (And We t ried t hem wit h good (blessings) and evil (calamit ies) in order t hat t hey might t urn (t o obey Allah. Khosrau (Kisra) is t he t it le of t he kings who ruled Persia. whet her from t he ` Amaliq (Canaanit es) or ot herwise.) Ibn Jarir comment ed t hat t his part of t he Ayah means. . for Allah said. "Our saving your fat hers from t he t orment t hat t hey suffered by t he hand of Pharaoh. Allah said.)) (7:168). Allah's st at ement next . Also. is a great blessing from your Lord. and were slaught ering your sons and let t ing your women live. t he same as wit h hardship. j ust as Caesar (Qaysar) is t he t it le of t he disbelieving kings who ruled Rome and Damascus. and t he kings of Abyssinia (Et hiopia) were called Negus (An-Naj ashi). We should st at e here t hat ` Pharaoh' (Fir` awn) is a t it le t hat was given t o every disbelieving king who ruled Egypt . while Tubb` a is t he t it le of t he kings of Yemen. ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ラヲ⊥ よグΑヱ ͡ や∠ ∠ ∇ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ∇ユムルヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αぴ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ エあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゆ グバ ∠ シ ⊥ ∠ ョ ジ∠ び∇ユミ¬べ∠ ル ラヲ⊥ ∇エわ∇ジΑヱ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ∠ (Who were afflict ing you wit h horrible t orment .) (14:6) So Allah ment ioned saving t heir children from being slaught ered in order t o remind t hem of t he many favors t hat He grant ed t hem.'' We should ment ion t hat in t he blessing t here a is t est .

One of t he short est references t o t his st ory is Allah's st at ement .メや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲ∇ビぺヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇Β∠ ル∠∠ ゲ∇エら∇ャや ユムよ ゅ∠ ∇ホゲプ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ¬ レ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ レ イ ほプ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ラ∇ヲハ∇ゲプ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ (And (remember) when We separat ed t he sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir` awn's (Pharaoh) people while you were wat ching) means.' Allah ment ioned t his st ory in det ail. Then aft er t hat We forgave you so t hat you might be grat eful. Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Messenger of Allah came t o AlMadinah and found t hat t he Jews were fast ing t he day of ` Ashura'.ラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ ⊥ ハ ル ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ニ ⊥ ぺ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎや∠ ∇クまヱ . "We saved you from t hem.) (52.ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ マャク ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ∠ ¬ ͡∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ び ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ャや∠ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ラ ホ ⊥ ヱ (51. "What is t his day t hat you fast '' They said. "This is a good day during which Allah saved t he Children of Israel from t heir enemy. bringing relief t o your heart s and humiliat ion t o your enemy. He asked t hem. An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah. drowning t hem while you wat ched.'' The Messenger of Allah said. «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ よ ペェぺ ゅ∠ ∠» ム ͡ シ ヨ͡ ぁ ∠ ∠ ルぺ (I have more right t o Musa t han you have. Fir` awn went out in your pursuit and We part ed t he sea for you.) (53. モ∇イバ∇ャや ユゎ∇グガz や z を るヤ∇Βャ リΒ͡ よ∇ケぺ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ギハヱ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ユ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ バ ∠ ∠ シ ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ユムレ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヲヘハ z を . Allah willing. Muslim. and Musa used t o fast t his day. And (remember) when We appoint ed for Musa (Moses) fort y night s. and you were Zalimun (polyt heist s and wrongdoers). ` Aft er We saved you from Fir` awn and you escaped wit h Musa.) So t he Messenger of Allah fast ed t hat day and ordered t hat it be fast ed.'' Fasting the Day of ` Ashura It was report ed t hat t he day t he Children of Israel were saved from Fir` awn was called t he day of ` Ashura'. This Hadit h was collect ed by Al-Bukhari. and (in his absence) you t ook t he calf (for worship). び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇Β∠ ル∠∠ ぴ ⊥ レ イ ほプ (And saved you) meaning. And (remember) when We gave . as we will come t o know.

) The Children of Israel worshipped the Calf Allah t hen said. It was said t hat t hese days were during t he mont h of Dhul-Qa` dah plus t he first t en days in Dhul-Hij j ah.'' This happened aft er Musa went t o t he meet ing place wit h his Lord at t he end of t hat period which was fort y days. び͡ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ャや∠ ぴ ラホ ⊥ ヱ (And t he crit erion) t hat is t hat which different iat es bet ween t rut h and falsehood. when Allah said. aft er escaping t he sea. Allah's st at ement . "Remember My favor on you when I forgave you for worshipping t he calf.Musa t he Script ure (t he Tawrah)) and t he crit erion (of right and wrong) so t hat you may be guided aright . t he Tawrah. These fort y days were ment ioned in Surat Al-A` raf. びゲ∇ゼバよ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヨヨ∇ゎぺヱ るヤ∇Βャ リΒ͡ ⇒∠を ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ ワ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ん ヤ ∠ シ ョ ル ハ ヱヱ (And We appoint ed for Musa t hirt y night s and added (t o t he period) t en (more)) (7:142). as anot her Ayah in Surat Al-A` raf clearly st at ed. aft er t he Children of Israel were delivered from Fir` awn and t hey safely crossed t he sea. びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ゎ ¬ ͡ ∠ (And (remember) when We gave Musa t he Script ure) means. guidance and deviat ion. ゅ∠ ∇ムヤ∇ワぺ べ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ゎ ¬ ∠ ∠∠ るヨ∇ェケヱ ン⇔ ワヱ サゅz ヤ͡ ゲもべ∠ よ ヴ∠ヱy や ラヱ⊥ ボ∇ャや ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ͡ ダ∠ ャ Ι ∠ ゲ⊥ び ラヱ⊥ ミグわΑ ∇ユヰヤ∠ ャ ∠ ゲz ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ zバz . びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャぴ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ (So t hat you may be guided aright ).

He is t he One Who accept s repent ance. びモ∇イバ∇ャや ユミクゅ∠ ゎゅ͡ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤニ ∇ユムルま ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ガあ よ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ Α (O my people! Verily. and a guidance and a mercy.'' Abu ` Al` Aliyah. t he Most Merciful.. you have wronged yourselves by worshipping t he calf. And (remember) when Musa said t o his people: "O my people! Verily. Comment ing on Allah's st at ement . ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤニ ∇ユムルま ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ Α ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ョ ∠ ホ ͡∠ びモ∇イバ∇ャや ユミクゅ∠ ゎゅ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ガあ よ (And (remember) when Musa said t o his people: "O my people! Verily. Sa` id bin Jubayr and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas comment ed on. t hat will be bet t er for you wit h your Creat or.. This is when Musa said t o t hem. び∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プぴ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ .). t hat t hey might remember (or receive admonit ion)) (28:43). Truly. ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤニ ∇ユムルま ュ∇ヲボ⇒∠ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲョ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ Α ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ⊥ ∠ ホ ͡∠ び∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユミクゅ∠ ゎゅ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ガあ よ (54.'' Then He accept ed your repent ance..). you have wronged yourselves by worshipping t he calf.(And indeed We gave Musa aft er We had dest royed t he generat ions of old t he Script ure (t he Tawrah) as an enlight enment for mankind.. So t urn in repent ance t o your Creat or and kill yourselves (t he innocent kill t he wrongdoers among you).) The Children of Israel kill each other in Repentance This was t he repent ance required from t he Children of Israel for worshipping t he calf. t hey (repent ed and) said: "If our Lord does not have mercy upon us and forgive us'') (7:149). "When t heir heart s t hought of worshipping t he calf. you have wronged yourselves by worshipping t he calf. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said. ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲぁッ ∇ギホ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇や∇ヱぺケヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ヴ∠ テボシ ゅz ャヱぴ ャ ホ ヤ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ びゅ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ピΑヱ ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ ∇ヨェ∇ゲΑ ∇ユャ リ͡ ャ レャ ͡ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ z ゃ∠ (And when t hey regret t ed and saw t hat t hey had gone ast ray.

He ordered t hose who worshipped t he calf t o sit down and t hose who did not worship t he calf t o st and holding knives in t heir hands. Aft er t he darkness lift ed. Truly. "Repent t o He Who creat ed you aft er you associat ed ot hers wit h Him in worship. be he fat her or son.'' An-Nasa'i. When t hey st art ed killing t hem. They should not care whom t hey kill. Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said.(So t urn in repent ance t o your Bari') t hat it means.ラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ るボバ⇒z ャや ユム∇ゎグカほプ りゲ∇ヰィ ユ⊥ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ダ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ (55. And (remember) when you said: "O Musa! We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly. their subsequent Death and Resurrection .) The Best among the Children of Israel ask to see Allah.Then We raised you up aft er your deat h. び∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠まぴ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ (t o your Bari' (Creat or)) alert s t he Children of Israel t o t he enormit y of t heir error and means. a great darkness suddenly overcame t hem. (56.'' Then He accept ed your repent ance. and t hose who remained alive were also forgiven. ∇ユムャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ∇ユムャク ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プぴ ⊥ z ゲ カ ⊥ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ヤ⊥ プ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ びユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ヲワ ヮzま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ゆゅ∠ プ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ギレ͡ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ル͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ∠ ハ ("So t urn in repent ance t o your Creat or and kill each ot her (t he innocent kill t he wrongdoers among you). "Allah t old t he Children of Israel t hat t heir repent ance would be t o slay by t he sword every person t hey meet . Those who were killed among t hem were forgiven.'' This is part of t he Hadit h about t he t rials t hat we will ment ion in Surat Ta Ha.'' p ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ z を . (20) Allah willing. Those were guilt y whom Musa and Harun were not aware of t heir guilt .) Allah ordered Musa t o command his people t o kill each ot her. t he Most Merciful. t hey admit t ed t heir sin and did as t hey were ordered. t hey had killed sevent y t housand of t hem. t hat will be bet t er for you wit h your Creat or. so t hat you might be grat eful. He is t he One Who accept s repent ance. "Musa said t o his people. "To your Creat or.'' But you were seized wit h a bolt of light ning while you were looking). Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Ibn ` Abbas saying.'' Allah's st at ement . So Allah forgave bot h t he killer and t he one killed.

As-Suddi comment ed on. "Publicly''. and t hey were resurrect ed aft er t hey died so t hey could finish out t heir lives. びラヱ⊥ ヌレ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ (While you were looking) means. び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ z をぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then We raised you up aft er your deat h. which neit her you nor anyone else can bear or at t ain. so t hat you might be grat eful. . "Some of t hem were st ruck wit h light ning while ot hers were wat ching. ` O Lord! What should I say t o t he Children of Israel when I go back t o t hem aft er You dest royed t he best of t hem. and Musa st ood up crying and supplicat ing t o Allah. びるボバ⇒z ャや ユム∇ゎグカほプぴ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ダ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (But you were seized wit h a bolt of light ning) saying.)'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said. ` Remember My favor on you for resurrect ing you aft er you were seized wit h light ning when you asked t o see Me direct ly.'' Qat adah said similarly. That is why Allah's said.' This was said by Ibn Jurayj . Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ びりゲ∇ヰィ ⇔∠ ∠ (And (remember) when you said: "O Musa ! We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly. while t he rest of t hem were wat ching how Allah was bringing t hem back t o life.'' Also. Aft erwards. "So t hat we gaze at Allah.Allah said. "Deat h was t heir punishment .'') means. モバプ ゅ∠ よ ゅ∠ ムヤ∇ヰゎぺ ヴ⇒z まヱ モ∇らホ リあ ユ⊥ わ∇ムヤ∇ワぺ ろ∇ゃセ ∇ヲャぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ レ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ Α͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ びべz ͡ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや レョ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ (If it had been Your will.'' Allah resurrect ed t hose. "They died. You could have dest royed t hem and me before. and st ruck t he ot hers wit h light ning. would You dest roy us for t he deeds of t he foolish ones among us)' Allah revealed t o Musa t hat t hese sevent y men were among t hose who worshipped t he calf. ` Urwah bin Ruwaym said t hat Allah's st at ement . Allah brought t hem back t o life one man at a t ime.

` These Tablet s have Allah's Book. and t hey complied. Then Allah brought t hem back t o life aft er He killed t hem. and t hey all died. The first opinion is t hat since t he Children of Israel wit nessed t hese miracles. adhere t o it . Allah knows best . He found t hat t hey had worshipped t he calf in his absence. (saying): "Eat of t he good lawful t hings We have provided for you.'' (but t hey rebelled). ` What is t he mat t er wit h you' They said. However. And t hey did not wrong Us but t hey wronged t hemselves.' So Allah sent some angels who made t he mount ain t opple over t hem. and Allah forgave t hem.'' Then he (` Abdur-Rahman) recit ed Allah's st at ement . a t hunderbolt st ruck t hem. "So Allah's wrat h fell upon t hem. He said t o t hem. リヨ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠ヱ ュゅ∠ ピ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヤ∠ ∠ ぴ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ ∠ ぺ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ zニヱ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅ∠ ろ⇒∠ Βデ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミ ン∠ ∇ヤジャや∠ ョ∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ らあ ∠ ョ ヤ⊥ ヲ z ヱ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヌΑ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ヤニ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ル ミ ム ャ∠ ル ヨ∠∠ (57.' They said.' He said. Musa''' Then he (` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd) recit ed Allah's st at ement . the Manna and the Quail . he said. and t his is clear. ` Take t he Book of Allah. び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ z をぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then We raised you up aft er your deat h. t herefore. Why does He not t alk t o us as He t alked t o you.` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam comment ed on t his Ayah. ` No. O. so t hat you might be grat eful). Al-Mawardy said t hat t here are t wo opinions about t his mat t er. we will not believe unt il we see Allah in t he open. because. so t hey did not have t o fulfill t he commandment s. ` No. "Musa said t o t hem. ` Should we believe t his st at ement because you said it By Allah.' They said. ` Take t he Book of Allah. "Musa ret urned from meet ing wit h his Lord carrying t he Tablet s on which He wrot e t he Tawrah.' He said. The second opinion st at es t hat t hey were required t o adhere t o t he commandment s. alt hough t he Children of Israel wit nessed t hese t remendous calamit ies and incident s. he commanded t hem t o kill t hemselves. t hat did not mean t hat t hey were not responsible for fulfilling t he commandment s any more. ` The problem is t hat we died and came back t o life.'' This shows t hat t he Children of Israel were required t o fulfill t he commandment s aft er t hey were brought back t o life. t hey were compelled t o believe. unt il He shows us Himself and says: This is My Book. and said. Al-Qurt ubi said t hat t his is what is correct . Rat her t hey are responsible for t hat . Consequent ly. cont aining what He commanded you and what He forbade for you. And We shaded you wit h clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna and t he quail.) The Shade. びりゲ∇ヰィ ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ (We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly) and said.' They said. so t hat no responsible adult is free of such responsibilit ies.

«リ∇Βバ∇ヤャ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ぼゅ∠ ヱ リヨ∇ャや リョ りほ∇ヨム∇ャや» ∠ ͡ ¬ ヘセ ワ⊥ ョ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Kam'ah (t ruffles) is a t ype of manna. Ad D ah h a0k. When manna is mixed wit h wat er. In t he H ad0t h about t he t rials. it would spoil. from dawn unt il sunrise. The group of Hadit h compilers. and At -Tirmidhi graded it Hasan Sahih. Abu Mij laz. Friday. Also.'' ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement . An-Nasa0 i recorded Ibn Abba0s saying. びュゅ∠ ピ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヤ∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ zニヱ (And We shaded you wit h clouds) "This happened when t hey were in t he desert and t he clouds shielded t hem from t he sun. which was t he Sabbat h during which one would not leave home t o seek his livelihood. Narrat ions similar t o t hat of Ibn Abba0s were report ed from Ibn Umar. The manna. Qat a0dah said. On t he sixt h day. One of t hem would collect enough for t hat part icular day. The t ype of manna t hat we know provides sufficient food when eat en alone. and As-Suddi. The evidence t o t his fact is t hat Al-Bukha0ri narrat ed. . and t hey used t o eat what ever t hey wished of it . because it is nut rit ious and sweet . and it s liquid is a remedy for t he eyes. At -Tirmidhi recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. t his is not t he only t ype. for if it remained more t han t hat .Aft er Allah ment ioned t he calamit ies t hat He saved t he Children of Israel from. which was whit er t han milk and sweet er t han honey. Al-H asan and Qat a0dah said t hat . This A0yah ment ions t he whit e clouds t hat provided shade for t he Children of Israel. "was cooler and bet t er t han t he t ype we know. prot ect ing t hem from t he sun s heat during t heir years of wandering. He ment ioned t he favors t hat He grant ed t hem. びリヨ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠ヱぴ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ぺ∠ And sent down on you Al-Manna. However.'' Ibn Jarir said t hat several scholars said t hat t he t ype of cloud t he Ayah ment ioned. Ar-Rab0 bin Anas. it becomes a sweet drink.) This Hadit h was also collect ed by Imam Ahmad. used t o rain down on t he Children of Israel. saying. j ust as t he snow falls. Alla0h shaded t he Children of Israel wit h clouds during t he years of wandering. t hat Sa 0d bin Zayd said t hat t he Messenger of Alla0h said. or for anyt hing else. All t his occurred in t he wilderness. The manna used t o descend t o t hem t o t he t rees. Ibn Abi H a0t im said. wit h t he except ion of Abu Dawud. one would collect enough for t he sixt h and t he sevent h day. It also changes composit ion when mixed wit h ot her t ypes of food. also collect ed it . びュゅ∠ ピ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇ヤヤ∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ レ zニヱ And We shaded you wit h clouds.

` Ikrimah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.'') At -Tirmidhi is t he only one of t hem who recorded t his Hadit h. an Israelit e could cat ch as many quails as was sufficient for t hat part icular day. and t o perform t he act s of worship (but t hey rebelled). び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅ∠ ろ⇒∠ Βデ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミぴ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ らあ ∠ ョ ヤ ⊥ (Eat of t he good lawful t hings We have provided for you. he would collect what is enough for t he sixt h and t he sevent h day. disbelieved and commit t ed inj ust ice against t hemselves. ` Ali bin Abi Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. guiding t o what is good. During t hat t ime.) (7:160) t his form of command is a simple order of allowance. t he Children of Israel rebelled.' This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement . AshSha` bi. Allah said. ` Ikrimah said t hat t he Salwa is a bird in Paradise about t he size of a sparrow. may Allah have mercy upon t hem. Qat adah said "The Salwa is a bird t hat is similar t o a sparrow. pat ience and t he lack of arrogance.りほ∇ヨム∇ャや∠ ユジャや リョ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヱ るレイ∇ャや リョ りヲ∇イバ∇ャや» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヱ あ ぁ ∠ ͡ ¬ ヘセ ヰ プ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «リ∇Βバ∇ヤャ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ぼゅ∠ ヱ リヨ∇ャや リョ ∠ ͡ ¬ ヘセ ワ⊥ ョ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ (The ` Aj wah (pressed. during which one was not allowed t o depart his home t o seek anyt hing. and it s liquid heals t he eye. Al-Hasan. Al-Kam'ah (t ruffles) is a form of manna. may Allah be pleased wit h t hem. ot herwise t he meat would spoil. Yet . Also. dried dat e) is from Paradise and it cures poison. As for t he quail (Salwa) in quest ion. even t hough t hey saw t he clear signs. Ad-Dahhak. "The (Salwa) is a bird t hat looks like t he quail. and be grat eful t o Him) (34:15). Alt hough t he Companions accompanied t he Prophet in his . The Virtue of Muhammad's Companions over the Companions of all Other Prophets Here it is import ant t o point out t he virt ue of Muhammad's Companions over t he companions of t he ot her Prophet s. t remendous miracles and ext raordinary event s. びヮャ ∇やヱ⊥ ム∇セや∠ ∇ユムよケ ベ∇コケ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミぴ ⊥ ∠ ゲ⊥ ヱ ⊥ あ ∠ ͡ あ ョ ヤ⊥ (Eat of t he provision of your Lord. ` We commanded t hem t o eat from what We gave t hem. On t he sixt h day. t he Sabbat h. Friday.'' Allah said. This includes firmness in t he religion.'' This is t he same opinion report ed from Muj ahid. びラヲヨヤ∇ヌΑ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ヤニ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ル ミ ム ャ∠ ル ヨ∠∠ ョ∠ (And t hey did not wrong Us but t hey wronged t hemselves) means.

Musa said.) The Jews were Rebellious instead of Appreciative when They gained Victory Allah admonished t he Jews for avoiding Jihad and not ent ering t he holy land as t hey had been ordered t o do when t hey came from Egypt wit h Musa.リΒ͡ ジ∇エヨ∇ャや ギΑ͡ レシヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ⇒∠ カ ∇ユムャ ∇ゲヘ∇ピル ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ Β ト∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠プ ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ ヵ͡ ャや ゲ∇Βビ Ι∇ヲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや レ ∠ ほ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ グz ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ∇やヲ⊥ ゅミ ゅ∠ よ ͡ べ∠ ジャや リョ や⇔ ∇ィケ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ル ∠ ヨ ͡ ¬ ヨz ∠ あ ゴ ͡ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ z ヤ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑ ∠ ボ⊥ ∠ (58. But t hose who did wrong changed t he word from t hat which had been t old t o t hem for anot her. gave wat er t o t heir camels and filled t heir wat er skins.' and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for t he good-doers. and ent er t he gat e in prost rat ion (or bowing wit h humilit y) and say: ` Forgive us. They were also commanded t o fight t he disbelieving ` Amaliq (Canaanit es) dwelling in t he holy land at t hat t ime. and he asked Allah t o bless it . Qat adah and Abu Muslim Al-Asfahani. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. And when t he Companions became hungry. and a rain cloud came. And (remember) when We said: "Ent er t his t own (Jerusalem) and eat bount ifully t herein wit h pleasure and delight wherever you wish. t hough t his was easy for t he Prophet by Allah's leave. as well as ot hers have st at ed. because t hey were weak and exhaust ed. t he Prophet asked Allah t o send down rain. They collect ed what ever food t hey had and brought it t o t he Prophet .for an increase in t he amount of food. The correct opinion about t he meaning of. in int ense heat and hardship. as Allah has st at ed in Surat Al-Ma'idah (5). t hey found t hat t he cloud had only rained on t heir camp. But t hey did not want t o fight . such as during t he bat t le of Tabuk. They drank. t hey merely asked t he Prophet . and t o cont inue wandering.'') (59. Allah punished t hem by causing t hem t o become lost . Also. When t hey looked around. t old each of t hem t o t ake some food. ゑ∇Βェ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ムプ るΑ∇ゲボ∇ャや ログ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヰ ͡ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ワ ヤ ⊥ レ ⊥ ͡∠ ∀ ト͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ や⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ や⇔ ビケ ∇ユわ∇ゃセ るz ェ ャ ホ∠ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ メギらプ . and t hey filled every pot t hey had. when t hey needed rain. t hey did not ask for a miracle. as As-Suddi. This is t he best example of t hose who were willing t o accept Allah's decision and follow t he Messenger of Allah . so We sent upon t he wrongdoers Rij z (a punishment ) from t he heaven because of t heir rebellion.t ravels and bat t les.t o invoke Allah . ` t he holy land' ment ioned here is t hat it was Bayt AlMaqdis (Jerusalem). .

which is Jerusalem.ヮzャや ょわミ ヴ͡ ャや るシギボヨャや チ∇ケΙや やヲ⊥カ∇キや ュ∇ヲホゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ わz ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ x ヤ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α びやヱぁ ゎ∇ゲゎ Ιヱ ∇ユムャ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (O people! Ent er t he holy land which Allah has assigned t o you and t urn not back (in flight ). in t he company of Yuwsha` (Joshua) bin Nun. "And t hey went t hrough t he door backwards!'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat t hey were ordered t o prost rat e on t heir faces when t hey ent ered t he cit y. but Ar-Razi discount ed t his explanat ion.'' Ibn ` Abbas. ret urning t hem t o t heir land and saving t hem from being lost and wandering. Ar-Razi also report ed t hat some of t hem said t hat it was a door in t he direct ion of t he Qiblah''. On t hat day. Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . Khasif said t hat ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. t hey were commanded t o ent er it s gat e while. As-Suddi said t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Azdy said t hat Abu Al-Kanud said t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said t hat t hey were commanded t o. びや⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ ぴ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ (and ent er t he gat e in prost rat ion) means. Ibn Jarir report ed Ibn ` Abbas saying. "Through a small door while bowing. (Ariha') and t his opinion was ment ioned from Ibn ` Abbas and ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd. Muj ahid. for act ually ent ering while prost rat ing is not possible. and Ibn Abi Hat im added.'' Al-Hakim narrat ed it . u びや⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ ぴ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ .) (5:21) However. "While bowing''. Allah allowed t he Children of Israel t o conquer t he holy land on t he eve of a Friday. びや⇔ イシぴ ギz ⊥ (prost rat ing) in appreciat ion t o Allah for making t hem vict orious. Qat adah and Ad-Dahhak said t hat t he door is t he door of Hit t ah in Iylya'. When t he Children of Israel conquered t he holy land. Aft er t he years of wandering ended fort y years lat er. Khasif said t hat ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Children of Israel ent ered t he door sideways. some scholars said t hat t he holy land is Jericho. t riumphant . t he sun was kept from set t ing for a lit t le more t ime. As-Suddi. It was also said t hat t he Suj ud ment ioned here means. "The door ment ioned here was facing t he Qiblah. ` submissiveness'. びや⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥カ∇キや∠ ぴ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ヱ (and ent er t he gat e Suj j adan) means. unt il vict ory was achieved.

'' Al-Hasan and Qat adah said t hat it means. hast ening t o do t he deeds t hat Allah loves. Allah said. t hey ent ered while t heir heads were raised in defiance. "Say. O Muhammad against your enemies) and t he conquest (of Makkah). as He said. "If you implement what We commanded you. Al-Bukhari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Prophet said. ` Relieve us from our errors. Ibn ` Abbas comment ed.'' In summary. t o be grat eful t o Allah for t he blessings He gave t hem.'' びリΒ͡ ジ∇エヨ∇ャや ギΑ͡ レシヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ ⇒∠ カ ∇ユムャ ∇ゲヘ∇ピルぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ Β ト∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z (and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for t he good-doers) Here is t he reward for fulfilling Allah's commandment . upon achieving vict ory. And you see t hat t he people ent er Allah's religion (Islam) in crowds. び∀ ト͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱぴ る z ェ ャ ホ∠ (and say: ` Hit t ah'). び∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ ヵ͡ ャや ゲ∇Βビ Ι∇ヲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや メギらプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ グz ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ∠ z ∠ ∠ (But t hose who did wrong changed t he word from t hat which had been t old t o t hem for anot her). サゅz ャや ろ∇Αぺケヱ .(ent er t he gat e in prost rat ion (or bowing wit h humilit y)) but inst ead.ウ∇わヘ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャや ゲ∇ダル ¬べ∠ や∠ まぴ ∠ レ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ィ ク͡ マよケ ギ∇ヨエよ ∇ウらジプ . . Allah said next .) (110). So glorify t he praises of your Lord. t o admit t o t heir sins and seek forgiveness for t hem. Verily. t he Children of Israel were commanded t o submit t o Allah in t ongue and deed and. "Seek Allah's forgiveness. He is t he One Who accept s t he repent ance. and ask His forgiveness. This Ayah means. We will forgive your sins and mult iply your good deeds.ゅィ∠ ∇プぺ ヮヤャや リΑ͡ ヴ͡ ラヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヲ ∠ ͡ z ͡ キ プ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ び ゅ∠ ヲゎ ラゅ∠ ヮz ま ロ∇ゲヘ∇ピわ∇シや∠ よ͡ ∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ル͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ (When t here comes t he help of Allah (t o you.

in Sha` rah (a hair). "Hasan Sahih. ` a punishment . Allah said. dist ort ing t he words. "Every word in Allah's Book t hat says Rij z means. . t hey mocked t his command and said.''' Muj ahid. They said. "Relieve us from our errors and sins.'' This demonst rat es t he worst t ype of rebellion and disobedience.) Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. explaining Allah's st at ement . ` Habbah (seed).'' Similar was recorded by ` AbdurRazzaq.'' The summary of what t he scholars have said about t his subj ect is t hat t he Children of Israel dist ort ed Allah's command t o t hem t o submit t o Him in t ongue and deed. t hey ent ered t he door on t heir behinds. but t hey ent ered while sliding on t heir rear ends and raising t heir heads! They were commanded t o say.'' However. and his rout e was also collect ed by Al-Bukhari. As-Suddi. Al-Hasan and Qat adah were report ed t o have said t hat Rij z means ` Torment . At -Tirmidhi said. Muslim and At -Tirmidhi narrat ed similar versions of t his Hadit h.') An-Nasa'i recorded t his part of it from Abu Hurayrah only. and it is why Allah released His anger and punishment upon t hem. Abu Malik. They were commanded t o ent er t he cit y while bowing down. "So t hey deviat ed and said ` Habbah. ` Hit t ah' meaning. び∀ ト͡ ぴ るz ェ (` Hit t ah').:やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ や⇔ イシ ゆゅ∠ ∇ャや やヲ⊥カ∇キや モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シま ヶ͡ らャ モΒ͡ » ャ ホ∠ ギz ⊥ ∠ ら ヤ⊥ ∠ も ゲ ͡ レ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ やヲ⊥ギらプ ユ͡ ワゅ∠ ∇シぺ ヴヤ∠ ラヲ⊥ ェ∇ゴΑ やヲ⊥カギプ ∩∀ ト͡ ャz ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ わ ∠ ハ ヘ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ るz ェ «り∠ ∇バセ ヶ͡ ∀ ら∠ ∩やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱ ゲ ∠ プ るz ェ ャ ホ∠ (The Children of Israel were commanded t o ent er t he door while bowing and t o say ` Hit t ah'. all because of t heir sinning and defying His commands. but he has a chain from t he Prophet . Yet . "Hint ah (grain seed) in Sha` irah (barley). ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ べ∠ ジャや リョ や⇔ ∇ィケ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠プぴ ヨよ ¬ ヨz ∠ あ ゴ ͡ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ヤ∠ レ ∠ ほ∠ びラヲ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ボ⊥ ∠ ル ミ (So We sent upon t he wrongdoers Rij z (a punishment ) from t he heaven because of t heir rebellion. Usamah bin Zayd and Khuzaymah bin Thabit said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.' Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Sa` d bin Malik. saying.

e.) The basis of t his Hadit h was also collect ed in t he Two Sahihs. ヂ∇バよ ヮよ ゆグハ ∀ ∇ィ͡ ユボジャや∠ ノィヲ∇ャや や∠ ワ ラま» ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ゴ ケ ∠ ∠ z ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ∠ z «ユ⊥ ヤ∇らホ ユョほ∇ャや ム∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ (This calamit y and sickness (i.ラゅ∠ ∇リョ ヮよ ゆグハ ∀ や∠ ∠ . t hen do not ent er it . a punishment wit h which some nat ions who were before you were punished. «ゅ∠ ヲ⊥カ∇ギゎ ゅ∠プ チ∇ケほよ ラヲ⊥ ゅz ャや ユわ∇バヨシ や∠ ま» ワ ヤ⊥ ∠ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ハ ト ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ク͡ (If you hear of t he plague in a land. making mischief on t he eart h.∀ ∇ィ͡ ラヲ⊥ ゅz ャや» ∠ ミ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ゆ グハ ゴ ケ ⊥ ハ ト «ユ⊥ ヤ∇らホ ム∠ ∠ (The plague is a Rij z. "Eat and drink of t hat which Allah has provided and do not act corrupt ly.'') Twelve Springs gush forth . We said: "St rike t he st one wit h your st ick.) Ibn Jarir recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.) This is also how An-Nasa'i recorded t his Hadit h. ゆ͡ ∇ッや ゅ∠ ∇ヤボプ ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ヴ∠ ∇ジわ∇シや クまヱぴ ゲ レ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ シ ョ ボ ∠ ͡ ͡∠ ゅ⇔ ∇Βハ りゲ∇ゼハ ゅ∠ レ∇をや ヮ∇レョ ∇れゲイヘルゅ∠ ゲイエ∇ャや ポゅ∠ バよ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ダ∠ あ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ミ ∇ユヰよゲ∇ゼョ サゅ∠ ぺ ぁ ミ ユヤハ ∇ギホ ョ よ∠ ヱ ヤ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∃ ル⊥ モ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ び リΑ͡ ジ∇ヘョ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ∇や∇ヲん∇バゎ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ベ∇コケ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ͡ x プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ あ (60. In addit ion. Each (group of) people knew it s own place for wat er. t he basis of t his Hadit h was collect ed in t he Two Sahihs. t he plague) is a Rij z. a punishment wit h which Allah punished t hose before you.'' Then gushed fort h t herefrom t welve springs. And (remember) when Musa asked for wat er for his people.

In Surat Al-A` raf. designat ed a cert ain spring. and t hey used t o drink from t heir springs.'' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Children of Israel. making mischief on t he eart h) meaning. Allah direct ed His Speech at t he Children of Israel. So invoke your Lord for us t o bring fort h for us of what t he eart h grows. Twelve springs burst out of t hat st one. it s herbs. In t he Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah. びゅ⇔ ∇Βハ りゲ∇ゼハ ゅ∠ レ∇をや ヮ∇レョ ∇ろジイらルゅ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ (And t here gushed fort h out of it t welve springs) (7:160). Furt her. Allah knows best . t herefore. a designat ed spring for each of your t ribes. describing what first occurred when t he wat er begins t o gush out . Allah described what happened lat er on. "Remember My favor on you when I answered t he supplicat ion of your Prophet . Allah used t he t hird person when He ment ioned t he Children of Israel t o t he Prophet and narrat ed what He favored t hem wit h. making it gush out t hrough a st one.'' He said. "Do not ret urn t he favor by commit t ing act s of disobedience t hat cause favors t o disappear. which was revealed in Al-Madinah. t hey would find t he same bount y in t he same manner t hey had in t he first area. In t his Surat Al-Baqarah. Each t ribe was. t hree on each side. Allah said in Surat Al-A` raf. びリΑ͡ ジ∇ヘョ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ∇や∇ヲん∇バゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ギ͡ ⊥ ͡ x プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And do not act corrupt ly. "Had a square st one t hat Musa was commanded t o st rike wit h his st aff and. wit hout any effort or hardship for you. meaning when t he wat er burst out in full force. ギェヱ ュゅ∠ デ ヴ∠ハ ゲら∇ダル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ バ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ z ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ リ͡ チ∇ケΕや ろらレ⊥ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ァゲ∇ガΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キゅ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ ヨ ͡ レャ ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ プ メゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヤダよヱ ゅ∠ シギハヱ ゅ∠ ョヲ⊥ ヱ ゅ∠ もべz ホヱ ゅ∠ ͡∇ボ∠ ∠ ホ ヰ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ プ∠ ヰ͡ ん͡ ∠ ヰヤ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ∀ ∇Β∠ ヲワ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ヲワ ン͡ ャや ラヲ⊥ギ∇らわ∇ジゎぺ ト͡ ゲ カ ∠ ⊥ グz よ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び∇ユわ∇ャほシ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ラみプ や⇔ ∇ダョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠ z ͡ ∠ ゲ ͡ (61.Allah said. it s cucumber it s Fum. You eat from t he manna and t he quails and drink from t he wat er t hat I provided for you. "Would you exchange t hat which is bet t er for t hat which is lower Go you down t o any t own and you shall find what you want !'') . Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hat im recorded about t he t rials. This st ory is similar t o t he st ory in Surat Al-` Araf (Chapt er 7) alt hough t he lat t er was revealed in Makkah. Musa. I made t he wat er available for you. when he asked Me t o provide you wit h wat er. They never had t o t ravel from t heir area. And (remember) when you said. So worship t he One Who did t his for you. as a result . t welve springs burst out of t hat st one. "O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food.''This narrat ion is part of t he long Hadit h t hat An-Nasa'i. it s lent ils and it s onions.

They said. garlic and herbs.'' They said. it s herbs. "Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Fum means. it s Fum.'' And Allah knows best . "Some of t hem said t hat Fum includes all grains or seeds t hat are eat en. it s cucumbers. according t o t he languages of old. Also. "Would you exchange t hat which is bet t er for t hat which is lower'') crit icized t he Jews for asking for inferior foods. They also remembered t he life t hey used t o live. Thum (garlic). beneficial and pure food. pure. Remember how you asked Musa t o exchange t his t ype of food for an inferior t ype t hat consist s of veget at ion. The Ayah ment ioned lent ils. and so fort h. "If t his is t rue. because t hey at e t he same food day aft er day. びギェヱ ュゅ∠ デ ヴ∠ハぴ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ バ∠ ヤ∠ (One kind of food) meaning. ` Fumu-lanna' means. Ibn Mas` ud read it . So invoke your Lord for us t o bring fort h for us of what t he eart h grows.The Children of Israel preferred Foods inferior to Manna and Quails Allah said. onions. Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Al-Hasan said about t he Ayah. び∀ ∇Β∠ ヲワ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ヲワ ン͡ ャや ラヲ⊥ギ∇らわ∇ジゎぺ メゅ∠ ぴ ゲ カ ∠ ⊥ グz よ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ (He said. garlic. "And remember My favor on you when I sent down t he manna and quails t o you. t he kind used for bread. t he manna and quails. And remember your ungrat efulness for what We grant ed you. it s lent ils and it s onions).'' Allah's st at ement . alt hough t hey were living an easy life. when t heir diet consist ed of lent ils.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about t he Children of Israel. since t hey are similar in sound. a good. Al-Bukhari said. . t he let t er ` fa' was replaced by t he let t er ` t ha'. which are all known t ypes of foods. びゅ∠ ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ぴ ヰョ プ ヱ (It s Fum). Ibn Jarir comment ed. beneficial. ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キゅ∠ ギェヱ ュゅ∠ デ ヴ∠ハ ゲら∇ダル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ぴ レャ ⊥ プ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ バ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ z ャ シ ヨ Α ゅ∠ ヤ∇ボよ リ͡ チ∇ケΕや ろらレ⊥ ゅz ョ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ァゲ∇ガΑ マよケ ヰ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ゎ ヨ ͡ レャ ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ びゅ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ シギハヱ ゅ∠ ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ もべz ホヱ ヰヤダよヱ ヰ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰョ プヱ ヰ͡ ん͡ ∠ (O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. t hen ` Fum' is one of t he words whose pronounciat ion were alt ered. onions and herbs. As for t he Fum. Allah's st at ement . Ot hers said t hat Fum is wheat . ` bake for us'. "They were bored and impat ient wit h t he t ype of food t hey were provided.'' He also said t hat t he expression. easily acquired food. eat ing t ast y.

` any cit y'. ょツピよ やヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱ るレム∇ジヨ∇ャや∠ るャグャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろよゲッヱぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ zあ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヮヤャや ろ⇒Αべ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰルほよ マャク ヮヤャや リョ ͡ z ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ あ ∇やヲ∠ ハ ゅ∠ よ マャク ペエ∇ャや ゲ∇Βピよ リΒあ らレャや ラヲ⊥わ∇ボΑヱ ダ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ z ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ びラヱ⊥ わ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ル ミz (61. as Ibn ` Abbas said. That was because t hey used t o disbelieve in t he Ayat (proofs. commit crimes and sins. And t hey were covered wit h humiliat ion and misery. ∀ ∇Β∠ ヲワ ン͡ ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ヲワ ン͡ ャや ラヲ⊥ギ∇らわ∇ジゎぺぴ ゲ カ ∠ ⊥ グz よ ル ∠ ∠ ⊥ グz ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び∇ユわ∇ャほシ ゅz ユ⊥ ャ ラみプ や⇔ ∇ダョ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠ z ͡ ∠ ゲ ͡ ト ͡ (Would you exchange t hat which is bet t er for t hat which is lower Go you down t o any t own and you shall find what you want !) Since t heir request was t he result of boredom and arrogance and since fulfilling it was unnecessary. and t hat t his will cont inue. The t rut h is t hat t he Ayah means any cit y. びるレム∇ジヨ∇ャや∠ るャグャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろよゲッヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ⊥ zあ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ (And t hey were covered wit h humiliat ion and misery). Therefore. i. as Ibn ` Abbas and ot her scholars st at ed.びや⇔ ∇ダョ ∇やヲ⊥ ら∇ワやぴ ゲ ͡ ト͡ (Go you down t o any Misr) means. That was because t hey disobeyed and used t o t ransgress t he bounds (in t heir disobedience t o Allah. So since what you asked for is available in all of t he villages and cit ies. This Ayah indicat es t hat t he Children of Israel were plagued wit h humiliat ion. "What you are asking for is easy. t he meaning of Musa's st at ement t o t he Children of Israel becomes.e. I will not ask Allah t o provide us wit h it . evidence) of Allah and killed t he Prophet s wrongfully. Allah knows best . for it is available in abundance in any cit y t hat you might ent er. Ibn Jarir also report ed t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat t he Ayah refers t o Misr. especially when it is an inferior t ype of food. '' This is why Musa said t o t hem. t heir request was denied. and t hey drew on t hemselves t he wrat h of Allah.)) (2:61) Covering the Jews in Humiliation and Misery Allah said. meaning t hat it will never . t he Egypt of Fir` awn.

et c. "They deserved Allah's anger. t hey deserved Allah's anger. ` paying t he t ilt h (t ax). Al-Hasan comment ed. びヮヤャや リョ ょツピよ やヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ∠ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ よ∠ (and t hey drew on t hemselves t he wrat h of Allah). t here is no form of disbelief worse t han disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and murdering t he Prophet s of Allah. The Children of Israel rej ect ed t he Messengers and even killed t hem. evidences. because of t heir defiance of t he t rut h. t he Prophet s and t heir following. and t hey shall have no prot ect or. ` You will end up carrying my. Allah put t hem under t he feet of t he Muslims.'' Allah's anger t hat descended on t he Children of Israel was a part of t he humiliat ion t hey earned. Thus. びヮヤャや リョ ょツピよ やヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ∠ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ よ∠ (and t hey drew on t hemselves t he wrat h of Allah) means. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi said t hat ` misery' used in t he Ayah means.' ` At iyah Al-` Awfi said t hat ` misery' means.''' Allah's st at ement . ` povert y. and your. Allah said. Abu Al-` Aliyah. ラヲ⊥わ∇ボΑヱ ヮヤャや ろ⇒∠ べ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰルほよ マャクぴ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ Α よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ⊥ z ∠͡ ∠ ͡∠ びペエ∇ャや ゲ∇Βピよ リΒあ らレャや あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ z (That was because t hey used t o disbelieve in t he Ayat (proofs. ` They went back carrying Allah's anger. AdDahhak comment ed on Allah's st at ement .) means.' In addit ion.cease. Ibn Jarir said t hat . "They went back wit h t he wrat h. "This is what We rewarded t he Children of Israel wit h: humiliat ion and misery.) of Allah and killed t he Prophet s wrongfully. I int end t o let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours) (Al-Ma'idah 5:29) meaning. t he meaning of t he Ayah becomes. disbelief in Allah's Ayat and belit t ling t he carriers of Allah's Law i. along wit h t he disgrace t hat t hey feel inwardly. They will cont inue t o suffer humiliat ion at t he hands of all who int eract wit h t hem.'' Also.'' Also. びマヨ∇をまヱ ヴ͡ ∇をみよ ¬ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ∠ ギΑ͡ ぺ ヴあ まぴ ∠ ͡ ͡∠ ヨ ͡͡ ∠ ら∠ ぺ ⊥ ケ⊥ ル͡ (Verily. . Surely.e. who appeared at a t ime when t he Maj us (Zoroast rians) were t aking t he Jizyah (t ax) from t he Jews. in a Hadit h recorded in t he Two Sahihs t he Messenger of Allah said. Meaning of Kibr Similarly. Similarly. "Allah humiliat ed t hem. mist akes inst ead of me'. Allah's wrat h descended on t hem.

while t ransgression ent ails overst epping t he set limit s of what is allowed and what is prohibit ed.and punishment .«サゅz ャや テ∇ヨビヱ ペエ∇ャや ゲトよ ゲ∇らム∇ャや» レ ⊥ ∠∠ あ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠⊥ ͡ (` Kibr. ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. on t hem shall be no fear. ∇ヱぺ ヶらル ヮヤわホ ∀ ィ∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ゅ⇔ や∠ ハ サゅz ャや ギセぺ» ∠ x ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ モ⊥ ケ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ よ グ∠ ͡ レ ぁ ∠ ∠ «リΒ͡んヨヨ∇ャや リョ モんヨョヱ るャゅ∠ッ ュゅ∠ まヱ :ゅ6 らル モわホ ヤあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∀ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ョ͡∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (The people who will receive t he most t orment on t he Day of Resurrect ion are: a man who was killed by a Prophet or who killed a Prophet .) Faith and doing Righteous Deeds equals Salvation in all Times Aft er Allah described t he condit ion . びラヱ⊥ わ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇やヲ∠ ハ ゅ∠ よ マャクぴ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ル ミz ダ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ͡ (That was because t hey disobeyed and used t o t ransgress t he bounds) ment ions anot her reason why t he Children of Israel were punished in t his manner. Therefore. Verily. This shall be t he case. fall int o His prohibit ions and t ransgress set limit s by commit t ing prohibit ed act s. is refusing t he t rut h and degrading (belit t ling) people. and Sabians (Sabi'in). Allah knows best . Disobedience is t o do what is prohibit ed.) Imam Ahmad recorded. unt il t he Day of Judgment . ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑグャや ラまぴ ゲ ダz ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ z z ͡ モヨハヱ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ∠ Β͡ ͡ ⇒z ャや∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ リ ゃら ダ ヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユヰよケ ギレ͡ ∇ユワゲ∇ィぺ ∇ユヰヤプ ゅエ͡⇒∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ヤ タ び ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∠ ル∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (62. nor shall t hey grieve. for t hey used t o disobey and t ransgress t he limit s. t hose who believe and t hose who are Jews and Christ ians.of t hose who defy His commands. whoever follows t he unlet t ered . whoever believes in Allah and t he Last Day and does right eous good deeds shall have t heir reward wit h t heir Lord. He st at ed t hat t he earlier nat ions who were right eous and obedient received t he rewards for t heir good deeds.) Allah's st at ement . an unj ust ruler and one who mut ilat es (t he dead).

t hose who say: "Our Lord is Allah (alone). nor grieve! But receive t he glad t idings of Paradise which you have been promised!''). メゴレわゎ ∇やヲ⊥ ⇒∠ わ∇シや z を ヮヤャや ゅ∠ よケ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ ボ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ z レぁ ∠ ャ ホ ∠ グz z ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ゼ∇よぺヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゴ∇エゎ Ιヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゎ Ιぺ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゲ͡ ∠∠ ル∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ プ ガ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ び ラヱ⊥ ハヲ⊥ ∇ユわレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや るレイ∇ャゅ͡ ∠ ギ ∠ ゎ ⊥ ミ わz ͡ z ∠ よ (Verily.'' and t hen t hey st and firm. ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ι ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ラま Ι∠ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ∠ z ͡ ぺ び ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∠ ル∠ ∠ (No doubt ! Verily. as ment ioned. whoever believes in Allah and t he Last Day) t hat Allah revealed t he following Ayah aft erwards.Messenger and Prophet shall acquire et ernal happiness and shall neit her fear from what will happen in t he fut ure nor become sad for what has been lost in t he past . t he Awliya' of Allah. on t hem t he angels will descend (at t he t ime of t heir deat h) (saying): "Fear not . no fear shall come upon t hem nor shall t hey grieve) (10:62). Similarly. (41:30) The Meaning of Mu'min. The angels will proclaim t o t he dying believers. Allah said. t hose who believe and t hose who are Jews and Christ ians. about . or Believer Ali bin Abi Talhah narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas. ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ゲ ダz ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz z ͡ びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ∠ Β͡ ͡ ⇒z ャや∠ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ リ ゃら ダ ヱ (Verily. and Sabians. ヲワヱ ヮ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ リ∠プ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ユ⇒∠∇シΗや ゲ∇Βビ ヒわ∇らΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ レ キ ͡ ヤ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ び リΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ .

and Allah knows best . who used t o refer t o t he Tawrah for j udgment . because of t he dept h of t heir fait h and cert aint y. t hat he abandoned all religions t hat exist ed on t he eart h. every person who followed t he guidance of his own Prophet was on t he correct pat h.(And whoever seeks religion ot her t han Islam.'') (61:14) It was said t hat t hey were called ` Nasara'. Allah knows best . obey him and refrain from what he prohibit ed t hem. following t he correct guidance and was saved Why the Jews were called ` Yahud The Jews are t he followers of Prophet Musa. aft er Allah sent Muhammad . ` repent ing'. This st at ement by Ibn ` Abbas indicat es t hat Allah does not accept any deed or work from anyone. j ust as Musa said. it will never be accept ed of him. "The Sabians are bet ween t he Maj us. It appears t hat t he closest opinion t o t he t rut h. They (ot hers) say t hat t he Sabians are a sect among t he People of t he Book who used t o read t he Zabur (Psalms). t hat t he Sabians are neit her Jews nor Christ ians nor Maj us nor polyt heist s. is Muj ahid's st at ement and t hose who agree wit h him like Wahb bin Munabbih. びマ∇Βャま べ⇒∠ ∇ギワ ゅz ͡ぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ⊥ ルま why the christians were called nasara ("Who will be my helpers in Allah's cause'' Al-Hawariyyun said: "We are t he helpers of Allah. unless it conforms t o t he Law of Muhammad t hat is. mankind was required t o believe in him. . Some scholars st at ed t hat t he Sabians are t hose who never received a message by any Prophet . ot hers say t hat t hey are a people who worshipped t he angels or t he st ars. and in t he Hereaft er he will be one of t he losers) (3:85). When Allah sent Muhammad as t he Last and Final Prophet and Messenger t o all of t he Children of Adam. and because t hey believe in all of t he previous Prophet s and mat t ers of t he Unseen. as Qat adah. Ibn Jurayj and Ibn ` Abbas were report ed t o have said. Sufyan At h-Thawri said t hat Layt h bin Abu Sulaym said t hat Muj ahid said t hat . The Sabi'un or Sabians There is a difference of opinion over t he ident it y of t he Sabians. t hey did not have a specific religion t hat t hey followed and enforced. t hose who do t his are t rue believers. Yahud is a word t hat means. meaning. Similar st at ement s were at t ribut ed t o ` At a' and Sa` id bin Jubayr. Nasara is cert ainly plural for Nasran. The Ummah of Muhammad was called ` Mu'minin' (believers). This is why t he idolat ors used t o call whoever embraced Islam a ` Sabi'. Before t hat . And Allah knows best . t he Jews and t he Christ ians.'' Similar is report ed from Ibn Abi Naj ih. They do not have a specific religion. Rat her. because t hey remained living according t o t heir Fit rah (inst inct ual nat ure). because t hey inhabit ed a land called An-Nasirah (Nazaret h).

according t o t he Tafsir of Ibn ` Abbas.ラヲ⊥ わゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや∠ りヲボよ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ ∠ ボz ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ プ ョ ゲ⊥ ヱ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ム レ ∠ ¬ ョ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや モ∇ツプ Ι∇ヲヤプ マャク ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ∇Βャヲゎ z を ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ わ z∠ ∠ ユ⊥ び リΑゲジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ャ ヮわヨ∇ェケヱ ∠ ͡ ͡ ガ ∠ あ わ ム∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (63.' And in t he Hadit h about t he t rials. Allah st at ed t hat when He t ook t heir pledge from t hem. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and ot hers. Ad-Dahhak. Muj ahid. The mount ment ioned here is At -Tur. and follow His Messengers. wit hout a part ner. ` At a'. Al-Hasan.'') (7:171). if no veget at ion grows on it . so t hat you may fear Allah and obey Him. Allah's st at ement . . He raised t he mount ain above t heir heads.∇やヱ⊥ カ ケヲぁ ャや ユムホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ∇バプケヱ ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ グ⊥ ∠ ト ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ . ` Ikrimah. and remember t hat which is t herein (act on it s commandment s). ∀ ͡ や∠ ヮz ぺ ∇やヲぁ ニヱ ∀ ヤニ ヮルほミ ∇ユヰホ∇ヲプ モらイ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ボわル ク͡ヱぴ ノホ ヱ ⊥ ル∠ レ∠ ∠ るz⊥ ⊥ z ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ま∠ ∇ユムヤバャ ヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや∠ りヲボよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ カ ∇ユヰよ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ プ ョ ゲ⊥ ヱ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ミ レ ∠ ¬ ョ グ⊥ ͡ ͡ び ラヲ⊥ わゎ ∠ ボz ∠ (And (remember) when We raised t he mount ain over t hem as if it had been a canopy. Ibn ` Abbas said. so t hat t hey affirm t he pledge t hat t hey gave Allah and abide by it wit h sincerit y and seriousness. covenant s and promises t hat He t ook from t hem t o believe in Him alone.) Taking the Covenant from the Jews Allah reminded t he Children of Israel of t he pledges.'' Al-Hasan said t hat Allah's st at ement . j ust as it was explained in Surat Al-A` raf. Then aft er t hat you t urned away. Allah raised t he mount ain above t heir heads so t hat t hey would list en. and t hey t hought t hat it was going t o fall on t hem. "When t hey (t he Jews) refused t o obey. Hence. Had it not been for t he grace and mercy of Allah upon you. it is not called Tur. There is anot her report from Ibn ` Abbas saying. remember) when We t ook your covenant and We raised above you t he Mount (saying): "Hold fast t o t hat which We have given you. And (O Children of Isra'il.) (64. ` The Tur is a t ype of mount ain t hat veget at ion grows on. (We said): "Hold firmly t o what We have given you (Tawrah). This is more obvious. and remember t hat which is t herein so t hat you may acquire Taqwa. indeed you would have been among t he losers.

'') (66.リΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ りキゲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャ ヨあ ⇔ ム∠ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゃ͡ カ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ミ ⊥ ∠ び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ るヌハ∇ヲョヱ ゅ∠ ヘ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (65.) The Jews breach the Sanctity of the Sabbath Allah said. And indeed you knew t hose amongst you who t ransgressed in t he mat t er of t he Sabbat h (i. びヮわヨ∇ェケヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや モ∇ツプ Ι∇ヲヤプぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Had it not been for t he grace and mercy of Allah upon you).'' Allah's st at ement . Sat urday). "Yet . びリΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ャぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ∠ あ わ ム∠ (Indeed you would have been among t he losers) meaning. ゅ∠ ∇ヤボプ ろ∇らジャや ヴ͡ ∇ユムレ͡ ∇やヱ∠ わ∇ハや リΑ͡ ャや ユわ∇ヨヤハ ∇ギボャヱぴ レ ⊥∠ ͡ z プ ⊥ ョ ギ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ∠∠ ゅ∠ ャ Κ⇒∠ ル ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ヤバイプ . Muj ahid said t hat t he Ayah commanded. t he Tawrah. and a lesson for AlMut t aqin (t he pious.e. despised and rej ect ed. So We made t his punishment an example for t hose in front of it and t hose behind it . びヮΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや∠ ぴ ͡ プ ョ ゲ⊥ ヱ (and remember t hat which is t herein) means. Had it not been for t he grace of Allah) means. in t his life and t he Hereaft er due t o t heir breach of t he covenant . びヮヤャや モ∇ツプ Ι∇ヲヤプ マャク ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ∇Βャ∠ ∠ z をぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ わ zヲゎ ユ⊥ (Then aft er t hat you t urned away. by forgiving you and by sending t he Prophet s and Messengers t o you. "Read t he Tawrah and implement it . "St rict ly adhere t o it .'' Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said t hat . you st ill deviat ed and broke your pledge''. We said t o t hem: "Be you monkeys. .びりヲボよ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ カぴ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ム レ ∠ ¬ ョ グ⊥ (Hold fast t o t hat which We have given you) means. meaning. aft er t he firm pledge t hat you gave.

Sat urday): when t heir fish came t o t hem openly on t he Sabbat h day.びユわ∇ヨヤハ ∇ギボャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed you knew). despised and rej ect ed'') means. This is why t heir punishment was compat ible wit h t heir crime.)(7:163) In his Tafsir. The young people t urned int o monkeys while t he old people t urned int o swine. where Allah said (7:163).'' The Monkeys and Swine that exist now are not the Descendants of Those that were transformed . "These people were t urned int o howling monkeys wit h t ails. びリΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ りキゲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ ぴ ∠ ゃ͡ カ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ミ ⊥ ∠ レ ⊥ プ (We said t o t hem: "Be you monkeys. ゲ∇エら∇ャや りゲッゅ∠ ∇ろルゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや るΑ∇ゲボ∇ャや リハ ∇ユヰ∇ヤゃ∇シヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ェ ∠ ミ わz ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰルゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ほゎ ∇クま ろ∇らジャや ヴ͡ ラヱ⊥ ∇バΑ ∇クま ∠ ∠ ⊥⊥ わ ェ ͡ ゎ∠ ͡ ͡ z プ ∠ ギ∠ ͡ マャグミ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ほゎ Ι ラヲ⊥ ら∇ジΑ Ι ュ∇ヲΑヱ ゅ⇔ ゲセ ∇ユヰわ∇らシ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ハz ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ヘΑ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ヲ⊥∇らル ∠ ボ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ヨ͡ ワ ヤ ∠ (And ask t hem (O Muhammad ) about t he t own t hat was by t he sea. for t hey used t o rebel (disobey Allah). t hey were caught in t he ropes and net s for t he rest of Sat urday. aft er being men and women. びリΒ͡ ジ⇒∠ りキゲホ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ユヰャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ ぴ ∠ ゃ͡ カ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ミ ⊥ ∠ レ ⊥ プ (We said t o t hem: "Be you monkeys. During t he night . Thus We made a t rial of t hem.'' Shayban An-Nahwi report ed t hat Qat adah comment ed on. "Allah changed t heir bodies int o t hose of monkeys and swines. This st ory is explained in det ail in Surat Al-A` raf.e. Their evil deeds and deceit appeared lawful on t he surface. When t he fish came in abundance on Sat urday as usual. t he animals having t he form closest t o humans. This Ayah means. When t hey did t hat . when t hey t ransgressed in t he mat t er of t he Sabbat h (i. O Jews! Remember t hat Allah sent His t orment on t he village t hat disobeyed Him and broke t heir pledge and t heir covenant t o observe t he sanct it y of t he Sabbat h. and did not come t o t hem on t he day t hey had no Sabbat h. despised and rej ect ed''). Allah changed t hem from humans int o monkeys. ropes and art ificial pools of wat er for t he purpose of fishing before t he Sabbat h. but t hey were in realit y wicked. They began using deceit ful means t o avoid honoring t he Sabbat h by placing net s. Al-` Awfi report ed from Ibn ` Abbas t hat he said. t he Jews collect ed t he fish aft er t he Sabbat h ended.

lessons. wit h whom He wills and He changes t he shape of whomever He wills.'' Allah's st at ement .Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. nAllah's st at ement . evidences. Allah made t he people of t his village.) in various ways t hat t hey might ret urn (t o t he t rut h and believe in t he Oneness of Allah Islamic Monot heism)). t hen t hey perished wit hout offspring. びΚ⇒∠ ルぴ ⇔ ム∠ (an example) via t he way t hey were punished. Allah creat ed t he monkeys. et c. who violat ed t he sanct it y of t he Sabbat h. Similarly.(46:27) Therefore. revelat ions. ` We made t his village an example for t he villages around it by t he manner in which We punished it s people. ゅ∠ ∇プゲタヱ ン∠ ボ∇ャや リョ ∇ユムャ∇ヲェ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ム∠∇ワ∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ レ z ∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ レ ヤ ぺ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ ∇ユヰヤバャ ろ⇒∠ Ιや ∠ バ͡ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ Αx (And indeed We have dest royed t owns (populat ions) round about you. drink or have offspring.''' Similarly. verses. び ヴ∠∇ヱΙや∠ りゲカΙや メゅ∠ ル ヮzャや ログカほプぴ ャ y ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ x ∠ ム∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (So Allah. On t he ot her hand. and We have (repeat edly) shown (t hem) t he Ayat (proofs. They did not eat . .'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. and He does what He wills. "Allah t urned t hem int o monkeys because of t heir sins. Ibn ` Abbas comment ed. for no t ransformed person ever lives more t han t hree days. びゅ∠ ∠ ∇ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャぴ ヰヘ カ ョ ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ あ (for t hose in front of it and t hose behind it ) meaning. Allah said about Pharaoh. This is why Allah said. Allah made t hem an example for t hose who lived during t heir t ime as well as a reminder for t hose t o come. "Those who violat ed t he sanct it y of t he Sabbat h were t urned int o monkeys. "Meaning. signs. by preserving t heir st ory. swines and t he rest of t he creat ion in t he six days (of creat ion) t hat He ment ioned in His Book. They only lived on t he eart h for t hree days. Allah t ransformed t heir shapes int o monkeys. for t he ot her villages. seized him wit h punishing example for his last and first t ransgression) (79:25). びΚ⇒∠ ル ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ヤバイプぴ ⇔ ム∠ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ (So We made t his punishment an example) means. Allah said.

Allah commands you t hat you slaught er a cow.' Ibn Abi Hat im recorded ` Ubaydah As-Salmani saying. Hence.'' They said. "The t orment and punishment t hat t his village suff ered was a result of indulging in Allah's prohibit ions and t heir deceit . "I t ake Allah's refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (t he ignorant or t he foolish). and t he people t ook up t heir weapons and almost fought each ot her. The wise men among t hem said. This Ayah means. "Do you make fun of us'' He said. . breaching what Allah has forbidden. "There was a man from among t he Children of Israel who was impot ent . and only a nephew who would inherit from him. placing it at t he doorst ep of a cert ain man. so t hat what occurred t o t his village does not befall t hem as well. meaning. t hose who have Taqwa should be aware of t heir evil behavior. ` O Children of Israel! Remember how I blessed you wit h miracle of t he cow t hat was t he means for discovering t he ident it y of t he murderer. t he nephew cried out for revenge.) This Hadit h has a good (Jayid) chain of narrat ion.'') The Story of the murdered Israeli Man and the Cow Allah said.'' Also. Allah knows best . And (remember) when Musa said t o his people: "Verily. ラ∠ ∇ユミゲョ∇ほΑ ヮヤャや ラま ヮョ∇ヲボャ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ぺ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ シ ョ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ クヲ⊥ ぺ メゅ∠ や⇔ ゴワ ゅ∠ グ͡ わ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ りゲボよ ∇やヲ⊥ ∠ ∇グ∠ ͡ z よ ⊥ ハ∠ ∠ ホ ヱ⊥ ⊥ ル⊥ ガz ゎぺ ャ ホ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ エよ ゎ び リΒ͡ヰ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ ぺ ∇ラぺ ∠ ヤ͡ イ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ (67. Imam Abu ` Abdullah bin Bat t ah report ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.びリΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ るヌハ∇ヲョヱぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (and a lesson for Al-Mut t aqin (t he pious)). The next morning. He had subst ant ial wealt h. a reminder. ュケゅ∠ ョ やヲぁエわ∇ジわプ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろらムゎ∇ケや ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ムゎ∇ゲゎ ゅ∠» ∠ ͡ エ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ャ «モ∠ エ∇ャや ヴ∠ ∇キほよ ぶや Β͡ ル ∠͡ ͡ (Do not commit what t he Jews commit t ed. by resort ing t o t he lowest t ypes of deceit . ` Why would you kill each ot her. So his nephew killed him and moved his body at night . while t he Messenger of Allah is st ill among you' So t hey went t o Musa and ment ioned t he mat t er t o him and Musa said. when t he murdered man was brought back t o life.

bright in it s colour. Allah knows best . He said. only who owned t hat cow. it would have been sufficient for t hem t o slaught er any cow. ` By Allah! I will only sell it for it s skin's fill of gold. and t he mat t er was made more difficult for t hem.'' Ibn Jarir report ed somet hing similar t o t hat . He st ood up. They found t he designat ed cow wit h a man. "He says. He died again. ` That man. "I t ake Allah's refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (t he ignorant or t he foolish)). "Call upon your Lord for us t hat He may make plain t o us what it is!'' He said. They said. and t hey asked him. They said.'' They said. Allah commands you t hat you slaught er a cow.ラヱゲ∠ ∇ぽゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥バ∇プゅ∠ レz Β∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ ャ ホ ∠ ョ ⊥ ョ ヤ∠ プ ∀ ⇒͡ ゅ∠ ¬へ∠ ∇ヘタ りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ ゅ∠ ル∇ヲャ ゅ∠ ノ ホ プ ⊥ ゲ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ ヰ⊥ ∠ ョ リあ らΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ . but (it is) bet ween t he t wo condit ions'. メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ ヴワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ リΒらΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ョ レz ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ ャホ マャク リ∇Βよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∀ ∇ム͡ Ιヱ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ラ ヲ ハ ゲ よ ∠ ∠ チ ケ プ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ゅ∠ ャ リあ らΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ . "Do you make fun of us'' He said.'' He said. pleasing t he beholders. so do what you are commanded. and his nephew was not allowed t o inherit him. t hey disput ed. .' '') (70.リΑ͡ ヌ⇒z ャや ぁ ジゎ ゅ∠ ル∇ヲャ Β ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レャ ⊥ ャ ホ ∠ ゲ͡ レ ゲ⊥ ∠ ヰ⊥ z ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ ラ͡ べz まヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮら⇒∠ ゎ ゲボらャや ラま ヴワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ⊥ z ∠ セ ま ル͡∠ レ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ レz ゲΒ͡ ゎ ∀ ヲ⊥∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ . They said. ` Verily.'') (69. it is a cow neit her t oo old nor t oo young.'' "Had t hey not disput ed. "He says.ゅ∠ グ͡ わ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ りゲボよ ∇やヲ⊥ よ∇グゎ ラ∠ ∇ユミゲョ∇ほΑ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ル⊥ ガ z ゎ ぺ ャ ホ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ∠ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ びリΒ͡ヰ⇒∠ ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ ぺ ∇ラぺ ヮヤャゅ͡ クヲ⊥ ぺ メゅ∠ や⇔ ゴワ ∠ ヤ͡ イ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ ⊥ ハ∠ ∠ ホ ヱ⊥ ⊥ ("Verily. "Call upon your Lord for us t o make plain t o us what it is. slaught ered it and t ouched t he dead man wit h a part of it . unt il t hey ended up looking for t he specific cow t hat t hey were lat er ordered t o slaught er. ` It is a yellow cow. However.' and point ed t o his nephew. whoever commit t ed murder for t he purpose of gaining inherit ance was not allowed t o inherit . "Call upon your Lord for us t o make plain t o us it s colour.' So t hey paid t he cow's fill of it s skin in gold. ` Who killed you' He said.ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰヨャ ⊥ ん⊥ メ ャク z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ るΒセ Ι るヨヤジョ ゐ∇ゲエ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ジゎ Ιヱ チ∇ケΙや ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∀ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ x ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ よグプ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ろ∇ゃィ リ⇒∠や ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ キ ミ ョ ∠ ワ エ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ よ ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ ャ ホ び ラヲ⊥バ∇ヘΑ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ (68. Thereaft er.

` It is a cow neit her t rained t o t ill t he soil nor wat er t he fields.'') (71. she was at t he age when t he cow is st rongest and fit t est . sound. Ad-Dahhak. it would have been sufficient for t hem. びマャク リ∇Βよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ラ ヲハ (But (it is) bet ween t he t wo condit ions) means.'' As-Suddi said. And surely. Qat adah and Ibn ` Abbas. びリΑ͡ ヌ⇒z ャや ぁ ジゎぴ ∠ ゲ͡ レ ゲ⊥ ∠ . Wahb bin Munabbih. "What is t his cow and what is it s descript ion'' Musa said. Allah made the Matter difficult for Them Allah ment ioned t he st ubbornness of t he Children of Israel and t he many unnecessary quest ions t hey asked t heir Messengers. t o us all cows are alike. if Allah wills. meaning. びゅ∠ ル∇ヲャ ∀ ⇒͡ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ⊥ z ノ ホ プ (bright in it s colour) "A deep yellowish whit e. "He says. ` At iyah Al-` Awfi. As-Suddi. This is why when t hey were st ubborn. "Now you have brought t he t rut h. any cow. Ad-Dahhak report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . びヴワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ リΒらΑ マよケ ゅ∠ ∠ ネ∇キやぴ ∠ ͡ ョ レz ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レ ャ ⊥ (Call upon your Lord for us t hat He may make plain t o us what it is!). He (Musa) said.Verily. Had t hey slaught ered a cow.'' So t hey slaught ered it t hough t hey were near t o not doing it . "Neit her old nor young. び∀ ∇ム͡ Ιヱ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz まぴ ゲ よ ∠ ∠ チケ プ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ (He says. as Ibn ` Abbas and ` Ubaydah have said. Allah made t he decisions difficult for t hem. having no blemish in it . and t his is why Allah made it even more difficult for t hem. it is a cow neit her t oo old nor t oo young'). t hey made t he mat t er difficult .) The Stubbornness of the Jews regarding the Cow. Inst ead. we will be guided. ` Ikrimah. Muj ahid.' '' They said. ` Verily. Al-Khurasani. meaning. This is t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah. They said.'' In his Tafsir Al-` Awfi report ed from Ibn ` Abbas t hat . t hat it is neit her old nor below t he age of breeding. ` At a'. Al-Hasan. Rat her.

) チ∇ケΙや ゲΒ͡ ゎ ∀ ヲ⊥∠ Ι りゲボよ ゅ∠ ルま メヲ⊥ Α ヮz ま メゅ∠ ぴ ∠ x ⊥ ん⊥ メ ャク z ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰz ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ∠ ホ びゐ∇ゲエ∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇ジゎ Ιヱ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠∠∠ (He says. ` AbdurRazzaq said t hat Ma` mar said t hat Qat adah said t hat . t hat it pleases t hose who see it . びゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮら⇒∠ ゎ ゲボらャや ラまぴ レ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ (Verily. びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰヨャぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ (we will be guided. びるヨヤジョぴ ∀ ∠ z∠ ぁ (sound) means. Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. びヮzャや ¬べ∠ ラ͡ べz まヱぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ま ル͡ ∠ (And surely. ` At a' Al-Khurasani said t hat t he Ayah means t hat it s legs and body are free of physical defect s. "The cow does not suffer from any defect s. but t his is an error. it is honorable and fair looking. びラヲ⊥バ∇ヘΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ よグプぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ キ ミ ョ∠ ワ エ∠ ∠ ∠ . it is not used in farming. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Ayah. Or. t hen describe t his cow for us furt her. t o us all cows are alike) t his means. or for wat ering purposes.'' This is also t he opinion of Abu Al` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` . if Allah wills) and if you furt her describe it t o us. ` It is a cow neit her t rained t o t ill t he soil nor wat er t he fields') meaning. Muj ahid also said t hat t he Ayah means t he cow is free from defect s.'' The modern version of t he Tawrah ment ions t hat t he cow in t he Ayah was red. Also.(pleasing t he beholder) meaning. it might be t hat t he cow was so yellow t hat it appeared blackish or reddish in color. Wahb bin Munabbih said. This is also t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah. Rat her. t hat since cows are plent iful. "If you look at t he cow's skin. you will t hink t hat t he sun's rays radiat e t hrough it s skin. Furt hermore. Furt her. Allah's knows best .

But Allah brought fort h t hat which you were Takt umun. "The Jews bought t he cow wit h a large amount of money. "No you killed him.'' while t he ot hers said.'' This means t hat even aft er all t he quest ions and answers about t he cow's descript ion. Abu Al-` Aliyah and ` AbdurRahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said. Muj ahid. "You killed him. and t his is why t hey nearly did not slaught er t he cow. Ibn Jurayj said t hat . Wahb bin Munabbih. ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅz ∀ ͡ ∇ガョ ヮzャや∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユゎ∇ぺケキゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ヘル ∇ユわ∇ヤわホ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ ミ ョ ァゲ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ヱ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ プ ジ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ヮzャや ヴ∇エΑ マャグミ ゅ∠ ツ∇バらよ ロヲ⊥ ゲ∇ッや ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ . Muj ahid said t hat . So We said: "St rike him (t he dead man) wit h a piece of it (t he cow). some of t hem said.'' Also. "They did not want t o slaught er it . because t heir only goal was t o be st ubborn. びゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユゎ∇ぺケキゅ∠ ぴ ヰプ ⊥∠∠ プ (And disagreed among yourselves as t o t he crime) means. Also.'' This is also t he Tafsir of ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as t o t he crime.(So t hey slaught ered it t hough t hey were near t o not doing it ) means. "Disput ed.) (73. et c.'' .) Bringing the murdered Man back to Life Al-Bukhari said t hat . "Disput ed about t his mat t er. This part of t he Qur'an crit icized t he Jews for t heir behavior. びゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユゎ∇ぺケキゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ヘル ∇ユわ∇ヤわホ ∇クまヱぴ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ プ ジ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as t o t he crime) means.ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ͡ レ ⊥ プ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ヮわ⇒∠ へ ∇ユムΑ͡ Αヱ ヴ∠ ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ Α ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ (72. evidences.'' Thus Allah brings t he dead t o life and shows you His Ayat (proofs.'' There is a difference of opinion over t his. t he Jews were st ill reluct ant t o slaught er t he cow.) so t hat you may underst and. "what you were hiding.'' This is also t he Tafsir of Muj ahid. ` Ubaydah. ` At a' Al-Khurasani and Ad-Dahhak said. びラヲ⊥ わ∇ムゎ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅz ∀ ͡ ∇ガョ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ァゲ ⊥ ⊥ z ヱ (But Allah brought fort h t hat which you were Takt umun) means.

ゅ∠ ∇ィゲ∇カぺヱ ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ΒΒ∇ェぺ るわ∇Βヨ∇ャや チ∇ケΙや ユヰz ∀ ∠ や∠ ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ x ⊥ ⊥ ャ るΑ ¬ヱ リあ ろ⇒z ィ ゅ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱ . び∇ユムゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇んバよ z をぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ム レ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then We raised you up aft er your deat h). びゅ∠ ツ∇バらよ ロヲ⊥ ゲ∇ッや ゅ∠ ∇ヤボ∠ ぴ ヰ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ͡ レ ⊥プ (So We said: "St rike him (t he dead man) wit h a piece of it (t he cow)'') meaning. Allah made t his incident proof against t he Jews t hat t he Resurrect ion shall occur. t he st ory of Abraham and t he four birds. and t he land t hat comes back t o life aft er it has died.Allah said. Inst ead. The proof of Resurrect ion is also reit erat ed in Allah's st at ement . as t his mat t er does not benefit us eit her in mat t ers of life or religion. "any part of t he cow will produce t he miracle (if t hey st ruck t he dead man wit h it ). Allah also ment ioned t he st ory of t hose who escaped deat h in t heir land. Allah would have made it clear for us. First Allah said. aft er t hey were rot t en. He t hen ment ioned t he st ory about t he cow. and We have caused springs of wat er t o gush fort h t herein.ラヲ⊥ バ∇ャや リョ ゅ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇ゲイプヱ ょ⇒∠ ∇ハぺヱ モΒ͡ ル ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ∠ ͡ ヰ プ ル z ∠ ∠ ∃ レ ∠∠ ∃ ガz び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼΑ Κプぺ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ヮ∇わヤヨハ ゅ∠ ヱ ロゲヨを リ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ (And a sign for t hem is t he dead land. びヴ∠ ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ヮzャや ヴ∇エΑ マャグミぴ ゎ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ (Thus Allah brings t he dead t o life) means. And We have made t herein gardens of dat e palms and grapes.'' This Ayah demonst rat es Allah's abilit y in bringing t he dead back t o life. so t hat t hey eat t hereof. and he came back t o life. while t hey were numbering in t he t housands. He also ment ioned t he st ory of t he Prophet who passed by a village t hat was dest royed. and We bring fort h from it grains. All t hese incident s and st ories alert us t o t he fact t hat bodies shall again become whole. and ended t heir disput ing and st ubbornness over t he dead person. so t his is why we should leave it vague.'' We were not t old which part of t he cow t hey used. So t hat t hey may eat of t he fruit t hereof and t heir hands made it not . Allah ment ioned His bringing t he dead back t o life in five inst ances in Surat Al-Baqarah. . We give it life. "They st ruck him wit h it . Allah's st at ement . Will t hey not t hen give t hanks) (36:33-35). Ot herwise. Allah made t his mat t er vague.ラヲ⊥ミ∇ほΑ ヮ∇レヨプ ゅらェ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ョ ∃ レ∠ ヰ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⇔∂ ∠ ヰ ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミ∇ほΒャ .

Then aft er t hat your heart s were hardened and became as st ones or even worse in hardness. びマャク ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユムよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろジホ z をぴ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then aft er t hat your heart s were hardened). And indeed. t here are of t hem (st ones) which split asunder so t hat wat er flows from t hem.) The Harshness of the Jews Allah crit icized t he Children of Israel because t hey wit nessed t he t remendous signs and t he Ayat of Allah. and t hat which has been revealed of t he t rut h. So t heir heart s were like st ones t hat never become soft . and indeed. including bringing t he dead back t o life. ヮヤャや ゲ∇ミグャ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ノゼ∇ガゎ ラ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ラ∇ほΑ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぺ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α Ιヱ ペエ∇ャや リョ メゴル ゅ∠ ヱ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ミ ル ム∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろジボプ ギョΙや ユヰ∇Βヤハ メゅ∠ プ モ∇らホ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ x ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ト∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Β͡ ミヱ ∠ ボ͡ プ ⊥ あ ゲ ん∠ ∠ (Has not t he t ime come for t he heart s of t hose who believe (in t he Oneness of Allah Islamic Monot heism) t o be affect ed by Allah's Reminder (t his Qur'an). t here are of t hem (st ones) which fall down for fear of Allah.∇ヱぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャゅ∠ ヴヰプ マャク ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユムよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろジホ z をぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ヮ∇レョ ゲイヘわΑ ゅ∠ ∠ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャや リョ ラまヱ りヲ∇ジホ ギセぺ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨャ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ¬べ∠ ∇ャや ヮ∇レョ ァゲ∇ガΒプ ペボゼ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ラまヱ ゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ⊥ ヨ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z z Α ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや るΒ∇ゼカ ∇リョ テら∇ヰΑ ゅ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ラまヱ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨャ ヰ ͡ z ͡∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ (74. And Allah is not unaware of what you do. t here are st ones out of which rivers gush fort h. yet . This is why Allah forbade t he believers from imit at ing t he Jews when He said. and indeed. lest t hey become as t hose who received t he Script ure (t he Tawrah) and t he Inj il .

t here are st ones out of which rivers gush fort h.in st ones.e. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . However. because Allah creat es t his charact erist ic . v In his Tafsir. and indeed. t he disobedient t o Allah)) (57:16). . He was asked. springs and rivers burst out of st ones. Allah said.humbleness . t here are of t hem (st ones) which split asunder so t hat wat er flows from t hem. ` By Allah! We did not kill him' and denied t he t rut h while t hey knew it . he st ood up and became more alive t han he ever was. ` Who killed you' He said. Somet imes. Jews and Christ ians).' He t hen died again. wit h no hope of ever soft ening. For inst ance. aft er Allah t ook his life away. even aft er t he miracles and signs t hey wit hnessed. び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what you do). "When t he dead man was st ruck wit h a part of t he cow. "Some st ones are soft er t han your heart s. even if t here are no springs or rivers around t hem. '' And by t he passage of t ime. some st ones split and wat er comes out of t hem. t he heart s of t he Children of Israel were unlikely t o accept any admonishment . ArRazi. ラまヱ ゲ⇒∠ ∇ルΕや ヮ∇レョ ゲイヘわΑ ゅ∠ ャ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャや リョ ラまヱぴ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヰ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ラまヱ ¬べ∠ ∇ャや ヮ∇レョ ァゲ∇ガΒプ ペボゼ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヨ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z z Α ヨ∠ ヰ ͡ びヮヤャや るΒ∇ゼカ ∇リョ テら∇ヰΑ ͡z ͡∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (And indeed.(Gospel)) before (i. t hey acknowledge t he t rut h t hat you are being called t o. ` My nephews killed me. びりヲ∇ジホ ギセぺ ∇ヱぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャゅ∠ ヴヰプぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ (And became as st ones or even worse in hardness). His nephews said. Allah said. Al-Qurt ubi and ot her Imams said t hat t here is no need for t his explanat ion. Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. Their heart s became harder t han st ones.'' Solid Inanimate Objects possess a certain Degree of Awareness Some claimed t hat t he Ayat ment ioned t he st ones being humble as a met aphor. and t he t erm was prolonged for t hem and so t heir heart s were hardened And many of t hem were Fasiqun (t he rebellious. and indeed. t here are of t hem (st ones) which fall down for fear of Allah). somet imes st ones fall down from mount aint ops out of t heir fear of Allah. means.

and t he mount ains. . We did offer Al-Amanah (t he t rust ) t o t he heavens and t he eart h. ゅ∠ ボトル∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ユゎギ͡ セ ユャ ∇ユワキヲ⊥イャ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ レ∠ ∠ ぺ ャ ホ レ ∠∠ ぁ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ ͡ ャ ホ∠ びヮzャや ⊥ヤ (And t hey will say t o t heir skins. びモらィ ヴ∠ハ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ヲャぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ¬ ⊥ グ ワ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ (Had We sent down t his Qur'an on a mount ain) (59:21).チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ∠ハ るルゅ∠ Ιや ゅ∠ ∇ッゲハ ゅz ͡ぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ョx レ ∠ ∠ ルま びゅ∠ ∇レョ リ∇ボヘ∇セぺヱ ゅ∠ レ∇ヤヨ∇エΑ ラ∠ リ∇Βよほ∠ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや∠ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ぺ ∠ ∠ プ ͡ ら͡ ヱ (Truly.'') (41:21). afraid of Allah's t orment )) (33:72). びほΒヘわΑ ¬∇ヴセ リ͡ ヮzャや ペヤカヴ∠ま ∇や∇ヱゲΒ∇ヨャ ヱぺぴ ⊥z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ョ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Have t hey not observed t hings t hat Allah has creat ed: (how) t heir shadows incline) (16:48). び ラや∠ イ∇ジΑ ゲイゼャや∠ ユ∇イレャや∠ ぴ ͡ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ z ヱ ⊥ z ヱ (And t he st ars and t he t rees bot h prost rat e t hemselves (t o Allah)) (55:6). びリヰΒ͡ リ∠ ヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ ノ∇らz ャや れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヮャ ウあ ジゎぴ z ͡ プ ョ∠ ⊥ x ヱ ⊥ ジ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ (The seven heavens and t he eart h and all t hat is t herein. but t hey declined t o bear it and were afraid of it (i. and. びリΒ͡ もべ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎぺ べ∠ ャゅ∠ ぴ ∠ バ͡ デ レ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ホ (They bot h said: "We come willingly. It is recorded in t he Sahih t hat t he Prophet said. "Why do you t est ify against us'' They will say: "Allah has caused us t o speak.e. glorify Him) (17:44).'') (41:11).

` As hard as st ones. "As hard as st ones. ` and'.) Similarly. Rat her. t he meaning becomes. . harder. びりヲ∇ジホ ギセぺ ∇ヱぺ りケゅ∠ エ∇ャゅ∠ ヴヰプぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ イ͡ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ (And became as st ones or even worse in hardness) aft er agreeing t hat ` or' here is not being used t o reflect doubt .) There are several ot her t ext s wit h t his meaning.«ヮぁ エルヱ ゅ∠ らエΑ モらィ や∠ ワ» ら͡ ⊥ ∠ レぁ ͡ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ∠ グ (This (Mount Uhud) is a mount t hat loves us and t hat we love. モ∇らホ ヶヤハ ユあジΑ ラゅ∠ るムヨよ や⇔ イェ フゲ∇ハほャ ヶあ ま» ∠ ∠ z ∠∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ミ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ル͡ «ラべ∇ャや ヮプゲ∇ハほャ ヶあ ま ゑバ∇よぺ ∇ラぺ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ル͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (I know a st one in Makkah t hat used t o greet me wit h t he Salam before I was sent . In Sahih Muslim it is recorded t hat t he Prophet said. I recognize t his st one now. Some ot her scholars said t hat ` or' here means. び やケ∇グル ∇ヱぺ やケ∇グハぴ ⇔ ⊥ ∠⇔ ⊥ (To cut off all excuses or t o warn) (77:6). Allah said. びやケヲ⊥ ミ ∇ヱぺ ゅヨ͡ や∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇ノトゎ Ιヱぴ ⇔ ヘ∠ ∠ ⇔ を ¬ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And obey not a sinner or a disbeliever among t hem) (76:24). Allah said. ` rat her'. t he compassion of t he st ump of t he palm t ree for t he Prophet as confirmed in aut hent ic narrat ions. The scholars of t he Arabic language disagreed over t he meaning of Allah's st at ement . and.) He said about t he Black St one t hat .' For inst ance. and harder. «る∠ ゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ペエよ ユヤわ∇シや リヨャ ギヰ∇ゼΑ ヮz ま» ョ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル͡ (On t he Day of Resurrect ion it will t est ifiy for t hose who kiss it . Some scholars said t hat ` or' here means.'' For inst ance. Hence. So t he meaning becomes.

I . Furt her. as hard as st one or harder t han st one. and t hen His st at ement . Ibn Jarir comment ed t hat t his Tafsir means t hat some of t heir heart s are as hard as st one and some heart s are harder t han st one. び¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ょΒダミ ∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ヨz ∠ あ ∃ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Or like a rainst orm from t he sky) (2:19). Some ot her scholars said t hat t his Ayah means t heir heart s are only of t wo t ypes. び ヴ∠ ∇キぺ ∇ヱぺ リ∇Βシ∇ヲホ ゆゅ∠ ラゅ∠ プぴ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ∠ ム∠ (And was at a dist ance of t wo bows' lengt h or (even) nearer) (53:9).Ibn Kat hir . and t hen His st at ement . It is also similar t o Allah's st at ement . Ibn Jarir said t hat he favored t his last Tafsir. びヴイャ ゲ∇エよ ヴ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤヌミ ∇ヱぺぴ y あ ぁ ∃ ∠ プ ∃ ヨ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ .∇ヱぺ ヮヤャや るΒ∇ゼガミ サゅレャや ラ∇ヲゼ∇ガΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ や∠ まぴ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ペ ゲプ ク͡ びるΒ∇ゼカ ギセぺ ⇔ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ (A sect ion of t hem fear men as t hey fear Allah or even more) (4:77).say t hat t he last Tafsir is similar t o Allah's st at ement . t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert ) (24:39). びやケゅ∠ ギホ∇ヲわ∇シや ン͡ ャや モんヨミ ∇ユヰヤんョぴ ⇔ ル ∠∠ ∠ グz ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ (Their likeness is as t he likeness of one who kindled a fire) (2:17). alt hough t he ot hers are plausible. and. び ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Α ∇ヱぺ ブ∇ャぺ るも∇ゅョ ヴ∠ま ヮ⇒∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺヱぴ ∠ ギ ゴ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠∠ (And We sent him t o a hundred t housand (people) or even more) (37:147). びるバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ (As for t hose who disbelieved.

"Shall you (Jews) t ell t hem (Muslims) what Allah has revealed t o you t hat t hey (Muslims) may argue wit h you (Jews) about it before your Lord'' Have you (Jews) t hen no underst anding) (77. and some ot hers are like t he second example.(Or (t he st at e of a disbeliever) is like t he darkness in a vast deep sea) (24:40). t hey say. Know t hey (Jews) not t hat Allah knows what t hey conceal and what t hey reveal) There was little Hope that the Jews Who lived during the Time of the Prophet could have believed Allah said. び∇ユムャ ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ラ∠ぴ ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぺ . びラヲ⊥ ヨ∇トわプぺぴ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Do you covet ) O believers. This t hen means t hat some of t hem are like t he first example. Do you (fait hful believers) covet t hat t hey will believe in your religion inspit e of t he fact t hat a part y of t hem (Jewish rabbis) used t o hear t he Word of Allah (t he Tawrah). "We believe. t hen t hey used t o change it knowingly aft er t hey underst ood it ) (76.∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユワヱ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ クまヱ ラ ヨヤ Α ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ユ⊥ ルヲ⊥ ギエゎぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ Κカ や∠ まヱ ヨよ ヰ∠ をあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡∠ Κプぺ ∇ユムよケ ギレハ ヮよ ユ⊥ ヲぁ べ∠ Βャ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮzャや ウわプ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ミ ィ エ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ιヱぺ . t hey say. Allah knows best . And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims). ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ギホヱ ∇ユムャ ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ラ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇トわプぺぴ ⊥ あ ペ ゲプ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぺ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ロヲ⊥ボハ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ z を ヮヤャや ユ⇒∠ミ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇ジΑ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ ͡∠ .'' but when t hey meet one anot her in privat e.ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ラ レヤ ⊥ ョ ∠ (75.

dist ort it s meaning. びヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ z を ヮヤャや ユ⇒∠ミ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇ジΑぴ ⊥ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ∠ . because of t heir violat ion of t heir covenant . They underst ood well. t hey were t heir scholars. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユワヱ ロヲ⊥ボハ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ z をぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ プ あ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ (Then t hey used t o change it knowingly aft er t hey underst ood it ) "They are t he Jews who used t o hear Allah's Words and t hen alt er t hem aft er t hey underst ood and comprehended t hem.'' Also. ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱ ∇ユヰ⇒z バ∠ ∇ユヰボ⇒∠ Βあ ユ͡ ツ∇ボル ゅ∠ らプぴ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ レ ャ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ヰ ͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ びヮバッヲョ リ∠ ユヤム∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ゲエΑ るΒシゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ z ハ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ホ (So.(That t hey will believe in your religion) meaning. びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇ユワヱぴ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (knowingly). being fully aware of t heir erroneous int erpret at ions and corrupt ion. Allah said next . "Those who used t o alt er it and conceal it s t rut hs.'' Also. They change t he words from t heir (right ) places) (5:13). t hat t hese people would obey you They are t he deviant sect of Jews whose fat hers wit nessed t he clear signs but t heir heart s became hard aft erwards. t hen t hey used t o change it ) meaning. びロヲ⊥ボハ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ (aft er t hey underst ood it ). We cursed t hem and made t heir heart s grow hard. Qat adah comment ed t hat Allah's st at ement . This st at ement is similar t o Allah's st at ement . yet t hey used t o defy t he t rut h. Muj ahid said. Ibn Wahb said t hat Ibn Zayd comment ed. z を ヮヤャや ユ⇒∠ミ ラヲ⊥ ヨ∇ジΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ギホヱぴ ユ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ペ ゲプ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ びヮルヲ⊥ ゲエΑ ⊥ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ (Inspit e of t he fact t hat a part y of t hem (Jewish rabbis) used t o hear t he Word of Allah (t he Tawrah).

So when a person seeking t he t rut h comes t o t hem wit h a bribe. but disbelieved in Him Allah said next . t hey say. but he was sent t o t hem (not t o you).'' Allah t hen revealed. nor offering t hem bribe. "We believe'') "They believe t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah. but when a person comes t o t hem seeking t o do evil wit h a bribe. ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラ∇ヲジレ∠ ヱ ゲら∇ャゅ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎぺぴ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ あ ͡ よ ∠ レ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バゎ Κプぺ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わゎ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ (Enj oin you Al-Birr (piet y and right eousness and every act of obedience t o Allah) on t he people and you forget (t o pract ise it ) yourselves. when t hey meet each ot her t hey say.). "Do not convey t he news about t his Prophet t o t he Arabs. Κカ や∠ まヱ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲャゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ ∠ ∠ ク͡∠ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ びヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims). because you used t o ask Allah t o grant you vict ory over t hem when he came. t hen t hey used t o change it ) "They alt ered t he Tawrah t hat Allah revealed t o t hem. t hey say.(used t o hear t he Word of Allah (t he Tawrah). t hen t hey enj oin right eousness on him.. but when t hey meet one anot her in privat e. while you recit e t he Script ure (t he Tawrah)! Have you t hen no sense) (2:44)'' The Jews knew the Truth of the Prophet . and t hat what is right is false and t hat what is false is right . t hey j udge his case by t he Book of Allah. t hey t ake out t he ot her (dist ort ed) book. ` But he was only sent for you (Arabs)''' However. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed. When someone comes t o t hem who is not seeking what is right . . making it say t hat t he lawful is unlawful and t he prohibit ed is allowed. This is why Allah said t o t hem. in which it is st at ed t hat he is in t he right . "We believe''. びゅz ョや∠ やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ (And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims).

ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ Ιヱぺぴ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ラ レヤ ⊥ (Know t hey (Jews) not t hat Allah knows what t hey conceal and what t hey reveal). びラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ (That Allah knows what t hey conceal). Al-Hasan comment ed on. so t hat t he news (t hat Muhammad is t he Final Messenger) does not become a proof for t hem against you wit h your Lord. "We believe. t hey say. "What t hey concealed refers t o when t hey were alone wit h each ot her away from t he Companions of Muhammad . alt hough t hey find his coming recorded in t heir Book. Abu Al-` Aliyah said about Allah's st at ement . "Shall you (Jews) t ell t hem (Muslims) what Allah has revealed t o you. ` Do not t alk t o t he companions of Muhammad about what Allah has foret old in your Book. knowing t hat Allah t ook t he covenant from you t o follow him. t hey will know t hat Muhammad is t he Prophet t hat we were wait ing for and whose coming we find foret old of in our Book.'' This is also t he Tafsir of Qat adah. "If you admit t o t hem t hat he is a Prophet . "When t he Jews met t he believers t hey used t o say. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said. t hat t hey (Muslims) may argue wit h you (Jews) about it before your Lord'') meaning.'' but when t hey meet one anot her in privat e. you will win t he disput e. fearing t hat t he Companions would use t his news (about t he t rut h of Muhammad ) against t hem before t heir Lord.Κカ や∠ まヱ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ャ や∠ まヱぴ ∠ ∠ ク͡∠ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ボ∠ ク͡∠ ヮzャや ウわプ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ルヲ⊥ あ エゎぺ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヰ∠ をギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ び∇ユムよケ ギレ͡ ヮよ ユ⊥ ヲぁ べ∠ Βャ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ⊥ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ͡ ͡ ミ ィ エ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And when t hey (Jews) meet t hose who believe (Muslims). Then t hey would forbid each ot her from conveying t he news t hat Allah revealed t o t hem in t heir Book t o t he Companions of Muhammad .'' .' When t hey met each ot her. and. "Meaning t heir secret denial and rej ect ion of Muhammad.'' Allah said.''' Furt her. some of t hem would say. ` We believe. t hus. t hey say. ゅ∠ ヱ ラヱぁ ジΑ ゅ∠ ユヤ∇バΑ ヮヤャや ラぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ Ιヱぺぴ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ラ レヤ ⊥ (Know t hey (Jews) not t hat Allah knows what t hey conceal and what t hey reveal). do not believe in him and deny him. Therefore.

who know not t he Book. "This is from Allah. as Abu Al-` Aliyah. as Abu Al` Aliyah. This meaning is clarified by Allah's st at ement . a person who does not writ e. Ar-Rabi` and Qat adah st at ed. Ummyyun. Qat adah. びラヲぁ ョぺ ∇ユヰ∇レョヱぴ ∠ Βあ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (And t here are among t hem Ummyyun people) meaning. Then woe t o t hose who writ e t he book wit h t heir own hands and t hen say. t hat is.び∠ ヲ⊥ ͡∇バΑ ゅョヱぴ ラ レヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And what t hey reveal) meaning.) (79. ∇ラまヱ ヴルゅ∠ ぺ Ιま ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ラヲぁョぺ ∇ユヰ∇レョヱぴ ͡∠ z ͡ ョ∠ z ͡ ∠ わ͡ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ Βあ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ラヲぁ ヌΑ Ιま ∇ユワ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α z を ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αほよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ヤャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ ギ ∠͡ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ら⊥ ∠ ∠ グzあ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヲプ ΚΒ͡ホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ∠ ∇ゼ∠ ͡ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ や∠ ⇒∠ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ レ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲわ Βャ ͡ z ͡ ハ ͡ グ ワ び ラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヱヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろらわミ ゅz ョ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ヨ あ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ あ (78. among t he People of t he Book. びゅz ョや∠ ぴ レ∠ ¬ (We believe). Ibrahim An-Nakha` i and ot hers said.) The Meaning of ` Ummi Allah said. Ar-Rabi` .'' t o purchase wit h it a lit t le price! Woe t o t hem for what t heir hands have writ t en and woe t o t hem for t hat t hey earn t hereby. . are t hey not aware of what is in it . is plural for Ummi. as Muj ahid st at ed. when t hey said t o t he Companions of Muhammad . but t hey t rust upon Amani (false desires) and t hey but guess. びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ιぴ ∠ わ͡ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ (Who know not t he Book) meaning. And t here are among t hem (Jews) ` Ummyyun (unlet t ered) people.

t hirt y or t went y-nine days. "Allah described t he Ummiyyin as not underst anding any of t he Book t hat Allah sent down t o Musa. t he word Amani ment ioned here refers t o lying and falsehood. For inst ance. ヮぁ ガゎ Ιヱ ょ⇒∠ ミ リ͡ ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ヲ⊥∇わゎ ろレ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ト⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ わ͡ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ヤ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ∠ び ラヲ⊥ト∇らヨ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇ケΙ やク͡ マレΒ͡ Βよ ∠ ヤ͡ ⊥ ∠ ゎ z ⇔ ま ∠ ͡ ヨ∠ ͡ (Neit her did you (O Muhammad ) read any book before it (t his Qur'an) nor did you writ e any book (what soever) wit h your right hand.Ummi was one of t he descript ions of t he Prophet because he was unlet t ered. t he Prophet said. The Explanation of Amani Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement . びヴルゅ∠ ぺ Ιまぴ z ͡ ョ∠ z ͡ (But t hey t rust upon Amani) means. び∇ユヰ∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ リΒあ ョΕや ヴ͡ ゑバよ ン͡ ャや ヲワぴ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ∠ Βあ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ⊥ (He it is Who sent among t he Ummiyyin ones a Messenger (Muhammad ) from among t hemselves) (62:2). In t hat case. Allah also said. yet t hey creat e lies and falsehood. t his and t his (i. indeed. or calculat ions t o decide t he t imings of t heir act s of worship.'' It was also said t hat Amani means ` wishes and hopes'. Muj ahid comment ed. The (lunar) mont h is like t his. Also.'' Therefore.) This Hadit h st at ed t hat Muslims do not need t o rely on books. "It is j ust a false st at ement t hat t hey ut t er wit h t heir t ongues.e. Allah said. t he followers of falsehood might have doubt ed) (29:48). neit her writ ing nor calculat ing. . Muj ahid said t hat Allah's st at ement . や∠ ムワ ゲ∇ヰz ャや ∩⊥ ジ∇エル ゅ∠ヱ ょわ∇ムル ゅ∠ ∀ Βョぺ ∀ ョぺ ゅz ͡» グ∠ ⊥ ゼ ょ͡ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ るz あ ⊥ るz ⊥ ルま «や∠ ムワ∠ や∠ ムワ∠ グ∠ ヱ グ∠ ヱ (We are an Ummi nat ion.

changed it and wrot e anot her book wit h t heir own hands.'' t o purchase wit h it a lit t le price!). Al-Hasan Al-Basri said.びラヲぁ ヌΑ Ιま ∇ユワ ∇ラまヱぴ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ͡∠ (And t hey but guess) means. and it is a well-known word in t he Arabic language.' so t hat t hey acquired a small profit by it .'' Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed. t hriving on unj ust ly amassing people's propert y. while t he Book of Allah (Qur'an) t hat He revealed t o His Prophet is t he most recent Book from Him and you st ill read it fresh and young Allah t old you t hat t he People of t he Book alt ered t he Book of Allah. ` This book is from Allah. ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヱヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろらわミ ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ヨあ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ びラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ∠ ら͡ ∠ (Woe t o t hem for what t heir hands have writ t en and woe t o t hem for t hat t hey earn t hereby) means. This is anot her cat egory of people among t he Jews who called t o misguidance wit h falsehood and lies about Allah. "They have evil false ideas about Allah.'' Woe unto Those Criminals among the Jews Allah said. "This is from Allah.'' Qat adah. "O Muslims! How could you ask t he People of t he Book about anyt hing. AzZuhri said t hat ` Ubadydullah bin ` Abdullah narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. "Woe t o t hem because of what t hey have writ t en wit h t heir own hands. び∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ⊥z ∀ ∠∠ . "They lie. "The lit t le amount here means t his life and all t hat it cont ains.'' Allah's st at ement . falsehood and alt erat ions. t he lies. Hasn't t he knowledge t hat came t o you prohibit ed you from asking t hem By Allah! We have not seen any of t hem asking you about what was revealed t o you. They t hen said.'' This Hadit h was also collect ed by Al-Bukhari. Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said t hat it means. ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α z を ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αほよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲらわ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ヤャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ ギ ∠͡ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グzあ ∀ ∠ ∠ びΚΒ͡ホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ∠ ∇ゼ∠ ͡ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ や∠ ⇒∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ レ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲわ Βャ ͡ z ͡ ハ ͡ グ ワ (Then Waylun (woe) t o t hose who writ e t he book wit h t heir own hands and t hen say. Woe t o t hem because of t he propert y t hat t hey unj ust ly acquired. ` Waylun (woe)' carries meanings of dest ruct ion and perishing.

and t hen t hey will be saved from it . what you say. be t hey commoners or ot herwise. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah report ed Abu Hurayrah saying. t hat t he Fire will only t ouch t hem for a few days. "Means t he t orment will be t heirs because of t he lies t hat t hey wrot e wit h t heir own hands. . Also. you have no knowledge of and you t hus ut t er a lie about Him. ` if you had a promise from Allah for t hat . And t hey (Jews) say. t he Ayah proclaims. t hen Allah will never break His promise.'').' Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said about t he Ayah. which t hey unj ust ly acquired from people. Allah refut ed t his claim by saying. such promise never exist ed. びりキヱ⊥ ∇バョ ゅ⇔ ゅz ぺ Ιま ケゅz ャや ゅ∠ ジヨゎ リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ギ z ョ Α∠ z ͡ ⊥ レ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey (Jews) say. "The Fire shall not t ouch us but for a few numbered days.'' Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Have you t aken a covenant from Allah. "The Jews said. "The Fire shall not t ouch us but for a few numbered days.'' ∇モホ りキヱ⊥ ∇バョ ゅ⇔ ゅz ぺ Ιま ケゅz ャや ゅ∠ ジヨゎ リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ⇔ ∠ ギ z ョ Α∠ z ͡ ⊥ レ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ャ ホ∠ ∇ュぺ ロギ∇ヰハ ヮヤャや ブヤ∇ガΑ リ∠プ や⇔ ∇ヰハ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇ユゎ∇グガゎぺ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ギ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ヮヤャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ͡ z ヤ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ (80. However. びラヲ⊥ ジ∇ムΑ ゅz ョ ∇ユヰャ モ∇Αヱヱぴ ∠ ら͡ ∠ ヨあ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ (And woe t o t hem for t hat t hey earn t hereby).''' Ot hers added t hat t his was t he period during which t he Jews worshipped t he calf. so t hat Allah will not break His covenant Or is it t hat you say of Allah what you know not '') The Jews hope They will only remain in the Fire for a Few Days Allah ment ioned t he claim of t he Jews. about Allah. びや⇔ ∇ヰハ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇ユゎ∇グガゎぺ ∇モホぴ ギ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ⊥ (Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Have you t aken a covenant from Allah'). ` The Fire will only t ouch us for fort y days. Hence. Rat her.(Woe t o t hem).

: «ユ⊥ ヲ⊥ ぺ ∇リョ» ミ よ∠ ∠ : : «ラゅ∠プ ∇ユミヲ⊥ ぺ ∇モよ ∇ユわ∇よグミ» ヤ⊥ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ . : «∨⊥ ∇レハ ∇ユムわ∇ャほシ ∇ラま ¬ヶ∠ ∇リハ ヶホキゅ∠ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ ∇モワ» ヮ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ∃ セ ∠ z ͡ ͡ タ ⊥ ∠ ∠ : : «∨ゅ6 シ りゅz ャや ログワ ヶ͡ ∇ユわ∇ヤバィ ∇モワ» ヨ⊥ ͡ ゼ ͡ ͡ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ : : .: «ゅ∠ ヰワ ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ∇リョ ヶ͡ やヲ⊥ ヨ∇ィや» レ⊥ キ ヰΒ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ∠ ャ バ∠ . : : «ヮ∇レハ ∇ユムわ∇ャほシ ∇ラま ¬ヶ∠ ∇リハ ヶホキゅ∠ ∇ユわ∇ルぺ ∇モワ» ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ∃ セ ∠ z ͡ ͡ タ ⊥ ∠ ∠ : : « ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ» ͡ レ ⊥ ∠ ∠ : : «や⇔ よぺ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユムヘヤ∇ガル ゅ∠ ぶや∠ やヲ⊥ ジ∇カや» ギ∠ ∠ ヰ プ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ ͡ ヱ ゃ∠ .

` May you be cursed and humiliat ed in it ! By Allah. we shall never replace you in it . Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa'i recorded similarly.' He asked. ` We shall remain in t he (Hell) Fire for a short period. ` Yes.«∨∠ ャク ヴヤ∠ ユ⊥ ヤヨェ ゅ∠ プ» マ͡ ハ ム∠∠ ∠ ヨ∠ : . ` We want ed t o know if you were a liar. ` You have ut t ered t he t rut h. びれゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ (And t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds) meaning. if I ask you about somet hing' They replied.' The Prophet said.' He said. t hey are dwellers of t he Fire (i. t he mat t er is not as you have wished and hoped it t o be. Rat her.ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ レ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ⊥ エ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ エ͡ z ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ∇ユワ るレイ∇ャや ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ プ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ (81. (82.' They said. and if you were a Prophet t hen t he poison would not harm you. Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him.'' Allah said in a similar st at ement .' He said. And t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds.' On t hat he asked. ` Will you t ell me t he t rut h if I ask you a quest ion' They said. ` Yes.e.' The Jews were summoned and t he Prophet said (t o t hem). (When Khaybar was conquered.' He asked.' Then he asked. in which case we would get rid of you. ヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱ るゃΒシ ょジミ リ∠ ヴ∠よぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヤ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ . t hey are dwellers of Paradise. ` So-and-so. . t hen he will be among t he people of t he Fire. Hell). whoever does an evil deed and abides purposefully in his error. O AbulQasim. They shall be among t he people of Paradise. ` Will you now t ell me t he t rut h. and aft er t hat you will replace us in it . ` Assemble before me all t he Jews who were here.') Imam Ahmad. O Abul-Qasim. ` Who is your fat her' They replied. coming on t he Day of Resurrect ion wit h no good deeds. ` What made you do so' They said. The Messenger of Allah ordered. a roast ed poisoned sheep was present ed t o t he Prophet as a gift (by t he Jews). ` You have lied. only evil deeds. ` Who are t he people of t he (Hell) Fire' They said. and if we should t ell a lie. you will know our lie as you have about our fat hers. t hey will dwell t herein forever). ` Have you poisoned t his sheep' They said. your fat her is so-and-so. t hey will dwell t herein forever. ` Yes. "They believe in Allah and His Messenger and perform t he good deeds t hat conform wit h t he Islamic Law.) Allah says.

whosoever works evil. nor t hose of t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians). even t he size of a Naqira (speck on t he back of a dat e st one). will be done t o t hem) (4: 123-124). They bring about Destruction Here we should ment ion t he Hadit h t hat Imam Ahmad recorded. びヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ∠ ∠ (And his sin has surrounded him) refers t o maj or sins. AlA` mash report ed from Abu Razin t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Khut haym said.'' As-Suddi and Abu Razin said similarly. and Allah knows best . Muj ahid. ` At a'. . "Whoever dies before repent ing from his wrongs. Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat . Abu Wa'il. All of t hese st at ement s carry similar meanings. and Al-Hasan said t hat . in which ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. Also. Al-Hasan. and is a (t rue) believer in t he Oneness of Allah (Muslim) . will have t he recompense t hereof. Abu Hurayrah. Abu Al-` Aliyah.∇モヨ∇バΑ リ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ヴルゅ∠ ぺ Ι∠ ∇ユムΒレ⇒∠ ほよ ザ∇Βャぴ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ͡ ョ∠ ヱ ⊥ あ ͡ ョ∠͡ ∠ z Ιヱ ゅΒャヱ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ヮャ ∇ギイΑ Ιヱ ヮよ ゴ∇イΑ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∂ ͡∠ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ¬ シ ∇ヱぺ ゲミク リ͡ ろ⇒∠ ヤ⇒z ャや リョ ∇モヨ∇バΑ リ∠ ヱ .やゲΒ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ エ͡ ダ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⇔ ダ∠ Ιヱ るレイ∇ャや ラヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ∀ ͡ ∇ぽョ ヲワヱ ヴ∠ ル⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ∠ リョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ぺ び やゲΒ͡ ル ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヌΑ ⇔ ボ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ (It will not be in accordance wit h your desires (Muslims). and he will not find any prot ect or or helper besides Allah. male or female. When Small Sins gather. such will ent er Paradise and not t he least inj ust ice. And whoever does right eous good deeds.'' Also. びヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ∠ ∠ (And his sin has surrounded him). "His Shirk (polyt heism) has surrounded him. びヮわ⇒∠Β͡ カ ヮよ ∇ろト⇒∠ ぺヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ⇒ ト ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ェ∠ ∠ (And his sin has surrounded him) means.

ヴ∠ハ リ∇バヨわ∇イΑ リヰル͡∠ ͡ ヲ⊥ グャや れや∠ ボエョヱ ∇ユミゅz ま» ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ z みプ ゆ ルぁ ͡ ゲz ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ Α͡ «ヮ∠ ∇ムヤ∇ヰΑ ヴ∂ ェ モィゲャや レ ͡ ⊥ わ∠ ͡ ⊥ z (Beware of t he belit t led sins. and t hen t heir servant s came. マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ れゅ∠ ヤ⇒z ャや ∇やヲ⊥ヨハヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ エ͡ ダ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ び ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ゅ∠ Βプ ∇ユワ るレイ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ∠ ギ͡ カ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ エ ∠ (And t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds. They t hen st art ed a fire and cooked what t hey put on it . Allah st at ed t hat t he recompense for good or evil works shall remain wit h it s people for et ernit y. '' Ιま ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ Ι モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ よ ペ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ z ͡ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ͡ レ∠ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ ∠ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ∇ェま リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮヤャや ヨ わ∠ ヱ よ ⊥ クヱ ル ジ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ∠ z りヲ∠ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱ ゅ⇔ ∇ジェ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ∠ ヤz ヨ ホ∠∠ レ ⊥ ͡ レ ャ ャ ホ∠ ͡ ム ジ∠ ヱ . because t hey gat her on a person unt il t hey dest roy him. t hey will dwell t herein forever) "Whoever believes in what you (Jews) did not believe in and implement s what you refrained from implement ing of Muhammad's religion. shall acquire Paradise for et ernit y. ノΒ͡ タ ゲツエプ ∩∃ ゅ∠プ チ∇ケほよ やヲ⊥ゴル ュ∇ヲホ モんヨミ» ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ り ヤ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ャ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ キヲ⊥ ∇ャゅ͡ ¬ヶ͡ Βプ ペヤト∇レΑ モィz ャや モバイプ ュ∇ヲボ∇ャや ͡ バ よ ⊥ イ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ や⇔ や∠ シ やヲ⊥ ヨィ ヴ∂ ェ ∩͡ ヲ⊥ ∇ャゅ͡ ¬ヶ͡ Α モィz ャや∠ キ ヲ∠ バ∠ ∠ わ∠ キ バ よ ⊥ イ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ヱ «ゅ∠ Β͡ やヲ⊥ グホ ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ツ∇ルほプ や⇔ ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ィぺヱ ヰ プ プ∠ ∠ ョ イ∠ ∠∠ ケ ル イz ∠∠ (This is t he example of people who set up camp on a flat land.) He t hen said t hat t he Messenger of Allah gave t hem an example.) Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . t hey are dwellers of Paradise. One of t hem collect ed some wood and anot her man collect ed some wood unt il t hey collect ed a great deal.

)) (16:36). We have sent among every Ummah (communit y. This is t he highest and most import ant right . And (remember) when We t ook a covenant from t he Children of Israel. Allah said. and speak good t o people and perform As-Salah and give Zakah. Allah commanded t hem t o worship Him and t o associat e none wit h Him in worship. . and t o kindred. Allah's right t hat He be worshipped alone wit hout part ners. ヮヤャや ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや ラぺ Ιヲ⊥ ケ るョぺ あ ミ ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇んバよ ∇ギボャヱぴ ∠ z ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⇔ シz ∃ z ⊥ モ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ び∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒z ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ レわ∇ィや∠ れ ピ ト ら͡ ∠ ヱ (And verily. Allah usually ment ions t he right s of t he parent s along wit h His right s. びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヴャま マ∇Αギャヲャヱ ヴ͡ ∇ゲム∇セや ラぺぴ ⊥ ダ∠ z ∠͡ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ͡∠ ャ ⊥ ͡ ∠ (Give t hanks t o Me and t o your parent s. Also. (saying): Worship none but Allah (alone) and be dut iful and good t o parent s. j ust as He has commanded all of His creat ures. and avoid t he Taghut (all false deit ies. ヮ∇Βャま ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ Ιま メヲ⊥ ケ リ͡ マヤ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠͡ ェ ル z ͡ ∃ シz ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ら∇ハゅ∠ ∇ゅルぺ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ヮz ぺ ͡ ギ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ル∠ (And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad ) but We revealed t o him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana none has t he right t o be worshipped but I (Allah) . and how t hey int ent ionally and knowingly t urned away from all of t hat . nat ion) a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah (alone).∇ユわ∇ルぺヱ ∇ユム∇レョ ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ∇ユわ∇Βャヲゎ z を りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ や∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ あ ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬ヱ び ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇バョ ∠ ッ͡ ぁ (83. and t o orphans and (t he poor). Then you slid back. t hat is. and. Aft er t hat comes t he right of t he creat ures. Allah said. t he right of t he parent s. and t he covenant s t hat He t ook from t hem t o abide by t hose commands. Allah said. Unt o Me is t he final dest inat ion) (31:14). For inst ance.) The Covenant that Allah took from the Children of Israel Allah reminded t he Children of Israel of t he commandment s t hat He gave t hem. for t his is why Allah creat ed t hem. while you are backsliders. so worship Me (alone and none else)) (21:25). except a few of you. foremost .

` Being kind t o one's parent s. unt il. ` Then what ' He said. The Two Sahihs record t hat Ibn Mas` ud said. And t hat you be dut iful t o your parent s) (17:23). ` Performing t he prayer on t ime. ` Jihad in t he cause of Allah.' I said. 'Then what ' He said. :ろ∇ヤホ ⊥ ⊥ :メゅ∠ ∨⊥ ツ∇プぺ モ∠ ∠ ∇ャや ヵぺ ぶや メヲ⊥ ケ ゅ∠ » ∠ ホ モ∠ ∠ ヨバ ぁ ͡ ∠ シ∠ Α «ゅ∠ ͡ ∇ホ∠ ヴヤ∠ りゅ∠ダャや» ヰわ ヱ ハ ⊥ ヤz :メゅ∠ ∨x ぺ z を :ろ∇ヤホ ∠ ホ ヵ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ «リ∇Αギャや∠ ∇ャや ゲよ» ∠͡ ヲ ぁ ͡ :メゅ∠ ∨x ぺ z を :ろ∇ヤホ ∠ ホ ヵ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ «ぶや モΒ͡ シ ヶ͡ キゅ∠ イ∇ャや» ͡ ら∠ プ ⊥ ヰ͡ (I said.') Allah t hen said.' I said.リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ヮ⇒z ま Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ Ιぺ マよケ ヴ∠ ホヱぴ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ⊥ Α͡ z ͡ ギ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ツ∠ ∠ びゅレ⇒∠ ∇ェま ⇔ ジ ͡ (And your Lord has decreed t hat you worship none but Him. . ` O Messenger of Allah! What is t he best deed' He said. びモΒ͡ ジャや リ∇よや∠ リΒ͡ ∇ジヨ∇ャや∠ ヮz ェ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや や∠ れや∠ ヱぴ ͡ らz ∠ ヱ ∠ ム ͡ ヱ ⊥ ボ∠ よ ⊥ ク ͡ ¬∠ (And give t o t he kinsman his due and t o t he Miskin (poor) and t o t he wayfarer) (17:26).

also includes every good t ype of behavior t hat Allah is pleased wit h. and being pat ient and forgiving. and do good t o parent s) (4:36). say good words t o t hem and be lenient wit h t hem. Al-Hasan Al-Basri comment ed on Allah's st at ement . plural for Miskin. t he one who does not find what he needs t o spend on himself and his family. who graded it Sahih.びヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ぴ ヨ わ∠ ヱ (and t o orphans) meaning.` The good saying' means commanding good and forbidding evil. t he young who have no fat hers t o fend for t hem. t his includes commanding good and forbidding evil. びリΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ム ジ∠ ヱ (and Al-Masakin (t he poor)). リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ゅゃ∇Βセ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ギ⊥ ヱ びゅレ⇒∠ ∇ェま ⇔ ジ ͡ (Worship Allah and j oin none wit h Him (in worship). Allah's st at ement . . We will discuss t hese cat egories when we explain t he Ayah of Surat An-Nisa` where Allah said. t hen do so. びゅ⇔ ∇ジェ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱぴ レ ⊥ ͡ レ ャ ャ ホ∠ (and speak good t o people) meaning. びゅ⇔ ∇ジェ サゅz ヤ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱぴ レ ⊥ ͡ レ ャ ャ ホ∠ (and speak good t o people). The ` good words t o people'.) This Hadit h was also collect ed by Muslim in his Sahih and At -Tirmidhi.'' Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat Abu Dharr said t hat t he Prophet said. and even if you did not find any good deed except meet ing your brot her wit h a smiling face. ペ∇ャゅ∠ ∇ギイゎ ∇ユャ ∇ラまヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャや リョ ラゲボ∇エゎ ゅ∠» ∠ プ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ゃ ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ «ペ͡ト∇レョ ヮ∇ィヲよ ポゅ∠ ぺ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ カ∠ (Do not belit t le any form of right eousness. as Allah commanded. ".

ignored t hese orders. Allah ordered t his Ummah similarly in Surat An-Nisa' when He said. t he wayfarer (you meet ). aft er He commanded t hem t o be kind t o t hem. t hereby ment ioning t wo cat egories of manners: good speech and good act ions. t hey knowingly and int ent ionally abandoned t hem. orphans. リ∇Αギャヲ∇ャゅ͡ ヱ ゅゃ∇Βセ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ハや∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ よ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ギ⊥ ヱ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ よヱ ゅレ⇒∠ ∇ェま ͡ ム ジ∠ ヱ ヨ わ∠ ヱ よ ⊥ グ͡ ∠ ⇔ ジ ͡ ょエ⇒z ャや∠ ょレイ∇ャや ケゅ∠ ∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ ケゅ∠ ∇ャや∠ ͡ ͡ ダ ヱ ͡ ⊥⊥ ͡ イ ヱ よ ⊥ ク ͡ イ ヱ ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇Αぺ ∇ろムヤョ ゅ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ジャや リ∇よやヱ ょ∇レイャゅ͡ ∠ z z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ョ∠ ͡ らz ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ び やケヲ⊥ プ Ιゅ∠ ∇ガョ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぁ エΑ Ι ⇔ ガ∠ ⇔ わ ⊥ ∠ ミ ョ ょ ͡ ⊥ ∠ (Worship Allah and j oin none wit h Him (in worship). kinsfolk. びりヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ へ∠ りヲヤz ャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ∠ ミz ゎ ヱ ∠ ダ ヨ ホ∠ ∠ (and perform As-Salah and give Zakah). Allah informed us t hat t he People of t he Book. and all praise is due t o Allah. t hat is. He t hen emphasized t he command t o worship Him and t he command t o do good.ラヱ⊥ ヰ∇ゼゎ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ぺ ユ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ラヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ ゎ ∇ユワゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ユ⊥ レあ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎヱ ∠ ゲ∠ ヌ∠ ͡ ͡ Α͡ ョ ム ョ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∠ ン∠ ⇒∠ ぺ ∇ユミヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ ラ͡ヱ ラヱ∇ギバ∇ャや∠ ユ∇をΗゅ͡ ユ͡ ∇Βヤハ ゲ シ⊥ ⊥ ゎ ∠ ま∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ͡ よ ヰ ∠ . t he companion by your side. and t hose (servant s) whom your right hands possess. Al-Masakin (t he poor). and do good t o parent s. Allah does not like such as are proud and boast ful) (4:36). except for a few among t hem. Of t hese orders. t he neighbor who is a st ranger.Allah commands t he servant s t o say good words t o people. Ιヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ キ ラヲ⊥ ヘ∇ジゎ Ι ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ョ͡ ∠ ム ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユゎ∇ケゲ∇ホぺ z を ∇ユミゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ͡ Α͡ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ z を . ordaining t he prayer and t he Zakah. t he neighbor who is near of kin. t his Ummah has pract iced what no ot her nat ion before it has. Verily.

ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽわプぺ ∇ユヰィや∠ ∇カま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∀ ゲ∠ ョ ヲワヱ ∇ユワヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ゎ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ュz エ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ギ ヘ⊥ リ∠ ¬へ∠ ィ ゅ∠ プ ヂ∇バらよ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヂ∇バらよ ョ ⊥ ゴ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ュ∇ヲΑヱ ゅΒ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ヶ͡ ∀ ∇ゴ͡ Ιま ∇ユムレ͡ マャク モバ∇ヘΑ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぁ ͡ Β∠ プン カz͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ ∠ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ヱ ゆや∠ バャや ギセぺ ヴ∠ま ラヱぁ ゲΑ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ z ョ∠ ͡ グ∠ ∂ あ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ キ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ . The Jew would kill his Arab enemy. nor t urn out your own people from t heir dwellings. in sin and t ransgression. There were t hree Jewish t ribes in Al-Madinah at t hat t ime. Then do you believe in a part of t he Book and rej ect t he rest Then what is t he recompense of t hose who do so among you. t heir Jewish allies would assist t hem. because of t he armed conflict s bet ween t he t ribes of Al-Madinah. t he vict orious Jews would release t he prisoners from t he defeat ed part y. When war erupt ed bet ween Aws and Khazraj . Aws and Khazraj . it is you who kill one anot her and drive out a part y of you from t heir homes. who used t o be t he allies of t he Aws. This is why Allah said. When t he war ended. alt hough t he Jews were prohibit ed from killing each ot her according t o clear religious t ext s in t heir Books. Then. and on t he Day of Resurrect ion t hey shall be consigned t o t he most grievous t orment .) (86. and Banu Qurayzah. according t o t he rulings of t he Tawrah. They would also drive each ot her from t heir homes and loot what ever furnit ure and money t hey could. t he Aws and Khazraj worshipped idols.∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ Β ぁ ∠ Β∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ユヰ∇レハ ブz ガΑ Κプ りゲカΙゅ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ グ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x よ び ラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ Α (84.) The Terms of the Covenant and their Breach of It Allah crit icized t he Jews who lived in Al-Madinah during t he t ime of t he Messenger of Allah . except disgrace in t he life of t his world. Banu Qaynuqa` and Banu An-Nadir. And if t hey come t o you as capt ives. Their t orment shall not be light ened nor shall t hey be helped. and many bat t les t ook place bet ween t hem. t he allies of t he Khazraj . Aft er t his. And Allah is not unaware of what you do. . assist (t heir enemies) against t hem. びヂ∇バらよ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヂ∇バらよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽわプぺぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Then do you believe in a part of t he Script ure and rej ect t he rest ) Allah said.) (85. They used t o suffer. Before Islam. Those are t hey who have bought t he life of t his world at t he price of t he Hereaft er. and somet imes t hey also killed Jews who were t he allies of t he ot her Arab t ribe. alt hough t heir expulsion was forbidden t o you. (t his) you rat ified and (t o t his) you bore wit ness. you ransom t hem. And (remember) when We t ook your covenant (saying): Shed not t he blood of your (people).

'' ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ z をぴ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ぺ ユ⊥ び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ユ⊥ レあ ͡ ͡ Α͡ ョ ム ョ (Aft er t his. ∇ユヰヨェや∠ ゎヱ ∇ユワキや∠ ゎ ヶ͡ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや モんョ» ͡ ͡ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ヲ∠ プ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ヮ∇レョ ヴム∠ ∇セや や∠ ま ギェや∠ ∇ャや ギジイ∇ャや るャゴ∇レヨよ ∇ユヰヤタや∠ ゎヱ ⊥ ͡ わ ク͡ ͡ ͡ ヲ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡⊥ ヲ∠ ∠ «ゲ∠ ジャや∠ ヴz エ∇ャゅ͡ ギジイ∇ャや ゲもゅ∠ ヮャ ヴ∠ や∠ ゎ ∀ ∇ツハ ヰz ヱ ヨ⊥ よ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ シ ⊥ ∠ ハ ギ∠ ヲ ⊥ (The example of t he believers in t heir kindness.) meaning. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah.Ιヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ キ ラヲ⊥ ヘ∇ジゎ Ι ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ョ͡ ∠ ム ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ び∇ユミゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎ ⊥ ͡ Α͡ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ (And (remember) when We t ook your covenant (saying): Shed not t he blood of your (people). t he Messenger of Allah said. ∇ユムャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ∇ユムャク ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ∇ユムもケゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ プぴ ⊥ z ゲ カ ⊥ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ヤ⊥ プ ⊥ ͡ ͡ よ ャ͡ よ わ∠ び∇ユムもケゅ∠ ギレ͡ ⊥ ͡͡ よ ∠ ハ (So t urn in repent ance t o your Creat or and kill yourselves. Also. j ust as He said in anot her Ayah. "Do not kill each ot her. びラヱギヰ∇ゼゎ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ∇ユゎ∇ケゲ∇ホぺ z をぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ (Then. mercy and sympat hy t o each ot her is t he example of one body.'' Allah ment ioned t he word ` your own' here. t he rest of t he body rushes t o it s aid in fever and sleeplessness. it is you who kill one anot her and drive out a part y of you from t heir homes). nor t urn out your own people from t heir dwellings. "You t est ified t hat you know of t he covenant and t hat you were wit nesses t o it . nor expel one anot her from t heir homes. nor part icipat e in fight ing against t hem. when an organ of it falls ill. t hat will be bet t er for you wit h your Creat or) (2:54) because t he followers of one religion are j ust like one soul. (t his) you rat ified and (t o t his) you bore wit ness.) means.) Allah's st at ement . .

and t his is why Allah said. while helping t he polyt heist s against t heir bret hren. Divine Books t he lawful and prohibit ed. yet kill t hem while t he Tawrah forbade you from killing t hem and from expelling t hem from t heir homes The Tawrah also commanded t hat you should not aid t he polyt heist s and t hose who associat e wit h Allah in t he worship against your bret hren. Therefore. who were t he allies of t he Khazraj . and AnNadir and Qurayzah. while Banu An-Nadir and Qurayzah would ransom t heir prisoners who were capt ured by t he Khazraj . Banu Qaynuqa` would fight along wit h t he Khazraj . When fight ing erupt ed bet ween Aws and Khazraj . alt hough t hey believed in t he Tawrah and knew what t hey were doing was wrong. t he Fire. may t hey suffer t he curse of Allah. You do all t his t o acquire t he life of t his world. and t he rest of t he informat ion t hat t he previous Prophet s informed t hem about him. while Banu An-Nadir and Qurayzah would fight along wit h t he Aws. t hey would kill whomever (Jews or Arabs) t hey could. When t he war would end. his expulsion from his land. Resurrect ion. びヂ∇バらよ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヂ∇バらよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽわプぺぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Then do you believe in a part of t he Script ure and rej ect t he rest ) This Ayah means. and t hat in t he Tawrah He had prohibit ed t hem from shedding each ot her's blood. because t hey defied Allah's Law and commandment s. and required t hem t o free t heir prisoners. who were t he allies of t he Aws. his coming. all of which t hey hid. alt hough t hey had t he Tawrah wit h t hem. They would shed each ot her's blood. t hey should not be believed when it comes t o t he descript ion of t he Messenger of Allah .'' These noble Ayat crit icized t he Jews for implement ing t he Tawrah somet imes and defying it at ot her t imes. . Banu Qaynuqa` would ransom t heir prisoners who were capt ured by t he Aws. ` Do you ransom t hem according t o t he rulings of t he Tawrah. They did not know about Paradise. and t hey knew t heir right s and dues. except disgrace in t he life of t his world). it is you who kill one anot her and drive out a part y of you from t heir homes) "Allah ment ioned what t hey were doing. and his Hij rah. They would also ask for blood money. Banu Qaynuqa` . During t hese wars. ヶ͡ ∀ ∇ゴ͡ Ιま ∇ユムレ͡ マャク モバ∇ヘΑ リ∠ ¬へ∠ ィ ゅ∠ プぴ プ ン カ z ͡ ⊥ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゴ∠ ヨ∠ びゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや Β ぁ ͡ Β∠ (Then what is t he recompense of t hose who do so among you. The Jews. This is why t hey should not be t rust ed t o preserve or convey t he Tawrah. hid all of t hese fact s among t hemselves. Meanwhile. Consequent ly. t he Jews would ransom t heir prisoners and implement t he Tawrah. Each Jewish camp would fight against t heir Jewish bret hren from t he ot her camp.ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガゎヱ ∇ユムジヘル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ¬Ιぽ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ z をぴ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ィ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ワ ⊥ ぺ ユ⊥ び∇ユワゲ⇒∠ キ リあ ユ⊥ レあ ͡ ͡ Α͡ ョ ム ョ (Aft er t his. Furt her. Allah reminded t hem of t his when He said. t he Aws and Khazraj were polyt heist s who worshipped idols. Now t hey were divided int o t wo camps in Al-Madinah.' I was informed t hat t he behavior of t he Jews regarding t he Aws and Khazraj was t he reason behind revealing t hese Ayat .

Is it t hat whenever t here came t o you a Messenger wit h what you yourselves desired not . Those are t hey who have bought t he life of t his world at t he price of t he Hereaft er) meaning.) The Arrogance of the Jews who denied and killed Their Prophets . clear signs and support ed him wit h Ruh-il-Qudus. びゆや∠ バ∇ャや ユヰ∇レハ ブz ガΑ Κプぴ ⊥ グ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Their t orment shall not be light ened) not even for an hour. t hey prefer t his life t o t he Hereaft er.びゆや∠ バャや ギセぺ ヴ∠ま ラヱぁ ゲΑ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑヱぴ ͡ グ∠ ∂ あ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ キ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And on t he Day of Resurrect ion t hey shall be consigned t o t he most grievous t orment ) as punishment for defying t he Book of Allah t hat t hey had. nor shall t hey find any t o grant t hem refuge from it . you grew arrogant Some you disbelieved and some you killed. And We gave ` Isa. ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇Βヘホヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ レ z ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ シ ョ レ ゎ ¬ ∠ ∠∠ ヮ⇒∠ ∇ギΑぺヱ ろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャや ユΑ∇ゲョ リ∇よや ヴ∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇Β∠ や∠ ∠ モシゲャゅ͡ ⊥ ル z ∠∠ ͡ レあ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ジ ハ レ ゎ ¬ヱ ͡ ⊥ ぁ よ ン∠ ∇ヰ∠ Ι ゅ∠ よ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ヤムプぺ サギボ∇ャや ゥヱ⊥ よ ヲ ゎ ∠ ヨ͡ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ゲ͡ び ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプ ∇ユゎ∇ゲら∇ムわ∇シや ユ⊥ ジヘル∠ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ム⊥ ⊥ ぺ (87. t he son of Maryam. ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ルヲ⊥ヨ∇バゎ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ほ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ z ョ∠ びりゲカΙゅ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ͡ ∠ ͡ x よ Β ぁ ∠ Β∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what you do. and t hey shall find no helper who will save t hem from t he et ernal t orment t hey will suffer. Therefore. And indeed. びラヱ⊥ ダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Nor shall t hey be helped). We gave Musa t he Book and followed him up wit h a succession of Messengers.

j udged for t he Jews. dist ort ed. who was sent wit h some laws t hat differed wit h some in t he Tawrah. and t hat refers t o Jibril. As-Suddi said t hat Abu Malik said t hat Qaffayna means. as Allah said about ` Isa. And t he rabbis and t he priest s (t oo j udged for t he Jews by t he Tawrah aft er t hose Prophet s). Allah sent t he last Prophet among t he Children of Israel. who submit t ed t hemselves t o Allah's will. as Allah st at ed. as Ibn ` Abbas st at ed. "Followed". び∀ ヲ⊥ ヱ ン⇔ ワ ゅ∠ Β͡ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠ べz ͡ぴ ケ ル∠ ギ⊥ ヰ プ ∠ ケ z レ ∠ ぺ ルま ケゅ∠ ∇ェΙや∠ ラヲぁ ルゅz ゲャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇シぺ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ⊥ ら x ヱ ∠ Β͡ よz ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz͡ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヮ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや ょ⇒∠ ミ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ͡ ∇エわ∇シや ゅ∠ よ ͡ ∠∠ ル ミ∠ ͡ z ͡ わ͡ ョ ヌヘ ⊥ ヨ͡ び¬へ∠ ヰセ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ (Verily. ` Isa t he son of Mary. Allah ment ioned t hat He gave Musa t he Book. Yet . びモシゲャゅ͡ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇Βヘホヱぴ ͡ ⊥ ぁ よ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ レ z∠∠ (And Qaffayna him wit h Messengers). aft erwhich t hey became living birds by Allah's leave. びン∠ ∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∠シケ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ z をぴ ゲ ∠ レヤ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ (Then We sent Our Messengers in succession) (23:44). and t hey were wit nesses t heret o) (5:44). and defied it s commands. by which t he Prophet s. Allah also aided him wit h Ruh Al-Qudus. t he Tawrah. Thereaft er. t he Children of Israel became more defiant and envious of him and did not want t o differ wit h even one part of t he Tawrah. Bot h meanings are plausible. for t o t hem was ent rust ed t he prot ect ion of Allah's Book. t herein was guidance and light . since Allah said. and t hat t he Jews changed. forming t he shape of birds from clay and blowing int o t hem. Allah sent Messengers and Prophet s aft er Musa who followed his law. This is why Allah also sent miracles t o support ` Isa. "Succeeded''. All of t hese signs t est ified t o t he t rut hfulness of ` Isa and what he was sent wit h. These included bringing t he dead back t o life. as well as alt ered it s meanings. We did reveal t he Tawrah (t o Musa).and desires. healing t he sick and foret elling t he Unseen. . while ot hers said. This is why Allah said here.

Jibril is Ruh Al-Qudus The proof t hat Jibril is t he Ruh Al-Qudus is t he st at ement of Ibn Mas` ud in explanat ion of t his Ayah.∇ユムわ∇ゃィヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ュゲェ ヵ͡ ャや ヂ∇バよ ユ⊥ ャ モェΙヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ あ ⊥ グz ∠ ∠ ム∠ z ͡ x ∠ び∇ユムよケ リあ るΑほよ ⊥ あz ョ ∃ ∠ ∠͡ (And t o make lawful t o you part of what was forbidden t o you. The Prophet s also upheld t he rulings of t he Tawrah t hat t he Jews had changed.you grew arrogant Some you disbelieved and some you kill). Isma` il bin Khalid. ArRabi` bin Anas. Allah said. This is also t he view of Ibn ` Abbas. Muhammad bin Ka` b. リョ ラヲ⊥ わャ マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ . Upon your heart (O Muhammad ) t hat you may be (one) of t he warners) (26:193-194). All of t his occurred because t he Prophet s used t o command t he Jews wit h what differed from t heir desires and opinions. Hence.リΒ͡ Ιや ゥヱぁ ャや ヮよ メゴルぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ム∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ョx ⊥ ゲ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び リΑ͡ グ∇レヨ∇ャや ∠ ケ͡ ⊥ (Which t he t rust wort hy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. t hey rej ect ed t he Prophet s and killed some of t hem. Al-Bukhari recorded ` A'ishah saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah erect ed a Minbar in t he Masj id on which Hassan bin Thabit (t he renowned poet ) used t o defend t he Messenger of Allah (wit h his poems). The Messenger of Allah said. Addit ionally. Allah said. and t his is why it was difficult for t hem t o believe in t hese Prophet s. and I have come t o you wit h a proof from your Lord) (3:50). Therefore. rej ect ing some of t hem and killing some of t hem. ∇リハ ウプゅ∠ ゅ∠ ミ サギボ∇ャや ゥヱ⊥ よ ラゅz ェ ∇ギΑぺ ユヰヤャや» ∠ ∠ ∠ ル ヨ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ゲ͡ ∠ ジ∠ あ ∠ z ⊥ z «マあ ͡ ∠ Βらル . ユ⊥ ジヘル∠ ン∠ ∇ヰゎ Ι ゅ∠ よ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ヤムプぺぴ ム⊥ ⊥ ぺ ヲ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ びラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプ ∇ユゎ∇ゲら∇ムわ∇シや ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Is it t hat whenever t here came t o you a Messenger wit h what you yourselves desired not . t he Children of Israel t reat ed t he Prophet s in t he worst manner. As-Suddi. ` At iyah Al-` Awfi and Qat adah.

Ibn Hibban recorded in his Sahih t hat Ibn Mas` ud said t hat t he Prophet said. for he defended Your Prophet . because t he Jews would st ill t ry t o kill t he Prophet in t he fut ure. びラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプぴ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ (Some you disbelieved and some you kill). "Our heart s are Ghulf. ラや∠ ぺ や∠ ヰ∠ ∩ヶ͡ キヱゅ∠ ゎ ゲら∇Βカ るヤ∇ミぺ ∇ろャや∠ ゅ∠ » ⊥ ヱ∠ グ プ ル⊥ ͡ バ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ コ ョ «ヵ͡ ヰ∇よぺ ネゅ∠ ボ∇ルや ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ト͡ (I kept feeling t he effect of what I at e (from t he poisoned sheep) during t he day of Khaybar. And t hey say.) The Jews tried to kill the Prophet Az-Zamakhshari comment ed on Allah's st at ement . have Taqwa of Allah and seek your sust enance in t he most suit able way. "Allah did not say ` killed' here. using poison and magic.) . Allah has cursed t hem for t heir disbelief. れヲ⊥ ゎ ∇リャ ヮz ぺ ヶ͡ ヱ⊥ ヶ͡ ゑヘル サギボ∇ャや ゥヱ⊥ ラま» ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ハ ケ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ケ z ͡ ぶや やヲ⊥ ゎゅ∠ ∩ゅ∠ ヤィぺヱ ゅ∠ ホ∇コケ モヨ∇ムわ∇ジゎ ヴz ェ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ∠ ボz プ ヰ∠∠ ∠∠ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ザ ル «ょ∠トャや ヶ͡ やヲ⊥ヨ∇ィぺヱ ヤz プ ヤ͡ ∠∠ (Ruh Al-Qudus informed me t hat no soul shall die unt il it finishes it s set provisions and t erm limit .'' During t he illness t hat preceded his deat h. Therefore. Furt her. unt il now. t he Prophet said. so lit t le is t hat which t hey believe.'' Nay.) This Hadit h was collect ed by Al-Bukhari and ot hers ΚΒ͡ボプ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮzャや ユヰレバz モ∠ ∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ よ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ (88.) Abu Dawud recorded t his Hadit h in his Sunan as did At -Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan Sahih.(O Allah! Aid Hassan wit h Ruh Al-Qudus. when it is t he t ime t hat t he aort a will be cut off (meaning when deat h is near).

''` Ikrimah said. "They do not comprehend.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah said.'' Allah's st at ement . びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮzャや ユヰレバz モ∠ ぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ よ .) means. "Our heart s are Ghulf .'' This is t he opinion of ` At a' and Ibn ` Abbas. "Only a few of t hem believe.Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat .'' Muj ahid also said t hat . び∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say. means.'') is similar t o His st at ement . "Allah expelled t hem and deprived t hem of every t ype of right eousness.'' Muj ahid and Qat adah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas read t he Ayah in a way t hat means.''). "There is a st amp on t hem.'' Qat adah said t hat t he Ayah. び∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮzャや ユヰレバz モ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ャ よ (Nay. "They are covered. "Our heart s are Ghulf. びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ (So lit t le is t hat which t hey believe.''). びヮ∇Βャま ゅ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ギゎ ゅz ョ るレミぺ ヴ͡ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠͡ ル ハ ∠ ヨ͡ ∃ z ͡ ∠ プ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say: "Our heart s are under coverings (screened) from t hat t o which you invit e us) (41:5). Allah has cursed t hem for t heir disbelief) meaning. "Our heart s are screened. び∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say. "Our heart s are Ghulf. This is why Allah said here. means. び∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ⊥ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say. "Our heart s cont ain every t ype of knowledge and do not need t he knowledge t hat you (O Muhammad) have.

"I have never seen anyt hing like t his. so lit t le is t hat which t hey believe. This meaning is similar t o t he Arabic expression.'' j ust as Allah said in Surat An-Nisa' (4:155).) and His st at ement . びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ (So lit t le is t hat which t hey believe. so t hey believe not but a lit t le. Some scholars said t hat t he Jews did not act ually believe in anyt hing and t hat Allah said. t his fait h will not benefit t hem since it is overshadowed by t heir disbelief in what Muhammad brought t hem. i. or t hat t heir fait h is minut e.) There is a difference of opinion regarding t he meaning of Allah's st at ement .e. Rat her. meaning. Allah has cursed t hem for t heir disbelief. because t hey believe in Resurrect ion and in Allah's reward and punishment t hat Musa foret old.(Nay.'' ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワ¬べィ ゅz ャヱぴ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ょ わミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ヘわ∇ジΑ モ∇らホ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰバョ ∠ グ z ヤ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ル ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヮヤャや るレ∇バヤプ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲハ ゅz ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ゅz ヤプ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ プ∠ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ ゲ∠ ∠ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ヤ∠ . Some scholars said t hat t he Ayat indicat e t hat a few of t hem would believe. びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ゅz ΚΒ͡ボプぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ョ ⇔ ヤ∠ ∠ (So lit t le is t hat which t hey believe). びΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Κプぴ ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (So t hey believe not except a few). t hey do not believe. "It is not as t hey claim. t heir heart s are cursed and st amped.) meaning. Yet . Allah has set a seal upon t heir heart s because of t heir disbelief. ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヮzャや ノらデ ∇モよ ∀ ∇ヤビ ゅ∠ よヲ⊥ホ ∇ユヰャ∇ヲホヱぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ヰ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ブ ⊥ レ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ びΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Κプ ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And of t heir saying: "Our heart s are wrapped (wit h coverings.'' meaning. we do not underst and what t he Messengers say) nay. "Hardly have I seen anyt hing like t his.

びヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ぴ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ょ わミ (a Book from Allah) meaning.' Salam bin Mushkim from Bani An-Nadir replied. t he Qur'an t hat Allah sent down t o Muhammad. So let t he curse of Allah be on t he disbelievers. びユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠ ∠ (And when t here came t o t hem) meaning. alt hough aforet ime t hey had invoked Allah (for t he coming of Muhammad ) in order t o gain vict ory over t hose who disbelieved. t he Jews.(89. a Book (t his Qur'an) from Allah confirming what is wit h t hem (t he Tawrah) and t he Inj il (Gospel). t hey used t o ask Allah t o aid t hem by his arrival.'' Also. t hey rej ect ed him and denied what t hey used t o say about him. but They disbelieved in Him when He was sent Allah said. said t o t hem. Furt her. Allah said. "A Prophet shall be sent j ust before t he end of t his world and we. "The Jews used t o invoke Allah (for t he coming of Muhammad ) in order t o gain vict ory over t he Aws and Khazraj . t hey disbelieved in it . Hence. along wit h him. び∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ヘわ∇ジΑ モ∇らホ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヤ∠ ∠ エ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ル ミ∠ (alt hough aforet ime t hey had invoked Allah (for coming of Muhammad ) in order t o gain vict ory over t hose who disbelieved) meaning. j ust as t he nat ions of ` Ad and Iram were ext erminat ed. Mu` adh bin Jabal and Bishr bin Al-Bara' bin Ma` rur. They used t o say t o t he polyt heist s. against t heir polyt heist ic enemies in war. You used t o invoke Allah for t he coming of Muhammad when we were st ill disbelievers and you used t o t ell us t hat he would come and describe him t o us. When Allah sent him t o t he Arabs.) The Jews were awaiting the Prophet's coming. He is not t he Prophet we t old you about . Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. from Bani Salamah.' Allah t hen revealed t his Ayah about t heir st at ement . ` O Jews! Fear Allah and embrace Islam. t hen when t here came t o t hem t hat which t hey had recognised. before t his Messenger came t o t hem. t he Tawrah. ` He did not bring anyt hing t hat we recognize. shall ext erminat e you. . And when t here came t o t hem (t he Jews). び∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ あ ベ あ ダ⊥ (confirming what is wit h t hem) meaning. before t he Prophet was sent .

in t he Tawrah .so t hat we can t orment and kill t he disbelievers alongside him. They used t o say.''' Abu Al-` Aliyah said. even t hough t hey knew t hat he was t he Messenger of Allah.) Muj ahid said.' When Allah sent Muhammad and t hey saw t hat he was not one of t hem. And for t he disbelievers.ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱぴ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ ょ わミ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ び∇ユヰバョ ⊥∠∠ (And when t here came t o t hem (t he Jews). So let t he curse of Allah be on t he disbelievers). "The Jews sold t he t rut h for falsehood and hid t he t rut h about Muhammad . . '' メゴルぺ べ∠ よ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ラ∠ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲわ∇セや ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよぴ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤ∇ツプ リ͡ ヮヤャや メあ レΑ ラ∠ ゅ⇔ ∇ピよ ヮzャや ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ z ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ぺ Β ∠ ⊥ ヤ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャヱ ょツビ ヴ∠ハ ょツピよ ヱ⊥ べ∠ プ ロキゅ∠ ハ ∇リョ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ び ∀ Β͡ ョ ∀ や∠ ∠ リ ヰぁ ゆ グハ (90. So t hey have drawn on t hemselves wrat h upon wrat h. Hence. t hey disbelieved in it . t hat t hey should disbelieve in t hat which Allah has revealed (t he Qur'an). ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや るレ∇バヤプ ヮよ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲハ ゅz ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ゅz ヤプぴ ヤ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ プ∠ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ム (Then when t here came t o t hem t hat which t hey had recognized. How bad is t hat for which t hey have sold t heir own selves. t hey rej ect ed him and envied t he Arabs. t here is disgracing t orment .'' As-Suddi said t hat t he Ayah. び∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲわ∇セや ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ (How bad is t hat for which t hey have sold t heir own selves). a Book (t his Qur'an) from Allah confirming what is wit h t hem (t he Tawrah) and t he Inj il (Gospel)). "The Jews used t o ask Allah t o send Muhammad so t hat t hey would gain vict ory over t he Arab disbelievers. Allah said. grudging t hat Allah should reveal of His grace unt o whom He wills of His servant s. ` O Allah! Send t he Prophet t hat we read about .

び∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲわ∇セや ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ (How bad is t hat for which t hey have sold t heir own selves) means.'' meaning. Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t his Ayah. Allah said.'' Similar was said by ` Ikrimah and Qat adah. ラヲ⊥カ∇ギΒシ ヴ͡ キゅ∠ ハ ∇リハ ラヱ⊥ ら∇ムわ∇ジΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゎ∠ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ びリΑ͡ カキ ユレヰィ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ (Verily. envy and hat red.'' I (Ibn Kat hir) say t hat t he meaning of. do not invoke Me. t hose who scorn My worship (i. because of t heir disbelief in t he Inj il and ` Isa and He became angry wit h t hem again. Since t heir disbelief was a result of t heir t ransgression and envy. "Disgraced. degraded and . Therefore. びやヱ⊥ ゅ∠ ぴ ¬よ (And t hey drew on t hemselves) is t hat t hey deserved and acquired mult iplied anger. t hey were punished wit h disgrace and humiliat ion in t his world and t he Hereaft er. びょツビ ヴ∠ハ ょツピよ ヱ⊥ べ∠ プぴ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ¬ ら∠ (So t hey have drawn on t hemselves wrat h upon wrat h). Abu Al-` Aliyah said. aiding and support ing him. び∀ Β͡ ョ ∀ や∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャヱぴ リ ヰぁ ゆ グハ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ͡∠ (And for t he disbelievers. and do not believe in My Oneness) t hey will surely ent er Hell in humiliat ion!'') (40:60) meaning. which was caused by arrogance. '' There is no envy worse t han t his. Also. Allah said. "Allah became angry wit h t hem because t hey ignored some of t he Tawrah and disbelieved in t he Prophet t hat He sent t o t hem. "Allah became angry wit h t hem. because t hey disbelieved in Muhammad and t he Qur'an.e. what is worse is what t hey chose for t hemselves by disbelieving in what Allah revealed t o Muhammad inst ead of believing. Similarly. This behavior of t heirs is t he result of t heir inj ust ice. t here is disgracing t orment ). "The Jews sold t hemselves. ∇リョ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤ∇ツプ リ͡ ヮzャや メあ レΑ ラ∠ぴ ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ぺ びロキゅ∠ ハ ͡ ͡ ら͡ (grudging t hat Allah should reveal of His grace unt o whom He wills of His servant s).

リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ モ∇らホ シ ョ ミ∠ ィ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユゎ∇グガz や z を ろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャゅ͡ ⊥ ぺ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ユ⊥ ͡ レあ ∠ よ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ニ (91. while it is t he t rut h confirming what is wit h t hem.'' And t hey disbelieve in t hat which came aft er it .'' Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat ` Amr bin Shu` ayb said t hat his fat her said t hat his grandfat her said t hat t he Prophet said. unt il t hey ent er a prison in Jahannam called ` Bawlas' where t he fire will surround t hem from above. "We believe in what was sent down t o us. because of t he humiliat ion placed on t hem.humiliat ed.ヮャ メゅ∠ Α ユレヰィ ヶ͡ ゅ⇔ ∇イ͡ やヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ ヴz ェ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ プ レ シ ヤ⊥ ∠ わ∠ メゅ∠ ガ∇ャや るレΒ͡ ∇リョ ラヲ∠ ∇ジΑ ケゅ∠ ∇ルほ∇ャや ケゅ∠ ∇ユワヲ⊥∇バゎ ͡ ら∠ ͡ ∠ デ ͡ ∠ ボ ⊥ ͡ Β ∠ ⊥ ル ⊥ ヤ ∠ «ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ りケゅ∠ ハ レ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ダ⊥ (The arrogant people will be gat hered on t he Day of Resurrect ion in t he size of ant s. but in t he shape of men. Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Why t hen have you killed t he Prophet s of Allah af oret ime. "Believe in what Allah has sent down. Everyt hing shall be above t hem. yet you worshipped t he calf aft er he left . They claimed to be Believers! . And when it is said t o t hem (t he Jews). And indeed Musa came t o you wit h clear proofs.) Although The Jews denied the Truth. if you indeed have been believers'') (92. ヶプ ケグャや メゅ∠ ∇ョぺ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ラヱ⊥ らムわヨ∇ャや ゲゼ∇エΑ» ͡ あ z ∠ ん ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲあ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ケゅ∠ ダャや リョ ¬∇ヶセ ぁ ミ ∇ユワヲ⊥∇バΑ ∩͡ ゅz ャや ケヲタ ͡ ピあ ∠ ͡ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ヤ ∠ サ レ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ザャ∇ヲよ . and you were Zalimun. They shall drink from t he puss of t he people of t he Fire.) リョ∇ぽル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヮzャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ホ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ぺ ヨよ レ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ ペエ∇ャや ヲワヱ ロ¬へ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ よ ラヱゲ⊥ ∇ムΑヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ レ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ リ͡ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ らル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ユヤプ ∇モホ ∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ョ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ヴ∠ ヲぁ ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ∇ギボャヱ .'' t hey say.

びロ¬へ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ よ ラヱゲ⊥ ∇ムΑヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ (And t hey disbelieve in t hat which came aft er it ). ラヲプゲ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ミ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲ∇バΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎへ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ プ͡ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ グz び∇ユワ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ⊥∠ レ∠ (Those t o whom We gave t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) recognize him (Muhammad ) as t hey recognize t heir sons) (2:146). it is enough for us t o believe in what was revealed t o us in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il. while knowing t hat what was revealed t o Muhammad . . びヮzャや メゴル∠ べ∠ よ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ぺ ヨ͡ レ͡ ¬ (Believe in what Allah has sent down) t o Muhammad . Allah said. び∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ペエ∇ャやぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠ (it is t he t rut h confirming what is wit h t hem). Allah said next . believe in and follow him. t he Jews and t he People of t he Book. and t his is t he pat h t hat we choose.'') meaning.Allah said. meaning. t hen t his fact const it ut es a proof against t hem. This means t hat since what was sent t o Muhammad conforms t o what was revealed t o t he People of t he Book. び∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ペエ∇ャや ヲワヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (while it is t he t rut h confirming what is wit h t hem) meaning. Similarly. び∇ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡ ∠ (And when it is said t o t hem). びゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ よ リョ∇ぽル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヨ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ホ (They say. "We believe in what was sent down t o us.

'' Similarly. Therefore. "If your claim t hat you believe in what was revealed t o you is t rue. t he gushing st one. Musa's miracles also include part ing t he sea. びモ∇イバ∇ャや ユゎ∇グガz や z をぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ユ⊥ (yet you worshipped t he calf) meaning. st ubbornness and inj ust ice wit h Allah's Messengers.びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ モ∇らホ リ͡ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ らル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ユヤプぴ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ("Why t hen have you killed t he Prophet s of Allah aforet ime. Allah chast ised t he People of t he Book. alt hough you knew t hey were t rue Prophet s You killed t hem simply out of t ransgression. As-Suddi said. t he st aff and t he hand. ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ モ∇らホ リ͡ ヮヤャや ¬べ∠ らル∠ ラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ユヤプ ∇モホぴ わ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ Β͡ ぺ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ∠ レ͡ ぁ (Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Why t hen have you killed t he Prophet s of Allah aforet ime. t he manna and quails. "In t his Ayah. you grew arrogant Some you disbelieved and some you killed.) Also. Allah's st at ement . t he frogs. during t he t ime of Musa. as a deit y inst ead of Allah. if you indeed have been believers''). . if you indeed have been believers''). t he lice. shading t he Jews wit h clouds. Allah said. This means.'' びろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャゅ͡ ヴ∠ ヲぁ ユ⊥ ¬べ∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ͡ レあ ∠ よ シ ョ ミ∠ ィ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed Musa came t o you wit h clear proofs) meaning. t he locust s.ment ioned here are t he flood. wit h clear signs and clear proofs t hat he was t he Messenger of Allah and t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. t hen why did you kill t he Prophet s who came t o you affirming t he Tawrah's Law. ユ⊥ ジヘル∠ ン∠ ∇ヰゎ Ι ゅ∠ よ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ヤムプぺぴ ム⊥ ⊥ ぺ ヲ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ びラヲ⊥わ∇ボゎ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プヱ ∇ユわ∇よグミ ゅ⇔ Α͡ ヘプ ∇ユゎ∇ゲら∇ムわ∇シや ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ボ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Is it t hat whenever t here came t o you a Messenger wit h what you yourselves desired not . t he blood. opinions and desires. you only follow your lust s. The clear signs -or miracles. et c.

Allah said.'' And t heir heart s absorbed (t he worship of) t he calf because of t heir disbelief. It had a sound (as if it was mooing)) (7:148).'' They said. t he image of a calf (for worship). "We have heard and disobeyed. alt hough you knew t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. Κ∇イハ ∇ユヰΒヤェ ∇リョ ロギ∇バよ リ͡ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ュ∇ヲホ グガゎや∠ ぴ ⇔ ͡ ͡ あ ͡⊥ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ シ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヱ び∀ や∠ カ ヮz やギ∠ ィ ケ ヲ⊥ ⊥ ャ ⇔ ジ∠ (And t he people of Musa made in his absence. And (remember) when We t ook your covenant and We raised above you t he Mount (saying). out of t heir ornament s. "Hold firmly t o what We have given you and hear (Our Word).びロギ∇バよ リ͡ ぴ ͡͡ ∠ ョ (aft er he left ) aft er Musa went t o Mount Tur t o speak t o Allah. ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲぁッ ∇ギホ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇や∇ヱぺケヱ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ヴ∠ テボシ ゅz ャヱぴ ャ ホ ヤ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギ ∠ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ リョ リルヲ⊥ レャ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ゲヘ∇ピΑヱ ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ ∇ヨェ∇ゲΑ ∇ユャ リ͡ ャ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ レャ ͡ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ z ゃ∠ び リΑ͡ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ガ (And when t hey regret t ed and saw t hat t hey had gone ast ray. t hey (repent ed and) said: "If our Lord have not mercy upon us and forgive us. Similarly. びラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ユわル∠ヱぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ニ ⊥ ぺ∠ (and you were Zalimun) meaning.'') . we shall cert ainly be of t he losers'') (7:149). Similarly. you were unj ust in t his behavior of worshipping t he calf. ∇やヱ⊥ カ ケヲぁ ャや ユムホ∇ヲプ ゅ∠ ∇バプケヱ ∇ユムボ⇒∠ Β͡ ゅ∠ ∇グカぺ ∇クまヱぴ グ⊥ ∠ ト ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ん ョ ル ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βダハヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨ∇シや∠ りヲボよ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βゎや∠ べ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ャ ホ バ∠ ヱ ∃ z ⊥ ͡ ミ レ ∠ ¬ ョ ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよ ∇モホ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺヱ ヨ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ よ͡ ⊥∠ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ヮよ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ま ͡ ͡ ミ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (93. Allah said. Say: "Worst indeed is t hat which your fait h enj oins on you if you are believers.

disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and defying t he Prophet s.リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇レミ ラ͡ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ⊥ ま ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ キ ョ ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ や⇔ よぺ ロ∇ヲレヨわΑ リ∠ヱ ユ ヤ ハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ∠ りヲ∠ ェ ヴ∠ハ サゅz ャや ソゲ∇ェぺ ∇ユヰルギイわャヱ . t hey broke it soon aft erwards.The Jews rebel after Allah took Their Covenant and raised the Mountain above Their Heads Allah reminded t he Jews of t heir errors. t he one who was sent t o all mankind. which is t he worst of your deeds and t he harshest sin t hat you commit t ed. while commit t ing t he evil of breaking Allah's covenant .'') means. disbelieving in Allah's Ayat and worshipping t he calf inst ead of Allah" るダャゅ∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ りゲカΙや ケやz ャや ユムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ ∇モホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ カ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥∠ ͡ x ⊥ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ま ⊥ .'' This is also t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. unt il it s love resided in t heir heart s. You also disbelieved in Muhammad .リΒヨ͡⇒z ャゅ͡ ∃ Β∠ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ヤ ヌ よ ブ∇ャぺ ゲz バΑ ∇ヲャ ∇ユワギェぺ キヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺ リΑ͡ ャや リョヱ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ∠ . How can you t hen claim t hat you believe.'') We have ment ioned t he Tafsir of t his subj ect before. Allah's st at ement . "They absorbed it s love. びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ユ⊥ レ⊥ ラ͡ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ヮよ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑ ゅ∠ ジ∇ゃよ ∇モホぴ ∠ レ͡ ぁ わ ミ ま ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ま ͡ ͡ ミ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ ⊥ (Say: "Worst indeed is t hat which your fait h enj oins on you if you are believers. Yet . You disbelieved in t he Final Messenger and t he mast er of all Prophet s and Messengers. when He raised Mount Tur above t hem so t hat t hey would believe and agree t o t he t erms of t he covenant . breaking His covenant . t ransgression and defiance. び∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ モ∇イバ∇ャや ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ͡ ∇セぺ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヤ⊥ プ よゲ ⊥ヱ (And t heir heart s absorbed (t he worship of) t he calf) means. "We have heard and disobeyed. "Worse yet is t he manner in which you behaved in t he past and even now. ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ma` mar narrat ed t hat Qat adah said t hat . びゅ∠ ∇Βダハヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ぴ レ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡∠ ャホ (They said.

'' Had t hey wished deat h t hat day. what t hey have done). "Since t hey know t hat t hey recognize you. But t hey will never long for it because of what t heir hands have sent before t hem (i. t hen long for deat h if you are t rut hful. means. . Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat .'') (95. And Allah is Aware of t he Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers). of mankind.'' Also. びれ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ∠ (Then long for deat h). And verily. ` Invoke Allah t o bring deat h t o t he lying camp among t he t wo (Muslims and Jews). "Allah said t o His Prophet .) Calling the Jews to invoke Allah to destroy the Unjust Party Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said.ゲヨバΑ ラ∠ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや リョ ヮェゴ∇ェゴヨよ ヲワ ゅ∠ ヱ るレシ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ グ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮヤャや∠ ラ ヤ ヨ Α ヨ ͡ ゲ ダよ ⊥ z ヱ (94. ` Abdur-Razzaq narrat ed t hat ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed.'') meaning. Moreover.e. Say t o (t hem): "If t he abode of t he Hereaft er wit h Allah is indeed for you especially and not for ot hers of mankind. One of t hem wishes t hat he could be given a life of a t housand years.) meaning. no Jew would have remained alive on t he face of t he eart h.) (96. るダャゅ∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ りゲカΙや ケやz ャや ユムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ ∇モホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ カ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥∠ ͡ x ⊥ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ま ⊥ び リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇レミ ラ͡ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ⊥ ま ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ キ ョ (Say t o (t hem): "If t he home of t he Hereaft er wit h Allah is indeed for you especially and not for ot hers.' The Jews declined t his offer by t he Messenger of Allah . And Allah is Seer of what t hey do. "Invoke (Allah) for deat h. t hen long for deat h if you are t rut hful. what t hey have done).'' ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ や⇔ よぺ ロ∇ヲレヨわΑ リ∠ヱぴ ユ ヤハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ∠ び リΒヨ͡⇒z ャゅ͡ ∠ ヤヌ よ (But t hey will never long for it because of what t heir hands have sent before t hem (i. But t he grant of such life will not save him even a lit t le from (due) punishment . you will find t hem (t he Jews) t he greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) t han t hose who ascribe part ners t o Allah. And Allah is Aware of t he Zalimin .e. and yet disbelieve in you.

''But t hey will never long for it (deat h). .'' Also. and He will t ell you what you used t o do. because of what (deeds) t heir hands have sent before t hem! And Allah knows well t he Zalimin.'' These st at ement s have aut hent ic chains of narrat ion up t o Ibn ` Abbas.リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ キ ョ ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑギ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ やギ∠ ぺ ヮルヲz ヨわΑ Ιヱ ユ ヤハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ͡ ⇔ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヮルみプ ヮ∇レョ ラヱぁ ヘゎ ングャや れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ラま ∇モホ . Say (t o t hem): "Verily. And.リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャゅ͡ ⊥ z ͡∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ よ りギ⇒∠ ゼャや∠ ょ∇Βピ∇ャや ユャゅ∠ ヴ∠ま ラヱぁ ゲゎ z を ∇ユムΒ͡ ⇒∠ョ ͡ ∠ ヰ z ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ハ ャ͡ ∠ キ ∠ ⊥ ユ ⊥ ⊥ ボ ヤ ⊥ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゃらレΒプ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ⊥ ミ ヨ͡ ム⊥ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ((Say (O Muhammad ): "O you Jews! If you pret end t hat you are friends of Allah. や∇ヱぺゲャヱ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ャ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや や⊥ レ∠ ∠ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ラぺ ∇ヲャ» ∠∠ ∠∠ ゎ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ヲz ヨゎ ∠ ヰ∠ z ∠ ∠ ラヲ⊥ワゅ∠ Α リΑ͡ ャや ァゲカ ∇ヲャヱ ∩͡ ゅz ャや リョ ∇ユワギハゅ∠ ョ ∠ ヤ͡ ら⊥ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ケ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ボ∠ ゅ∠ やヲ⊥ ィゲャ ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤダ͡ ヤャや メヲ⊥ ケ ャ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ ヰ ∠ シ∠ «ゅ⇔ゅ∠ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ⇔∇ワぺ ラヱ⊥ イΑ ャ ョ ャ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ ギ͡ ∠ (Had t he Jews wished for deat h. Furt her.びれ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ∇やヲレヨわプぴ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ∠ (Then long for deat h if you are t rut hful). "Had t he Jews invoked Allah for deat h. Ibn Jarir said in his Tafsir. t hey would have perished. ヮヤャ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇ユムルぺ ∇ユわ∇ヨハ∠ ラ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ ΑほΑ ∇モホぴ ͡ z͡ ⊥ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ コ ま キ ワ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ ⊥ . t o t he exclusion of (all) ot her mankind. t he deat h from which you flee will surely meet you. "Had t he Jews asked for deat h. one of t hem would have choked on his own saliva. t hose who invoked such curse against Allah's Messenger would have found no families or propert y had t hey ret urned t o t heir homes). Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Sa` id bin Jubayr saying t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. t hen long for deat h if you are t rut hful. t hen you will be sent back t o (Allah) t he Knower of t he unseen and t he seen. t hey would have died and seen t heir seat s in t he Fire. "We were t old t hat t he Prophet said.'') (62:6-8).'' Similar t o t his Ayah is Allah's st at ement in Surat Al-Jumu` ah.

'' We will ment ion t his subj ect lat er. ∇モボプ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ヮΒ͡ マィべ∠ ∇リヨプぴ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ プ ∠ z ェ ∠ ∠ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ルヱ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ルヱ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇よぺヱ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ネ∇ギル ∇や∇ヲャゅ∠ ゎ ⊥ ∠ ジ͡ ∠ ル∠ ジ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠∠ ル∠ レ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ バ∠ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ろレ∇バz モ∠ ∇イレプ ∇モヰわ∇らル z を ∇ユムジヘル∠ヱ ゅ∠ ジヘル∠ヱ ヤ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ャ バ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ レ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ び リΒ͡ グ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ よ͡ ム (Then whoever disput es wit h you concerning him (` Isa) aft er (all t his) knowledge t hat has come t o you (i. t hey were called t o invoke Allah t o dest roy t he lying group. apparent proof for t he t rut h he is calling t o. life is t he biggest prize. t he Mubahalah involves invoking Allah for deat h of t he unj ust group. Their lies were t hus exposed aft er t hey declined t he offer t o invoke t he curse. The Prophet accept ed t he Jizyah from t hem and sent Abu ` Ubaydah bin Al-Jarrah wit h t hem as a t rust ee. especially when t he j ust person has a clear. "Only t hose who are Christ ian or Jews shall ent er Paradise. especially when t hey know t he evil dest inat ion t hey will meet aft er deat h. may Allah increase and prolong his deviat ion. say (O Muhammad ): "Come. some of t hem said t o each ot her. Similarly. The Mubahalah (invocat ion t o Allah t o dest roy t he liars) was called a ` wish' here. ` Isa) being a servant of Allah. Similar t o t his meaning is Allah's command t o His Prophet t o proclaim t o t he polyt heist s: リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヮャ ∇キギ∇ヨΒ∇ヤプ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ヴ͡ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ∇モホぴ ⊥ ヨ z ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤz プ ∠ ミ ョ ⊥ びやギョ ⇔∂ ∠ (Say (O Muhammad ) whoever is in error. t he Most Gracious (Allah) will prolong him (in it ). and having no share in divinit y).e. t he Messenger of Allah called a delegat ion of Naj ran's Christ ians t o curse aft er he refut ed t hem in a debat e in which t hey demonst rat ed st ubbornness and defiance. because every j ust person wishes t hat Allah dest roy t he unj ust opponent who is debat ing wit h him. for had t hey been sure of t heir claims. When t he Jews declined. Also. When t he Christ ians heard t his challenge. because t o disbelievers. Allah willing. ourselves and yourselves t hen we pray and invoke (sincerely) t he curse of Allah upon t hose who lie. every one was sure of t heir wrong.'' This is when t hey resort ed t o peace and gave t he Jizyah (t ax) in disgrace. our women and your women.) (19:75) meaning. let us call our sons and your sons. "Whoever among us has deviat ed.So t hey claimed t hat t hey are Allah's sons and loved ones and said.'') (3:61). be it t hem or t he Muslims.'' Therefore. "By Allah! If you do such wit h t his Prophet . none of you will have an eye t hat blinks. Disbelievers wish They could live longer . Allah said. t hen t hey would have accept ed t he proposal.

t he People of t he Book wish t hey could delay t he Hereaft er. as much as possible. "Allah knows what His servant s are doing. ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユヰΑ͡ ∇Αぺ ∇ろョギホ ゅ∠ よ や⇔ よぺ ロ∇ヲレヨわΑ リ∠ヱぴ ユ ヤハ ⊥ z ヱ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ∠ びりヲ∠ ェ ヴ∠ハ サゅz ャや ソゲ∇ェぺ ∇ユヰルギイわャヱ リΒヨ͡⇒z ャゅ͡ ∃ Β∠ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ヤ ヌ よ (But t hey will never long for it because of what t heir hands have sent before t hem (i. The Jews know t he humiliat ion t hey will suffer in t he Hereaft er for knowingly ignoring t he t rut h. ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said.e.'' マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ∇モホぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ⊥ ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ン⇔ ワヱ ヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ ヮヤシケヱ ヮわムゃ⇒ヤ∠ ヱ ヮヤャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ . living for a t housand years will not save t hem from t orment . Cert ainly. However.) meaning. t hey shall cert ainly meet what t hey are t rying t o avoid.long life did not benefit him. Say (O Muhammad ): "Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury). you will find t hem (t he Jews) t he greediest of mankind for life. and t hey would love t o enj oy a long life. However. This life is a prison for t he believer and Paradise for t he disbeliever.リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ∠ ͡ z∂ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ヱギハ ヮヤャや ラみプ モ⇒∠ Β͡ ヱ モΑ͡ ∇らィヱ ∠ ゲ͡ ム あ x ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡∠ ∠ ム ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ (97. due t o being a disbeliever. j ust as Iblis' Sat an .This is why Allah said next . whet her good or evil. for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart by Allah's permission.what t hey have done). Muhammad bin Ishaq narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on.) "Long life shall not save t hem from t orment . confirming what .'' t び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ラ ヤ ヨ Α ヨ ͡ ゲ ダよ ⊥ z ヱ (And Allah is Seer of what t hey do. びゲヨバΑ ラぺ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや リョ ヮェゴ∇ェゴヨよ ヲワ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ グ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ (But t he grant of such life will not save him even a lit t le from (due) punishment . greedy t o live longer. and t he only reward t hey will have wit h Allah is t ot al loss. And Allah is Aware of t he Zalimin. "The Jews are most eager for t his life. because t hey know t heir evil end. and will compensat e each of t hem accordingly. t he polyt heist s do not believe in resurrect ion aft er deat h. They wish t hey could live for a t housand years. Therefore. even if t hey are more eager t o delay t he Hereaft er t han t he polyt heist s who do not have a divine book. And verily.) meaning.'' Also.

` Abdul-Kafi. worshipper. Jibril and Mika'il. t he first meal of t he people of Paradise will be t he caudat e lobe of t he liver of fish. is t he enemy of t he Jews.''' Only Al-Bukhari recorded t his Hadit h wit h t his chain of narrat ion. ` Abdus-Salam. t he child will resemble t he fat her. ` Abdul- . ` Ikrimah said. our mast er and t he son of our mast er. among all t he angels. ` He (i. t he Tawrah and t he Inj il) and guidance and glad t idings for t he believers).' Then ` Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of t hem saying. for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart ). This is similar t o t he names ` Abdullah.came before it (i. びマら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ (Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury). ` May Allah save him from it . O Messenger of Allah!.) ` Abdullah said.' ` Abdullah bin Salam furt her said. His Messengers. and why does it resemble it s mat ernal uncle' Allah's Messenger said. He came t o t he Prophet and said. ` Abdul-Quddus. "Whoever is an enemy t o Allah. while il means. ` Abdul-Malik. (The first port ent of t he Hour will be a fire t hat will bring t oget her t he people from t he east t o t he west . びモΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ (Whoever is an enemy of Jibril (let him die in his fury)). Allah's Messenger asked (t he Jews). ` I t est ify t hat none has t he right t o be worshipped but Allah and t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah. "Jibr. "Allah said. (98. His Angels. t hey will t ell a lie about me. and if t hey should come t o know about my conversion t o Islam before you ask t hem (about me). Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded t his Hadit h from Anas using anot her chain of narrat ion.' Allah's Messenger said. t hen verily. because ` il' is a const ant in such conj unct ion.e.'' Al-Bukhari said. Allah is an enemy t o t he disbelievers.' And t hey cont inued t alking badly about him. Some people say t hat ` il' means worshipper while what ever word t hat is added t o it becomes Allah's Name. t he son of t he best among us.' The Jews came t o Allah's Messenger . (What do you t hink if he would embrace Islam) The Jews said. (` What kind of man is ` Abdullah bin Salam') They replied. he was working on his land. Mik and Israf all mean. ` O Allah's Messenger! The Jews are liars. Allah''. Anas bin Malik said. ` This is what I feared. ` I am going t o ask you about t hree t hings which nobody knows except a Prophet . What will be t he first port ent of t he Hour What will be t he first meal t aken by t he people of Paradise Why does a child resemble it s fat her.' Allah's Messenger recit ed t he Ayah. ` I t est ify t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah and you are t he Messenger of Allah. ` Abdur-Rahman. Allah's Messenger t hen said. and t he son of t he evilest among us. Jibril).e. As for t he child resembling his parent s: If a man has sexual int ercourse wit h his wife and his discharge is first .) On t hat ` Abdullah bin Salam said. ` He is t he best among us. "The scholars of Tafsir agree t hat t his Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response t o t he Jews who claimed t hat Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of t he Jews and t hat Mika'il (Michael) is t heir friend. "When ` Abdullah bin Salam heard of t he arrival of t he Prophet in Al-Madinah.' Thereupon t hey said. Ibn Salam said. and ` Abdullah went inside t he house. t he child will resemble her side of t he family. (Jibril has j ust t old me t he answers.'') The Jews are the Enemies of Jibril Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir At -Tabari said. ` He is t he evilest among us. If t he woman has a discharge first .

Allah said. while t he remainder differs from name t o name. "We believe in some but rej ect ot hers. Hence. and.Jalil. マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ びヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ (Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury). Whoever rej ect s one messenger. but by t he command of his Lord. This is t he same case wit h Jibril. Mika'il. びマよケ ゲ∇ョほよ Ιま メゴレわル ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And we (angels) descend not except by t he command of your Lord) (19: 64). because Jibril did not choose missions on his own. Allah knows best . ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Αヱ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ヂ∇バらよ リョ∇ぽル ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α∠ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャや リ∇Βよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ャ ボ ヱ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ びヂ∇バらよ ゲヘ∇ムルヱ ∃ ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ (Verily.'') (4:150) Allah decreed t hat t hey are disbelievers. ` Abd' is const ant in t hese compound names. Whoever t akes a messenger as an enemy. ` Azra'il. and so fort h. t hose who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish t o make dist inct ion bet ween Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying. Choosing Some Angels to believe in over Others is Disbelief like choosing Some Prophets over Others Allah said. will have t aken all t he messengers as enemies. and so fort h. let him know t hat he is Ruh Al-Qudus who brought down t he Glorious Dhikr (Qur'an) t o your heart from Allah by His leave. This is t he same wit h t hose who t ake Jibril as an enemy. Similarly. . whoever believes in one messenger. Hence. Israfil. whoever becomes an enemy of Jibril. he has rej ect ed all of t he messengers. Furt her. is required t o believe in all of t he messengers.) meaning. he is a messenger from Allah. because t hey believe in some Prophet s and rej ect ot hers. for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart by Allah's permission.

and. which is exclusively for t he believers. confirming what came before it ) meaning. Which t he t rust wort hy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. t his (t he Qur'an) is a revelat ion from t he Lord of all t hat exist s. Allah became angry wit h t hose who t ook Jibril as an enemy. るヨ∇ェケヱ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ヲワ ゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや リョ メあ レルヱぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヘセ ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ∠ びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ . Upon your heart (O Muhammad ) t hat you may be (one) of t he warners) (26:192-194). Similarly. Al-Bukhari report ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. Allah said. for indeed he has brought it (t his Qur'an) down t o your heart by Allah's permission. Allah said.'') (41:44). t he previous Books. び∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ン⇔ ワ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ヲワ ∇モホぴ ¬ ヘセヱ ギ⊥ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ (Say: "It is for t hose who believe. as guidance t o t heir heart s and bringer of t he good news of Paradise.ゥヱぁ ャや ヮよ メゴル .リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆケ モΑ͡ レ∠ ャ ヮルまヱぴ ⊥ ゲ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ⊥ ゴ わ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ び リΑ͡ グ∇レヨ∇ャや リョ ラヲ⊥ わャ マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ . ` Whoever t akes a friend of Mine as an enemy. びリΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ン⇔ ワヱぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ (and guidance and glad t idings for t he believers) meaning. «ゆ∇ゲ∠ ∇ャゅ͡ ヶ͡ コケゅ∠ ∇ギボプ ゅ6 ャヱ ヶ͡ ン∠ ゅ∠ ∇リョ» エ よ ル∠ ∠ よ ∠ ∠ Β͡∠ ャ キ ハ ∠ (Allah said.リΒ͡ Ιや ∠ ケ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ム∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ョx (And t ruly. a guide and a healing. マら∇ヤホ ヴ∠ハ ヮャゴル ヮルみプ モΑ͡ ∇らイャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ あ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ びヮ∇ΑギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅ⇔ ギダョ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ͡ ͡ (Whoever is an enemy t o Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury).) Therefore. will have st art ed a war wit h Me.

and Israfil is ent rust ed wit h t he j ob of blowing t he Trumpet for t he commencement of Resurrect ion on t he Day of Judgment . His angels and messengers as enemies. he would supplicat e. Allah is an enemy t o t he disbelievers. びサゅz ャや リョヱ Κシケ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや リョ ヴ͡ ト∇ダΑ ヮzャやぴ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ (Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men) (22:75). for Allah said.Allah's messengers include angels and men. We should st at e here t hat Mika'il somet imes descended t o some of Allah's Prophet s. Allah t hen said.. Allah said.alt hough t hey are included among t he angels who were messengers .. モΑ͡ ∇らィヱ ヮヤシケヱ ヮわムゃ⇒ヤ∠ ヱ ヮヤャ や6 ギハ ラゅ∠ リ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ョ∠ ͡ z∂ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ヱギハ ヮヤャや ラみプ モ⇒∠ Β͡ ヱ ∠ ゲ͡ ム あ x ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡∠ ∠ ム ョ∠ (Whoever is an enemy t o Allah. alt hough t o a lesser ext ent t han Jibril. Jibril and Mika'il (Michael). t hen he is also an enemy of t he ot her as well as Allah. His Angels.only because t his Ayah was meant t o support Jibril t he emissary bet ween Allah and His Prophet s. ゲデゅ∠ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヱ モΒ͡ や∠ ∇らィ ゆケ ユヰヤャや» ∠ ͡ プ ∠ プ ゲ ͡∠ ∠ も ム ョ∠ ∠ も ゲ ͡ z ∠ z ⊥ z ろ∇ルぺ ∩͡ キゅ∠ ゼャや∠ ょ∇Βピ∇ャや ユャゅ∠ チ∇ケほ∇ャや∠ れや∠ ヨジャや ∠ ∠ り∠ ヰz ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ハ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ヲ∠ z ヶ͡ ギ∇ワや ∩∠ ヲ⊥ ヤわ∇ガΑ ヮΒ͡ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ポキゅ∠ ハ リ∇Βよ ユム∇エゎ ル͡ ラ ヘ͡∠ ∠ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ プ ∠ ͡ ら͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∇リョ ヵ͡ ∇ヰゎ マルま マル∇クみよ ペエ∇ャや リョ ヮΒ͡ ブヤわ∇カや ゅ∠ ャ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ プ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ «ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅや∠ タ ヴャ͡ ¬ゅ∠ ゎ ボ∠ ⊥ ∃ ゲ͡ ま ⊥ ゼ∠ . Allah also ment ioned Mika'il here. Allah ment ioned Jibril and Mika'il specifically .(And We send down of t he Qur'an t hat which is a healing and a mercy t o t hose who believe) (17:82). t hen. because t his was primarily Jibril's t ask.) Allah st at ed t hat whoever t akes Him. Allah informed t hem t hat whoever is an enemy of eit her of t hem. t hen verily. His Messengers. It is recorded in t he Sahih t hat whenever t he Messenger of Allah would wake up at night . because t he Jews claimed t hat Jibril was t heir enemy and Mika'il was t heir friend. びモ⇒∠ Β͡ ヱ モΑ͡ ∇らィヱぴ ∠ ム ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ ∠ (Jibril (Gabriel) and Mika'il (Michael)).

Creat or of t he heavens and eart h and Knower of t he seen and t he unseen! You j udge bet ween Your servant s regarding what t hey differ in. Mika'il and Israfil. whoever is an enemy of Allah t hen he will lose in t his life and t he Hereaft er. You guide whom You will t o t he st raight pat h. t hen he shall be Allah's enemy.(O Allah. Indeed.ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ ∇モよ あ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや リョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ グらル ∇ユヰバョ ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∠ グz ∠ あ ペ ゲプ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ Ι ∇ユヰルほミ ∇ユワケヲ⊥ ニ ¬へ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや ょ⇒∠ ミ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ヰ⊥ ∠ ケ∠ ͡ z ∠ わ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲバらz や∠ .) Ιま べ∠ よ ゲヘ∇ムΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ろ⇒∠ Βよ ろ⇒∠ や∠ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ z ͡ ヰ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ∃ レあ ∠ ∃ Α ¬ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ログらル や⇔ ∇ヰハ ∇やヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ヤミヱぺ . I shall wage war on him. as st at ed earlier. and whoever t reat s Allah as an enemy. Lord of Jibril. Allah is an enemy t o t he disbelievers) informed t he disbelievers t hat whoever t akes a friend of Allah as an enemy.) Allah's st at ement .ラヲ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヰ あ ペ ゲプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ギ ∠ ギ∠ ハ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ ヘ ∇リョ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱ . by Your leave. so direct me t o t he t rut h which t hey differ on.∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ヱ ラ ヨヤ Α ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ゲ∇エジャや サゅz ャや ∠ ヲ⊥ ヤ∠ Α ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ あ ∠ レ ラ ヨあバ⊥ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ モよゅ∠ よ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ワ ∠ ͡ ら͡ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプ ∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ . «る∠ ケゅ∠ ヨ∇ャゅ͡ ヮわ∇ルクへ ∇ギボプ ゅ6 ャヱ ヶ͡ ンキゅ∠ ∇リョ» よ∠ エ⊥ よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β͡∠ ャ ∠ ハ ∠ (Whoever t akes a friend of Mine as an enemy. Verily. t hen he has t aken Allah as an enemy. びリΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ヱギハ ヮヤャや ラみプぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ム あ x ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ͡∠ (t hen verily.

if t hey but knew. Muhammad ) confirming what was wit h t hem. And how bad indeed was t hat for which t hey sold t heir own selves. but t he Shayat in (devils) disbelieved. Is it not (t he case) t hat every t ime t hey make a covenant . far bet t er would have been t he reward from t heir Lord. so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us). but neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said. And when t here came t o t hem a Messenger from Allah (i. And if t hey had believed and guarded t hemselves from evil and kept t heir dut y t o Allah. "We are for t rial. if t hey but knew!) Proofs of Muhammad's Prophethood Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir said t hat Allah's st at ement . And t hey learn t hat which harms t hem and profit s t hem not . "We have sent t o you. びろ⇒∠ Βよ ろ⇒∠ や∠ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ∃ レあ ∠ ∃ Α ¬ ∠ ∠͡ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed We have sent down t o you manifest Ayat ) means. Since Allah ment ioned all of t his in His . And indeed We have sent down t o you manifest Ayat and none disbelieve in t hem but Fasiqun (t hose who rebel against Allah's command). Harut and Marut .'' These Ayat are cont ained in t he Book of Allah (Qur'an) which narrat es t he secret s of t he knowledge t hat t he Jews possess. and t he sect ions where t hey alt ered and dist ort ed t he rulings of t he Tawrah. O Muhammad. And indeed t hey knew t hat t he buyers of it (magic) would have no share in t he Hereaft er.) (103. but t hey could not t hus harm anyone except by Allah's leave. They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely of t he magic) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman (Solomon). a part y of t hose who were given t he Script ure t hrew away t he Book of Allah behind t heir backs as if t hey did not know!) (102.) (101. t eaching men magic and such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels.e. some part y among t hem t hrow it aside Nay! (t he t rut h is:) most of t hem believe not .) (100.'' And from t hese (angels) people learn t hat by which t hey cause separat ion bet ween man and his wife.ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮィ∇ヱコヱ ¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ワ ョ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホ あ ∠ ⊥ ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΑヱ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ リΑあ べ∠ よ ョ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ゅ∠ ロや∠ わ∇セや リヨャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤハ ∇ギボャヱ ∇ユヰバヘレ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ョ ⊥ ゲ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲセ ゅ∠ ザ∇ゃらャヱ ペ⇒∠カ ∇リョ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヮャ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱ . and t he st ories of t heir earlier generat ions. which t hey hid.∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z∠ ∠∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ル ミ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ よヲ⊥ ヨャ や∇ヲ∠ ゎやヱ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ル ミ z ゲ カ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ る∠ ん∠ ∠ ボz び (99. Sulayman did not disbelieve. clear signs t hat t est ify t o your prophet hood. The Book of Allah also ment ions t he t ext s in t he Books of t he Jews t hat are known t o only t he rabbis and scholars.

Muhammad ) confirming what was wit h t hem). t hen t his fact alone should be enough evidence for t hose who are t rut hful wit h t hemselves and who wish t o avoid bringing t hemselves t o dest ruct ion due t o envy and t ransgression. nor did He t ake a pledge from us at all. t hey want ed t o cont radict and disput e wit h him using t he Tawrah. but t hey break it and abandon it .'' The Jews break Their Covenants When t he Messenger of Allah was sent and Allah reminded t he Jews of t he covenant t hat t hey had wit h Him. "When Muhammad came t o t hem. you inform t hem of what t hey have (in t heir own Books). ゅ∠ ャ ∀ ギ∠ ョ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ゅz ャヱぴ ヨあ ベあ ダ⊥ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ メ シケ ⊥ ∠ ィ ヨ∠∠ び∇ユヰバョ ⊥∠∠ (And when t here came t o t hem a Messenger from Allah (i.e.'' The Jews abandoned the Book of Allah and practiced Magic As-Suddi comment ed on. t he Tawrah and t he Qur'an affirmed each ot her. Furt her human inst ict t est ifies t o t he t rut h t hat Muhammad was sent wit h and t he clear signs t hat he brought which he did not learn or acquire from mankind. Allah st at ed t hat t his fact should serve as an example. "There is not a promise t hat t hey make. So t he Jews gave . some part y among t hem t hrow it aside) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat Allah's st at ement . a clear sign and a proof against t hem. びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ ∇モよぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Nay! (t he t rut h is:) most of t hem believe not ) means. They make a promise t oday and break it t omorrow. "By Allah! Allah never made a covenant wit h us about Muhammad. びろ⇒∠ Βよ ろ⇒∠ や∠ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ ∇ギボャヱぴ ∃ レあ ∠ ∃ Α ¬ ∠ ∠͡ レ ゴ ぺ ∠ ∠∠ (And indeed We have sent down t o you manifest Ayat ) means. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . alt hough you are an Ummi (unlet t ered) who never read a book. びユ⊥ ∇レョ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ログらル や⇔ ∇ヰハ ∇やヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ ゅ∠ ヤミヱぺぴ ヰ あ ペ ゲプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ギ ∠ ギ∠ ハ ヨz⊥ ∠ ∠ (Is it not (t he case) t hat every t ime t hey make a covenant . if t hey but knew. However.Book revealed t o His Prophet Muhammad . Malik bin As-Sayf said. "You recit e and convey t his Book t o t hem day and night .'' Allah t hen revealed. especially concerning Muhammad . Yet .

び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ∇ユヰルほミぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ (As if t hey did not know!). he collect ed t hese books in a box and buried it under his t hrone. They said t o him. When Solomon was sent as a Prophet . They would convey t his news t o t he soot hsayers. and t he Children of Israel adopt ed t hese books. ` Solomon only cont rolled t he humans. The people recorded t hese words in some books. t he devils st art ed t o lie t o t hem and added ot her words t o t he t rue news t hat t hey heard.'' Also. I will wait for you here. t he devil mat erialized in t he shape of a human and said t o some of t he Children of Israel. "` During t he t ime of Prophet Solomon. . t he news t hat Solomon was a sorcerer spread among t he people.up on using t he Torah. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ∇ユヰルほミぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ (As if t hey did not know!) means. When t he soot hsayers t rust ed t he devils. ` Yes.' He said. any devil t hat dared get near t he box was burned. ` Come closer. Hence Allah's st at ement . hid it and denied t he fact t hat t hey even had it . The people would believe what t he soot hsayers t old t hem as being t rue. ` No. ` I will not hear of anyone who says t hat t he devils know t he Unseen. びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ (They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely of t he magic) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman) means. ' They dug and found t he buried books. Soon aft er. ` Should I lead you t o a t reasure t hat you will never be able t o use up' They said. t hey disput ed wit h him relying on t hese books. t here came anot her generat ion. Hence Allah's st at ement . Qat adah said t hat Allah's st at ement . To t hem.' When Solomon died and t he scholars who knew t he t rut h about Solomon perished. and t he magic of Harut and Marut . ` Dig under t his t hrone. t he Children of Israel said t hat t he Jinns know mat t ers of t he Unseen. Solomon said.' Thereaft er. which indeed did not conform t o t he Qur'an.' He said.' Beforehand. When Muhammad came. ot her incident s or unseen mat t ers. but I will cut off his head. t o t he ext ent of adding sevent y false words t o each t rue word. t he devils used t o ascend t o heaven and eavesdrop on t he conversat ions of t he angels about what will occur on t he eart h regarding deat h. "They knew t he t rut h but abandoned it . and t he soot hsayers would in t urn convey t he news t o t he people.'' Magic existed before Sulayman (Solomon) As-Suddi said t hat Allah's st at ement . devils and birds wit h t his magic. and Sat an said t o t hem. and if you do not find t he t reasure t hen kill me.' and he went wit h t hem and showed t hem Solomon's t hrone. and t ook t o t he Book of Asaf.

びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Sulayman did not disbelieve) saying. but neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said.'' And from t hese (angels) people learn t hat by which t hey cause separat ion bet ween man and his wife). ゲ∇エジャや サゅz ャや ラヲ⊥ ヤバΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱぴ ∠ あ ∠ レ ∠ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ びリ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ (But t he Shayat in (devils) disbelieved. It was said t hat t his Ayah denies t hat anyt hing was sent down t o t he t wo angels.び∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Sulayman did not disbelieve. as Al-Qurt ubi st at ed and t hen referred t o t he Ayah. The Story of Harut and Marut. "We are for t rial. and the Explanation that They were Angels Allah said. "The negat ion applies in bot h cases. . but Allah refut ed t his false claim. Allah t hen said. The Jews claimed t hat Gabriel and Michael brought magic down t o t he t wo angels. but t he Shayat in (devils) disbelieved). Harut and Marut . There is a difference of opinion regarding t his st ory.'' Also. so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us). れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ モよゅらよ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ゲ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ワ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプ ∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ びヮィ∇ヱコヱ ¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや ͡͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (And such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels. Ibn Jarir report ed. t eaching men magic and such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels). t hat Al-` Awfi said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said about Allah's st at ement .

disbelieved and t aught magic t o t he people of t he Babylon of Harut and Marut . Harut and Marut were t wo ordinary men (not angels or Gabriel or Michael). said t hat Harut and Marut were angels who came down from heaven t o eart h and did what t hey did as t he Ayah st at ed.'' Ibn Jarir cont inued. "If someone asks about explaining t his Ayah in t his manner. neit her did Solomon disbelieve nor did Allah send magic wit h t he t wo angels.) means. However. Allah also exonerat ed Solomon from pract icing magic. while Allah refered t o him being among t he angels. Many among t he Salaf.'' These were t he words of At -Tabari. Harut and Marut .) meaning. we say t hat Allah had et ernal knowledge what t hese angels would do. The devils. j ust as He had et ernal knowledge t hat Iblis would do as he did. magic. . Solomon neit her disbelieved nor did Allah send magic wit h t he t wo angels.びモよゅ∠ よ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ (And such t hings t hat came down at Babylon t o t he t wo angels) "Allah did not send magic down.'' Also. Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said about . びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ (They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman. Allah denied t his false claim and st at ed t o His Prophet Muhammad t hat Gabriel and Michael were not sent wit h magic. which t he devils t aught t o t he people of Babylon by t he hands of t wo men. on t he ot her hand.'' Ibn Jarir comment ed. son of David. びリ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ (And such t hings t hat came down t o t he t wo angels). t he devils disbelieved and t aught magic t o t he people in t he Babylon of Harut and Marut . Hence. magic. we say t hat . for Jewish sorcerers claimed t hat Allah sent magic by t he words of Gabriel and Michael t o Solomon. and t his explanat ion is not plausible. meaning Gabriel and Michael. "This is t he correct explanat ion for t his Ayah. "Allah did not send magic down t o t he t hem. びリ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ (They followed what t he Shayat in (devils) gave out (falsely) in t he lifet ime of Sulayman. To conform t his opinion wit h t he fact t hat t he angels are immune from error. However.

'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat t his Ayah means. However. So Allah's st at ement . ` O my sorrow! Woe unt o me! What should I do. "The angels were sent wit h magic. and t his is Allah's anger. "We are for t rial. Qat adah said. ' When t he man would ignore t heir advice. Ibn ` Umar. t hey would t each him magic. a light . Sat an would meet him and t each him magic. Also.''' Also. るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ び∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ (But neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said. and t hey t hus knew t hat magic is a form of disbelief. meaning t he light of fait h. t hey would say. Then somet hing black t hat appeared t o be smoke would descend and ent er his ears and t he rest of his body. Ibn Mas` ud. As-Suddi and Al-Kalbi.' They had knowledge of what is good and evil and what const it ut es belief or disbelief. Allah made t hem promise t hat t hey would not t each anyone unt il first proclaiming. Ka` b Al-Ahbar.) Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi said t hat Ar-Rabi' bin Anas said t hat Qays bin ` Abbad said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said.' When he would urinat e on t he ashes. Ibn ` Abbas. "When someone came t o t he angels t o learn magic. do not fall in disbelief. ` Do not fall int o disbelief. so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us). Therefore. We are a t est . what Harut and Marut did was less evil t han what Iblis. "Allah t ook t heir covenant t o not t each anyone magic unt il t hey said.''' It was recorded by Ibn Abi Hat im. so do not fall int o disbelief. As-Suddi said. ` We are a t est . He would t hen proclaim. where if he went . he refused) (20:116) and so fort h. Al-Qurt ubi report ed t his opinion from ` Ali. Learning Magic is Kufr Allah said. ` We are only a t est . ` Go t o t hat pile of ashes and urinat e on it . did. "When a man would come t o t he t wo angels t hey would advise him. would depart from him and would shine unt il it ent ered heaven. When t he person who came t o learn magic st ill insist ed on learning it .Ιま ∇やヱ⊥ イジプ ュキΕ ∇やヱ⊥ イ∇シや るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ z ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ レ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ヴ∠ ぺ ザΒ͡∇よま よ∠ ∠ ヤ ͡ (And (remember) when We said t o t he angels: "Prost rat e yourselves before Adam. may Allah curse him. t hey commanded him t o go t o such and such place. so t hat t he people whom Allah willed would be t ried and t est ed. ` We are a t est for you. do not fall int o disbelief.'' And t hey prost rat ed except Iblis (Sat an). t he light (of fait h) would depart him. When he t old t he angels what happened. t hey would discourage him and say t o him. When t his man would learn magic. and he would see it shining (and flying away) in t he sky. .

¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びヮィ∇ヱコヱ ͡͡ ∠ ∠ (And from t hese (angels) people learn t hat by which t hey cause separat ion bet ween man and his wife.るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ び∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ (But neit her of t hese t wo (angels) t aught anyone (such t hings) t ill t hey had said.''The scholars who st at ed t hat learning magic is disbelief relied on t his Ayah for evidence. so disbelieve not (by learning t his magic from us). They also ment ioned t he Hadit h t hat Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded from ` Abdullah.) This means. Causing a Separation between the Spouses is One of the Effects of Magic Allah said. "We are for t rial.'' Muslim recorded t hat Jabir bin ` Abdullah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. "No one dares pract ice magic except a disbeliever. ゑバ∇らΑ z を ¬ゅ∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヮセ∇ゲハ ノツΒャ ラゅ∠ ∇Βゼャや ラま» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ͡ ヨ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ト z z ͡ ∇ユヰヨヌ∇ハぺ るャゴ∇レョ ロギ∇レハ ∇ユヰよゲ∇ホほプ サゅz ャや ヶ͡ ロゅ∠ や∠ シ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ レ プ ⊥ Α ゲ∠ . and int imat ely associat e wit h each ot her. ∇ギボプ メヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ よ ヮホギダプ や⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヱぺ ゅ⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ヴ∠ ぺ ∇リョ» ∠ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ゲェ シ ∠ レワ ミ ゎ∠ ∠ «ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤタ∃ ヨ∠ ョ ヴヤ∠ メゴ∇ルぺ ゅ∠ よ ゲ∠ ∠ ヤ ギz エ⊥ ハ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ ヘミ (Whoever came t o a soot hsayer or a sorcerer and believed in what he said.) Sunayd said t hat Haj j aj said t hat Ibn Jurayj comment ed on t his Ayah (2:102). it involves t rials and freedom of choice. This is t he devil's work.) This Hadit h has an aut hent ic chain of narrat ion and t here are ot her Hadit hs which support it . will have disbelieved in what Allah revealed t o Muhammad . which st at es. As for t he Fit nah. "The people learned magic from Harut and Marut and indulged in evil act s t hat included separat ing spouses. even t hough spouses are close t o.

') Separat ion bet ween a man and his wife occurs here because each spouse imagines t hat t he ot her spouse is ugly or ill-mannered. it harms t heir religion and does not have a benefit compared t o it s harm. Sufyan At h-Thawri comment ed. Allah's Appointed Term supercedes Everything Allah said. unt il I separat ed bet ween him and his wife. ` I kept incit ing so-and-so. One of t hem (a devil) would come t o him and would say. Sorcerers never bring harm t o anyone except by Allah's leave.' Anot her devil would come t o him and would say. ` No. by Allah. ` I kept incit ing so-and-so.'' Allah's st at ement . "Except by Allah's appoint ed t erm. unt il he said such and such words. saying. et c. "Allah allows magicians t o adversely affect whomever He wills and saves whomever He wills from t hem. The closest person t o him is t he person who causes t he most Fit nah. .ラゅ∠ヘよ ろ∇ャコ ゅ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∇ユワギェぺ ¬ヶ͡ Αヱ るレ∇わプ ロギ∇レハ ∃ ヤ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ョ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ イ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ :ザΒ͡∇よま メヲ⊥ Βプ ∩や∠ ミヱ や∠ ミ メヲ⊥ Α ヲワヱ ヮわ∇ミゲゎ ヴz ェ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ グ∠ ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∇ユワギェぺ ¬ヶ͡ Αヱ ∩ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ろ∇バレタ ゅ∠ ぶや∠ ゅ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ イ ∠ ∠ ゃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ヱ ャ :メゅ∠ ∩͡ ͡∇ワ∠ リ∇Βよヱ ヮレ∇Βよ ろ∇ホz プ ヴ∂ ェ ヮわ∇ミゲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ホ ヮヤ ぺ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ «ろ∇ルぺ ユ∇バル :メヲ⊥ Αヱ ヮョゴわ∇ヤΑヱ ヮΒ͡ ∇ギΑヱ ヮよあ ボ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ Β∠ (Sat an erect s his t hrone on wat er and sends his emissaries among t he people. び∇ユヰバヘレ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΑヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And t hey learn t hat which harms t hem and prof it s t hem not . you have not done much. ` Yes. びヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ リΑあ べ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ワ ョ∠ (But t hey could not t hus harm anyone except by Allah's leave).) means.' Iblis says. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat .'' Furt her.' Sat an would draw him closer and embrace him. you did well. びヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ リΑあ べ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ワ ョ∠ (But t hey could not t hus harm anyone except by Allah's leave) means.

'' Ibn ` Abbas.' Allah t hen said.) meaning. if t hey but knew!). And if t hey had believed and guarded t hemselves from evil and kept t heir dut y t o Allah. if t hey but knew.∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ る∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ z レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ル ミ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ヲャ ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ル ミ z ゲ カ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ (And how bad indeed was t hat for which t hey sold t heir own selves. far bet t er would have been t he reward from t heir Lord. Allah st at ed. リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ マ∇ヤョ ヴ∠ハ リΒ͡ ⇒∠ z ャや ∇やヲ⊥∇わゎ ゅ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ト Βゼ ヤ ∠ ョ バ∠ z ヱ ラヲ⊥ ヤバΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΒ͡ ゅ∇Βゼャや リム⇒∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇Βヤシ ゲヘミ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ デ z z ͡ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ モよゅ∠ よ リ∇Βムヤヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ゲ∇エジャや サゅz ャや ∠ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ レ ヴz ェ ギェぺ ∇リョ ラゅ∠ ヤバΑ ゅ∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ れヱ⊥ ⇒∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヨあ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ワ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヰ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΒプ ∇ゲヘ∇ムゎ Κプ るレ∇わプ リ∇エル ゅ∠ ルま Ιヲ⊥ Α ョ ヨ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ボ∠ リΑあ べ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮィ∇ヱコヱ ¬∇ゲヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ∠ ケ ツ͡ ワ ョ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤバわΑヱ ヮヤャや ラ∇クみよ Ιま ギェぺ ∇リョ ヮよ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ヨz∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡͡ z ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヴ͡ ヮャ ゅ∠ ロや∠ わ∇セや リヨャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤハ ∇ギボャヱ ∇ユヰバヘレ∠ Ιヱ プ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゲ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ∇ヲャ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヮよ ∇や∇ヱゲセ ゅ∠ ザ∇ゃらャヱ ペ⇒∠カ ∇リョ りゲカΙや ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x ∀ よヲ⊥ ヨャ や∇ヲボゎやヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱ . ` no share.∇リョ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヮャ ゅ∠ ロや∠ わ∇セや リヨャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤハ ∇ギボャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ゲ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びペ⇒∠カ ∃ ヤ∠ (And indeed t hey knew t hat t he buyers of it (magic) would have no (Khalaq) share in t he Hereaft er. Muj ahid and As-Suddi st at ed t hat ` no Khalaq' means. "The Jews who preferred magic over following t he Messenger of Allah knew t hat t hose who commit t he same error shall have no Khalaq in t he Hereaft er. o びザ∇ゃらャヱぴ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ .

if t hey but comprehend t he advice.'') (28:80). t hen Allah's reward for t hese good deeds would have been bet t er for t hem t han what t hey chose and preferred for t hemselves. But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills.) (105. ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∇リョ ∀ よヲ⊥ ヨャ や∇ヲ∠ ゎやヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱぴ ͡ z ͡ ハ あ る∠ ん∠ ∠ ボz レ∠ ¬ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ び∀ ∇Β∠ ゲカ (And if t hey had believed and guarded t hemselves from evil and kept t heir dut y t o Allah. ∀ ∇Β∠ ヮヤャや ゆや∠ を ∇ユムヤ∇Αヱ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ ゲ カ ͡ z ⊥ ヲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ホ ∠ Ιま べ∠ ゅz ヤΑ Ιヱ ゅエ͡⇒∠ モヨハヱ リョや∠ ∇リヨャ z ͡ ワ ボ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヤ タ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ あ び ラヱ⊥ ら⇒z ャや ∠ ゲ͡ ダ (But t hose who had been given (religious) knowledge said: "Woe t o you! The reward of Allah (in t he Hereaft er) is bet t er for t hose who believe and do right eous good deeds. and t his none shall at t ain except As-Sabirun (t he pat ient in following t he t rut h).) meaning. magic. far bet t er would have been t he reward from t heir Lord. And for t he disbelievers t here is a painful t orment . "Had t hey believed in Allah and His Messenger and avoided t he prohibit ions. Neit her t hose who disbelieve among t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) nor Al-Mushrikin (t he idolat ers) like t hat t here should be sent down unt o you any good from your Lord.'' Similarly. O you who believe! Say not (t o t he Messenger ) Ra` ina but say Unzurna (make us underst and) and hear.(And how bad) meaning. ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ャ ホ∠ レハケ ャ ボ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α キヲΑ ゅz . what t hey preferred.) . inst ead of fait h and following t he Messenger.∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒ムヤ͡ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヌルや ぁ ∠ ∠ ョ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ャ∠ バ∠ ヱ ル ⊥ ラ∠ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや Ιヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ぺ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ゾわ∇ガΑ ヮヤャや∠ ∇ユムよケ リあ ゲ∇Βカ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ∇Βヤハ メゴレΑ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ ⊥ あ z ョ ∃ ∠ あ ム ∠∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ び ユΒ͡ バ∇ャや モ∇ツヘ∇ャや ヱ⊥ ヮヤャや∠ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヮわヨ∇ェゲよ ͡ ヌ∠ ͡ ∠ ク ⊥ z ヱ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ (104. Allah said. And Allah is t he Owner of great bount y.

Also. ヮバッや∠ ョ リ∠ ユヤム∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ゲエΑ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや リョぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ヲz ハ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ プあ ∠ ⊥ キ ワ ∠ グz ∠ あ ノヨ∇ジョ ゲ∇Βビ ∇ノヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βダハヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Αヱ ∃ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱ リΑあ ャや ヴ͡ ゅレ∇バデヱ ∇ユヰわレジ∇ャほよ ゅΒャ ゅ∠ ハケヱ ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ギ プ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ⇔∂ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ∠ やゲ∇Βカ ラゅ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヌ∇ルや∠ ∇ノヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇バデぺヱ ゅ∠ ∇バヨシ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ル ⊥ ヱ ∠ ヱ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ャ ホ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Κプ ∇ユワゲ∇ヘムよ ヮヤャや ユヰレバz リ͡ ャヱ ュヲ∇ホぺヱ ∇ユヰャ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ z び ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ⇔ ヤ∠ z ͡ (Among t hose who are Jews. t he Hadit hs st at ed t hat when t hey would greet Muslims. Imam Ahmad narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Umar said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. Allah forbade t he believers from imit at ing t he disbelievers in t ongue or deed. ` Wa ` alaykum. ` deat h be t o you'.Manners in Speech Allah forbade His believing servant s from imit at ing t he behavior and deeds of t he disbelievers. . And for t he disbelievers t here is a painful t orment ) (2:104). And if only t hey had said: "We hear and obey.' meaning.'' and "Hear and let you (O Muhammad ) hear not hing. Allah said. which is an insult (in Hebrew. t hey would say. Allah said. and more proper. ` hear us. When t hey want ed t o say. Also.' t hey would use t he word Ra` ina. t here are some who displace words from (t heir) right places and say: "We hear your word (O Muhammad ) and disobey. ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ャ ホ∠ レハケ ャ ボ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヤ͡ヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ヨ∇シや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲヌルや ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ャ∠ バ∠ ヱ ル ⊥ (O you who believe! Say not (t o t he Messenger ) Ra` ina but say Unzurna (make us underst and) and hear. The Jews used t o use devious words t hat hide what t hey really meant . so t hey believe not except a few) (4:46). rat her t han t heirs against us.'' it would have been bet t er for t hem.' meaning. t hen our supplicat ion against t hem shall be answered. ` and t o you t oo'. This is why we were commanded t o answer t hem by saying. ` As-Samu ` alaykum. but means ` hear us' in Arabic). but Allah cursed t hem for t heir disbelief.'' and "Do make us underst and.'' And Ra` ina wit h a t wist of t heir t ongues and as a mockery of t he religion (Islam). May Allah's curse be upon t hem.

feast s. "Rifa` ah bin Zayd. and t his is why some of t hem used t o say. t hat we are not allowed t o imit at e t he disbelievers in t heir st at ement s. Muj ahid said. Furt her. and you hear from us. ` At iyah Al-` Awfi and Qat adah said similarly. «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ヲヰプ ュ∇ヲボよ ヮらゼゎ ∇リョ» ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ∠ z∠ ∠ ∠ (Whoever imit at es a people is one of t hem. My sust enance was provided for me from under t he shadow of my spear. deeds.'' Ibn Abu Hat im said t hat it was report ed t hat Abu Al-` Aliyah. clot hes. びゅ∠ ハケぴ レ͡ ∠ (Ra` ina). "Do not say. Ghayr Musma'in (let you hear not hing). "Do not say. he is one of t hem. and whoever imit at es a people. used t o come t o t he Prophet and say t o him.. ` Do not disput e'. Abu Malik. et c.'' Also.''' Also. Ar` ina samak (which is an insult ). Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.' The Muslims used t o t hink t hat t he Prophet s are greet ed and honored wit h t his t ype of speech. which was a dialect t hat t he Ansar used and which was forbidden from use by Allah. "` Do not say Ra` ina' means.) These Hadit hs indicat e. what ever act ions of t he disbelievers t hat were not legislat ed for us. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah.'' Muj ahid said in anot her narrat ion. as ment ioned in Surat An- . a Jewish man from t he t ribe of Qaynuqa` . As-Suddi said. Those who oppose my command were humiliat ed and made inferior. let you hear not hing. ` At a' said. so t hat Allah is worshipped alone wit hout part ners. ` Hear. ` We hear from you. along wit h t heir t hreat s and warnings.ぶや∠ ら∇バΑ ヴz ェ ブ∇Βジャゅ͡ るハゅz ャや ヵギΑ リ∇Βよ ろ∇んバよ» ⊥ ギ∠ ⊥ わ∠ ͡ z よ ͡ ∠ ジ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ モニ ろ∇エゎ ヶ͡ ∇コケ モバィヱ ∩⊥ ャ マΑ͡ セ ゅ∠ ロギ∇ェヱ あ ͡ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヮ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ブャゅ∠ ∇リョ ヴ∠ハ ケゅ∠ ダャや∠ るャグャや ろヤバィヱ ∩ヶ͡ ∇ョケ ∠ ∠ カ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ピz ヱ ⊥ zあ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ∠ エ ⊥ «ユ⊥ ∇レョ ヲヰプ ュヲ∠ よ ヮらゼゎ ∇リョヱ ∩ヵ͡ ∇ョぺ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ボ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ ∠ (I was sent wit h t he sword j ust before t he Last Hour. びゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιぴ レハ ケ ャ ボ ∠ ∠ (Say not (t o t he Messenger ) Ra` ina) "They used t o say t o t he Prophet .) Abu Dawud narrat ed t hat t he Prophet said. ` Hear.' and so on. act s of worship.

'' ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam also said similarly. whom Allah warned against imit at ing.'' Thereaft er. like t hat t here should be sent down unt o you any good from your Lord). Know you not t hat Allah is Able t o do all t hings) (107.) . What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh (We abrogat e) or Nunsiha (cause t o be forgot t en). ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほル ゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ ∇ユャぺ . Allah forbade t he believers from ut t ering t he word Ra` ina. And Allah is t he Owner of great bount y) (2:105). have against t he believers. We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it . Allah described t he deep enmit y t hat t he disbelieving polyt heist s and People of t he Script ure. Allah said. Ιヱ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや キヲΑ ゅz ぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ぁ ∠ ∠ ョ び∇ユムよケ リあ ゲ∇Βカ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ∇Βヤハ メゴレΑ ラ∠ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ⊥ あ z ョ ∃ ∠ あ ム ∠∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ (Neit her t hose who disbelieve among t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) nor AlMushrikin (t he idolat ers). so t hat Muslims should sever all friendship wit h t hem.∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヶセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ∇ユャぺ ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∠∠ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ͡ ͡ ユ⊥ ャ ゅ∠ ヱ チ∇ケΕや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや マ∇ヤョ ヮャ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ム∠ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ び ゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ (106. Know you not t hat it is Allah t o Whom belongs t he dominion of t he heavens and t he eart h And besides Allah you have neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper.Nisa. The extreme Enmity that the Disbelievers and the People of the Book have against Muslims Allah said next (2:105). ヱ⊥ ヮヤャや∠ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヮわヨ∇ェゲよ ゾわ∇ガΑ ヮヤャや∠ ぴ ク ⊥ z ヱ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ヱ びユΒ͡ バ∇ャや モ∇ツヘ∇ャや ͡ ヌ∠ ͡ ∠ (But Allah chooses for His mercy whom He wills. Allah ment ioned what He grant ed t he believers of t he perfect Law t hat He legislat ed for t heir Prophet Muhammad . Also.

prohibit ions. ` The married adult erer and t he married adult eress: st one t hem t o deat h. it is st ill called Nasakh. t he ruling or bot h. ` t o copy a book'. "What ever ruling we repeal in an Ayah by making t he allowed unlawful and t he unlawful allowed. びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means. and so fort h. Allah said next . "What ever an Ayah We abrogat e. "We erase it . .'' Furt her. permissions.'' He relat ed t hese words t o t he companions of ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud. びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means. Also As-Suddi said t hat . ` Nasakh' lit erally means. but change t he meaning. "What ever an Ayah We erase.''' Ibn Jarir st at ed t hat . Ibn Jurayj said t hat Muj ahid said t hat .'' The Nasakh only occurs wit h commandment s.'' Also. びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means.' and. Ibn Abi Naj ih said t hat Muj ahid said t hat . びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means. such as erasing t he following wordings (from t he Qur'an). びるΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∃∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh) means. t hey do not undergo Nasakh. The meaning of Nasakh in t he case of commandment s is removing t he commandment and replacing it by anot her.The Meaning of Naskh Ibn Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . "Erase and raise it . Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat it means. ` If t he son of Adam had t wo valleys of gold. Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat similar st at ement s were ment ioned by Abu Al-` Aliyah and Muhammad bin Ka` b AlQurazi. he would seek a t hird.'' Also. The word. And whet her t he Nasakh involves t he wordings. "We keep t he words. As for st ories.

"We delay it (i.'' Allah's said. びゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do We abrogat e or cause t o be forgot t en) "Allah made His Prophet forget what He willed and He abrogat ed what He will. or similar t o t hat which was repealed. "What ever Ayah We repeal or uphold wit hout change. びゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ (We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it ) means. as report ed from ` Ali bin Abi Talhah t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. びゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ (We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it ).. "We delay repealing it . びゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰあ ∃ ∠ ͡͡ ∠ (We bring a bet t er one) means.'' Also.'' Also.'' Qat adah also said t hat . "We bring fort h a more beneficial ruling.e. relat es t o t he benefit provided for t he one it addresses.'' This is t he same Tafsir provided by As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.'' Furt her. ` At iyyah Al-` Awfi said t hat t he Ayah means. "We bring fort h a bet t er Ayah. びゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ (What ever a verse (revelat ion) do Nansakh or Nunsiha) means. "We uphold it s wording and change it s ruling.'' Furt her.びゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺぴ ヰ͡ ル ∠ (or Nunsiha (cause it t o be forgot t en)). ` Ali bin Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . びゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほルぴ ヰ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ . ` Nansa'ha' means. ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ma` mar said t hat Qat adah said about Allah's st at ement . do not abrogat e it ). Muj ahid said t hat t he companions of Ibn Mas` ud (who read t his word Nansa'ha) said t hat it means. bet t er. ` Ubayd bin ` Umayr. As-Suddi said t hat . t hat is also easier for you. Muj ahid and ` At a' said.

He brings happiness t o whom He wills.(We bring a bet t er one or similar t o it ) means. He also brings success t o whom He wills and failure t o whom He wills. Hence. ∇ヱぺ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ゲ∇Βガよ れ∇ほル ゅ∠ ジレ⊥ ∇ヱぺ るΑや∠ ∇リョ ∇オジレ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヰ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヰ͡ ル ∠ ∃ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ル ョ ∇ユャぺ . In ignorance and arrogance t hey claimed t hat t he sound mind st ipulat es t hat Naskh does not occur. and t hen He out of His wisdom. Allah direct ed His servant s t o t he fact t hat He alone is t he Owner of His creat ures and t hat He does wit h t hem as He wills. believing in what ever t hey convey. and no one can quest ion Him about what He does. He j udges bet ween His servant s as He wills. permit t ing. The st at ement s of Allah here cont ain t remendous benefit . He decides what He wills.'' Ibn Jarir t hen said.'' Naskh occurs even though the Jews deny it Allah said. prove t hat t he Jews are disbelievers and refut e t heir claim t hat Naskh does not occur. change and repeal what ever I will of My previous rulings. Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir said. because of t heir dislike for what t hey brought from Allah. He also rej ect ed t he lies of t he Jews who denied t hat t he rulings of t he Torah could undergo Naskh. such as changing some rulings of t he Torah. as Allah commanded. The Jews also denied t he prophet hood of Jesus and Muhammad. He commands a mat t er cont aining a benefit which He knows of. O Muhammad. t here is no opponent for His j udgment . while t hey shall be quest ioned. prohibit s it . He t est s His servant s and t heir obedience t o His Messengers by t he Naskh. and j ust as He creat ed t hem as He wills.∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヶセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ∇ユャぺ ゅ∠ ヤ∇んョ ∠∠ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヰ͡ ͡ ユ⊥ ャ ゅ∠ ヱ チ∇ケΕや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや マ∇ヤョ ヮャ ヮヤャや ラぺ ∇ユヤ∇バゎ ム∠ ョ∠ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ∠ ∠ び ゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リあ ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ (Know you not t hat Allah is Able t o do all t hings Know you not t hat it is Allah t o Whom belongs t he dominion of t he heavens and t he eart h And besides Allah you have neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper). Some of t hem falsely claimed t hat t here are divine t ext s t hat dismiss t he possibilit y t hat Naskh occurred. "We replace it by an Ayah more facilit at ing. "Alt hough Allah direct ed His st at ement indicat ing His great ness t owards His Prophet . implement ing t heir commands and avoiding what t hey prohibit . may Allah curse t he Jews. misery t o whom He wills. perfect obedience is realized by adhering t o His commands. allows what He wills and disallows what He wills. His is t he supreme aut horit y and all creat ion is His. t hat I alone own t he heavens and t he eart h and t hat I decide what ever I will in t hem I forbid what ever I will. I also uphold what ever I will. healt h t o whom He wills and ailment t o whom He wills. ` Do you not know. commanding. or prohibit ing. "The Ayah means. Indeed. Allah t hus proclaimed t o t he Jews t hat He owns t he heavens and eart h and . following His Messengers. whenever I will.

Also. for He decides what He wills. t hen repealed t hat command before it was implement ed. Allah forbade t he believers from asking t he Prophet numerous quest ions about mat t ers t hat did not occur yet . These t ext s. in t heir Books. yet t hey ignore t hem. and decide what ever commandment s and prohibit ions He wills. Allah said. so t hat t he Children of Israel were not all ext erminat ed.'' I (Ibn Kat hir) say t hat t he Jews' dismissal of t he occurrence of t he Naskh is only a case of t heir disbelief and rebellion. it is a well-known fact t hat t heir Books foret old about Muhammad and cont ained t he command t o follow him.t he Qur'an -. and t hey are required t o hear and obey His commands and prohibit ions. indicat e t hat t he Jews were required t o follow t he Prophet Muhammad and t hat no good deed would be accept ed from t hem. abrogat e what He wills. marrying t wo sist ers t o one man was allowed for Israel and his children. forbidding t hem from what He wills. Similarly.) The Prohibition of Unnecessary Questions In t his Ayah. Also. . The sound mind does not deny t hat t here could be a Naskh in Allah's commandment s. Naskh occurred in previous Books and Law. ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ モゃシ ゅ∠ ミ ∇ユムャヲ⊥ ケ ∇やヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ ゎ ∇ュぺぴ シ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ モッ ∇ギボプ リ⇒∠ Α͡ ゅ͡ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャや メギらわΑ リ∠ ヱ モ∇らホ リ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ Η よ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ び モΒ͡ ジャや ¬へ∠ シ ͡ らz ∠ ヲ∠ (108. Furt her. Furt her. There are many ot her inst ances t hat t he Jews admit have occurred. which is t he last revelat ion from Allah. show us openly our Lord) And he who changes fait h for disbelief. Furt her. t hen prohibit ed eat ing some t ypes of foods. For inst ance. verily. he has gone ast ray from t he right way. But if you ask about t hem while t he Qur'an is being revealed. . Allah allowed Adam t o marry his daught ers t o his sons and t hen lat er forbade t his pract ice. The Prophet brought anot her Book. t he subj ect s in Allah's kingdom are His creat ion. t hey will be made plain t o you) (5:101). Allah also allowed Nuh t o eat from all kinds of animals aft er t hey left t he ark. unless it conformed t o Muhammad's Law. ギ∇らゎ ラ͡ ¬べ∠ ∇セぺ ∇リハ ∇やヲ⊥ほ∇ジゎ Ι ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ ⊥ ま ∠ Β ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ほ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや メz レΑ リΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇レハ ∇やヲ⊥ほ∇ジゎ ラ͡ヱ ∇ユミ∇ぽジゎ ∇ユムャ ⊥ ¬ ⊥ ⊥ ゴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ェ ヰ ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ま∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ び∇ユムャ ギ∇らゎ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ (O you who believe! Ask not about t hings which. but Allah prohibit ed t his pract ice lat er in t he Torah. may cause you t rouble. Or do you want t o ask your Messenger (Muhammad ) as Musa (Moses) was asked before (i. Allah commanded t he Children of Israel t o kill t hose who worshipped t he calf and t hen repealed t hat command. Allah has full aut horit y t o command t he creat ion as He wills. if made plain t o you.also all aut horit y in t hem. uphold what He wills. Allah commanded Abraham t o slaught er his son. j ust as He does what He wills.e.

but he repeat ed his quest ion t hree t imes. due t o your quest ions. which is not prohibit ed. "Every year. it shall be duly explained t o you. ¬∇ヶセ ∇リハ メほシ ∇リョ ゅ⇔ ∇ゲィ リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや ユヌ∇ハぺ ラま» ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ «ヮ͡ ャほ∇ジョ モ∇ィぺ ∇リョ ュゲエプ ∩∇ュゲ∠ Α ∇ユャ わ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ z エ⊥ ∠ (The great est criminal among t he Muslims is t he one who asks if a t hing is prohibit ed. Therefore. avoid it . adhere t o it as much as you can. it would have been ordained. Lat er on. he will be quiet about a maj or mat t er. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Al-Mughirah bin Shu` bah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah "Forbade saying. if he is quiet about it . for t hey might become prohibit ed.) . ∇ユムヤ∇らホ ラゅ∠ ∇リョ マヤワ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ∩∇ユムわ∇ミゲゎ ゅ∠ ヶ͡ ヱ⊥ ク» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ル ケ∠ や∠ みプ ∩∇ユヰもゅ∠ ら∇ルぺ ヴヤ∠ ∇ユヰプゅ∠わ∇カや∠ ∇ユヰャや∠ シ りゲ∇んムよ ク͡∠ ͡ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ハ ͡ ͡ ヤ͡ ヱ ͡ ͡ ぽ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∇ユムわ∇Βヰル ∇ラまヱ ∇ユわ∇バトわ∇シや ゅ∠ ヮ∇レョ やヲ⊥ ∇ほプ ゲ∇ョほよ ∇ユムゎ∇ゲョぺ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ͡ ゎ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ロヲ⊥ レわ∇ィゅ∠ ¬∇ヶセ ∇リハ ら͡ ∠ プ ∃ ∠ ∠ (Leave me as I leave you. ` It was said' and ` He said. O Messenger of Allah'' The Prophet did not answer him.This Ayah means. t hose before you were only dest royed because of t heir excessive quest ioning and disput ing wit h t heir Prophet s. and you would not have been able t o implement it .) The Prophet only said t his aft er he t old t he Companions t hat Allah has ordered t hem t o perform Haj j .'' Muslim recorded t hat t he Prophet said. Therefore. Had I said yes. when I command you wit h a mat t er. do not ask about mat t ers t hat have not occurred yet . Then t he Prophet said.' and wast ing money and asking many quest ions. and when I forbid from somet hing. Allah revealed t he ruling of Mula` anah Refer t o Nur 24:6-9 in t he Qur'an . "If you ask about a mat t er aft er it is revealed. The Messenger of Allah did not like such quest ions. ゅ∠ ャ ∇ろらィヱ ∇ヲャヱ ∇ろらィヲャ ∩∇ユバル :ろ∇ヤホ ∇ヲャヱ ∩ゅ∠» ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ «ユ⊥ ∇バトわ∇シや わ∠∠ (No.) This is why when t he Messenger of Allah was asked about a husband who finds anot her man wit h his wife. and it becomes prohibit ed because of his asking about it . if he exposes t he adult ery. A man asked.'' This is why t he Sahih narrat ed. he will be exposing a maj or incident .

verily. So we were delight ed when a bedouin man would come and ask him while we list ened.'' Allah sent down t he answer t o t his challenge. t o t he pat h of ignorance and misguidance. show us openly our Lord) And he who changes fait h for disbelief. ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ モゃシ ゅ∠ ミ ∇ユムャヲ⊥ ケ ∇やヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ ゎ ∇ュぺぴ シ ョ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ シ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ モッ ∇ギボプ リ⇒∠ Α͡ ゅ͡ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャや メギらわΑ リ∠ ヱ モ∇らホ リ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ Η よ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ び モΒ͡ ジャや ¬へ∠ シ ͡ らz ∠ ヲ∠ (Or do you want t o ask your Messenger (Muhammad ) as Musa was asked before (i. ∇やヲぁェぺヱ や⇔ ∇ヘミ ヮヤャや ろヨ∇バル ∇やヲ⊥ギよ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ま ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ z ∠ ∠ グ z ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ザ∇ゃよヱ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ヲ∠∇ダ∠ ユレヰィ . he has gone ast ray from t he right way) meaning.e. whoever prefers disbelief t o fait h. Allah crit icized t hose who ask t he Messenger of Allah about a cert ain mat t er j ust for t he purpose of being difficult . びリ⇒∠ Α͡ ゅ͡ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャや メギらわΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ヨ Η よ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And he who changes fait h for disbelief) meaning. rej ect ion and rebellion. "We were forbidden from asking t he Messenger of Allah about t hings. and make some rivers flow for us. he has st rayed from t he st raight pat h. j ust as t he Children of Israel asked Musa out of st ubbornness. j ust as Allah said. This is t he case of t hose who deviat ed from accept ing t he Prophet s and obeying t hem and t hose who kept asking t heir Prophet s unnecessary quest ions in defiance and disbelief. びモΒ͡ ジャや ¬へ∠ シ モッ ∇ギボプぴ ͡ らz ∠ ヲ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (verily. t hen we will follow you and believe in you. he has gone ast ray from t he right way).ケや∠ ら∇ャや ケや∠ ∇ユヰョ∇ヲホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰル ヤ Α ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ∠ キ ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ケや∠ ボ∇ャや ⊥ ゲ∠ . Allah said.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq said t hat Muhammad bin Abi Muhammad t old him t hat ` Ikrimah or Sa` id said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Rafi` bin Huraymilah or Wahb bin Zayd said. "O Muhammad! Bring us a Book sent down from heaven and which we could read.This is why Anas bin Malik said.

(Have you not seen t hose who have changed t he blessings of Allah int o disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam). Many of t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) wish t hat t hey could t urn you away as disbelievers aft er you have believed.) regarding his mat t er.'' ギ∇バよ リ͡ ユ⊥ ルヱぁ ゲΑ ∇ヲャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∀ Β͡ ミ キヱぴ ͡ ∠ ョ ム∠ キ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ゲ ん∠ z ∠ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユヰジヘ∇ルぺ ギ∇レハ ∇リョ や⇔ ジェ や⇔ ゅz ミ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ あ ギ∠ ∠ ケ ヘ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ヨ ま ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ペエ∇ャや ユヰャ リΒらゎ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱ . who publicly and secret ly harbor emnit y and hat red for t he believers. out of envy from t heir own selves. But forgive and overlook. Allah also commanded His believing servant s t o forgive t hem and t o be pat ient wit h t hem. Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat ` Abdullah bin Ka` b bin Malik said t hat Ka` b bin Al-Ashraf. in which t hey will burn and what an evil place t o set t le in!) (14:28-29). used t o crit icize t he Prophet in his poems. Allah is t he Seer of what you do. Allah commanded t he believers t o perform t he prayer perfect ly. even aft er t he t rut h (t hat Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unt o t hem.) The Prohibition of following the Ways of the People of the Book Allah warned His believing servant s against following t he ways of t he People of Book. And perform t he Salah and give t he Zakah. Also. unt il Allah delivers His aid and vict ory t o t hem. you shall find it wit h Allah.) (110. Allah is able t o do all t hings. びユ⊥ ルヱぁ ゲΑ ∇ヲャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ ∇リョ ∀ Β͡ ミ キヱぴ ム∠ キ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ あ ゲ ん∠ z ∠ (Many of t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) wish t hat t hey could t urn you away. Cert ainly. "An unlet t ered Messenger came t o t he People of t he Script ures confirming what t hey have in t heir own Books about t he Messengers and t he Ayat of . "They exchanged comfort for hardship. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. who was a Jew and a poet . so Allah revealed. and what ever of good you send fort h for yourselves before you. while t hey recognize t he virt ue of t he believers and t heir Prophet . Verily. t ill Allah brings His command. t o pay t he Zakah and He encouraged t hem t o preserve t he pract ice of t hese right eous deeds. and who envy t he believers. and caused t heir people t o dwell in t he house of dest ruct ion Hell.. Abu Al-` Aliyah comment ed.∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ロゲ∇ョほよ ヨ ホ∠∠ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ジヘ∇ルΕ ∇やヲ⊥ ギボゎ ゅ∠ ヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ や∠ ∠ りヲ∠ダャや あ ム͡ ⊥ ∠ ョあ ∠ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬ヱ ∠ ヤz び ∀ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ヮヤャや ラま ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ロヱ⊥ イゎ ゲ∇Βカ ゲ ダよ ラ ヤ ヨ ゎ ヨ ͡ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ギ ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ (109.

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat . fait h and accept ing what Allah revealed t o t hem and t o t hose before t hem out of His generosit y and t remendous kindness.Allah. He also believes in all of t his. This is why Allah said. even aft er t he t rut h (t hat Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unt o t hem). ∇ユムヤ∇らホ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや リョ リバヨ∇ジわャヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びやゲΒ͡ ミ ン⇔ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺ リΑ͡ ャや リョヱ ⇔ ん∠ クぺ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ∠ (And you shall cert ainly hear much t hat will grieve you from t hose who received t he Script ure before you (Jews and Christ ians) and from t hose who ascribe part ners t o Allah) (3: 186). j ust as t hey believe in it . Thus Allah crit icized.) t his is similar t o His saying.'' Also.'' Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said similarly. び∇ユヰジヘ∇ルぺ ギ∇レハ ∇リョぴ ͡͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ あ (from t heir own selves) means. リΒらゎ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ∇ユヰジヘ∇ルぺ ギ∇レハ ∇リョ や⇔ ジェ や⇔ ゅz ミぴ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ あ ギ∠ ∠ ケ ヘ⊥ びペエ∇ャや ユヰャ ぁ ∠ ⊥⊥ ∠ (out of envy from t heir own selves. "of t heir making. Yet . Allah said. Allah said t hat aft er He illuminat ed t he t rut h for t hem. Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat . yet t heir envy made t hem deny t he Prophet . . chast ised and denounced t hem. びロゲ∇ョほよ ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ (But forgive and overlook.'' Allah legislat ed t he charact erist ics t hat His Prophet and t he believers should adhere t o: belief. "Aft er it became clear t hat Muhammad is t he Messenger of Allah whom t hey find writ t en of in t he Torah and t he Inj il. ` Ali bin Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Allah's st at ement . They denied him in disbelief and t ransgression because he was not one of t hem. envy and t ransgression. such t hat t hey were not ignorant of any of it . びペエ∇ャや ユヰャ リΒらゎ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ぴ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ (even aft er t he t rut h (t hat Muhammad is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unt o t hem) means. t hey rej ect ed t he Prophet out of disbelief. t ill Allah brings His command.

ヮヤャや ラま ロゲ∇ョほよ ヮヤャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ぴ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ z ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ (But forgive and overlook. j ust as Allah commanded in His st at ement . Allah's pardon for t he disbelievers was repealed. びロゲ∇ョほよ ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェぴ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ (t ill Allah brings His command. unt il Allah allowed fight ing t hem. Verily.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah. . The chain of narrat ion for t his t ext is Sahih. but I did not see it s wordings in t he six collect ions of Hadit h. び∇ユワヲ⊥ ゎギ∠ ヱ ゑ∇Βェ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥わ∇ホゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ヨぁ ィ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヤ⊥ プ (Then kill t he Mushrikin wherever you find t hem) (9:5). びラヱ⊥ ピ⇒∠ ∇ユワヱぴ ∠ ゲ͡ タ ⊥ ∠ (And feel t hemselves subdued) (9:29). and.) was abrogat ed by t he Ayah. びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャゅ͡ Ιヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι リΑ͡ ャや ∇やヲ⊥わ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ よ ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ヤ͡ ホ (Fight against t hose who believe not in Allah. The Ayah. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. t ill Allah brings His command." (Ment ioned above). Ibn Abi Hat im recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah and his Companions used t o forgive t he disbelievers and t he People of t he Book. Then Allah dest royed t hose who He decreed t o be killed among t he st rong men of Quraysh.) gives furt her support for t his view.びロゲ∇ョほよ ヮzャや ヴゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘ∇タや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ∇ハゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ エ∠ ヱ ヘ プ (But forgive and overlook. by t he Prophet 's forces. t ill Allah brings His command. Qat adah and As-Suddi said similarly: It was abrogat ed by t he Ayah of t he sword. nor in t he Last Day) (9:29) unt il. alt hough t he basis of it is in t he Two Sahihs. narrat ed from Usamah bin Zayd. Allah is able t o do all t hings). The Messenger of Allah used t o forgive t hem and was pat ient wit h t hem as Allah ordered him.

び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅ∠ よ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ゲ ダよ ラ ヤ ヨ ゎ ヨ ͡ ∠ z z ͡ (Cert ainly. Allah sees what you do). painful t orment in Hell-fire)) (40:52). t hat He is never unaware of t he deeds of any person. you shall find it wit h Allah).リΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ホ͡ タ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ιヱ ヮよケ ギレ͡ ロゲ∇ィぺ ヮヤプ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ヴ∠ハ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろジ∇Βャ キヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ . ∇やヲ⊥ ギボゎ ゅ∠ ∠ りヲ∠ ゴャや ∇やヲ⊥ や∠ ∠ りヲ∠ダャや ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ぺヱぴ ョあ ∠ ⊥ ョヱ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬ヱ ∠ ヤz ヨ ホ∠ ∠ びヮヤャや ギレ͡ ロヱ⊥ イゎ ゲ∇Βカ ∇リョ ユ⊥ ジヘ∇ルΕ ͡ z ∠ ハ ⊥ ギ ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ム͡ ⊥ ∠ (And perform t he Salah and give t he Zakah. ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ラゅ∠ リ∠ Ιま るレイ∇ャや モカ∇ギΑ リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ キ ワ ∠ ミ ョ z ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ャ ホ∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇ゲよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇モホ ∇ユヰΒルゅ∠ ぺ マ∇ヤゎ ン∠ ⇒∠ ル ⊥ ミ ま ⊥ ∠ ワ ⊥ ゎ ワ ⊥ ⊥ ぁ ͡ ョ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ ダ∠ ∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱ ヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よ .ラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ヤ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰΒ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ル∠ ∠ .e. meaning. nor will t hese deeds be lost by Him. such as prayer and paying Zakah.The Encouragement to perform Good Deeds Allah said. Theirs will be t he curse. Allah encouraged t he believers t o busy t hemselves in performing deeds t hat would bring t hem benefit and reward on t he Day of Resurrect ion. t hey will gain Allah's aid in t his life and on a Day when t he wit nesses t est ify. This is why Allah said. ∇ユヰャヱ るレ∇バヤ∇ャや ユヰャヱ ∇ユヰゎケグ∇バョ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ノヘレ∠ Ι ュ∇ヲΑぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ⊥ ∠ Α ∠ ∠ ∠ び ケやz ャや ¬ヲ⊥ ͡ ギ ⊥ シ (The Day when t heir excuses will be of no profit t o t he Zalimin (wrongdoers). This way. Whet her deeds are right eous or evil. and what ever of good you send fort h for yourselves before you. and t heirs will be t he evil abode (i. Allah will award each according t o what he or she deserves based on t heir deeds.

e. "These are wishes t hat t hey wished Allah would answer.'' These are t heir own desires.) (113. on such shall be no fear. Allah rebuked t his claim. Abu Al-` Aliyah comment ed. wit hout basis. since t hey claim t hat no one will ent er Paradise. said t hose (t he pagans) who know not . and He said about t his baseless claim.¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろジ∇Βャ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ ¬∇ヴセ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わΑ ∇ユワヱ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰレ∇Βよ ユム∇エΑ ヮzャゅ∠ ∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ヨ プ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ プ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ び ラヲ⊥ ヤわ∇ガΑ ヮΒ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ ル ミ (111. aft er which t hey would be put in Paradise. Previously we ment ioned t heir claim t hat t he Fire would not t ouch t hem for more t han a few days. Allah t hen said. t hough t hey bot h recit e t he Script ure. Like unt o t heir word. Yes! But whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah (i. Allah will j udge bet ween t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion about t hat wherein t hey have been differing.e.'' Similar was st at ed by Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. unless he is a Jew or a Christ ian. Say (O Muhammad ). follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism) and he is a Muhsin t hen his reward is wit h his Lord (Allah). Similarly. "None shall ent er Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christ ian. The Jews said t hat t he Christ ians follow not hing (i. Allah ment ioned t heir claims in Surat Al-Ma'idah: びロぼゅz ェぺヱ ヮヤャや ¬ゅ∠ ∇よぺ リ∇エルぴ ⊥ ⊥ ら͡ ∠∠ ͡ z ⊥ レ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (We are t he children of Allah and His loved ones) (5:18). "Produce your Burhan if you are t rut hful. Allah refut ed t his false claim and informed t hem t hat t hey will be punished because of t heir sins. nor shall t hey grieve. び∇モホぴ ⊥ .) The Hopes of the People of the Book Allah made t he confusion of t he Jews and t he Christ ians clear. and t he Christ ians said t hat t he Jews follow not hing (i.'') (112. And t hey say. are not on t he right religion). m び∇ユヰΒルゅ∠ ぺ マ∇ヤゎぴ ⊥ ぁ ͡ ョ∠ ∠ ͡ (These are t heir own desires). are not on t he right religion).e.

he is sincere. "Whoever is sincere wit h Allah. As-Suddi and ArRabi` bin Anas st at ed. Allah said. for Allah alone wit hout part ners. "Whoever performs deeds in sincerit y. "Your proof''. "Say O Muhammad:'' び∇ユムレ⇒∠ ∇ゲよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ぴ ⊥∠ ワ ⊥ ゎワ ("Produce your Burhan. びリΒ͡ ギ⇒∠ ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ぴ ∠ ホ͡ タ ⊥ ミ ま (if you are t rut hful) in your claim. "Bring t he evidence t hat support s your st at ement .e. リョヱ ヮヤャ ヴヰ∇ィヱ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ ∇モボプ ポヲぁ べ∠ ∇ラみ∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ィ ェ プ びリバらゎや ͡ ∠ ∠z (So if t hey disput e wit h you (Muhammad ) say: "I have submit t ed myself t o Allah (in Islam). as Abu Al-` Aliyah. .. Qat adah said t hat t he Ayah means. び∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱ ヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes! But whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah (i.(Say) meaning. びヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes! But whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah) means. '' Allah t hen said. follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism) and he is a Muhsin) meaning. びユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes! But whoever submit s) means.'') (3:20) Abu Al-` Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` said t hat . Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat .'') meaning. and (so have) t hose who follow me.'' In a similar st at ement . Muj ahid.'' Also..

who was sent for all mankind.びヮヰ∇ィヱぴ ⊥∠ ∠ (his face (himself)) meaning. Therefore. in his religion. t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert . polyt heist s.) This Hadit h was recorded by Muslim.るバゼ⇒∠ グゃョ∇ヲΑ ∀ ヲ⊥ ヱぴ ヤ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ル ∀ ∠ ͡ ハ ∀ ∠ ͡ カ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ ロ ィ⊥ び るΒルや∠ リ∇Βハ ∇リョ ヴ∠ ∇ジゎ . unt il he comes up t o it .) (25:23) ヮらジ∇エΑ るバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ びゅゃ∇Βセ ロ∇ギイΑ ∇ユャ ロ¬べ∠ や∠ ま ヴz ェ ¬べ∠ ラべ∇ヨヌャや ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ク͡ わ∠ ⇔ ョ ⊥ z (As for t hose who disbelieved. t he good deeds of t he priest s and rabbis will not be accept ed.) (24:39) and. because t hese deeds do not conform wit h t he met hod of t he Messenger .るΒョゅ∠ やケゅ∠ ∃ ∠͡ ¬ ∃ ∠ ͡ ボ ⊥ ⇔ ∠͡ ェ ⇔ ル . «キ∠ ヲヰプ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ョぺ ヮ∇Βヤハ ザ∇Βャ ゅ⇔ヨハ モヨハ ∇リョ» ケ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ル⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Whoever performs a deed t hat does not conform wit h our mat t er (religion). and We shall make such deeds as scat t ered float ing part icles of dust . The t hirst y one t hinks it t o be wat er. he finds it t o be not hing. even if t hey are sincerely for Allah alone. For t here are t wo condit ions for deeds t o be accept ed. The Messenger of Allah said. t hen it will not be accept ed. t he deed must be performed for Allah's sake alone and conform t o t he Shari` ah. ヴ∠∇ダゎ . t hen it will be rej ect ed. び∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱぴ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (and he is a Muhsin) following t he Messenger .るらタゅz るヤョゅ∠ . sinners) did. but does not conform t o t he Shari` ah. Allah said regarding such cases. ¬べ∠ ワ ロゅ∠ ∇ヤバイプ モヨハ ∇リョ ∇やヲ⊥ヨハ ゅ∠ ヴ∠ま べ∠ ∇ョギホヱぴ ⇔ ら∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヤ͡ ∠ ョ ャ͡ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ び やケヲ⊥ レz ⇔ んョ (And We shall t urn t o what ever deeds t hey (disbelievers. When t he deed is sincere.

This is why Allah said. as in t he case of t he hypocrit es and t hose who do t heir deeds t o show off. They will ent er in t he hot blazing Fire. When t he deed conforms t o t he Shari` ah out wardly. ゅエ͡⇒∠ Κヨハ ∇モヨ∇バΒ∇ヤプ ヮよケ ¬べ∠ ャ ヲ⊥ ∇ゲΑ ラゅ∠ リ∠ プぴ ⇔ ヤ タ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ボ͡ ィ ∠ ∠ ミ ヨ∠ びや∠ ェぺ ヮよケ りキゅ∠ バよ ∇ポゲ∇ゼΑ Ιヱ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ∠ ら͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (So whoever hopes for t he meet ing wit h his Lord. weary.(Some faces. Similarly. And when t hey st and up for As-Salah (t he prayer). t he hypocrit es seek t o deceive Allah. Allah said. but whoever submit s his face (himself) t o Allah (follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monot heism) and he is a Muhsin).ラヱ⊥ へ∠ Α ∇ユワ リΑ͡ ャや ∠ ハ ヨ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ゲ⊥ ⊥ ∠ グz (So woe unt o t hose performers of Salah (prayers) (hypocrit es). t he deed will also be rej ect ed. And wit hhold Al-Ma` un (small kindnesses)) (107:4-7). ラヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰわ⇒∠タ リ∠ ∇ユワ リΑ͡ ャや .リΒあダヨ∇ヤャ モ∇Αヲプぴ ∠ ワ シ ͡ ͡ ヤ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ グz ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ あ ∀ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ レ∇ヨΑヱ . び∀ ͡ ∇エョ ヲワヱ ヮヤャ ヮヰ∇ィヱ ユヤ∇シぺ ∇リョ ヴ∠よぴ リジ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ (Yes. や∠ ͡∠ ∇ユヰハキゅ∠ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ラヲ⊥ ギ⇒∠ Α リΒ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ラまぴ クまヱ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ カ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ハ͡ ガ⊥ ∠ ボ͡ レ⊥ z ͡ サゅz ャや ラヱ⊥ へ∠ Α ヴ∠ゅ∠ ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ りヲ∠ダャや ヴ∠ま ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ¬ ゲ⊥ ャ ジ⊥ ョ ホ ͡ ヤz ャ͡ ョ ホ び ΚΒ͡ホ Ιま ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ ミ∇グΑ Ιヱ ⇔ ヤ ∠ z ͡ ∠ z ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Verily. let him work right eousness and associat e none as a part ner in t he worship of his Lord) (18: 110). t hat Day will be humiliat ed. They will be given t o drink from a boiling spring) (88:2-5). and t hey do not remember Allah but lit t le. Those who delay t heir Salah (from t heir st at ed fixed t imes). but t he person did not perform it sincerely for Allah alone.) (4:142) and. Those who do good deeds only t o be seen (of men). . but it is He Who deceives t hem. He also said in t his Ayah. t hey st and wit h laziness t o be seen by people. Laboring.

and びラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ル∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor shall t hey grieve) about t heir imminent deat h. ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Ιヱ ∇ユヰよケ ギレ͡ ∇ユワゲ∇ィぺ ∇ユヰヤプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ びラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∠ ル∠ ∠ (Shall have t heir reward wit h t heir Lord. ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろジ∇Βャ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろャゅ∠ ヱぴ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∇ユワヱ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや ろジ∇Βャ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰΒ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ホ∠ びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わΑ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ .'' The Jews and Christians dispute among Themselves out of Disbelief and Stubbornness Allah said. びラヲ⊥ ゴ∇エΑ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ル∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor shall t hey grieve) about what t hey abandoned in t he past . on t hem shall be no fear. Sa` id bin Jubayr said. Moreover. び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプぴ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ "(There shall be no fear on t hem) in t he Hereaft er. び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∀ ∇ヲ∠ Κプぴ ͡ ∠∠ フ カ ∠ ∠ (There shall be no fear on t hem) in t he fut ure. nor shall t hey grieve) guarant eed t hem t he rewards and safet y from what t hey fear and should avoid.Allah's st at ement .

you do not follow anyt hing. t he Jewish rabbis came and began arguing wit h t hem before t he Messenger of Allah . There is a difference of opinion regarding t he meaning of Allah's st at ement . び∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Like unt o t heir word. are not on t he right religion). hat red and st ubbornness t hat t he People of t he Book have t owards each ot her. Consequent ly. Yet . Then a Christ ian man from Naj ran's delegat ion said t o t he Jews. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah said t hat .' and he reit erat ed his rej ect ion of Musa's prophet hood and his disbelief in t he Torah. t he Gospel cont ains Jesus' assert ion t hat Moses' prophet hood and t he Torah came from Allah.(The Jews said t hat t he Christ ians follow not hing (i. "When a delegat ion of Christ ians from Naj ran came t o t he Messenger of Allah .e. each part y disbelieved in what t he ot her part y had. ` Rat her. t he Jews disbelieve in Jesus. So Allah revealed t he Ayah. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. even t hough t hey have t he Torah in which Allah t ook t heir Covenant by t he t ongue of Moses t o believe in Jesus. ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろジ∇Βャ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや ろャゅ∠ ヱぴ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ∠ ∇ユワヱ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ キヲ⊥ ∠ ∇ャや ろジ∇Βャ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや ろャゅ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヰΒ ͡ ∠ ∠ ゲ ダz ͡ ∠ ホ∠ びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ラヲ⊥∇わΑ ∠ わ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ (The Jews said t hat t he Christ ians follow not hing (i.e. . are not on t he right religion). ` You do not follow anyt hing. and t he Christ ians said t hat t he Jews follow not hing (i. )'' Allah made it clear t hat each part y read t he affirmat ion of what t hey claimed t o rej ect in t heir Book. Also. are not on t he right religion). Rafi` bin Huraymilah said. and t he Christ ians said t hat t he Jews follow not hing (i. t hough t hey bot h recit e t he Script ure. t hough t hey bot h recit e t he Script ure.) Allah explained t he disput es. said t hose who know not ) t hus exposing t he ignorance displayed by t he Jews and t he Christ ians concerning t heir st at ement s t hat we ment ioned.' and he reit erat ed his disbelief in Jesus and t he Inj il. Allah said.e.e. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャやぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z (who know not ) For inst ance. are not on t he right religion).

∠ Β͡ ͡ ⇒z ャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ リ ゃら ダ ヱ キ ワ ∠ グz ヱ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz z ͡ ヮヤャや ラま ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇セぺ リΑ͡ ャや∠ サヲ⊥ ヨ∇ャや∠ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや∠ ∠ z z ͡ ミ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ ∠ イ∠ ヱ ゲ ダz ヱ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま るヨ⇒Β͡ ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰレ∇Βよ モダ∇ヘΑ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ セ ギ ヰ∠ (Verily. Allah said. On t hat Day. even as lit t le as t he weight of an at om. t ruly. Abu Ja` far bin Jarir chose t he view t hat t his Ayah is general and t hat t here is no evidence t hat specifically support s any of t hese explanat ions. said t hose said t hose who know not ) means. and t he Maj us. "The Christ ians said similar st at ement s t o t he Jews. Allah is over all t hings a Wit ness). for He is never unj ust wit h anyone. Verily. t hose who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad ). did not follow a t rue or exist ing religion). Allah knows best . and t he Christ ians. Allah said. So int erpret ing t he Ayah in a general way is bet t er. t hat Allah will gat her t hem all on t he Day of Ret urn.'' Ibn Jurayj asked ` At a' "Who are t hose ` who know not ''' ` At a' said. This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement in Surat Al-Haj j (22:17). Allah will j udge bet ween t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion. and t he Sabians. As-Suddi said t hat . .び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (Like unt o t heir word.) meaning.'' Also. and t hose who are Jews. び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グ z ∠ ホ (said t hose who know not ) is in reference t o t he Arabs who said t hat Muhammad was not following anyt hing (i. and t hose who associat e part ners wit h Allah. ヮΒ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∇ユヰレ∇Βよ ユム∇エΑ ヮzャゅ∠ ぴ ͡ プ ル ミ ヨ プ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ プ びラヲ⊥ ヤわ∇ガΑ ∠ ヘ͡ ∠ ∠ (Allah will j udge bet ween t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion about t hat wherein t hey have been differing. "Nat ions t hat exist ed before t he Jews and t he Christ ians and before t he Torah and t he Gospel. Allah will j ust ly j udge bet ween t hem. e.

And He is t he Just Judge.'') (34:26). . but would not prevent him (from ent ering t he House of Allah). Ibn Jarir report ed t hat Ibn Zayd said t hat Allah's st at ement . ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ノレョ リz ョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びべ∠ よや∠ カ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ シヱ ヮヨ∇シや ヰ͡ ゲ∠ プ バ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ (And who are more unj ust t han t hose who forbid t hat Allah's Name be ment ioned (i.e. "Whoever killed our fat hers at Badr. For t hem t here is disgrace in t his world. And who are more unj ust t han t hose who forbid t hat Allah's Name be ment ioned (i. One would even see t he killer of his fat her and brot her. and t hey will have a great t orment in t he Hereaft er. He t hen agreed t o a peace t reat y wit h t he idolat ors and said t o t hem. prayers and invocat ions) in Allah's Masj ids and st rive for t heir ruin) is about t he Quraysh idolat ors who prevent ed t he Prophet from ent ering Makkah from Al-Hudaybiyyah.e.'' Allah's st at ement . (No one before has ever prevent ed people from ent ering t he House. prayers and invocat ions) in Allah's Masj ids and st rive for t heir ruin It was not fit t ing t hat such should t hemselves ent er t hem (Allah's Masj ids) except in fear.ヲワヱ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ レ∇Βよ ウわ∇ヘΑ z を ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ レ∇Βよ ノヨ∇イΑ ∇モホぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ あ ∠ よ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ レぁ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ び ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ゥゅz ヘ∇ャや ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ わ∠ (Say: "Our Lord will assemble us all t oget her (on t he Day of Resurrect ion). t he Knower of t he t rue st at e of affairs. t hen He will j udge bet ween us wit h t rut h. shall never ent er it while t here is one of us alive. ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ノレョ リz ョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ラ∠ ∇ユヰャ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ べ∠ よや∠ カ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ シヱ ヮヨ∇シや ぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ヰ͡ ゲ∠ プ バ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャヱ ∀ ∇ゴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャ リΒ͡ もべ∠ Ιま べ∠ ヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ン カ Β ぁ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヘ͡ カ z ͡ ワ ヤ ⊥ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ ∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ りゲカΙや ユ ヌハ ゆ グハ ͡ ∠ ͡ x (114.) They said.) Of the Most Unjust are Those Who prevent People from the Masjids and strive for their Ruin The Quraysh idolat ors are t hose who hindered t he people from t he Masj ids of Allah and want ed t o dest roy t hem. unt il he slaught ered t he Hadi (animal for sacrifice) at Dhi-Tuwa.

Allah said. ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑ ラ∠ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ノレョ リz ョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びヮヨ∇シや ⊥⊥ (And who are more unj ust t han t hose who forbid t hat Allah's Name be ment ioned (i.ラヱ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ユワ ケゅz ャや ヴ͡ ヱ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ギ͡ カ ⊥ ͡ レ プ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ュゅ∠ ぺヱ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ∠ ホ∠∠ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ .びべ∠ よや∠ カ ヴ͡ ヴ∠ シヱぴ ヰ͡ ゲ∠ プ バ∠ ∠ (and st rive for t heir ruin) means t hose who prevent whoever maint ain t he Masj ids wit h Allah's remembrance and who visit Allah's House t o perform Haj j and ` Umrah. but most of t hem know not . He also crit icized t he idolat ors who expelled t he Messenger of Allah and his Companions from Makkah. and t hey are not it s guardians None can be it s guardians except Al-Mut t aqun (t he pious). リハ ラヱぁ ダΑ ∇ユワヱ ヮzャや ユヰよあ バΑ Ιぺ ∇ユヰャ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ グ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ Ιま ロぼべ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇ラま ロ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ Β͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ル ミ ョ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ∇ユワゲん∇ミぺ リム⇒∠ヱ ラヲ⊥ わヨ∇ャや ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ャ ∠ ∠ ボ z ⊥ (And why should not Allah punish t hem while t hey hinder (men) from Al-Masj id Al-Haram.) (8:34) ぶや ギィゅ∠ ョ ∇やヱ⊥ ヨ∇バΑ ラ∠ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ヤャ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ぺ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ ∇ろトらェ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ゲ∇ヘム∇ャゅ͡ ユ͡ ジヘル∠ ヴ∠ハ リΑ͡ ヰ⇒∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ よ ヰ͡ ⊥ ぺ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ͡ セ ゲヨ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ルま . which t hey kept exclusively for t heir idols and polyt heism.e. Ibn Abi Hat im recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Quraysh prevent ed t he Prophet from praying at t he Ka` bah in AlMasj id Al-Haram. prevent ing t hem from praying in Al-Masj id Al-Haram. so Allah revealed. prayers and invocat ions) in Allah's Masj ids)'' Aft er Allah chast ised t he Jews and Christ ians.

if t hose believers . from reaching t heir place of sacrifice. t hat you may kill t hem and on whose account a sin would have been commit t ed by you wit hout (your) knowledge. Allah said here. t hat Allah might bring int o His mercy whom He wills if t hey (t he believers and t he disbelievers) had been apart .ヴ∠ バプ ヮヤャや Ιま ズ∇ガΑ ∇ユャヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ヴ∠ や¬∠ りヲ∠ダャや ジ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ミz ゎ ヱ ∠ ヤz び リΑ͡ わ∇ヰヨ∇ャや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Α ラ∠ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ぺ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (It is not for t he Mushrikin (polyt heist s). and give t he Zakah and fear none but Allah). The Masj ids of Allah shall be maint ained only by t hose who believe in Allah and t he Last Day. would have punished t hose of t hem who disbelieved wit h painful t orment ) (48:25). ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ヮヤャや ギイ⇒∠ ョ ゲヨ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ルまぴ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ Ιま ズ∇ガΑ ∇ユャヱ りヲ∠ ゴャや ヴ∠ や¬∠ りヲ∠ダャや ュゅ∠ ぺヱ ゲカΙや z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ミz ゎ ヱ ∠ ヤz ∠ ホ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ x びヮヤャや ∠z (The Masj ids of Allah shall be maint ained only by t hose who believe in Allah and t he Last Day. Therefore. It is t hey who are on t rue guidance. and give t he Zakah and fear none but Allah. We verily. perform t he Salah. ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや リハ ∇ユミヱぁ タヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ユワぴ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ⊥ ∀ ゅ∠ ͡ Ι∇ヲャヱ ヮヤエョ ヒヤ∇らΑ ラ∠ ゅプヲ⊥ ∇バョ ン∇ギヰ∇ャや∠ メ ィケ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ z͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ⇔ ム ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ トゎ ラ∠ ∇ユワヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ ∇ユャ ∀ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ぽョ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ∠ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽョ ⊥ ゃ∠ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ z ろ レョ ぁ ¬ ジルヱ ∠ レ͡ ぁ ヴ͡ ヮzャや モカ∇ギΒャ ユ∇ヤハ ゲ∇Βピよ ∀ ゲバョ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇ユム∠ Β͡ わプ プ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ⊥ あ ∃ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ りz ∠ z ⊥ あ ら ダ⊥ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ ∇よグバャ ∇やヲ⊥Αゴゎ ∇ヲャ ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ヮわヨ∇ェケ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz レ z ∠ ∠ ヤz ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ び ゅヨΒ͡ぺ ゅよや∠ ハ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ⇔ ャ ∠ ⇔ グ∠ ⊥ ͡ (They are t he ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masj id-Al-Haram (at Makkah) and det ained t he sacrificial animals. perform t he Salah. Had t here not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall t hey abide. t o maint ain t he Masj ids of Allah while t hey wit ness against t heir own selves of disbelief. Therefore.) (9:17-18) and.

This Ayah means.'' This Ayah support s t he Ayah. Allah fulfilled t his promise and lat er decreed t hat idolat ors not be allowed t o ent er Al-Masj id Al-Haram. So let t hem not come near Al-Masj id-Al-Haram (at Makkah) aft er t his year) (9:28).who follow t he virt ues ment ioned in t he Ayah were prevent ed from at t ending t he Masj id. Κプ ザイル ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ゅ∠ ルま ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヨz ͡ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ほ びや∠ ⇒∠ ∇ユヰョゅ∠ ギ∇バよ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ボΑ グ ワ ͡ ͡ ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ∠ ∠ (O you who believe! (in Allah's Oneness and in His Messenger Muhammad )! Verily. and t hat t he punishment comes in a form comparable t o t he deed. est ablishing His Shari` ah in t he Masj ids and purifying t hem from t he filt h of Shirk. unless he embraces Islam.t o ent er t he Masj ids. t he Ayah indicat ed. t hey were prevent ed from ent ering it in t urn. and no naked persons shall perform Tawaf around t he House. This Ayah also described t he disgrace t hat t he disbelievers earn in t his life.t he disbelievers . and t he Jews and Christ ians should be expelled from it . "Aft er t he current year. except t o sat isfy t he t erms of an armist ice or a t reat y. "Do not allow t hem . The Messenger of Allah st at ed t hat no t wo religions should remain in t he Arabian Peninsula. In t his case. It was also said t hat t his Ayah (2:114) carries t he good news for t he Muslims from Allah t hat He will allow t hem t o t ake over Al-Masj id Al-Haram and all t he Masj ids and disgrace t he idolat ors. no idolat ors shall perform Haj j . all praise is due t o Allah. except for t hose who have a t reat y. t he t reat y will be carried t o t he end of it s t erm. may Allah's peace and blessings be on him. The Good News that Islam shall prevail Allah said next . t hey were in t urn expelled from Makkah. びリΒ͡ もべ∠ Ιま べ∠ ヲ⊥カ∇ギΑ ラ∠ ∇ユヰャ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ∠ ヘ͡ カ z ͡ ワ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ョ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (It was not fit t ing t hat such should t hemselves ent er t hem (Allah's Masj ids) except in fear). Just as t hey expelled t he believers from Makkah.'' When t he Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah in 9 H. but it involves remembering Allah. All of t hese rulings ensure maint aining t he honor of Al-Masj id Al-Haram and purifying t he area where Allah sent His Messenger t o warn and bring good news t o all of mankind. Just as t hey prevent ed t he believers from ent ering Al-Masj id Al-Haram. t hen what cause for dest ruct ion is worse t han t his Maint aining t he Masj ids not only means beaut ifying t hem. t he Mushrikun (idolat ors) are Naj asun (impure). び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ∇ユヰャヱぴ ユ ヌハ ゆ グハ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥ ∠∠ . he commanded t hat someone announce at Mina. except out of fear of being seized or killed. Soon aft er. no idolat or shall ent er t he House.

Surely. invoking ot her t han Allah and performing Tawaf around it while naked. In Makkah. and save us from disgrace in t his life and t he t orment of t he Hereaft er. t he Messenger of Allah used t o pray in t he direct ion of Bayt Al-Maqdis. Here it is wort h ment ioning t he Hadit h about seeking refuge from disgrace in t his life and t he t orment of t he Hereaft er. . Allah is Sufficient (for His creat ures' needs). and t hen Allah direct ed him t o face Al-Ka` bah in prayer. Imam Ahmad recorded t hat Busr bin Art ah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah used t o supplicat e. over His Throne)). who were driven out of Makkah and had t o depart from t he area of Al-Masj id Al-Haram. ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z͡∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ノシヱ ヮヤャや ラま ヮヤャや ユ ヤハ ∀ ͡ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ z (115. Knowing. so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above. And t o Allah belong t he east and t he west . This is why Allah said. ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャヱぴ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z͡∠ びヮヤャや ͡z (And t o Allah belong t he east and t he west . so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above. he faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for sixt een or sevent een mont hs. over His Throne).) This Hadit h is Hasan. ゅ∠ ∇ゲィぺヱ ゅ∠ ヤミ ケヲ⊥ ほ∇ャや ヶ͡ ゅレわらホゅ∠ ∇リジ∇ェぺ ユヰヤャや» ル ͡ ∠∠ ヰあ⊥ ͡ ョ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ハ ͡ ∠ z ⊥ z «り∠ カべ∇ャや ゆや∠ ハヱ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヵ∇ゴカ ∇リョ ゲ͡ ͡ グ∠ ∠ Β ぁ ͡ ͡ ͡ (O Allah! Make our end bet t er in all affairs. while t he Ka` bah was bet ween him and t he Qiblah.(and t hey will have a great t orment in t he Hereaft er) because t hey breached t he sanct it y of t he House and brought filt h t o it by erect ing idols all around it .) Facing the Qiblah (Direction of the Prayer) This ruling brought comfort t o t he Messenger of Allah and his Companions. When t he Messenger migrat ed t o Al-Madinah. et c.

and he used t o look t o t he sky and supplicat e. over His Throne)) means. t he Messenger of Allah liked t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim (Al-Ka` bah at Makkah). The Jews were happy. The Jews were dist urbed by t his development and said. When t he Messenger of Allah migrat ed t o Al-Madinah. which was inhabit ed by t he Jews.'' ` Ikrimah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. "Allah's direct ion is wherever you face. ` What made t hem change t he direct ion of t he Qiblah t hat t hey used t o face' Allah revealed. over His Throne)). However. We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven) unt il.'' Muj ahid said t hat . he was at first commanded t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis. び͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ (Verily. びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above. びゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h.` Ali bin Abi Talhah said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. over His Throne)) . "The first part of t he Qur'an t hat was abrogat ed was about t he Qiblah. びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above. So Allah revealed. びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above. east or west . east and t he west '') and. びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ (t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion) (2:144). and t he Messenger of Allah faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for some t en mont hs.

The Qiblah for the People of Al-Madinah is what is between the East and the West In his Tafsir of t his Ayah (2:115).means. At -Tirmidhi. Ibn Jarir said. Ash-Sham and ` Iraq. Al-Ka` bah. when in fear and when facing t he enemy.'' However. «る∠∇らホ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ » ヤ͡͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ (What is bet ween t he east and t he west is a Qiblah. "Ot hers said t hat t his Ayah was revealed t o t he Messenger of Allah permit t ing t he one praying volunt ary prayers t o face wherever t hey wish in t he east or west . "I t hink Ibn ` Umar ment ioned t hat from t he Prophet . t hat is. Ibn ` Umar used t o face what ever direct ion his animal was headed and proclaim t hat t he Messenger of Allah did t he same. t hus. explaining t he Ayah. "When t he sense of fear is worse t han t hat . while t raveling. びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (So wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah).'' It was also said t hat t he Ayah was revealed about t hose who are unable t o find t he correct direct ion of t he Qiblah in t he dark or due t o cloudy skies and.) Ibn Jarir said. "The meaning of Allah's st at ement .) At -Tirmidhi and Ibn Maj ah recorded t his Hadit h wit h t he wording. "Wherever you may be. pray while st anding. In his Sahih. you have a Qiblah t o face.'' Nafi` t hen said. An-Nasa'i. whet her facing t he Qiblah or not . . or while riding. it was said t hat Allah sent down t his Ayah before t he order t o face t he Ka` bah. Ibn Marduwyah. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Nafi` said t hat whenever Ibn ` Umar was asked about t he prayer during t imes of fear. るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや モ∇ワほャ るヤ∇らホ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ » ͡ ∠ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «ベや∠ バ∇ャや モ∇ワぺヱ ュゅz ャや モ∇ワぺヱ ゲ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ゼ ͡ ∠∠ (What is bet ween t he east and t he west is t he Qiblah for t he people of Al-Madinah. prayed in a direct ion ot her t han t he Qiblah by mist ake. Ibn Abi Hat im.'' For inst ance. he used t o describe it and would t hen say. Al-Hafiz Ibn Marduwyah recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.'' That Hadit h was also collect ed by Muslim. and it s origin is in t he Two Sahihs from Ibn ` Umar and ` Amr bin Rabi` ah wit hout ment ioning t he Ayah.

び∀ Β͡∠ ぴ ユ ヤハ (Knowing) means He is knowledgeable of t heir deeds and not hing escapes His wat ch.'' ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヮz モ∠ ヮレ⇒∠ ∇らシ や⇔ ∠∠ ヮzャや グガゎや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ プ ョ ⊥ ャ よ ⊥ ∠ エ ⊥ ギャヱ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ z ャ ホ∠ ノΑ͡ よ . nor is He unaware of anyt hing. The Originat or of t he heavens and t he eart h. びチ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ヮz モ∠ ぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ョ ⊥ャ よ . who claimed t hat t he angels are Allah's daught ers. Christ ians and pagans) say: Allah has begot t en a son (children or offspring). His knowledge encompasses everyt hing. Rat her. Knowing) is t hat Allah encompasses all His Creat ion by providing t hem wit h sufficient needs and by His generosit y and favor. and all are Qanit un t o Him.) Refuting the Claim that Allah has begotten a Son This and t he following Ayat refut e t he Christ ians. t o Him belongs all t hat is in t he heavens and on eart h. may Allah curse t hem.ラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz メヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ル͡∠ や⇔ ∇ョぺ ヴ∠ ホ や∠ まヱ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ⊥ ボ∠ ヨz みプ ゲ ∠ ツ∠ ク͡∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz び ラヲ⊥ Βプ ∇リミ ヮャ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ (116. He is holier and more perfect t han such claim. Allah is Sufficient (for His creat ures' needs). When He decrees a mat t er. He only says t o it : "Be! and it is.) meaning.) (117. Glory is t o Him (Exalt ed is He above all t hat t hey associat e wit h Him). and t heir like among t he Jews and t he Arab idolat ors.び∀ Β͡∠ ノシヱ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ユ ヤハ ∀ ͡ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ (Surely. And t hey (Jews. びヮレ⇒∠ ∇らシぴ ⊥∠ エ ⊥ (Glory is t o Him. His st at ement . Nay. Allah refut ed all of t hem in t heir claim t hat He had begot t en a son. Allah said.

やギ∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲヤ͡ や∇ヲハキ ラ∠ . . so how can He have a son when He has no wife Allah said.やギ∠ヱ グガわΑ ラ∠ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲヤ͡ ヴ͡ らレ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ョ モ⊥ ま ⇔ ャ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ぺ ͡ ヨ z ャ ピ∠ Α ョ∠ . That t hey ascribe a son (or offspring or children) t o t he Most Gracious (Allah). He knows each one of t hem. how could one of t hem be His son The son of any being is born out of t wo comparable beings.) meaning. All creat ures are Allah's servant s and are owned by Him. and has count ed t hem a full count ing. Allah has no equal or rival sharing His grace and great ness. and t he mount ains fall in ruins. rat her. .やギワ メゅ∠ イ∇ャや ゲガゎヱ ⇔ ャ∠ ͡ ヨ z ャ ∠ ∠ ぺ ⇔∂ ∠ ⊥ ら͡ ぁ ͡ ∠ ∠ リ∠ ぁ ミ ラ͡ . Allah is t he Supreme Aut horit y in t he heavens and eart h. ∇ユャヱ ギャヱ ヮャ ラヲ⊥ Α ヴz ぺ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ノΑ͡ よぴ ∠∠ ∀ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ ル∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ギ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ムよ ヲワヱ ¬∇ヴセ z ミ ペヤカヱ るらエ⇒∠ ヮz ∇リムゎ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ タ ⊥ ャ ⊥ ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ユ ヤハ (He is t he Originat or of t he heavens and t he eart h.やキま ゅゃ∇Βセ ∇ユわ∇ゃィ ∇ギボャ . t o Him belongs all t hat is in t he heavens and on eart h. and t he eart h is split asunder. And everyone of t hem will come t o Him alone on t he Day of Resurrect ion (wit hout any helper. Therefore. But it is not suit able for (t he maj est y of) t he Most Gracious (Allah) t hat He should beget a son (or offspring or children). or prot ect or or defender)) (19:8895). on and bet ween t hem. Allah's is t he kingdom of t he heavens and eart h and what ever and whoever is in. and.やギ∠ヱ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや グガゎや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⇔∂ ͡ ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨ z ∠ ∠ z ャ ホ∠ チ∇ケΙや ペゼレ∠ ヱ ヮ∇レョ ラ∇ゲトヘわΑ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや キゅ∠ ゎ ⊥ x ぁ ∠ ゎ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ム∠ . t he t rut h is not as t he disbelievers claimed.やギハ ∇ユワギハヱ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ェぺ ∇ギボャ ∠ ∠ ヮ ゎ ¬ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ⇔∂ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ダ ∠ ∠ z び やキ∇ゲプ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ (And t hey say: "The Most Gracious (Allah) has begot t en a son (offspring or children). Whereby t he heavens are almost t orn.やギ∇らハ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヴ͡ へ Ιま チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ͡ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ヨ z ゎ z ͡ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ュ∇ヲΑ ͡ Β͡ や∠ ∇ユヰぁミヱ . and He is t he Creat or. Provider and Sust ainer Who decides all t he affairs of t he creat ion as He wills. Verily.'' Indeed you have brought fort h (said) a t errible evil t hing. There is none in t he heavens and t he eart h but comes unt o t he Most Gracious (Allah) as a servant .(Nay. How can He have children when He has no wife He creat ed all t hings and He is t he Knower of everyt hing) (6:101).

Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet said. As for t he denial of Me. ∩∠ ャク ヮャ ∇リムΑ ∇ユャヱ ュキへ リ∇よや ヶ͡ よグミ :ヴ∠ゅ∠ ゎ ぶや メゅ∠ » マ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∂ ∠ ャ バ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ ヵゅz ま ヮらΑ͡ ∇ムゎ ゅz ほプ ∩∠ ャク ヮャ ∇リムΑ ∇ユャヱ ヶ͡ ヨわセヱ ∠ Α͡ ⊥ ⊥ グ ∠ ョ∠∠ マ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゅz ぺヱ ∩∠ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ミ ロギΒ͡ ぺ ∇ラぺ ケギ∇ホぺ ゅ∠ ヶあ ぺ ユハ∇ゴΒプ ョ∠∠ ラ ミ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ ハ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ ル∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グガゎぺ ∇ラぺ ヶ͡ ゅエ∇らジプ や⇔ ∠∠ ヶ͡ ヮャ∇ヲボプ ヵゅz ま ヮヨ∇わセ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ル ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギャヱ ャ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ Α͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ «や⇔ ャヱ ∇ヱぺ るらェゅ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ タ (Allah said. ` The son of Adam has denied Me. He beget s not . Allah st at ed t hat He is t he Supreme Mast er Whom t here is no equal or rival. in t he Tafsir of t his Ayah. As for his insult ing Me.') This Hadit h was recorded by Al-Bukhari. it is unbefit t ing t hat I should have a wife or a son. so how can He have a son from among t hem This is why. nor was He begot t en. and t hat is not his right .ギヨz ャや ヮヤャや .Sufficent . In t hese Ayat . They at t ribut e a son t o Him. and t hat is not his right . . upon whom all depend). It is recorded in t he Two Sahihs t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. yet He st ill gives t hem sust anence and healt h. and t here is none comparable t o Him. he claimed t hat I am unable t o bring him back as he used t o be (resurrect him). Allah t he Samad (t he Self.'') (112). All praise is due t o Me. ∇ユヰルま :ぶや リョ ヮバヨシ ン⇔ ∠ ヴ∠ハ ゲら∇タぺ ギェぺ ゅ∠» ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ クぺ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ «ユ͡ Β͡ ゅ∠ Αヱ ∇ユヰホコ∇ゲΑ ヲワヱ や⇔ ャヱ ヮャ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑ ヰ プ バ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ e(No one is more pat ient when hearing an insult t han Allah. He has insult ed Me.ギェぺ ヮzャや ヲワ ∇モホぴ ∠ Α ∠∠ ͡∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ダ ⊥ z ∀ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ び ギェぺ やヲ⊥ ミ ヮz ∇リムΑ ∇ユャヱ ∀ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ヘ⊥ ⊥ ャ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ (Say: "He is Allah (t he) One. everyt hing and everyone was creat ed by Him. he claimed t hat I have a son.) Everything is within Allah's Grasp Allah said.∇ギャヲ⊥ ∇ユャヱ ∇ギヤΑ ∇ユャ .

びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him. びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (all are Qanit un t o Him. Muj ahid also said. ` Ikrimah and Abu Malik also said t hat . He says.) means. and t hat is t hat Qunut means obedience and submission t o Allah. ) means.'' Also. As-Suddi said t hat .'' He also said.) means. "Obedient .) means. obedient .before Him . びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him. "St anding up . Ibn Abi Naj ih said t hat Muj ahid said t hat . びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him.) means. "The obedience of t he disbeliever occurs when his shadow prost rat es. Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat Qanit un is sincerit y. . "(Allah says. while he hat es t hat . from Ibn ` Abbas who said t hat . t hey pray t o Him. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat .) ` Be a donkey' and it becomes a donkey.on t he Day of Resurrect ion. which Ibn Jarir preferred. There are t wo cat egories of Qunut : legislat ed and dest ined. combines all t he meanings.'' Muj ahid's st at ement . bound t o Him in servit ude t o Him. "Obedient on t he Day of Resurrect ion. ` Be a human' and he becomes a human.'' Also. Ibn Abi Hat im said t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Ashaj informed t hem t hat Asbat informed t hem from Mut arrif. from ` At iyah. びリΒ͡ レ⇒∠ ぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ (Qant in) (2:238) means. びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (and all are Qanit un t o Him. for Allah said.'' Khasif said t hat Muj ahid said t hat .びラヲ⊥ レ⇒∠ ヮz モミぴ ∠ わ͡ ホ ⊥ ャ x ⊥ (all are Qanit un t o Him).

He creat ed t hem when not hing resembling t hem exist ed. Wit hout creat ed precedence. is among t hose who t est ify t o His Oneness.ゅ⇔ ∇ヲデ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リ∠ ギイ∇ジΑ ヮヤャ∠ ぴ ハ ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ョ ⊥⊥ ∠ ͡ z ヱ び メゅ∠ Ιや∠ あ ギピ∇ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ヤ⇒∠ニヱ ゅ⇔ ∇ゲミヱ ͡ タx ヱ ヱ⊥ ⊥ よ ヰ⊥ ヤ͡ ∠ ワ ∠ ∠ (And unt o Allah (alone) falls in prost rat ion whoever is in t he heavens and t he eart h. "Thus t he meaning of t he Ayat (2:116-117) becomes. as ment ioned in t he Hadit h: «る∠ゅ∠ッ るハ∇ギよ z ミヱ るハ∇ギよ るをギ∇エョ z ミ ラみプ» ャ ヤ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ モ⊥ ∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ⊥ モ⊥ z ͡∠ (. for all new mat t ers are called Bid` ah. Allah said. He shaped t he creat ures in t heir current shapes. ...) And t here is a linguist ic Bid` ah.every innovat ion is a Bid` ah and every Bid` ah is heresy. He is t heir Creat or and Maker.'' Ibn Jarir said.every innovat ion (in religion) is a Bid` ah. such as t he st at ement of t he Leader of t he fait hful ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab when he gat hered t he Muslims t o pray t he Tarawih prayer in congregat ion (which was also an earlier pract ice of t he Prophet ) and said. "What a good Bid` ah t his is. is very good and correct . Likewise. willingly or unwillingly. and so do t heir shadows in t he mornings and in t he (lat e) aft ernoons) (13:15).'' This explanat ion from Ibn Jarir. All t est ify t o His Oneness and t o t heir submissiveness t o Him. religious. Allah st at ed t hat He creat ed t he heavens and eart h out of not hing and wit hout precedent .. t he Messiah. Muslim recorded t he Messenger of Allah saying.) There are t wo t ypes of Bid` ah. ` Allah is far more glorious t han t o have had a son. who some claimed t o be Allah's son. «る∠ ∇ギよ るをギ∇エョ z ミ ラみプ» ハ ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ ⊥ モ⊥ z ͡∠ (. Muj ahid and As-Suddi said t hat t his is t he linguist ic meaning.. The Meaning of Bad ®299 " Allah said. びチ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ノΑ͡ よぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ⊥ ギ∠ (The Badi` (Originat or) of t he heavens and t he eart h. may Allah have mercy upon him. wit h His power and wit hout a fat her. Allah also bears wit ness t o His servant s t hat Jesus. for He is t he Owner of everyt hing t hat is in t he heavens and eart h. He creat ed Jesus.) which means.

demonst rat ing His perfect ly complet e abilit y and t remendous aut horit y. His command. He only says t o it : "Be! and it is. as Allah willed: リ͡ ヮボヤカ ュキや∠ モんヨミ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ヴ∠ Β͡ モんョ ラまぴ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ハ ジ ハ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ び ラヲ⊥ Βプ リ⊥ ヮャ メゅ∠ z を ゆや∠ ゎ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ユ⊥ ∃ ゲ⊥ (Verily. ` Be' and it comes int o exist ence.びラヲ⊥ Βプ ∇リミ ヮャ メヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ルみプ や⇔ ∇ョぺ ヴ∠ ホ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ヨz ͡∠ ゲ ∠ ツ∠ ク͡∠ (When He decrees a mat t er.) t hus. Our Word unt o a t hing when We int end it . and it is. is only t hat We say unt o it : "Be! (16:40) and. "Be!'' and he was. び ラヲ⊥ Βプ リ⊥ ヮャ メヲ⊥ Α ラ∠ ゅゃ∇Βセ キや∠ ぺ へ∠ ま ロゲ∇ョぺ べ∠ ルまぴ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ∠ ぺ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ケ∠ ク͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ (Verily.) ∇リミ ヮャ メヲ⊥ ル ラ∠ ロゅ∠ ∇キケぺ へ∠ ま ¬∇ヴゼャ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ゅ∠ ルまぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボz ぺ ⊥ ル ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∃ ∠ ͡ レ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ び ラヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ム∠ ∠ (Verily. t he likeness of ` Isa (Jesus) before Allah is t he likeness of Adam. "Be! (36:82). and it is. if He decides a mat t er. is only t hat He says t o it . t hen (He) said t o him: "Be! and he was) (3:59).) び ゲダら∇ャゅ͡ ウ∇ヨヤミ りギェヱ Ιま べ∠ ゲ∇ョぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ よ ∃ ∠∠ ∀ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ͡ ル⊥ ∠ ョ∠ (And Our commandment is but one as t he t winkling of an eye) (54:50) So Allah informed us t hat He creat ed Jesus by merely saying. He merely orders it t o. He creat ed him from dust . べ∠ Β͡ ∇ほゎ ∇ヱぺ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヨヤムΑ Ι∇ヲャ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ レ ゎ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ レ⊥ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ ∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ユ͡ ヤ∇らホ リ͡ リΑグャや メゅ∠ マャグミ ∀ ∠ や∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ あ ヰ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ホ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ るΑ ¬ び ラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ュ∇ヲボャ ろ⇒∠ Γや ゅz Βよ ∇ギホ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろヰら⇒∠ ゎ ∠ レ͡ Α ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ Α レz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ . Allah said. when He int ends a t hing. Similarly.

"These are t he Jews and t he Christ ians. ヴ∠ ∇ぽル ヴz ェ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∀ ∠ や∠ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ や∠ まヱぴ ゎ ⊥ わ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ ャ ホ るΑ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ィ ク͡∠ モバ∇イΑ ゑ∇Βェ ユヤ∇ハぺ ヮzャや ヮヤャや モシケ ヴゎヱ⊥ べ∠ モ∇んョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ヤ ͡ z ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ͡ ヮヤャや ギレ͡ ∀ ゅ∠ タ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲ∇ィぺ リΑ͡ ャや ょΒ͡ Βシ ヮわャゅ∠ ケ ͡ z ∠ ハ ケ ピ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ダ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ シ͡ び ラヱ⊥ ム∇ヨΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ よ ∀ Α͡ ∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ヨ͡ ギ ギセ ゆ グハヱ (And when t here comes t o t hem a sign (from Allah) t hey say: "We shall not believe unt il we receive t he like of t hat which t he Messengers of Allah had received.) Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat Rafi` bin Huraymilah said t o t he Messenger of Allah . "O Muhammad! If you were t ruly a Messenger from Allah. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. ) He said. Humiliat ion and disgrace from Allah and a severe t orment will overt ake t he criminals (polyt heist s and sinners) for t hat which t hey used t o plot . And t hose who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allah speak t o us (face t o face) or why does not a sign come t o us'' So said t he people before t hem words of similar import . t hen ask Allah t o speak t o us direct ly. Their heart s are alike.) (6:124) and .'' Allah knows best wit h whom t o place His Message. as you claim. Qat adah and As-Suddi said t hat it was act ually t he st at ement of t he Arab disbelievers: び∇ユヰャ∇ヲホ モ∇んョ ユ͡ ヤ∇らホ リ͡ リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ マャグミぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ あ ヰ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ グz ∠ ホ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ (So said t he people before t hem words of similar import .(118. べ∠ Β͡ ∇ほゎ ∇ヱぺ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヨヤムΑ Ι∇ヲャ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ レ ゎ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ レ⊥ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ び∀ ∠ や∠ るΑ ¬ (And t hose who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allah speak t o us (face t o face) or why does not a sign come t o us'') Abu Al-` Aliyah. We have indeed made plain t he signs for people who believe wit h cert aint y. so t hat we hear His Speech.'' What furt her proves t hat t he Arab idolat ors said t he st at ement ment ioned in t he Ayah is t hat Allah said.'' So Allah revealed.

and t hat t hey asked unnecessary quest ions out of disbelief and arrogance. sent as a Messenger'') (17:90-93) and. everyone of t hem desires t hat he should be given pages spread out ) (74:52). ゅヘ⊥ タ ヴ∠ ∇ぽΑ ラ∠ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ¬ン͡ ∇ョや ぁ ミ ギΑ͡ Α ∇モよぴ ⇔ エ⊥ ゎ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ あ ∃ ゲ モ⊥ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ び りゲゼレョ ⇔ ∠ z ∠ぁ (Nay. t hose who deny t he Day of Resurrect ion and t he life of t he Hereaft er) said: "Why are not t he angels sent down t o us. The st at ement s of t he Arab idolat ors followed t he st at ement s of t he nat ions of t he People of t he Two Script ures and ot her religions before t hem. or why do we not see our Lord'') (25:21) and. リョ ゅら⇒∠ ミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ メあ レゎ ラ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ マャほ∇ジΑぴ ∠ あ ⇔ わ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ゴ∠ ⊥ ぺ ͡ わ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ プ マャク リ͡ ゲら∇ミぺ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ほシ ∇ギボプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ャ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ シ ョ ャ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヨz びりゲ∇ヰィ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ケぺ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ル͡ ∠ . e. unt il you cause a spring t o gush fort h from t he eart h for us) unt il. ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ メゴル⊥ Ι∇ヲャ ゅ∠ ¬べ∠ ャ ラヲ⊥ ∇ゲΑ Ι リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ レ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ∠ ∠ ル∠ ボ͡ ∠ ィ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ びゅ∠ よケ ン∠ ル ∇ヱぺ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや レz ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ (And t hose who expect not a meet ing wit h Us (i. t heir t ransgression. Allah said.チ∇ケΙや リョ ゅ∠ ャ ゲイ∇ヘゎ ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ x ∠ ͡ レ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ ャ ホ∠ び ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇レΑ ハ ら∠ (And t hey say: "We shall not believe in you (O Muhammad ). There are many ot her Ayat t hat t est ify t o t he disbelief of t he Arab idolat ors. びΙヲ⊥ ケ や⇔ ゼよ Ιま ろレ⊥ ∇モワ ヴあ ケ リ⇒∠ ∇らシ ∇モホぴ ⇔ シz ゲ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ミ ∠ よ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ⊥ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Glorified (and Exalt ed) be my Lord (Allah) above all t hat evil t hey (polyt heist s) associat e wit h Him ! Am I anyt hing but a man. st ubbornness.

no Messenger came t o t hose before t hem but t hey said: "A sorcerer or a madman!'' Have t hey (t he people of t he past ) t ransmit t ed t his saying t o t hese (Quraysh pagans)) (51:5253).) meaning. cont aining disbelief. st ubbornness and inj ust ice. t he heart s of t he Arab idolat ors are j ust like t he heart s of t hose before t hem. Allah said next . follow t he Messengers and comprehend what Allah sent t hem wit h. Allah's st at ement .ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろボェ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡ び ユΒ͡Ιや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱゲΑ ヴz ェ るΑや¬ ぁ ミ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∠ ャx ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠∠ . wit h no need of more quest ions or proofs for t hose who believe. ) means.'') (2:55). t hey asked Musa (Moses) for even great er t han t hat . Allah said. when t hey said: "Show us Allah in public.'') (4:153) and. Similarly. Indeed. We made t he argument s clear. As for t hose whose heart s and hearing Allah has st amped and whose eyes have been sealed. ヮヤャや ン∠ ル ヴz ェ マャ リョ∇ぽル リ∠ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ⇒∠ ∇ユわ∇ヤホ ∇クまヱぴ ∠ z ゲ∠ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ャ シ ヨ Α ⊥ ⊥ ͡∠ びりゲ∇ヰィ ⇔∠ ∠ (And (remember) when you said: "O Musa! We shall never believe in you unt il we see Allah plainly. びラヲ⊥ ホヲ⊥ ュ∇ヲボャ ろ⇒∠ Γや ゅz Βよ ∇ギホぴ ∠ レ͡ Α ∃ ∠ ͡ ͡ Α レz ∠ ∠ (We have indeed made plain t he signs for people who believe wit h cert aint y. び∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホ ∇ろヰら⇒∠ ゎぴ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゼ∠ (Their heart s are alike. prooving t he t rut h of t he Messengers.(The People of t he Script ure (Jews) ask you t o cause a book t o descend upon t hem from heaven. Allah described t hem: . Ιま メヲ⊥ ケ リあ ∇ユヰヤ∇らホ リ͡ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ ぺ べ∠ マャグミぴ z ͡ ∃ シz ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ グz ゎ∠ ョ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ びヮよ ∇や∇ヲタや∠ ゎぺ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∇イョ ∇ヱぺ ∀ ͡ ⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヲ∠ ∠ ラ レ ∠ ∠ ゲエ シ ャ ホ (Likewise.

Allah said.) (13:40) び ゲト∇Βジヨよ ユ͡ ∇Βヤハ ろ∇ジャ . t hose. And you (O Muhammad ) are not t he one t o force t hem (t o belief).) Allah's st at ement .(Truly. a bringer of glad t idings (for t hose who believe in what you brought . unt il t hey see t he painful t orment ) (10:96-97).)(88:21-22) and. ∇リハ モ⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱ や⇔ Α͡ ルヱ や⇔ Β͡ よ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ マ⇒∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ ゅz ͡ぴ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲ グ∠ ∠ ゲ ゼ∠ あ ∠ よ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ルま び ユΒ͡ イ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ͡ エ∠ ͡ エ ∠ (119. びユΒ͡ イ∇ャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ∇リハ モ⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱぴ ͡ エ∠ ͡ エ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And you will not be asked about t he dwellers of t he blazing Fire. t hat t hey will ent er Paradise) and a warner (for t hose who disbelieve in what you brought . will not believe.'' Similarly. you are only one who reminds. You are not a dict at or over ケゅz イよ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ろル∠ べ∠ ヱ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ よ ユヤ∇ハぺ リ∇エz ぴ ∃ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル び ギΒ͡ ヱ フゅ∠ Α リ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャゅ͡ ∇ゲミグプ ͡ ハ∠ ⊥ ガ∠ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ よ あ ∠ ∠ (We know best what t hey say. The Description of the Prophet in the Tawrah . him who fears My t hreat ) (50:45). And you will not be asked about t he dwellers of t he blazing Fire.∀ ミ∠ ョ ろル∠ べ∠ ルま ∇ゲミグプぴ ∃ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヰ ∠∠ ∠ z ゲあ グ⊥ ∠ ぺ ヨz ͡ あ ∠ ∠ (So remind t hem (O Muhammad ) t hem. Verily. "We shall not ask you about t he disbelief of t hose who rej ect ed you. against whom t he Word (wrat h) of your Lord has been j ust ified. びゆゅ∠ エ∇ャや ゅレ∇Βヤハヱ ヒ⇒∠ら∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ジ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ (Your dut y is only t o convey (t he Message) and on Us is t he reckoning. There are many ot her similar Ayat . But warn by t he Qur'an. Even if every sign should come t o t hem. t hat t hey will ent er t he Hellfire).) means. We have sent you (O Muhammad ) wit h t he t rut h (Islam).

And whoso disbelieve in it . And if you (O Muhammad ) were t o follow t heir (Jews and Christ ians) desires aft er what you have received of Knowledge (i. a warner. You are not harsh.) Ibn Jarir said. I have called you t he Mut awakkil (who depends and relies on Allah for each and everyt hing). Never will t he Jews nor t he Christ ians be pleased wit h you (O Muhammad ) t ill you follow t heir religion.'' He said. t he Qur'an).ゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや リョ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ グz ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ヮよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ ヮゎヱΚゎ ペェ ヮ∠ ヲ⊥∇わ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ͡ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ル ヤ Α ∠ わ͡ び ラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ヮよ ∇ゲヘ∇ムΑ リョ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヱ (120. and st ick t o what pleases Allah by calling t hem t o t he t rut h t hat Allah sent you wit h. Islamic Monot heism) t hat is t he (only) guidance. do not seek what pleases or appeases t hem. deaf ears and sealed heart s.Imam Ahmad recorded ` At a' bin Yasar saying t hat he met ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Al-` As and said t o him. t hose are t hey who are t he losers. O Muhammad! Therefore.e. Allah will open blind eyes. t he guidance of Allah (i. unt il he st raight ens t he wicked's religion by his hands so t hat t he people proclaim: There is no deit y wort hy of worship except Allah. "Allah said. and as safe refuge for t he unlet t ered people. t hen you would have against Allah neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper.' Allah's st at ement .e. Say: "Verily. a bringer of good news. Those t o whom we gave t he Book recit e it as it should be recit ed (Yat lunahu Haqqa Tilawat ihi) t hey are t he ones who believe t herein. by Allah.) (121. "Tell me about t he descript ion of t he Messenger of Allah in t he Torah. nor obnoxious in t he bazaars. he is described by t he Torah wit h t he same charact erist ics t hat he is described wit h in t he Qur'an wit h: ` O Prophet ! We have sent you as a wit ness. "Yes. By his hands. ヴz ェ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや Ιヱ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや マレ∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲ∠ リ∠ヱぴ わ∠ ゲ ダz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ∠ ハ ッ ゎ ャ∠ リゃャヱ ン∠ ヰ∇ャや ヲワ ヮヤャや ン∠ ワ ラま ∇モホ ∇ユヰわヤョ ノらわゎ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ギ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ マャ ゅ∠ ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ヵ͡ ャや ギ∇バよ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ グz ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎへ リΑ͡ ャや . You are My servant and Messenger. nor hard. ` The Jews and t he Christ ians will never be happy wit h you. Rat her.''' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari only.) meaning. Allah will not bring his life t o an end. he forgives and pardons. びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ヲワ ヮヤャや ン∠ ワ ラま ∇モホぴ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ギ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ . ヴz ェ ン∠ ⇒∠ レャや Ιヱ キヲ⊥ Β∇ャや マレ∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲ∠ リ∠ヱぴ わ∠ ゲ ダz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ ∠ ハ ッ ゎ ャ∠ び∇ユヰわヤョ ノらわゎ ⊥ ∠ z͡ ∠ ͡ z ∠ (Never will t he Jews nor t he Christ ians be pleased wit h you (O Muhammad ) t ill you follow t heir religion. He does not reward t he evil deed wit h an evil deed.

e.e. Islamic Monot heism) t hat is t he (only) guidance) is. unt il t he decree of Allah (t he Last Hour) comes.(Say: "Verily. t hen you would have against Allah neit her any Wali (prot ect or or guardian) nor any helper. perfect and comprehensive religion.''' Qat adah said t hat Allah's st at ement . aft er t hey have acquired knowledge of t he Qur'an and Sunnah. may Allah grant us refuge from t his behavior. t he Qur'an). "A t rue argument t hat Allah t aught Muhammad and his Companions and which t hey used against t he people of misguidance. meaning t he st raight . O Muhammad . ` Say.) This Hadit h was collect ed in t he Sahih and narrat ed from ` Abdullah bin ` Amr. "We were t old t hat t he Messenger of Allah used t o say. ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ヵ͡ ャや ギ∇バよ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや リゃャヱぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ グz ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ びゲΒ͡ ル Ιヱ ヶャヱ リ͡ ヮヤャや リョ マャ ゅ∠ ∃ ダ∠ ∠ ∠ y ͡∠ ョ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ (And if you (O Muhammad ) were t o follow t heir (Jews and Christ ians) desires aft er what you have received of Knowledge (i. t he guidance of Allah t hat He sent me wit h is t he t rue guidance. not harmed by t heir opponent s. t he guidance of Allah (i. The Meaning of Correct Tilawah Allah said. having t he upper hand. t he guidance of Allah (i.) This Ayah carries a st ern warning for t he Muslim Ummah against imit at ing t he ways and met hods of t he Jews and Christ ians.e. Alt hough t he speech in t his Ayah was direct ed at t he Messenger . びヮゎヱΚゎ ペェ ヮルヲ⊥∇わΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Β∠ へ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ゎ ∠ グz . ペエ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ラヲ⊥ゎゅ∠ Α ヶ͡ ョぺ ∇リョ るヘもゅ∠ メや∠ ゎ ゅ∠» あ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ボ⊥ わz ⊥ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ デ ⊥ ゴ∠ ャ ゲ∇ョぺ ヶゎ∇ほΑ ヴわェ ∇ユヰヘャゅ∠ ∇リョ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ゅ∠ ∩∠ Α͡ ワゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ カ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ャ リ ゲ͡ ニ «ぶや (There will always be a group of my Ummah fight ing upon t he t rut h.'' Qat adah said. びン∠ ヰ∇ャや ヲワ ヮヤャや ン∠ ワ ラま ∇モホぴ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ z ギ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ (Say: "Verily. t he ruling of which applies t o his ent ire Ummah. Islamic Monot heism) t hat is t he (only) guidance'') emeans.

and when he recit ed an Ayah of t orment . These Ayat mean.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat Ibn Mas` ud said. from Qat adah. t he Inj il. for when he used t o recit e an Ayah of mercy. メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ∇やヲョゅ∠ ぺ ∇ユヰルぺ ∇ヲャヱぴ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ イ Η ヱ ∠ ケ z ⊥ ホ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ろ∇エゎ リ͡ ヱ ∇ユヰホ∇ヲプ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミΙ ∇ユヰよケ リあ ∇ユヰΒ∠ま ͡ ∠ ョ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ヤ ∠ ∂ ͡ あ z ョ ͡ ャ ͡ びユ͡ ヤィ∇ケぺ ヰ͡⊥ ∠ (And if only t hey had act ed according t o t he Tawrah.'' As-Suddi report ed from Abu Malik from Ibn ` Abbas who said about t his Ayah (2:121): "They make lawful what it allows and t hey prohibit what it makes unlawful. and t hey do not alt er it s wordings.'' ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab said. びヮよ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (t hey are t he ones who believe t herein) explains t he Ayah. have got t en provision from above t hem and from underneat h t heir feet . "Those among t he People of t he Book who perfect ly adhered t o t he Books t hat were revealed t o t he previous Prophet s. Allah's st at ement . Yat lunahu Haqqa Tilawat ihi). t hey would surely. びヮゎヱΚゎ ペェ ヮルヲ⊥∇わΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Β∠ へ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ゎ ∠ グz (Those t o whom We gave t he Book. The Ayah. and when t hey recit e an Ayah t hat ment ions t orment . and it was also chosen by Ibn Jarir.'' This is t he opinion of ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. recit ing it as it was revealed by Allah.) (5:66). "They are t hose who when t hey recit e an Ayah t hat ment ions mercy. t hey seek refuge wit h Allah from it .'' This meaning was at t ribut ed t o t he Prophet . . not changing t he words from t heir places. "They are t he Companions of t he Messenger of Allah . O Muhammad!'' Allah said in anot her Ayah. he sought refuge from it wit h Allah. and not int erpret ing it wit h ot her t han it s act ual int erpret at ion. "By He in Whose Hand is my soul! The right Tilawah is allowing what it makes lawful. Yat lunahu Haqqan Tilawat ih. he invoked Allah for mercy. Sa` id report ed from Qat adah. t hey ask Allah for it .) ` Abdur-Razzaq said from Ma` mar. will believe in what I have sent you wit h. prohibit ing what it makes unlawful.(Those t o whom We gave t he Book. and what has (now) been sent down t o t hem from t heir Lord (t he Qur'an). "They are t he Jews and Christ ians.

Allah also said.'' In anot her Ayah. t he promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ ゎ ヴz ェ ¬∇ヴセ ヴ∠ハ ∇ユわ∇ジャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワほ⇒∠ ∇モホぴ ヨ ボ⊥ わ∠ ∃ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ Α ⊥ び∇ユムよケ リあ ∇ユム∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ モΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ⊥ あ z ョ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ イ Η ヱ ∠ ケ z (Say (O Muhammad ) "O People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians)! You have not hing (as regards guidance) t ill you act according t o t he Tawrah.) (7:157) and. and what has (now) been sent down t o you from your Lord (t he Qur'an). Verily.e. fall down on t heir faces in humble prost rat ion. t hen t his will direct you t o adhere t o t rut h and right eousness in t his life and t he Hereaft er. . his descript ion and t he command t o follow. believe in t hem as you should. when it is recit ed t o t hem.ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ ヮよ ユ⊥ ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや∠ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ワ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ¬ ∠ グz べ∠ よケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮz ま ヮよ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ヴ∠∇わΑ や∠ ͡∠ レあ z ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ͡ ͡ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ ͡ ∠∠ ヤ ⊥ クまヱ . These Ayat indicat e t hat what Allah promised for Muhammad will cert ainly occur. ン͡ ャや ヴョΕや ヴらレャや メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ らわΑ リΑ͡ ャやぴ グz z あ ⊥ z ͡ z ∠ シz ∠ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ グz びモΒ͡ ル͡ や∠ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ヴ͡ ∇ユワギレ͡ ゅ⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇ムョ ヮ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ イ Η ヱ ͡ ケ z プ ⊥ ∠ ハ よ わ ∠ ⊥ ル ギイΑ (Those who follow t he Messenger. "If you adhere t o t he Torah and t he Gospel in t he correct manner. t hose who were given knowledge before it .'') means. Allah said. t he Prophet who can neit her read nor writ e (i. Muhammad ) whom t hey find writ t en wit h t hem in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il. And t hey say: "Glory be t o our Lord! Truly. t he Inj il. ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ラま ∇やヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽゎ Ι ∇ヱぺ ヮよ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇モホぴ ∠͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz z ͡ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ¬ ⊥ .や⇔ イシ ラゅ∠ ∇クΚャ ラヱぁ ガΑ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ヴ∠∇わΑ や∠ ま ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ギz ⊥ ͡ ホ x ͡ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ヤ ⊥ ク͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ Ιヲ⊥ ∇ヘヨャ ゅ∠ よケ ギ∇ハヱ ラゅ∠ ラ͡ べ∠ よケ ラゅ∠ ∇らシ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Αヱ ⇔ バ ∠ ∠ レあ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ミ ま レあ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ び (Say (O Muhammad t o t hem): "Believe in it (t he Qur'an) or do not believe (in it ).'') (17:107-108). aid and support him. and believe in t he news t hey carry about Muhammad's prophet hood.

but if t hey t urn away. びロギハ∇ヲョ ケゅz ャゅ∠ ゆや∠ ∇ェΙや リョ ヮよ ∇ゲヘ∇ムΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ レ プ ͡ ゴ x ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ (But t hose of t he sect s (Jews. As recorded in t he Sahih. and Allah is t he Seer of (His) servant s) (3:20). t he Prophet said. t he Fire will be t heir promised meet ing place) (11:17). ∇ラみプ ∇ユわ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ¬ リΒあ ョΙや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ヤャ ∇モホヱぴ ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ Βあ y ヱ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グzあ ⊥ ∠ ヒ⇒∠∠ ∇ャや マ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ∇や∇ヲャヲゎ ラ͡ヱ ∇やヱ∠ わ∇ワや ギボプ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇シぺ ⊥ ヤら ∠ ∠∠ ヨz みプ z∠ ∠ まz ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ びキゅ∠ バ∇ャゅ͡ ∀ Β͡ ∠ ヮヤャや∠ ͡ ら͡ よ ゲ ダよ ⊥ z ヱ (And say t o t hose who were given t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) and t o t hose who are illit erat es (Arab pagans): "Do you (also) submit yourselves (t o Allah in Islam)'' If t hey do. t hey say: "We believe in it .リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジョ ヮヤ∇らホ リ͡ ゅzミ ゅz ま ワ∠ ∠ ∠ ゎ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ョ レ⊥ ル るゃΒジャや るレジエ∇ャゅ͡ ラぼケ∇ギΑヱ ∇やヱ⊥ らタ ゅ∠ よ リ∇Βゎゲョ ∠ ∠ あ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ よ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ z z び ラヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ∇ユヰ⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅz ͡ ∠ ∠ ボ ͡ Α ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (Those t o whom We gave t he Script ure (i. びラヱ⊥ ジ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ヮよ ∇ゲヘ∇ムΑ リョ∠ ぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ガ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヱ (And whoever disbelieves in it (t he Qur'an). Allah said. and repel evil wit h good. t he Tawrah and t he Inj il) before it . t hey believe in it (t he Qur'an).) (28:52-54) and. and spend (in charit y) out of what We have provided t hem. t hose are t hey who are t he losers). j ust as He said in anot her Ayah. t hey are right ly guided. And when it is recit ed t o t hem. because t hey are pat ient . it is t he t rut h from our Lord.ユ⊥ ゲ∇ィぺ ラヲ⊥ ∇ぽΑ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺ . Christ ians and all t he ot her non-Muslim nat ions) t hat rej ect it (t he Qur'an). . your dut y is only t o convey t he Message. Verily. These will be given t heir reward t wice over. e. Indeed even before it we have been from t hose who submit t hemselves t o Allah in Islam as Muslims.

and it is ment ioned here t o emphisize t he import ance of following t he Ummi Prophet and Messenger.) ろ∇ヨバ∇ルぺ ヴ͡ ャや ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クや モΑ͡ ゲ∇シま ヴ͡ ら⇒∠ ぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わz わ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ¬∠ ͡ レ∠ Α ゅ⇔ ∇ヲΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゎや∠ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユムわ∇ヤz プ ヴあ ∠∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ョ ∠ ボz ヱ ∠ ヨ∠ バ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ツ∠ ルぺヱ ⊥ ∠∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ モら∇ボΑ Ιヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ザ∇ヘル リ∠ ∀ ∇ヘ∠ ン͡ ∇イゎ Ι ヰ͡ ⊥∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ゃ∠ ∃ z ハ ザル ゴ ∠ z び ラヱゲダレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ∀ ∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ゅ∠ バヘレ∠ Ιヱ ∀ ∇ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ るバ ヘセ ヰ⊥ ∠ ゎ ∠ ∠ メ ハ (122. t he Final Messenger of Allah being an Arab. ヴあ ま メゅ∠ リヰヨゎほプ ろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ ル͡ ∠ ホ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ メゅ∠ Α Ι メゅ∠ ヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ヱ メゅ∠ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ま サゅz ヤ͡ マヤバ⇒∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ わz あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ホ ョ ョ͡ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ⊥͡ ィ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ (124. Envy should not incit e t hem t o oppose or deny t he Prophet or refrain from following him. t he good news about him and t he descript ion of his Ummah. who is described for t he People of t he Script ures in t heir Books by his charact erist ics. And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) t ried him wit h (cert ain) commands. who hears of me. yet does not believe in me. Jew or a Christ ian. Allah warned t hem against concealing t his informat ion.) (123. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I best owed upon you and t hat I preferred you over t he nat ions). but will ent er t he Fire. And fear t he Day (of Judgement ) when no person shall avail anot her. t he Arabs. name. which is among t he favors t hat Allah grant ed t hem. which he fulfilled. for what Allah has given t hem. nor shall t hey be helped. may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him unt il t he Day of Judgment . "Verily. Allah also commanded t hem t o remember t heir daily life and t heir religious affairs and how He blessed t hem. nor shall compensat ion be accept ed from him.) We ment ioned a similar Ayah at t he beginning of t his Surah.ログワ ∇リョ ギェぺ ヶ͡ ノヨ∇ジΑ ゅ∠ ロギΒよ ヶ͡ ∇ヘル ヵ͡ ャや∠ » ͡͡ ͡ ∀ ∠ ∠ よ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ジ ∠ グz ヱ ゅzま ヶ͡ リョ∇ぽΑ ゅ∠ z を ヶルや∠ ∇ダル ゅ∠ヱ ヵキヲ⊥ Α るョほ∇ャや ャ͡ よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ャ ユ⊥ x ͡ ゲ ∠ ャ∠ x ͡ ヰ∠ ͡ z ⊥ «ケゅz ャや モカキ レ ∠∠∠ (By He in Whose Hand is my soul! There is no member of t his Ummah (mankind and Jinns). I am going t o make you an Imam (a leader) . nor shall int ercession be of use t o him. He (Allah) said (t o him). They should not envy t heir cousins.

This honor was given t o Prophet Ibrahim when he adhered t o Allah's decisions and prohibit ions..) indicat ing t hat Ibrahim implement ed all of Allah's orders. he was t rut hful and he was obedient t o Allah's legislat ion. while in realit y t hey do not follow it .リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ∠ エ͡ ダ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ ∇ノらゎや ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ ͡ z .e.for mankind (t o follow you).リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ャ͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⇔ ミ セ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヮルまヱ るレジェ ゅ∠ ∇ルギ∇ャや ヴ͡ ヮ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや¬∠ . O Muhammad.ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β ぁ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ラぺ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇Βェ∇ヱぺ z を .'' (Ibrahim) said. Also. who He made an Imam for t he people. This Ayah means. Allah) t ried him wit h (cert ain) commands). and your followers are t he t rue followers of his religion.'') Ibrahim Al-Khalil was an Imam for the People Allah is informing us of t he honor of Ibrahim Al-Khalil. "My covenant (prophet hood) includes not Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers). remind t hem of t he commands and prohibit ions t hat Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h. and a model t o be imit at ed. び ヴz ヱ ン͡ ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よまヱぴ プ∠ グz ∠ ワ∠ ͡∠ (And of Ibrahim (Abraham) who fulfilled (or conveyed) all t hat (Allah ordered him t o do or convey)) (53:37) meaning. びろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ (And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim (i.'' (Allah) said. because of t he way he conduct ed himself and adhered t o Tawhid. Allah said in anot her Ayah. who pret end t o be followers of t he religion of Ibrahim. リョ マΑ ∇ユャヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ヮヤャ ゅ⇔ レ⇒∠ るョぺ ラゅ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラまぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ヘ レ∠ ͡ z͡ わ͡ ホ ⇔ z ⊥ ∠ ミ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヴ∠ま ロや∠ ワヱ ヮ⇒∠ わ∇ィや ヮヨバ∇ルΙ やゲ͡ ゅ∠ . Allah said. while you. "And of my offspring (t o make leaders). This is why Allah said. びリヰヨゎほプぴ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ (which he fulfilled. O Muhammad! Remind t he idolat ors and t he People of t he Script ures.

somet imes refers t o what Allah has willed. びろ⇒∠ ヤムよぴ ͡ ヨ͡ ∠ ͡ (wit h Kalimat (words)) which means. but he was a t rue Muslim Hanifan (Islamic Monot heism t o worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin.(Verily. "Laws. obedient t o Allah. t he religion of Ibrahim. Ibrahim was an Ummah (or a nat ion).'' ` Words' as ment ioned here. ラゅ∠ リ͡ ャヱ ゅ6 ルや∠ ∇ダル Ιヱ ゅ6 ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ミ ム∠∠ Β͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ Αキ ヰΑ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ ヴ∠∇ヱ∠ ラま .e. And We gave him good in t his world. my Lord has guided me t o a st raight pat h. and he was not one of t hose who were Al-Mushrikin (polyt heist s). and Ibrahim (t o worship none but Allah. such as Allah's st at ement about Maryam. among mankind who have t he best claim t o Ibrahim are t hose who followed him. and t his Prophet (Muhammad ) and t hose who have believed (Muslims). Then. a right religion. and in t he Hereaft er he shall be of t he right eous. Hanif (i. And Allah is t he Wali (Prot ect or and Helper) of t he believers) (3:67-68). commandment s and prohibit ions. He (Allah) chose him and guided him t o a st raight pat h. t o worship none but Allah). We have sent t he revelat ion t o you (O Muhammad saying): "Follow t he religion of Ibrahim Hanif (Islamic Monot heism t o worship none but Allah) and he was not of t he Mushrikin.) (16:120-123) ゅ⇔ Α͡ ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ヴあ ケ ヴ͡ や∠ ワ ヴ͡ ルま ∇モホぴ レ キ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ よ∠ ル ギ∠ レz ͡ ⊥ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ や∠ ∇よま るヤョ ゅ⇔ Βホ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ ゲ ͡ ∠ zあ ヨ∠ ͡ (Say (O Muhammad ): "Truly.'') (6:161) and. Allah said. alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin.リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ ヤ∇ジョ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ャ ぺ z ͡ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヨ͡ ぁ ヘ レ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヴらレャや や∠ ⇒∠ ヱ ロヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ヤャ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よみよ サゅz ャや ∠ グz ヱ ぁ ͡ z グ ワ∠ ⊥ バ∠ z ∠ グz∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡͡ ͡ レ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ヴャヱ ヮヤャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぁ ͡∠ ⊥ z ヱ レ∠ ¬ (Ibrahim was neit her a Jew nor a Christ ian. (He was) t hankful for His (Allah's) favors. リョ ∇ろルゅ∠ ヱ ヮらわミヱ ゅ∠ よケ ろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ∇ろホギタヱぴ ∠͡ ∠ ミ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヰz ∠ ͡ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ びリΒ͡ レ⇒∠ ∇ャや ∠ わ͡ ボ . Verily. Hanifan.

For inst ance..'') as a reward for Ibrahim's good deeds. circumcision and plucking under t he arm and washing wit h wat er aft er answering t he call of nat ure. What were the Words that Ibrahim was tested with There is a difference of opinion over t he words t hat Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h. t hey are cut t ing t he must ache.e. Abu Salih. rinsing t he mout h. or a j ust commandment or prohibit ion. "A similar st at ement was also report ed from Sa` id bin Al-Musayyib. and she was of t he Qanit in (i. びリヰヨゎほプ ろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠∠ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ (And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim t ried him wit h (cert ain) Words (commands). such as Allah's st at ement . びろ⇒∠ ヤムよ ヮぁ ケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠わ∇よや クまヱぴ ∃ ヨ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡∠ (And (remember) when t he Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) (i. and so fort h. This is why Allah made Ibrahim a role model for t he people. and an Imam whose conduct and pat h are imit at ed and followed. "Allah t est ed him wit h Taharah (purit y. which he fulfilled) meaning. he adhered t o t hem. inhaling and discarding wat er. Allah said. "Words'' also refers t o Allah's Law.e.(And she t est ified t o t he t rut h of t he Words of her Lord. I am going t o make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (t o follow you).'' . びゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ま サゅz ヤ͡ マヤバ⇒∠ ヴあ まぴ ョ ョ͡ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ⊥͡ ィ ル͡ ("Verily. shaving t he pubic hair. Abu Al-Jald. "Words'' also means t rut hful news. As for t he head. adhering t o t he commandment s and avoiding t he prohibit ions. ` Abdur-Razzaq said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. His legislat ion. びΙ∇ギハヱ ゅホ∇ギタ マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ろヨゎヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ͡ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ z ∠ ∠ (And t he Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in t rut h and in j ust ice) (6:115) meaning. Ash-Sha` bi. For inst ance. As for t he body.'' Ibn Abi Hat im said. There are several opinions at t ribut ed t o Ibn ` Abbas. using Siwak and part ing t he hair. Muj ahid. ablut ion): five on t he head and five on t he body. "Allah t est ed him wit h t he rit uals (of Haj j ). t hey are t rimming t he nails. An-Nakha` i. obedient t o Allah)) (66:12). and (also believed in) His Script ures.'' Abu Ishaq report ed t he same. ` Abdur-Razzaq also narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat . Allah said. Allah) t ried him wit h (cert ain) commands) means.

and Allah's order for him t o slaught er his son.'' The Unjust do not qualify for Allah's Promise Allah said t hat Ibrahim said. growing t he beard.) This is t he wording wit h Muslim. using Siwak. and he was ready for t he maj or t est . t rimming t he must ache. disput ing wit h Nimrod (king of Babylon) about Allah. '') (2:131) alt hough t his meant defying and being apart from t he people. Allah said t o him. I t hink it was) rinsing t he mout h (in ablut ion). (and I forgot t he t ent h. るΒ∇エヤャや ¬ゅ∠ ∇ハまヱ ゆケゅz ャや ゾホ :りゲ∇トヘ∇ャや リョ ∀ ∇ゼ∠ » ͡ ∠ あ ⊥ ヘ ͡∠ ͡ ͡ ゼ ぁ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ゲ ハ モ∇ジビヱ ケゅ∠ ∇ニほ∇ャや ゾホヱ ¬ゅ∠ ∇ャや ベゅ∠ ∇レわ∇シや∠ ポや∠ ジャや∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘ ∠ ぁ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ ⊥ ゼ ͡ ヱ ⊥ ヲあ ヱ ソゅ∠ わ∇ルや∠ るルゅ∠ ∇ャや ペ∇ヤェヱ テ∇よみ∇ャや ブ∇わルヱ ユィや∠ ら∇ャや ⊥ ボ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ バ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ゲ∠ «る∠ ヨ∇ツヨ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ゎ ∇ラぺ ゅzま りゲセゅ∠ ∇ャや ろΒ͡ ルヱ ¬ゅヨ∇ャや ツ∠ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ∠ ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ ⊥ ジ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ (Ten are among t he Fit rah (inst inct . washing wit h wat er aft er answering t he call of nat ure. びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ メゅ∠ ∇ユヤ∇シぺぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ("Submit (be a Muslim)!'' He said. plucking t he underarm hair. nat ural const it ut ion): t rimming t he must ache. ゾホヱ キや∠ ∇エ͡ ∇シゅ∇ャや∠ ラゅ∠ ガ∇ャや :∀ ∇ヨ∠ りゲ∇トヘ∇ャや» ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ギ わ ヱ ⊥ わ͡ ザ カ ⊥∠ ͡ «テ∇よみ∇ャや ブ∇わルヱ ケゅ∠ ∇ニほ∇ャや ユΒ͡∇ボゎヱ ゆケゅz ャや ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ヘ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ゼ (Five are among t he act s of Fit rah: circumcision. . pat ience wit h t he monet ary and mat erial demands of host ing guest s by Allah's command. When Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h t hese words. Muhammad bin Ishaq report d t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. cut t ing t he nails and plucking t he underarm hair. cut t ing t he nails. "I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of all t hat exist s.) The Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying t hat t he Prophet said. and t hat he implement ed were: abandoning his (disbelieving) people when Allah commanded him t o do so. washing bet ween t he fingers (in ablut ion). being pat ient when he was t hrown in t he fire (alt hough t his was ext remely t raumat ic) migrat ing from his homeland when Allah commanded him t o do so.There is a similar st at ement t hat Imam Muslim narrat ed from ` A'ishah who said t hat Allah's Messenger said. shaving t he pubic hair. "The words t hat Allah t est ed Ibrahim wit h. shaving t he pubic hair. inhaling and t hen exhaling wat er (in ablut ion).

Thus. Hence. As for Allah's st at ement . Ibn Khuwayz Mindad Al-Maliki said.'' リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ゅレ∇ョぺヱ サゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ョ グ͡ z ヱ ⇔ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz (125. Moreover. And (remember) when We made t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safet y. one who gives religious verdict s. "The unj ust person does not qualify t o be a Khalifah. and t hese it is who will benefit from Ibrahim's supplicat ion. even t hough t hey are among t he children of Allah's Khalil (int imat e friend. t hey will neit her become Imams nor be imit at ed (for t hey will not be right eous). every Prophet whom Allah sent aft er Ibrahim were from among his offspring. びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ メゅ∠ Α Ιぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ (My covenant (prophet hood) includes not Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers)). '') Allah ment ioned t hat t here are unj ust people among t he offspring of Ibrahim.びヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ヱぴ わ∠ あ ⊥ ョ∠ (And of my offspring (t o make leaders)) and Allah replied. a ruler. "My covenant (prophet hood) includes not Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers). The proof t hat Ibrahim's supplicat ion t o Allah was accept ed is t hat Allah said in Surat Al-` Ankabut (29:27). Prophet Abraham). And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (or t he st one on which Ibrahim as a place) . びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや∠ ∠ ヲらレャや ヮわΑケク ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱぴ ∠ わ͡ ヱ りz ⊥ ぁ ͡ ͡ z あ ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And We ordained among his offspring prophet hood and t he Book). There will also be t hose who do good among t he children of Ibrahim. Also. When Allah made Ibrahim an Imam (Leader for t he fait hful). t he Ayah informed Ibrahim t hat t here will be unj ust people among his offspring. a wit ness. or even a narrat or (of Hadit hs). and every Book t hat Allah revealed was t o t hem. he asked Allah t hat Imams t hereaft er be chosen from his offspring. Ibn Jarir said t hat t his Ayah indicat ed t hat t he unj ust shall not be Imams for t he people. Allah accept ed his supplicat ion. びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ メゅ∠ Α Ι メゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ((Allah) said. and t hey will not benefit from Allah's promise. nor would t hey be ent rust ed wit h anyt hing. but t old him t hat t here will be unj ust people among his offspring and t hey will not benefit from Allah's promise.

and t hen visit it again. when he asked Allah t o make t he heart s of people eager t o visit t he House. t he people were oft en vict ims of raids and kidnapping. Ibrahim.'' This Ayah indicat es t hat Allah honored t he Sacred House. "Safe from enemies and armed conflict .The Virtue of Allah's House Al-` Awfi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement . This honor comes from the honor of the person who built it first. t he souls are eager. while t he people in t he area surrounding it (Al-Masj id Al-Haram) were safe and not subj ect t o kidnapping. びサゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when We made t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind) "They do not remain in t he House. just as Allah said. but never bored. Abu Ja` far Ar-Razi narrat ed from Ar-Rabi` bin Anas from Abu Al` Aliyah who said t hat . Khalil Ar-Rahman.'' Also. Muj ahid. even every year. which Allah made as a safe refuge and safe haven. Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas were report ed t o have said t hat t he Ayah (2:125) means. for those who visit it are safe. "Whoever ent ers it shall be safe. This is because Allah accept ed t he supplicat ion of His Khalil. As-Suddi. Therefore. ` At a'. t hey only visit it and ret urn t o t heir homes. びゅレ∇ョぺヱ サゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ⇔ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when We made t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safet y) means. During t he t ime of Jahiliyyah.'' Also. Allah described the House as a safe resort and refuge. Ibrahim said (14:40). t o conduct short visit s t o t he House. び¬べ∠ キ ∇モらボゎヱ ゅ∠ よケぴ ͡ ハ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! And accept my invocat ion). ヴ͡ ∇ポゲ∇ゼゎ Ι ラ∠ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ラゅ∠ ョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よΗ ゅ∠ ∇ぺヲよ ∇クまヱぴ よ ͡ ⊥ z ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ム∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ル z ∠ ͡∠ びゅゃ∇Βセ ⇔ ∠ . even if they had committed acts of evil.

and t he inst ruct ion t o pray next t o it . t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim. . full of blessing.'') (22:26) and. ` Yes." Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned t his. he at t ains securit y) (3:96-97)..' ` Umar said. Ar-Razi report ed it in his Tafsir from Al-Hasan Al-Basri. describing t he Haj j (pilgrimage) of t he Prophet said. Ibn Abi Hat im report ed t hat Jabir. while Isma` il was handing him t he st ones (const ruct ing t he Ka` bah). ` Umar asked him. In it are manifest signs (for example). t he first House (of worship) appoint ed for mankind was t hat at Bakkah (Makkah). "Chapt er: Allah's st at ement . びヴ6ダョ ユΒワゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer) "The st one (Maqam) is t he st anding place of Ibrahim. Qat adah. and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. whosoever ent ers it .''As-Suddi said. ` Is t his t he Maqam of our fat her' He said. alt hough ot hers gave it prefrence. Allah's Prophet . "The Maqam of Ibrahim is a st one which Isma` il's wife put under Ibrahim's feet when washing his head. ゅミ∠ ゅ∠ ョ るムらよ ン͡ ヤャ サゅz ヤ͡ ノッヱ ろ∇Βよ メヱぺ ラまぴ ⇔ ケ ら⊥ ∠ z ∠ ͡ グz∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ∠ z ∠ z ͡ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ ∀ ⇒∠ ⇒あ ∠ ∀ ⇒∠ や∠ ヮΒ͡ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワヱ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ボz ろ レ Βよ ろ Α ¬ ͡ プ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ギ⊥ ∠ びゅレ͡ や∠ ラゅ∠ ヮヤカキ リ∠ ヱ ⇔ ョ ¬ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Verily. "When t he Prophet performed Tawaf.'') Al-Bukhari said. The last honorable Ayah emphasized t he honor of Ibrahim's Maqam.(And (remember) when We showed Ibrahim t he sit e of t he (Sacred) House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) (saying): "Associat e not anyt hing (in worship) wit h Me. but he considered it unaut hent ic.. The Maqam of Ibrahim Sufyan At h-Thawri report ed t hat Sa` id bin Jubayr comment ed on t he Ayah. ` Should we t ake it a place of prayer' So Allah revealed. and a guidance for Al-` Alamin (mankind and Jinn). Ibrahim st ood on t he st one. and a mercy from Allah. びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer. びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer).

びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)) was revealed. Ibrahim's foot print s were st ill visible in t he st one. Allah sent down t he Ayah t hat required t he Hij ab. or Allah will endow His Messenger wit h bet t er women t han you are. he would move t o t he next side. Ibn Jarir narrat ed t hat Jabir said. he went around t he house t hree t imes in a fast pace and four t imes in a slow pace. Muslims (who submit t o Allah)). "The Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around t he House seven t imes and t hen prayed t wo Rak` ahs behind t he Maqam. and prayed t wo Rak` ahs. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat ` Amr bin Dinar said t hat he heard Ibn ` Umar say. "Aft er t he Messenger of Allah kissed t he Black St one. Isma` il brought his fat her a st one. as Anas bin Malik said. t hey ret urn t o it repeat edly. so t hat you have t o do t he j ob inst ead of him' Allah t hen revealed. regarding t hree mat t ers. wives bet t er t han you. but t he foot print s dissipat ed because of t he people rubbing t he st one wit h t heir hands. I also said. ` O Messenger of Allah! The right eous and t he wicked ent er your house.'' He t hen narrat ed t hat Anas bin Malik said t hat ` Umar bin AlKhat t ab said. "I agreed wit h my Lord.'' The Muslims also saw Ibrahim's foot print s on t he st one. I wish you would command t he Mot hers of t he believers (t he Prophet 's wives) t o wear Hij ab. As t he House's walls became higher. "I saw t he Maqam wit h t he print of Ibrahim's t oes and feet st ill visible in it . while Isma` il handed him t he st ones.' The Ayah. t o complet e t he building all around. Ibrahim would place t he st ones on t he wall.' I advised one of his wives and she said t o me. Ibrahim kept repeat ing t his unt il he finished building t he House. ` O Messenger of Allah! I wish you t ake t he Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer. and whenever he finished one side.'' This is part of t he long Hadit h t hat Muslim recorded in Sahih. I came t o t hem and said.'' (66:5) Also. or my Lord agreed wit h me. ` Eit her you st op what you are doing. so t hat he could st and on it . He t hen went t o Maqam of Ibrahim. I said. やゲ∇Βカ ゅィ∠ ∇コぺ ヮャギ∇らΑ ラ∠ リム∠ ヤ∠ ラ͡ ヮぁ ケ ヴ∠ ハぴ ⇔ ∠ ⇔ ヱ ∠ ⊥ ∠͡ ⊥ ぺ z ⊥ ボzデ ま ⊥ よ∠ ジ∠ びろ⇒∠ ヤ∇ジョ z ムレあ ∃ ヨ͡ ⊥ リ⊥ ョ (It may be if he divorced you (all) t hat his Lord will give him inst ead of you.'' All t hese t ext s indicat e t hat t he Maqam is t he st one t hat Ibrahim was st anding on while building t he House. And when I knew t hat t he Prophet was angry wit h some of his wives.'' . ` O ` Umar! Does t he Messenger of Allah not know how t o advise his wives.びヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz ョ グ͡ z ヱ (And t ake you (people) t he Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning. This is why Abu Talib said in his poem known as ` Al-Lamiyyah'. and t he Arabs knew t his fact during t he t ime of Jahiliyyah. as narrat ed from Ibn ` Abbas and collect ed by Al-Bukhari. wit h it bet ween him and t he House. as we will describe when we explain t he st ory of Ibrahim and Isma` il and how t hey built t he House. "And Ibrahim's foot print wit h his bare feet on t he st one is st ill visible.

It is underst andable t hat t he Maqam of Ibrahim would st and where t he building of t he House ended. t he Maqam was placed close t o t he Ka` bah's wall. ` Abdur-Razzaq report ed from Ibn Jurayj from ` At a'. When Ibrahim finished building t he House. Ibrahim j ust left t he st one where it was last st anding. one of t he Four Right ly Guided Caliphs whom we were commanded t o emulat e. when t he House was finished being built . moved t he st one away from t he Ka` bah's wall during his reign.Earlier.) ` Umar was also t he person whom t he Qur'an agreed wit h regarding praying next t o Maqam of Ibrahim. whom t he Messenger of Allah described when he said. This is why none among t he Companions rej ect ed it when he moved it .'' Also. ` Umar is one of t he t wo men. Ahmad bin ` Ali bin AlHusayn Al-Bayhaqi recorded ` A'ishah saying. he placed t he st one next t o t he wall of Al-Ka` bah. ` Abdur-Razzaq narrat ed t hat Muj ahid said t hat ` Umar was t he first person who moved t he Maqam back t o where it is now st anding. t he Maqam was right next t o t he House. The Leader of t he fait hful ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab. and he was commanded t o pray next t o t he st one when he finished t he Tawaf (circumambulat ing). In t he present t ime. «ゲ∠ ハヱ ゲ∇ムよ ヶ͡ ぺ ヵ͡ ∇バよ ∇リョ リ∇Αグヤャゅ͡ やヱ⊥ わ∇ホや» ヨ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ よ∠ ギ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ z よ ギ∠ (Imit at e t he t wo men who will come aft er me: Abu Bakr and ` Umar. ` Umar moved t he Maqam during his reign. Or.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr. "` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab moved t he Maqam back. "During t he t ime of t he Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr.'' This Hadit h has an aut hent ic chain of narrat ion.キヲ⊥ ジャや ノミゲャや∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ͡ イぁ ͡ z ぁ ヱ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ∠∠ や∠ ⇒∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ レ͡ ギヤよ グ ワ ヮバあ ョほプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱ メゅ∠ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ∇レョ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ヰ ͡ ゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ z を ΚΒ͡ホ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ . t he Maqam is placed next t o Al-Hij r on t he right side of t hose ent ering t hrough t he door. i リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ゅレ∇ョぺヱ サゅz ヤあ るよゅ∠ ョ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ∇クまヱぴ ョ グ͡ z ヱ ⇔ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ⇔ ∠ ん∠ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠ま べ∠ ∇ギヰハヱ ヴ6ダョ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ュゅ∠ ョ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ル ͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ ボz リΒ͡ ム⇒∠ ∇ャや∠ リΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ ヴわ∇Βよ や∠ ヰデ ラ∠ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ∠ ヘ͡ バ ヱ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲあ ∠ ぺ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅ∠ ∇クまヱ .

and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!'') (127.) The Command to purify the House Al-Hasan Al-Basri said t hat . t he Most Merciful. false wit ness and sins of all kinds. or st aying (I` t ikaf). t hen I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire. "Allah ordered t hem t o purify it from all filt h and impurit ies. Verily. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You. and show us our Manasik. "My Lord.ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケ レz ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ マャ るヨヤ∇ジョ るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ゆやz わャや ろル∠ マルま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ょゎヱ ゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ヲz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ⊥ ェz (125. in prayer). "Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. (saying). Muj ahid and Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat . "I said t o ` At a'. And We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma` il (Ishmael) t hat t hey should purify My House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) for t hose who are circumambulat ing it . t he Knower.ゅ∠ よケ . make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y and provide it s people wit h fruit s. びモΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ヴ∠ま べ∠ ∇ギ͡ ∠ ∠ ぴ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ル ヰハヱ (And We gave Our 'Ahd (command) t o Ibrahim and Isma` il) means.'') (128. of which none should ever t ouch it . びリΒ͡ ム⇒∠ ∇ャや∠ リΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ ヴわ∇Βよ や∠ ヰデ ラ∠ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ バ ヱ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲあ ∠ ぺ (t hat t hey should purify My House (t he Ka` bah) for t hose who are circumambulat ing it .'' Furt her. and accept our repent ance. Truly. or bowing or prost rat ing t hemselves (t here. or st aying (I` t ikaf)) "Purify it from t he idols. ` What is Allah's ` Ahd' He said. Ibn Jurayj said. "From t he idols. You are t he One Who accept s repent ance. sexual act ivit y.'' Also. such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day.'' He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves. Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah. And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma` il were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah).'' . And (remember) when Ibrahim said. I shall leave him in cont ent ment for a while.''' Also.) (126. ` His command. びリΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ ヴわ∇Βよ や∠ ヰデぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲあ ∠ (purify My House for t hose who are circumambulat ing it ) means. You are t he Hearer.

in prayer)) Ibn ` Abbas said. Therein glorify Him (Allah) in t he mornings and in t he (lat e) aft ernoons) (24:36). Also. びキヲ⊥ ジャや ノミゲャや∠ ぴ ͡ イぁ ͡ z ぁ ヱ (or bowing or prost rat ing t hemselves (t here. Sa` id bin Jubayr said t hat . Iqamah. invocat ions. Qat adah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said t hat I` t ikaf is in reference t o t hose who live in t he area of t he House. j ust as Sa` id bin Jubayr st at ed. while. Salah.e. The Tawaf around t he House is a well-est ablished rit ual. びリΒ͡ ム⇒∠ ∇ャや∠ ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ バ ヱ (or st aying (I` t ikaf)) is about t hose who live in t he area of t he Sacred House. in t hem His Name is remembered (i. . Purifying all Masj ids is required according t o t his Ayah and according t o Allah's st at ement . Allah said. Adhan. and t o be honored). びリΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ (for t hose who are circumambulat ing it ) means. recit at ion of t he Qur'an). Also. when it is a place of prayer it includes t hose who are described as bowing and prost rat ing t hemselves. There are many Hadit hs t hat give a general order for purifying t he Masj ids and keeping filt h and impurit ies away from t hem. ヮヨ∇シや ゅ∠ Β͡ ゲミ∇グΑヱ ノプ∇ゲゎ ラ∠ ヮzャや ラクぺ れヲ⊥ よ ヴ͡ ぴ ⊥⊥ ヰ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∃ Β⊥ プ び メゅ∠ Ιや∠ ヱギピ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヮャ ウあ ジΑ ͡ タx ヱ あ ⊥ ⊥ よ ヰ プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ⊥ (In houses (mosques) which Allah has ordered t o be raised (t o be cleaned. This is why t he Prophet said. びリΒ͡ もべz ヤ͡ぴ ∠ ヘ͡ ト ャ (for t hose who are performing Tawaf (circumambulat ing) it ). st rangers (he means who do not live in Makkah). ` At a' and Qat adah offered t he same Tafsir.Allah said.

make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y and provide it s people wit h fruit s.'') Imam Abu Ja` far bin Jarir At -Tabari narrat ed t hat Jabir bin ` Abdullah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. . I have made what is bet ween t he t wo sides of Al-Madinah a Sacred Area.«ヮ∠ ∇ろΒレよ ゅ∠ ャ ギィゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ろΒレよ ゅ∠ ルま» ャ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ͡ ⊥ ͡ ジ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨz ͡ (The Masj ids are est ablished for t he purpose t hat t hey were built for (i.) I have collect ed a book on t his subj ect . ゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ヤよ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ レ͡ ギ∠∠ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ∇レョ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ͡z よ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠z ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ͡͡x ͡ ∠ ヱ (And (remember) when Ibrahim said. The Two Sahihs recorded ` Abdullah bin ` Abbas saying t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. There are several ot her Hadit hs t hat indicat e t hat Allah made Makkah a sacred area before He creat ed t he heavens and eart h. ろ∇ョz ェ ヶあ ͡∠ ヮレョぺヱ ぶや ろ∇Βよ ュゲェ ユΒ͡ や∠ ∇よま ラま» ⊥ ゲ ∠ ルま ヱ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ワ ゲ ͡ z ͡ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ∠ ギ∇Β∠ キゅ∠ Α ゅ∠プ ∩ゅ∠ ∇Βわよゅ∠ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ るレΑ͡ ヨ∇ャや ャ∠ ワ⊥ タ ⊥ ダ⊥ ヤ∠ ヰ ∠ ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ «ゅ∠ ワゅ∠ ハ ノト∇ボΑ ヰ⊥ ツ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ (Ibrahim made Allah's House a Sacred Area and a safe refuge. worshipping Allah alone). e. such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day. Makkah is a Sacred Area Allah said. "My Lord. it s game should not be hunt ed. and it s t rees should not be cut . Therefore. and all praise is due t o Allah.) An-Nasa'i and Muslim also recorded t his Hadit h.

or t o chase it s game.) This is t he wording of Muslim. Therefore. for our goldsmit hs and for our graves. . None is allowed t o uproot it s t horny shrubs. and it was legal for me for a few hours of one day. ` O Messenger of Allah! Except t he lemon-grass. He t hanked Allah and praised him and t hen said. it is a sanct uary unt il t he Day of Resurrect ion. while Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadit h from Safiyyah bint Shaybah who narrat ed it from t he Prophet . my heart comprehended it . It was not legal for anyone t o fight in it before me. My ears heard t he Hadit h. or t o pick up somet hing t hat has fallen. "O Commander! Let me narrat e a Hadit h t hat t he Messenger of Allah said t he day t hat followed t he vict ory of Makkah. and my eyes saw t he Prophet when he said it . it is a sanct uary unt il t he Day of Resurrect ion because Allah made it a sanct uary.' The Prophet added. except by a person who announces it publicly. nor should any of it s t rees be cut . because Allah made it a sanct uary.) Al-` Abbas said. Therefore. (Except lemon-grass. The Two Sahihs also recorded Abu Hurayrah narrat ing a similar Hadit h. Abu Shurayh Al-` Adawi said t hat he said t o ` Amr bin Sa` id while he was sending armies t o Makkah.れや∠ ヨジャや ペヤカ ュ∇ヲΑ ぶや ヮョゲェ ギヤら∇ャや や∠ ワ ラま» ͡ ヲ∠ z ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠∠ グ∠ z ͡ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュヲ∠ ヴャ͡ ぶや るョ∇ゲエよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ヲヰプ ∩∠ ∇ケほ∇ャや∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ͡ Α ま ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ュ ゲェ ∠ ⊥ ∠ チ ∠ ヱ ヶ͡ モエΑ ∇ユャヱ ヶ͡∇らホ ギェほャ ヮΒ͡ メゅ∠ ボ∇ャや モエΑ ∇ユャ ヮルまヱ ャ z ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ヤ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠͡ ͡ プ ⊥ わ͡ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ヴャ͡ ぶや るョ∇ゲエよ ∀ や∠ ∠ ヲヰプ ∩∃ ゅ∠ ル ∇リョ るハゅ∠ ゅzま ま ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ュ ゲェ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ケ ヰ∠ ͡ ⇔ ∠ シ ャ͡ ゅ∠ヱ∩⊥ ギ∇Βタ ゲz レΑ ゅ∠ヱ ヮミ∇ヲセ ギツ∇バΑ ゅ∠ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ャ∠ ロ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ャ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ͡ ∠ «ゅ∠ ゅ∠カ ヴヤ∠ ∇ガΑ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ∠ プゲハ ∇リョ ゅzま ヮわトボャ テボわ∇ヤΑ ワ ヤ∠ わ ⊥ ャ∠ ヰ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ : ∇ユヰゎヲ⊥ ら͡∠ ∇ユヰレ∇Βボャ ヮルみプ ゲカ∇クみ∇ャや ゅ∂ま :ぶや メヲ⊥ ケ ゅ∠ » ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ャ ヱ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ͡ ∠ シ∠ Α :メゅ∠ プ ∠ ボ∠ «ゲ͡ ∇クみ∇ャや ゅzま» カ ͡ ャ͡ (Allah has made t his cit y a sanct uary (sacred place) t he Day He creat ed t he heavens and eart h.

we should ment ion t he Hadit h about what t he Messenger of Allah said when he was asked. If anybody argues t hat fight ing in it is permissible on t he basis t hat Allah's Messenger fought in Makkah. Similarly. Allah accept ed Ibrahim's supplicat ion. Ibrahim said. alt hough He had full knowledge beforehand t hat it will occur by His decree. t here is no cont radict ion bet ween t he Hadit hs t hat st at ed t hat Allah made Makkah a sanct uary when He creat ed t he heavens and eart h and t he Hadit hs t hat Ibrahim made it a sanct uary. and t oday it s sanct it y is valid as it was before. . So. (` Amr said) ` O Abu Shurayh! I know bet t er t han you about t his.' This Hadit h was collect ed by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. t he Sacred House does not give prot ect ion t o a sinner. ` What did ` Amr reply' He said. made Makkah a sanct uary. Yet . t hose who are present should inform t hose who are absent (concerning t his fact ). say t o him. "O Messenger of Allah! Tell us about how your prophet hood st art ed. び∇ユヰ∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ゑバ∇よや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Send amongst t hem a Messenger of t heir own) (2: 129). a murderer or a t hief. should neit her shed blood in it nor should he cut down it s t rees.モエΑ ゅ∠プ サゅz ャや ゅ∠ ∇ョゲエΑ ∇ユャヱ ぶや ゅ∠ ョゲェ るムョ ラま» ぁ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ レ ヰ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ヰ∠ z ∠ ∠ z ∠ z ͡ ゅ∠ ͡ マヘ∇ジΑ ∇ラぺ ゲカべ∇ャや ュヲ∠ ∇ャや∠ ぶゅ͡ リョ∇ぽΑ ¬ン͡ ∇ョゅ͡ ヰよ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ Β ヱ ͡ よ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ∃ ゲ ャ メゅ∠ ボよ ゾカゲゎ ギェぺ ∇ラみプ∩⇔ ゲイセ ゅ∠ よ ギツ∇バΑ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ⇔ キ ͡ わ͡ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ り∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ャ∠ ョ∠ ぶや ラま :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ∠ ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤダ͡ ヤャや メヲ⊥ ケ ∠ z ͡ ャ ボプ ヤ ヰ ͡ シ∠ ゅ∠ Β͡ ヶ͡ ラクぺ ゅ∠ ルまヱ ∩∇ユムャ ∇ラク∇ほΑ ∇ユャヱ ヮャヲ⊥ ゲャ ラクぺ ヰ プ ャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨz ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ シ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ュヲ∠ ∇ャや ゅ∠ わョ∇ゲェ ∇れキゅ∠ ∇ギホヱ ケゅ∠ ル ∇リョ るハゅ∠ ∠ Β ヰ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ハ ∠ ∠ ∃ ヰ∠ ͡ ⇔ ∠ シ «ょ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ャや ギワゅz ャや ヒヤらΒ∇ヤプ ザ∇ョほ∇ャゅ͡ ゅ∠ わョ∇ゲエミ も ピ ⊥ ͡ ゼ ͡ あ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ヰ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (Allah. since Ibrahim conveyed Allah's decree t hat Makkah is a sanct uary. Aft er t his. To furt her elaborat e on t his subj ect . so any person who has belief in Allah and t he Last Day. before he built t he House. t he Messenger of Allah was writ t en as t he Final Prophet when Adam was st ill clay.' Allah allowed me only for a few hours on t hat day (of t he Conquest ). ` Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.'' He said. not t he people.) Abu Shurayh was asked.

make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y) (2:126) from t error. if Allah wills Ibrahim invokes Allah to make Makkah an Area of Safety and Sustenance Allah said t hat Ibrahim said. he at t ains securit y) (3:97) and.) In t his Hadit h. t he son of Mary. Allah said. Allah accept ed Ibrahim's supplicat ion. We will explain t his mat t er lat er. We have already ment ioned t he Hadit hs t hat prohibit fight ing in t he Sacred Area. ブトガわΑヱ ⇔レ͡ や¬ ゅョ∠ ェ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅz ∠ ∇や∇ヱゲΑ ∇ユャヱぺぴ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゅ ョ ⇔ ゲ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ルぺ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ び∇ユヰャ∇ヲェ ∇リョ サゅz ャや ͡͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ (Have t hey not seen t hat We have made (Makkah) a secure sanct uary. and my mot her saw a light t hat radiat ed from her which illuminat ed t he cast les of Ash-Sham (Syria). . Muslim recorded t hat Jabir said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. t he good news of Jesus. «ゥゅ∠ジャや るムヨよ モヨ∇エΑ ∇ラぺ ギェほャ モエΑ ゅ∠» ヤあ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ぁ ͡ ∠ ャ (No one is allowed t o carry weapons in Makkah.) Allah ment ioned t hat Ibrahim said. びゅレ͡ や∠ ラゅ∠ ヮヤカキ リ∠ ヱぴ ⇔ ョ ¬ ∠ ミ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (Whosoever ent ers it . t he Companions asked t he Messenger about t he beginning of his prophet hood. びゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ∠∠ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケぴ レ͡ ギヤよ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ (My Lord. while men are being snat ched away from all around t hem) (29:67).ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ∩⊥ ゅ∠ジャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ∩∠ Β͡ や∠ ∇よま ヶ͡ ぺ りヲ∇ハキ» ゲ ⊥ ∠ ュ ヤz ͡ ∠∠ ユ ワ ゲ ͡ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲカ ヮルほミ ヶあ ぺ ∇れぺケヱ ∩∠ Α∇ゲョ リ∇よや ヴ∠ Β͡ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ∠∠ ョ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ユ∠ ∠ ͡ ジハ «ュゅz ャや ケヲ⊥ ホ ヮャ ∇れ¬ゅ∠ ぺ ∀ ヲ⊥ ゼ ⊥ ダ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ケ ル (I am t he supplicat ion of my fat her Ibrahim. so t hat it s people do not suffer from fear.

モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シま ゲらム∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヴ͡ ょワヱ ン͡ ャや ヮヤャ ギ∇ヨエ∇ャやぴ ∠ バ ヨ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ヤ∠ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ͡ z ⊥ ∠ び ¬べ∠ ギャや ノΒ͡ ジャ ヴあ ケ ラま ペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ͡ ハぁ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ よ∠ z ͡ ∠ エ ͡∠ (All t he praises and t hanks be t o Allah. Ibrahim said here.'') (14:35) as here. t hen I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire.びゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ∠∠ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケぴ レ͡ ギヤよ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ (My Lord. and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!'') Ibn Jarir said t hat Ubayy bin Ka` b comment ed on. I shall leave him in cont ent ment for a while. and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!'') "These are .. Allah said next . t hen I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire.. make t his a safe cit y. Ibrahim supplicat ed a second t ime aft er t he House was built and it s people lived around it . "My Lord! Make t his cit y (Makkah) one of peace and securit y. This is why at t he end of his supplicat ion. I shall leave him in cont ent ment for a while.and provide it s people wit h fruit s. such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day. びゅ⇔ ョへ ギヤら∇ャや や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅホ ∇クまヱぴ レ͡ ∠ ∠∠ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim said. my Lord is indeed t he Hearer of invocat ions) (14:39).'' He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves. Verily. aft er Ishaq who was t hirt een years Isma` il's j unior was born. ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ z を ΚΒ͡ホ ヮバあ ョほプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱ メゅ∠ ぴ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ホ びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ (He answered: "As for him who disbelieves.. make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y) meaning. Allah said in Surat Ibrahim. This occurred before t he Ka` bah was built . ヮヤャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ∇レョ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ぴ ͡z よ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠z ∠ ͡ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ z を ΚΒ͡ホ ヮバあ ョほプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱ メゅ∠ ゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ (".. Who has given me in old age Isma` il (Ishmael) and Ishaq (Isaac).

Furt hermore. This was recorded by Ibn Marduwyah.'' Ibn ` Abbas t hen recit ed. Allah revealed. ゅ∠ ∠ マよケ ¬べ∠ ハ ∇リョ ¬Ι⊥ ⇒∠ ヱ ¬Ι⊥ ⇒∠ ギヨル 6 ミぴ ョヱ ∠ あ ∠ ͡ ト∠ ͡ ͡ ぽ ワ∠ ͡ ぽ ワ ぁ ͡ ぁ Κ⊥ び や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇エョ マよケ ¬べ∠ ハ ラゅ∠ ケ ヌ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ト∠ ∠ ミ (On each t hese as well as t hose We best ow from t he bount ies of your Lord.ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ヘΑ ユ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ユ⊥ Β ぁ プ ノ わ ョ ∠ エ͡ ⊥ び ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ͡ ギΑ͡ ゼャや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ユヰボΑ͡ ル ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ヨよ ∠ ギz ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ グ⊥ (Verily.) "Ibrahim asked Allah t o grant sust enance for t he believers only.ケヱ⊥ ダャや れや∠ よ ∀ Β͡∠ ヮヤャや ラま ∇やヲ⊥ヨハ ゅ∠ よ ユ⊥ ゃらレレプ ͡ ギぁ ͡ グ͡ ユ ヤハ ∠ z z ͡ ヤ͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ヰ⊥ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ び ナΒ͡ビ ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ∇ユワゲト∇ツル z を ΚΒ͡ホ ∇ユヰバあ ヨル ∃ ヤ∠ ∃ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ⇔ ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ わ∠ ⊥ . However. ` I will also provide for t he disbelievers. (A brief) enj oyment in t his world! And t hen unt o Us will be t heir ret urn. and what an evil dest inat ion. Allah said. Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on Allah's st at ement . such of t hem as believe in Allah and t he Last Day. t hen We shall make t hem t ast e t he severest t orment because t hey used t o disbelieve. Ι ゆグム∇ャや ヮヤャや ヴ∠ハ ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヘΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラま ∇モホぴ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ͡z ヤ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ⊥ z を ∇ユヰバィ∇ゲョ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま z を ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヴ͡ ∀ ⇒∠ ∠ . ∇ユヰバィ∇ゲョ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま ロゲ∇ヘミ マル⊥ ∇エΑ Κプ ゲヘミ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ . j ust as I shall provide for t he believers. t hose who invent a lie against Allah will never be successful. and t hen force t hem t o t he t orment of t he Fire. リョ ヮヤ∇ワぺ ∇ベコ∇ケや∠ ゅ⇔ ョへ や⇔ ヤよ や∠ ⇒∠ ∇モバ∇ィや ゆケぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヱ レ͡ ギ∠∠ グ ワ ∠ あ ∠ びゲカΙや ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅよ ユ⊥ ∇レョ リョや∠ ∇リョ れゲヨんャや ͡ ͡ x ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡z ͡ ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠z (My Lord. Would I creat e somet hing and not sust ain and provide for I shall allow t he disbelievers lit t le delight . who also recorded similar st at ement s from ` Ikrimah and Muj ahid. Similarly.Allah's Words (meaning not Ibrahim's)'' This is also t he Tafsir of Muj ahid and ` Ikrimah. make t his cit y (Makkah) a place of securit y and provide it s people wit h fruit s. And t he bount ies of your Lord can never be forbidden) (17:20).) (10:69-70).

And for t heir houses.'' This Ayah indicat es t hat Allah gives t he disbelievers respit e and t hen seizes t hem in a manner compat ible t o His great ness and abilit y. And t o Me is t he (final) ret urn (of all)) (22:48). and worst indeed is t hat dest inat ion!) meaning. and t hrones (of silver) on which t hey could recline. and elevat ors whereby t hey ascend. We would have provided for t hose who disbelieve in t he Most Gracious (Allah). let not his disbelief grieve you (O Muhammad ). Verily.) (31:23-24) and. t he Two Sahihs recorded. Also.) (43:33-35). We let t hem enj oy for a lit t le while.ラヱ⊥ ヰ∇ヌΑ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ヰ ∠∠ や ゲ⊥ ヱ ⇔ ヲ ∠ ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ͡∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ヰ ∠∠ りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ノ⇒∠ ョ ゅz ャ マャク ぁ ミ ラ͡ヱ ゅプ⊥ ∇カコヱ . doors (of silver). and We shall inform t hem what t hey have done.(And whoever disbelieves. リ∠ ャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバイャ りギェヱ るョぺ サゅz ャや ラヲ⊥ Α ラ∠ Ι∇ヲャヱぴ ヨ͡ レ ∠ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ム∠ ぺ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ゅ∠ ∠ ∠ るツプ リあ ゅヘ⊥ シ ∇ユヰゎヲ⊥ らャ リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャゅ͡ ゲヘ∇ムΑ ァケ バョヱ ∃ z ͡ ョ ⇔ ボ⊥ ͡ ͡ Β⊥ ͡ ͡ ヨ z よ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ⇔ケ⊥ シ∠ ゅよ∠ ∇よぺ ∇ユヰゎヲ⊥ らャヱ . This Ayah is similar t o Allah's st at ement .ラヲ⊥ ムわΑ ͡ Β∠ ⊥ わ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ͡∠ モ⊥ ま∠ ⇔ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゃ͡ z ∠ び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ マよケ ギレ͡ りゲカΙや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ∠ ボz ⊥ ͡ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ ͡ x ヱ Β ぁ (And were it not t hat mankind would have become of one communit y (all disbelievers desiring worldly life only). Yet all t his would have been not hing but an enj oyment of t his world. And t he Hereaft er wit h your Lord is (only) for t he Mut t aqin (t he pious). "Aft er t he delight t hat t he disbeliever enj oyed in t his life. and what an evil dest inat ion. Then (in t he end) I seized it (wit h punishment ). I will make his dest inat ion t orment in t he Fire. And adornment s of gold. t hen in t he end We shall oblige t hem t o (ent er) a great t orment . To Us is t heir ret urn. silver roofs for t heir houses. z を るヨヤ⇒∠ ヴワヱ ゅ∠ ャ ろ∇Βヤ∇ョぺ るΑ∇ゲホ リあ リあ ほミヱぴ ユ⊥ ∀ ∠ ͡ ニ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ョ Α∠∠ ∠ び ゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ヴャまヱ ゅ∠ ゎ∇グカぺ ⊥ ダ∠ z ∠͡∠ ヰ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And many a t ownship did I give respit e while it was given t o wrongdoing. . Allah said next . Allah is t he Knower of what is in t he breast s (of men). びゲΒ͡ ヨ∇ャや ザ∇ゃよヱ ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ヴ∠ま ロゲト∇ッぺ z をぴ ⊥ ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ レ ͡ グ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ (Then I shall compel him t o t he t orment of t he Fire.

"Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ゅ∠ よケ . unt il when He seizes him. His punishment is painful (and) severe). «ヮ∇わヤ∇ヘΑ ∇ユャ ログカぺ や∠ ま ヴ∂ ェ ユャゅz ヤ͡ ヶ͡∇ヨΒャ ぶや ラま» ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ わ∠ ͡ ͡ ヌ ャ ヤ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ (Allah gives respit e t o t he unj ust person. Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You . t he Knower. They at t ribut e a son t o Him. (saying).ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケ レz ∠ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ マャ るヨヤ∇ジョ るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ゆやz わャや ろル∠ マルま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ょゎヱ ゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ヲz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ⊥ ェz (And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) and (his son) Isma` il (Ishmael) were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah).) The Sahih also recorded. (11:102) Building the Ka` bah and asking Allah to accept This Deed Allah said. ラま るヨヤ⇒∠ ヴワヱ ン∠ ボ∇ャや グカぺ や∠ ま マよケ グ∇カぺ マャグ∠ ヱぴ z ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ ニ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ミ∠ び ∀ Α͡ ∠ ∀ Β͡∠ ログ∇カぺ ギ ギセ ユ ャぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (Such is t he punishment of your Lord when He punishes t he (populat ion of) t owns while t hey are doing wrong.) He t hen recit ed Allah's st at ement . while He grant s t hem sust enance and healt h. Verily. You are t he Hearer.∇ユヰルま ぶや リョ ヮバヨシ ン⇔ ∠ ヴヤ∠ ゲら∇タぺ ギェぺ ゅ∠» ⊥ z ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ クぺ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ «ユ͡ Β͡ ゅ∠ Αヱ ∇ユヰホコ∇ゲΑ ヲワヱ や⇔ ャヱ ヮャ ラヲ⊥バ∇イΑ ヰ プ バ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヤ ∠ ∠ (No one is more pat ient t han Allah when hearing abuse. Verily. He never let s go of him.

るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リョヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ びマャ るヨヤ∇ジョ ∠ z ⇔∠͡ ぁ (Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You). t he Most Merciful. You are t he Hearer. びモΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma` il were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah). You are t he Hearer. Saying. "Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us.'') Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned t hat Ubayy and Ibn Mas` ud used t o recit e t he Ayah t his way. t he Knower. (saying). yet you .'') Allah said. t he Knower. Ibn Abi Hat im narrat ed t hat Wuhayb bin Al-Ward recit ed. is what came aft erwards. yet t hey asked Allah t o accept t his good deed from t hem. and show us our Manasik and accept our repent ance. モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リョ ギハや∠ ボ∇ャや ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ノプ∇ゲΑ ∇クまヱぴ ⊥ バ ヨ ͡∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ びべz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma` il were raising t he foundat ions of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah). "Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us'') and cried and said. "O Khalil of Ar-Rahman! You raise t he foundat ions of t he House of Ar-Rahman (Allah). Truly. Verily. びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. You are t he One Who accept s repent ance. Verily.and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You.'') What furt her t est ifies t o t his st at ement (which adds ` saying' t o t he Ayah) by Ubayy and Ibn Mas` ud. "O Muhammad! Remind your people when Ibrahim and Isma` il built t he House and raised it s foundat ions while saying. The Prophet s Ibrahim and Isma` il were performing a good deed.

whom Allah described in His st at ement . In vain. and when he was far enough away where t hey could not see him. "This is why t he people make t he t rip bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah (during Haj j and Umrah). ` Has Allah commanded you t o do t his' He said. Allah willing. Isma` il's mot her t hen ret urned t o her place. j ust as a t ired person runs.' She said. she raised her garment and ran. Ibrahim t hen st art ed t o leave. When t he wat er was used up. t hey give away volunt ary charit y. She asked. ` Yes. which we will ment ion lat er. She looked at him. st art ed drinking wat er from t he wat er-skin and nursing Isma` il. There is an aut hent ic Hadit h narrat ed by ` A'ishah on t his subj ect . Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. ascended it and looked. she and her son became t hirst y.'' . びラヱ⊥ ム∇ゼΑぴ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ (Give t hanks) (14:37). ` I am sat isfied t hat Allah will never abandon us.'' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. close t o Thaniyyah. unt il she reached t he Al-Marwah mount ain. in vain. As-Safa. "Prophet Ibrahim t ook Isma` il and his mot her and went away wit h t hem unt il he reached t he area of t he House. she looked t o see if t here was someone t here. She found t he nearest mount ian t o where she was. ` O Ibrahim! To whom are you leaving us in t his barren valley t hat is not inhabit ed' She repeat ed t he quest ion several t imes and Ibrahim did not reply. and perform t he act s of worship yet . raised his hands and supplicat ed. hoping t o see somebody. Isma` il's mot her was st ill nursing him. and t here was no wat er source in it . Ibrahim left t hem t here wit h a bag cont aining some dat es and a wat er-skin cont aining wat er. び∇やヲ∠ や¬ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ ∇ぽΑ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ゎ ョ ∠ ゎ ⊥ ∠ グz ヱ (And t hose who give t hat which t hey give) (23:60) meaning. and Isma` il's mot her followed him and said. he faced t he House. because she disliked seeing his face in t hat condit ion. Makkah was t hen uninhabit ed. When she came down t o t he valley. she left . where he left t hem next t o a t ree above Zamzam in t he upper area of t he Masj id.are afraid t hat He will not accept it from you'' This is t he behavior of t he sincere believers. びるヤィヱ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ホヱぴ ∀ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ⊥ z (wit h t heir heart s full of fear) (23: 60) afraid t hat t hese good deeds might not be accept ed of t hem. She ran t o and fro (bet ween t he t wo mount ains) seven t imes. During t hat t ime.' Ibrahim left . ン͡ ゲ∇Βビ キや∠ よ ヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ろレ∠ ∇シぺ ヴz ま べ∠ よケぴ ク ͡ ∠ ∃ ヲ͡ わz あ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ム ∠ ル͡ レz z びュゲエヨ∇ャや マわ∇Βよ ギレ͡ ネ∇ケコ ͡z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ハ ∃ ∠ (O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring t o dwell in an uncult ivable valley by Your Sacred House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah)) unt il. and he was suffering from t hirst .

"May Allah grant His mercy t o t he mot her of Isma` il. ` That was my fat her.' Isma` il said t o her. so he asked his wife about him. ` What is your food and what is your drink' She replied. for Isma` il learned Arabic from t hem. She said. passing t hrough Kada'. ` He was my fat her and you are t he t hreshold. ot herwise Ibrahim would have invoked Allah t o bless t hat t oo. ` When your husband comes. next t o t he wat er. There shall be a House for Allah built here by t his boy and his fat her. So he left (t o Makkah). ` Yes. The angel (Gabriel) said t o her. and you are t he t hreshold. had she left t he wat er.' They said. Allah does not abandon His people. They saw some birds. ` O Mot her of Isma` il! Will you allow us t o be wit h you (or dwell wit h you)' She said. her boy reached t he age of pubert y and married a lady from t hem.' So he divorced her and married anot her woman. When he arrived. ` Yes.' He asked her about t heir condit ion."When she reached Al-Marwah. ` Yes. t he area of t he House was raised above ground level and t he floods used t o reach it s right and left sides. Abraham said (t o her).' and she praised Ibrahim. Ibrahim came t o Isma` il's house. ` Yes. made camp at t he bot t om of t he valley. "They did not have crops t hen.' When he asked her about t heir living condit ions. ` He has gone out hunt ing. Do you have relief' She found t he angel digging wit h his heel (or his wing) where Zamzam now exist s. An old man came t o visit us and asked me about you.' He asked. Isma` il's mot her died aft er t hat .' t o herself. ` Where is Isma` il' Isma` il's wife replied. Those who do not live in Makkah cannot bear eat ing a diet only cont aining meat and wat er. Aft erwards some people of t he t ribe of Jurhum. (flow nat urally wit hout her int ervent ion). ` And he asked me about our livelihood and I t old him t hat we live in good condit ions. ` Our food is meat and our drink is wat er. ` We agree.e. he sensed t hat t hey had a visit or and asked his wife. and she said t hat t hey have a good life and praised Allah. Again Ibrahim t hought of visit ing his dependent s whom he had left (at Makkah). ` Shush. ` Do not fear abandonment . He conveyed his greet ing t o you and said t hat you should keep t he t hreshold of your gat e. using her hand t o t ransfer wat er t o t he wat er-skin. ` I have heard you. Then t hey all went t o Isma` il's mot her.' When Isma` il came. ` O Allah! Bless t heir meat and t heir drink.''' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet said. ` Did he ask you t o convey any message' She said. convey my greet ing and t ell him t o change t he t hreshold of his gat e. convey my greet ing t o him and ask him t o keep t he t hreshold of his gat e.' When Isma` il came back. ` Has anyone visit ed us. it would have been flowing on t he surface of t he eart h. and ret urned t o inform t hem about it .' Isma` il said. A good looking old man.' During t hat t ime. and said.'' "Ibrahim said.' They sent a scout or t wo who searched t he area. Isma` il's mot her liked t o have human company. ` Yes.'' "Isma` il's mot her st art ed drinking t he wat er and her milk increased for her child. We did not not ice before t hat t his valley had wat er. he did not find Isma` il. and I t old him t hat we live in hardship and povert y. She t ried t o hear t he voice again and when she did. so go t o your family (i.'' "And t hus t hey st ayed t here and sent for t heir relat ives t o j oin t hem. ` Did he ask you t o do anyt hing' She said. Then an idea occurred t o Abraham t o visit his dependent s. ` Birds can only be found at a place where t here is wat er. he commanded me t o keep you. he asked.' . Isma` il's mot her was ast onished and st art ed digging. t hey were ast onished. you are divorced). But you will have no exclusive right t o t he wat er here. ` When Isma` il comes back. and t he wat er gushed out . found t he wat er. and I t old him where you were. Lat er on. He asked me t o convey his greet ing and t hat you should change t he t hreshold of your gat e.' He said. she complained t o him t hat t hey live in misery and povert y.' Isma` il said.' She said.''' The Prophet (Muhammad ) said. "At t hat t ime. she heard a voice and said. and t hey liked t he way he was raised. but did not find Isma` il and asked his wife.'' Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet t hen said. ` He has gone out hunt ing. and said. He also asked about our condit ion. Ibrahim asked. she said. ` Did we have a visit or' She said.

Duwayk. j ust as t he fat her and son greet each ot her.' He said. The Quraysh cut off his hand as punishment . No money earned from a prost it ut e. t he sea brought a ship t hat belonged t o a Roman merchant t o t he shores of Jeddah. Verily. each subt ribe t aking t he responsibilit y of rebuilding a designat ed part of it .' (2. Abu Wahb bin ` Amr bin ` A'idh bin ` Abd bin ` Imran bin Makhzum t ook a st one from t he Ka` bah. from t he t ribe of Khuza` ah. next t o a t ree. Abraham st art ed building (t he Ka` bah). However. "A man from Quraysh. ` O Allah! No harm is meant . and t he people st art ed bringing t he Ka` bah down wit h him. Some people had st olen t he Ka` bah's t reasure beforehand.'' Ibn Ishaq t hen said t hat some people t old him. I will help you. Al-Walid went t o work on t he Ka` bah. You are t he Hearing.127). ` I will st art t o bring it down. "When t he Messenger of Allah reached t hirt yfive years of age. t he Ka` bah was barely above a man's shoulder.''' Hence. t hey were weary of demolishing it . which used t o be in a well in t he middle of t he Ka` bah. ` Allah has commanded me t o build a house for Him t here. Ibrahim said. When t hey decided t o begin t he demolit ion process t o rebuild t he House. Ibn Ishaq cont inued. t he Knowing. Some people claimed t hat t hose who act ually st ole t he t reasure left it wit h Duwayk. The t reasure was lat er found wit h a man called. except from what was earned from pure sources. t he Quraysh gat hered t o rebuild t he Ka` bah. He said. usury or inj ust ice should be included. Aft erwards. However. ` We will wait and see. going around it and saying. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said. t hey were building t he House. we will not bring it down and inst ead rebuid it t he way it was. part by part . びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ろル∠ マルま べz ͡ ∇モらボゎ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レョ z ∠ ∠ レz ∠ (Our Lord! Accept (t his service) from us. Your Lord has ordered me t o do somet hing. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said. Bot h of t hem were saying.' Ibrahim said. t hey were st ill weary about bringing down t he Ka` bah. he st ood up and t hey greet ed each ot her. So t hey collect ed t he ship's wood t o use it for t he Ka` bah's ceiling. ` O Isma` il. ' and he point ed t o an area t hat was above ground level. When he saw Ibrahim.''' Ibn Ishaq comment ed here t hat t he people also at t ribut e t hese words t o Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah bin ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Makhzum. t hey uncovered green st ones t hat were above each ot her. If not hing happens t o him. "The Quraysh began t o organize t heir effort s t o rebuild t he Ka` bah. ` Will you help me' He said. When t hey reached t he foundat ions t hat Ibrahim built . t hen Allah will have agreed t o what we are doing.' He asked Isma` il. a freed servant of Bani Mulayh bin ` Amr. while Isma` il cont inued handing him t he st ones.' He t hen st art ed t o chop t he House's st ones. The people wait ed t hat night and said. ` O people of Quraysh! Do not spend on rebuilding t he House. Verily. So. t he st one slipped from his hand and went back t o where it had been. During t hat t ime.' The next morning. so t hey want ed t o raise it s height and build a ceiling on t op. where it washed-up. You are t he Hearer. who was helping rebuild t he Ka` bah. placed t he shovel bet ween t wo of t hese st ones t o pull t hem .) The Story of rebuilding the House by Quraysh before the Messenger of Allah was sent as Prophet In his Sirah. t he Knower. If somet hing st rikes him. bot h of t hem rose and st art ed t o raise t he foundat ions of t he House. ` Yes. a Copt ic carpent er in Makkah prepared what t hey needed for t he j ob. mending his arrows. O Allah! We only seek t o do a good service. j ust like a pile of spears. ` Obey your Lord.' He held an ax and st ood by t he Ka` bah and said. t his included covering it wit h a roof.Ibrahim t hen came back visit ing and found Isma` il behind t he Zamzam well. ` O our Lord ! Accept (t his service) from us.

unt il t he rebuilding of t he Ka` bah reached t he point where t he Black St one was t o be placed in it s designat ed sit e.' When t he Prophet reached t he area where t he leaders were gat hering and t hey informed him about t heir disput e. During t hat t ime. He t hen request ed t hat each of t he leaders of Quraysh hold t he garment from one side and all part icipat e in lift ing t he Black St one. so t hey did not dig up t hese st ones. moving it t o it s designat ed area. The people hesit at ed t o bring it down. fearing t hat t he first person t o climb on t he House would be st ruck . t he Mot her of t he believers. This is Muhammad. He also made an east ern door and a west ern door in t he Ka` bah and placed t hem on ground level. He said t o t hem.up. You should leave t he st ones t hat exist ed when t he people became Muslims and when t he Prophet was sent . unt il he rebuilds it . when one of t he st ones was moved. How about Allah's House I will invoke my Lord for t hree days and will t hen implement what I decide. The disput e almost led t o violence bet ween t he leaders of Quraysh in t he area of t he Sacred House. Muslim recorded t hat ` At a' said. Next . The Messenger . t he Prophet carried t he Black St one by himself and placed it in it s designat ed posit ion and built around it . he decided t o bring t he Ka` bah down. When t he various leaders of Quraysh realized who t he first one was. They st art ed rebuilding it . Abu Umayyah bin Al-Mughirah bin ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Makhzum. When it was burned. t hey all proclaimed.'' The Dispute regarding Who should place the Black Stone in Its Place Ibn Ishaq said. for he want ed t o incit e t hem against t he people of Ash-Sham. However. t he Ka` bah was eight een cubit s high and was covered wit h Egypt ian linen. Abu Umayyah suggest ed t hat Quraysh should appoint t he first man t o ent er t he House from it s ent rance t o be a mediat or bet ween t hem. should we bring it down and rebuild it . five or four days lat er. by t he order of ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. all of Makkah shook. narrat e t hat t he Messenger of Allah had wished t hat . Ibn Az-Zubayr brought t he Ka` bah down and built it upon t he foundat ions of Ibrahim. ` O people! Advise me regarding t he Ka` bah.Muhammad . He had heard his aunt ` A'ishah. The Quraysh used t o call t he Messenger of Allah ` Al-Amin' even before t he revelat ion came t o him. unt il it was burned during t he reign of ` Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr. he will not be sat isfied. ' Ibn AzZubayr said. at t he end of t he reign of Yaz 0d bin Mu` awiyah. Al-Haj j aj bin Yusuf was t he first person t o cover it wit h silk. We all accept him. and t hey wit h a st riped garment .' When t he t hree days had passed. You should rebuild t he House t he way it was when t he people became Muslims. including t he Hij r in it .was t he first person t o ent er t he House. ` This is Al-Amin (t he Honest one). "The t ribes of Quraysh collect ed st ones t o rebuild t he House. when t he people of Ash-Sham raided Makkah. or j ust repair t he damage it sust ained' Ibn ` Abbas said. gave t heir mut ual pledge t o fight unt il deat h. Ibn Az-Zubayr was besieged at Makkah.'' The Ka` bah remained t he same way t he Quraysh rebuilt it . The Ka` bah remained like t his t hroughout his reign. each t ribe collect ing on t heir own. Ibn Az-Zubayr did not t ouch t he House unt il t he people came for Haj j . "The House was burnt during t he reign of Yazid bin Mu` awiyah. ` I have an opinion about t his. He placed t he Black St one on it . Banu ` Abd Ad-Dar and Banu ` Adi bin Ka` b bin Lu'ay.'' Ibn Az-Zubayr rebuilds Al-Ka` bah the way the Prophet wished Ibn Ishaq said. A disput e erupt ed bet ween t he various t ribes of Quraysh. each seeking t he honor of placing t he Black St one for t heir own t ribe. ` If t he house of one of t hem get s burned. t he oldest man from Quraysh t hen int ervened at t he right moment . unt il Al-Haj j aj killed Ibn Az-Zubayr and t hen rebuilt it t he way it was before. he asked t hem t o bring a garment and place it on t he ground. "During t he t ime of t he Prophet . They agreed. aft er t he year 6o H.

` Abdul-Malik said. Ibn Az-Zubayr t hen said. When Ibn Az-Zubayr was killed. he said. not t he whole st ory. ` She said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.' Therefore. As for what he added from t he Hij r. They brought t he House down t o ground level. bring it down. I would have included in t he House five cubit s from Al-Hij r and would have made a door for it t hat people could ent er from. He t hen built t he House and made it eight een cubit s high. ` You heard her say what ' He said. and I do not fear t he people.' Al-Harit h said. A man went on t op of t he House and t hrew some st ones down.' So he added five cubit s from t he Hij r.' ` Abdul-Malik said. An-Nasa'i collect ed t he Hadit h of t he Prophet narrat ed from ` A'ishah. but feared t hat t he heart s of t he people who recent ly became Muslim could not bear rebuilding t he House.'' In his Sunan. when ` Abdul-Malik realized t hat ` A'ishah had narrat ed t he Hadit h of t he Messenger of Allah on t his subj ect . Al-Haj j aj brought down t he House and rebuilt it as it was. and t hat I do not have enough money t o spend on it .'' Muslim recorded t hat ` Ubadydullah bin ` Ubayd said t hat Al-Harit h bin ` Abdullah came t o ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan during his reign. because t his was what t he Prophet wished he could do. ` We do not agree wit h Ibn Az-Zubayr's act ions. unt il t he building was erect . He t hought t hat t he House was st ill short and added t en cubit s in t he front and built t wo doors in it . The correct Sunnah conformed t o Ibn Az-Zubayr's act ions. and when t he people saw t hat no harm t ouched him. Al-Haj j aj wrot e t o ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan asking him about t he House and t old him t hat Ibn Az-Zubayr made a rear sect ion for t he House.) Ibn Az-Zubayr said. Ibn Az-Zubayr surrounded t he sit e wit h curt ains hanging from pillars. one as an ent rance and anot her as an exit . Hence. and build t he House as it was before and close t he door. . ` I did not t hink t hat Abu Khubayb (Ibn AzZubayr) heard from ` A'ishah what he said he heard from her. which looked like a rear part for t he House t hat people could clearly see. ` I heard ` A'ishah say t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. ` Yes he did. ` I can spend on t his j ob. This Sunnah was not clear t o ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. t hey st art ed doing t he same. "I wish we had left it as Ibn Az-Zubayr had made it . As. and anot her door t hat t hey could exit from. so t hat t he House would be covered. I heard t he Hadit h from her. for t he Ka` bah's height . ` Abdul-Malik wrot e back. leave it as it is. ザ∇Βャヱ ∩∃ ∇ヘムよ ∇ユワギ∇ヰハ ∀ Α͡ ∠ サゅz ャや ラぺ ゅ∠∇ヲャ» ∠ ∠∠ ゲ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゑ ギェ ∠ レ z ∠ ャ ∠ ろ∇レムャ ヮもゅ∠ よ ヴヤ∠ ヶ͡ Αあ ボΑ ゅ∠ るボヘレャや リョ ヵ͡ ∇レハ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ͡ ハ レ ヲ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ͡ ギ ͡ ヮャ ろ∇ヤバイャヱ ∩∃ ケ∇クぺ るジ∇ヨカ ゲ∇イエ∇ャや リョ ヮΒ͡ ろ∇ヤカ∇キぺ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ネ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ヮ∇レョ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ガΑ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ヱ ヮ∇レョ サゅzャや モカ∇ギΑ ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠ ィ⊥ ∠ よ よ∠ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ レ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ よ よ (If it was not for t he fact t hat t he people have recent ly abandoned disbelief.down.

` You heard ` A'ishah say t his Hadit h' He said. added t hat t he Prophet said.ゅ∠∇ヲャヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ラゅ∠ ∇レよ ∇リョ やヱ⊥ ダ∇ボわ∇シや マョ∇ヲホ ラま» ャ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ Β ⊥ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∇ラみプ ∩⊥ ∇レョ やヲ⊥ ゲゎ ゅ∠ れ∇ギハぺ ポ∇ゲゼャゅ͡ ∇ユワギ∇ヰハ るをや∠ ェ ͡∠ ヮ ͡ ミ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ あ よ ͡ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ∠ ゅ∠ マΑケほャ ヶあ ヤ∠ ∠ ロヲ⊥ ∇らΑ ∇ラぺ ヵ͡ ∇バよ ∇リョ マョ∇ヲボャ や∠ よ ョ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥͡ ヨ⊥ヰプ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ギ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ギ∠ «ヮ∇レョ ロヲ⊥ ゲゎ ͡ ⊥ ミ∠ ∠ (Your people rebuilt t he House smaller.) He showed her around seven cubit s. When a man whom t hey did not wish t o ent er t he House climbed t o t he level of t he door. t hey would push him down) ` Abdul-Malik t hen said.' He said. Do you know why your people raised it s door above ground level) She said.'' An Ethiopian will destroy the Ka` bah just before the Last Hour . ` I wish I left it as it was. ` No.' ` Abdul-Malik said. If your people aft erwards t hink about rebuilding it . Al-Walid bin ` At a'. Had it not been for t he fact t hat your people are not far from t he t ime of Shirk. (To allow only t hose whom t hey want ed t o ent er it . ` Yes. let me show you what t hey left out of it . : ラゅ∠ プ ∩やヱ⊥ や∠ ぺ ∇リョ ゅzま ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΑ ゅ∠ ∇ラぺ や⇔ ゴバゎ» ∠ ム∠ キ ケ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ヰ∠⊥ ∠ ャ ∠ コぁ ∠ ∠ ヶ͡ ゎ∇ゲΑ ヮ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΑ ∇ラぺ キや∠ ぺ ヲワ や∠ ま モィz ャや ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル ハギΑ ヰ∠⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ケ∠ ∠ ⊥ ク͡ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ «テ∠ ジプ ロヲ⊥ プキ モカ∇ギΑ ∇ラぺ キゅ∠ や∠ ま ヴz ェ ボ∠ ∠ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ク͡ わ∠ (I would have made t wo doors for t he House on ground level. I would add what was left out side of it . one east ern and one west ern.' One of t he narrat ors of t he Hadit h. :チ∇ケほ∇ャや ヶ͡ リ∇Βハヲ⊥ ∇ヲョ リ∇Βよゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ろ∇ヤバイャヱ» ͡ ∠ プ ͡ ∠ ッ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ マョヲ∠ ラゅ∠ ユャ リΑ͡ ギ∠ ∇モワヱ ∩ゅ6 よ∇ゲビヱ ゅ6 ホ∇ゲセ ͡ ⊥ ホ ∠ ミ ∠ ͡ ∠ ケ ゎ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ Β͡ ∠ «∨ゅ∠ よゅ∠ やヲ⊥ プケ ヰ∠ よ バ∠ ∠ : : .

) Al-Bukhari recorded t his Hadit h. «る∠ らエ∇ャや リョ リ∇Βわボ∇Αヲジャや ヱ⊥ るら∇バム∇ャや ゆあ ガΑ» ゼ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ぁ ク ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ (The Ka` bah will be dest royed by Dhus-Sawiqat ayn (lit erally. Al-Bukhari recorded t hat Abu Sa` id Al-Khudri said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. It is as if I see him now: bald.) Al-Khalil's Supplication Allah said t hat Ibrahim and Isma` il supplicat ed t o Him.The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said. «や⇔ イェ や⇔ イェ ゅ∠ バ∠∇ボ∠ アエ∇プぺ キヲ∇シぺ ヮよ ヶあ ほミ» ゲ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ ヤ Α ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ル∠∠ (As if I see him now: a black person wit h t hin legs plucking t he st ones of t he Ka` bah one aft er anot her. るゼらエ∇ャや リョ リ∇Βわボ∇Αヲジャや ヱ⊥ るら∇バム∇ャや ゆあ ガΑ» ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ぁ ク ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ヶあ ほムャヱ ∩ゅヰゎヲ∇ジミ ∇リョ ゅ∠ キゲイΑヱ ゅ∠ わΒ∇ヤェ ゅ∠ らヤ∇ジΑヱ ル∠∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ワ⊥ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ͡ ヰ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ゆゲ∇ツΑ ネギ∇Βプぺ ヱ ノヤ∇Βタぺ ヮ∇Βャま ゲヌ∇ルぺ ヰ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ «ヮ͡ヲ∇バョヱ ヮゎゅ∠ ∇ジヨよ ャ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ エ ͡ ͡ (Dhus-Sawiqat ayn from Et hiopia will dest roy t he Ka` bah and will loot it s adornment s and cover. .) This will occur aft er t he appearance of Gog and Magog people. ァヲ⊥ ∇ほΑ ァヱ⊥ カ ギ∇バよ ラゲヨわ∇バΒャヱ ろ∇Βら∇ャや リイ∠ Β∠» ∠ ィ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ z z エ⊥ ャ «ァヲ⊥ ∇ほョヱ ィ∠∠ (There will be Haj j and ` Umrah t o t he House aft er t he appearance of Gog and Magog people. a person wit h t wo lean legs) from Et hiopia. wit h t hin legs st riking t he Ka` bah wit h his ax.) Also. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded in his Musnad t hat ` Abdullah bin ` Amr bin Al-` As said t hat he heard t he Messenger of Allah say. Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t he Prophet said.

''Also.'" This supplicat ion by Ibrahim and Isma` il is similar t o what Allah informed us of about His believing servant s. This t ype of supplicat ion is allowed. and show us our Manasik. Truly. びゅ⇔ ゅ∠ ま サゅz ヤ͡ マヤバ⇒∠ ヴあ まぴ ョ ョ͡ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ⊥͡ ィ ル͡ . ` I shall do t hat . ` I shall do t hat . ` Ikrimah comment ed on t he Ayah.るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱ マャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ ろル∠ マルま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇ょゎヱ ゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ マャ るヨヤ∇ジョ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ レ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz (Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You and of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You. and make us leaders of t he Mut t aqin) (25:74). びマャ リ∇Βヨヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ (Our Lord! And make us submissive unt o You) "Allah said. because loving t o have offspring who worship Allah alone wit hout part ners is a sign of complet e love of Allah. This is why when Allah said t o Ibrahim. ゅ∠ ィヱ∇コぺ ∇リョ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ょワ ゅ∠ よケ ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ レ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ レャ ∠ レz ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び ゅョゅ∠ ま リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバ∇ィや∠ リΒ∇ハぺ りゲホ ゅ∠ わ⇒z ケクヱ ⇔ ョ͡ ∠ ボz ⊥ ͡ レ ∠ ヱ ∃ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ レ͡ Αあ ⊥ ∠ (And t hose who say: ` Our Lord! Best ow on us from our wives and our offspring t he comfort of our eyes.''' びマャ るヨヤ∇ジョ るョぺ べ∠ わΑケク リ͡ ヱぴ ∠ z ⇔ ∠ ͡ ぁ ⇔ z ⊥ レ͡ z あ ⊥ ョ∠ (And of our offspring a nat ion submissive unt o You) Allah said. ` Make us submit t o Your command and obedience and not associat e anyone wit h You in obedience or worship. t he Most Merciful.) Ibn Jarir said. and accept our repent ance. "They meant by t heir supplicat ion. You are t he One Who accept s repent ance.

and when Jibril and Ibrahim passed by him. ` This is among t he rit uals of Allah. ` Say Takbir (Allah is t he Great ) and t hrow (pebbles) at him. from Muj ahid who said.(Verily. learned) what I showed you' t hrice.' Ibrahim raised t he House's foundat ions and complet ed t he building.'' (Allah) said. "The Prophet Ibrahim supplicat ed. but he was unable t o succeed. t ook him t o t he House and said. a knowledge t hat is being benefit ed from and a right eous son who supplicat es (t o Allah) for him. led him t o As-Safa and said. ` Raise it s foundat ions.' Ibrahim said t he Takbir and t hrew (pebbles at ) Iblis. Jibril t ook Ibrahim's hand and led him t o Al-Mash` ar Al-Haram and ` Arafat and said t o him. Jibril held Ibrahim's hand.' Ibrahim t hrew at him and said Takbir. his deeds end except for t hree deeds: an ongoing charit y. Iblis moved t o t he middle Jamrah. I am going t o make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (t o follow you)) Ibrahim said. ` Say Takbir and t hrow at him. Ibrahim said. ` Have you ` Araft a (known. ` Yes I did. ` And t his is among t he rit uals of Allah. :ゐゅ∠を ∇リョ ゅzま ヮヤヨハ ノトボ∇ルや ュキへ リ∇よや れゅ∠ や∠ ま» ∃ ヤ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ョ ク͡ ウャゅ∠ ギャヱ ∇ヱぺ ヮよ ノヘわ∇レΑ ユ∇ヤハ ∇ヱぺ るΑケゅ∠ るホギタ ∃ ͡ タ ∃ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ィ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ «ヮ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ギ∠ ャ ハΑ (When t he son of Adam dies. The devious Iblis sought t o add some evil act s t o t he rit uals of Haj j . びゅ∠ ムシゅ∠ ョ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ぴ レ∠ ͡ レ∠ ルケぺヱ (and show us our Manasik) Jibril t hen came down. "My covenant (prophet hood) includes not t he Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers)'') which is explained by. t hey found Iblis st anding next t o a t ree.) The Meaning of Manasik Sa` id bin Mansur said t hat ` At t ab bin Bashir informed us from Khasif. びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ヵ͡ ∇ヰハ メゅ∠ Α Ι メゅ∠ ヴ͡ Αケク リ͡ ヱぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ギ ∠ ⊥ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ わz あ ⊥ ョ∠ ("And of my offspring (t o make leaders). Jibril said t o Ibrahim.' He t hen t ook him t o Mina unt il when t hey reached t he ` Aqabah. Jibril said. びュゅ∠ ∇タΙや ギら∇バル ラ∠ ヴレよヱ ヴ͡ ∇らレ∇ィや∠ ぴ ∠ レ x ∠ ⊥ z ぺ z ͡∠∠ レ ⊥ ヱ (And keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols) Muslim narrat ed in his Sahih t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat t he Messenger of Allah said.' He t hen t ook him t o Al-Marwah and said. a .''' Similar st at ement s were report ed from Abu Mij laz and Qat adah.

unt il t he last Prophet was sent among t he Children of Israel. «ユ∠ ∇ゲョ リ∇よや ヴ∠ Β͡ ン∠ ∇ゼよヱ ユΒ͡ や∠ ∇よま ヶ͡ ぺ りヲ∇ハキ» Α ∠ ͡ ジ ハ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ワ ゲ ͡ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (The supplicat ion of my fat her Ibrahim and t he glad t idings brought fort h by Jesus t he son of Mary.∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥∇わΑ ∇ユヰ∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ∇ゑバ∇よや∠ ゅ∠ よケぴ ͡ ∠∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ヱ レz ∠ マルま ∇ユヰΒあ ゴΑヱ るヨ∇ムエ∇ャや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰヨあバΑヱ マわ⇒∠ へ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヱ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ Α び ユΒ͡ ∠ ャや ゴΑ͡ バャや ろル∠ ⊥ ムエ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ぺ (129.'') Ibrahim's Supplication that Allah sends the Prophet Allah ment ioned Ibrahim's supplicat ion for t he benefit of t he people of t he Sacred Area (t o grant t hem securit y and provision). whose name shall be Ahmad) (61:6) This is why t he Prophet said . who shall recit e unt o t hem Your verses and inst ruct t hem in t he Book (t his Qur'an). and it was perfect ed by invoking Allah t o send a Messenger from his offspring. conformed wit h Allah's appoint ed dest iny t hat Muhammad be sent as a Messenger among t he Ummiyyin and t o all non-Arabs. リョ ンギΑ リ∇Βよ ゅ∠ ャ ゅホあ ダョ ユ⊥ ∇Βャま ヮヤャや メヲ⊥ ケ ヴあ まぴ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨあ ⇔ ギ∠ ぁ ム ∠͡ ͡ z ⊥ シ∠ ル͡ ヮヨ∇シや ン͡ ∇バよ リ͡ ヴ͡ ∇ほΑ メヲ⊥ ゲよ やゲあ らョヱ りや∠ ∇ヲわャや ⊥⊥ ギ ∠ ョ ゎ ∠ ∃ シ∠ ͡ ⇔ ゼ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ケ z びギヨ∇ェぺ ⊥∠ ∠ (I am t he Messenger of Allah unt o you. "Our Lord! Send amongst t hem a Messenger of t heir own. who ment ioned Muhammad by name. This accept ed supplicat ion. Hence. Verily.) The Prophet said. t he Wise. and giving glad t idings of a Messenger t o come aft er me. among t he Jinns and mankind. Ever since. You are t he Might y. Jesus t he son of Mary. Muhammad was known t o t he people. from Ibrahim. and purify t hem. . confirming what is before me in t he Tawrah. Ibrahim was t he first person t o ment ion t he Prophet t o t he people. Jesus addressed t he Children of Israel saying.

t est ifying t o what will lat er occur when t he Prophet 's religion will be firmly est ablished in Ash-Sham area. narrat ed t his vision t o her people. び͡ ∠ ⇒⇒∇ム͡ ∇ャや∠ ぴ るヨ エ ヱ . The light ment ioned in t he Hadit h appeared in Ash-Sham (Great er Syria). and t he st ory became popular among t hem.) The Meaning of Al-Kitab wal-Hikmah Allah said. Ash-Sham will be a refuge for Islam and it s people. The Two Sahihs st at ed. びょ⇒わム∇ャや ユヰヨあバΑヱぴ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ (and inst ruct t hem in t he Book) meaning. unt il t he command of Allah comes while t hey are on t his. Al-Qur'an. next t o t he east ern whit e minaret in Damascus.) Al-Bukhari added in his Sahih. (And t hey will reside in Ash-Sham.) It was said t hat t he Prophet 's mot her saw t his vision when she was pregnant wit h. ゅ∠ ペエ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ リΑ͡ ワゅ∠ ヶ͡ ョぺ ∇リョ るヘもゅ∠ メや∠ ゎ ゅ∠» ャあ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ニ わz ⊥ ͡ ∀ ∠ ͡ デ ⊥ ゴ∠ ャ ヶゎ∇ほΑ ヴz ェ ∇ユヰヘャゅ∠ ∇リョ ゅ∠ヱ ∇ユヰャグカ ∇リョ ∇ユワぁ ツΑ ∠ ͡ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ カ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ «マ͡∠ ∠ ∇ユワヱ ぶや ゲ∇ョぺ ャグミ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ «ュゅz ャゅよ ∇ユワヱ» ゼ ⊥∠ (There will always be a group of my Ummah who will be on t he t rut h. undet erred by t hose who fail or oppose t hem. This is why by t he end of t ime.ヮャ ∇れ¬ゅ∠ ぺ ∀ ヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ァゲカ ヮz ぺ ヶあ ぺ ∇れぺケヱ» ⊥ ∠ ∠ ッ∠ ケ ル ヰ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ョ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ «ュゅz ャや ケヲ⊥ ホ ゼ ⊥ ダ⊥ (My mot her saw a light t hat went out of her and radiat ed t he palaces of Ash-Sham. Also. Jesus t he son of Mary will descend in Ash-Sham.

and he did not call upon ot hers besides Allah. び∇ユヰΒあ ゴΑヱぴ ͡ ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ (and purify t hem) means. and He put s everyt hing in it s right ful place due t o His perfect knowledge. be a Muslim)!'' He said. t he leader of t he upright . even for an . and bot h meanings are correct . It was also said t hat ` Al-Hikmah'. "I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind.'' びユΒ͡ ∠ ャや ゴΑ͡ バャや ろル∠ マルまぴ ⊥ ムエ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ z ͡ (Verily. in t he Hereaft er he will be among t he right eous). And t his (submission t o Allah. "Wit h t he obedience of Allah. t hen die not except as Muslims. Islamic Monot heism) except him who fools himself Truly.e. When his Lord said t o him. Muqat il bin Hayyan and Abu Malik assert ed. and not hing escapes His abilit y.'') (132.e. He did not commit Shirk. means ` comprehension in t he religion'. ` Ali bin Abi Talhah said. (131. "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you t he (t rue) religion. t he Wise). This Ayah st at ed t hat Allah is able t o do anyt hing. And who t urns away from t he religion of Ibrahim (i. t he Sunnah. "Submit (i.(and Al-Hikmah) meaning. wisdom and j ust ice. We chose him in t his world and verily. He is Wise in His decisions. You are t he Might y. Jinn and all t hat exist s). His act ions.リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ͡ レ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ヰ͡ タ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ Κプ リΑあ ャや ユムャ ヴヘト∇タや ヮヤャや ラま ヴレら⇒∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z z ͡ z ͡∠ Α ⊥ ボ ∠∠ び ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ユ⊥ ル∠ヱ Ιま リゎヲ⊥ ゎ ∠ ヨ͡ ぁ わ ぺ∠ z ∠ z ⊥ ヨ∠ (130. Islam) was enj oined by Ibrahim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Ya` qub (Jacob) (saying). wit h sincerit y. as Al-Hasan. Ibrahim always singled out Allah in worship. ヮジ∇ヘル ヮヘシ リ∠ Ιま ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ リ∠ ょビ∇ゲΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ z ͡ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ͡ zあ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ リヨャ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ヮルまヱ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ヶ͡ ヮ⇒∠ ∇Βヘト∇タや ギボャヱ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ ⊥ z ͡∠ Β ぁ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠∠ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ メゅ∠ ∇ユヤ∇シぺ ヮぁ ケ ヮャ メゅ∠ ∇クま . t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat .リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ⊥ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ エ͡ ダ ヮΒ͡ よ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま べ∠ よ ヴz ヱヱ . Qat adah.'') Only the Fools deviate from Ibrahim's Religion Allah refut ed t he disbelievers' innovat ions of associat ing ot hers wit h Allah in defiance of t he religion of Ibrahim.

inst ant . へ∠ ⇒∠ ヴあ ケ や∠ ⇒∠ メゅ∠ るビコゅ∠ ザ∇ヨゼャや ン∠ケ ゅヨ∠プぴ グ ワ よ∠ グ ワ ∠ ホ ⇔ ∠ ͡ よ ∠ z ぺ∠ z ヤ∠ ゅz ョ ∀ ン͡ ∠ ヴあ ま ュ∇ヲボΑ メゅ∠ ∇ろヤプぺ べz ヤプ ゲら∇ミぺ ヨあ ¬ ゲよ ル͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ホ ∠∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲトプ ン͡ ヤャ ヴヰ∇ィヱ ろ∇ヰz ヱ ヴあ ま . ゅz ョ ∀ へ∠ ∠ ヴ͡ ルま ヮョ∇ヲホヱ ヮΒ͡ Ι ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま メゅ∠ ∇クまヱぴ ヨあ ¬ ゲよ レz ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ よ6 ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ホ ͡∠ び リΑ͡ ∇ヰΒシ ヮルみプ ヴ͡ ゲトプ ン͡ ャや Ιま . Verily. Ibrahim was Awwah (one who invokes Allah wit h humilit y. and I am not of Al-Mushrikin. He will guide me'') (43:26-27). I worship none but Allah alone) Who did creat e me.e. glorifies Him and remembers Him much) and was forbearing) (9:114). But when it became clear t o him (Ibrahim) t hat he (his fat her) was an enemy of Allah. Also. Allah said. I have t urned my face t owards Him Who has creat ed t he heavens and t he eart h Hanifa (Islamic Monot heism). りギハ∇ヲョ リ∠ Ιま ヮΒ͡ Ι ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ケゅ∠ ∇ピわ∇シや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∃ ∠ ͡ z ハ z ͡ ͡ よ6 ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヘ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ラま ヮ∇レョ ぺゲらゎ ヮヤャ ヱギハ ヮz ぺ ヮャ リΒらゎ ゅz ヤプ ロゅz ま べ∠ ギハヱ z ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠z ∠ ∠ ͡ z͡ x ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ∠∠ ⊥ Α͡ ワ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ やz ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ユ ヤェ ロ ヱΕ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ (And Ibrahim's invoking (of Allah) for his fat her's forgiveness was only because of a promise he (Ibrahim) had made t o him (his fat her). and verily. I am innocent of what you worship.) (6:78-79). "Except Him (i. He disowned every ot her deit y t hat was being worshipped inst ead of Allah and defied all his people in t his regard. .ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ͡ ギ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ル∠ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ (And (remember) when Ibrahim said t o his fat her and his people: "Verily. he dissociat ed himself from him. Verily. Prophet Ibrahim said.ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇ゼゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ィ∠ ル͡ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ∇ゅルぺ べ∠ ヱ ゅヘΒ͡ ェ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ⇔ レ∠ ∠ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz び (O my people! I am indeed free from all t hat you j oin as part ners (in worship wit h Allah). and.

and who shall be among t he successful in t he Last Life. who commit s inj ust ice against himself by deviat ing from t he t rut h. way and met hod びヮジ∇ヘル ヮヘシ リ∠ Ιまぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ョ z ͡ (except him who fools himself) meaning.e. from t he t ime he was young. unt il Allah chose him t o be His Khalil. abandons his pat h. t o wickedness. He (Allah) chose him (as an int imat e friend) and guided him t o a st raight pat h. meaning. (He was) t hankful for His (Allah's) favors.リョ マΑ ∇ユャヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ヮヤャ ゅ⇔ レ⇒∠ るョぺ ラゅ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラまぴ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ヘ レ∠ ͡ z͡ わ͡ ホ ⇔ z ⊥ ∠ ミ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヴ∠ま ロや∠ ワヱ ヮ⇒∠ わ∇ィや ヮヨバ∇ルΙ やゲ͡ ゅ∠ . and he was not one of t hose who were AlMushrikin. Abu Al-` Aliyah and Qat adah said. obedient t o Allah.'' Allah's st at ement . Ibrahim was an Ummah (a leader having all t he good qualit ies. "This Ayah (2:130) was revealed about t he Jews who invent ed a pract ice t hat did not come from Allah and t hat defied t he religion of Ibrahim. び∠ Β͡ ∠ ∇よ͡ るヤョ リ∠ ょビ∇ゲΑ リ∠ ヱぴ ユ ワゲ ま ͡ zあ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ (And who t urns away from t he religion of Ibrahim). This is why Allah said here. . Hanif (i. t o worship none but Allah). Such a person will be defying t he pat h of he who was chosen in t his life t o be a t rue Imam.ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ⊥ z ͡∠ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ Β ぁ プ ⊥ レ ∠ ヱ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ りゲカΙや ヴ͡ ∠ エ͡ ダ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x プ (Verily. and in t he Hereaft er he shall be of t he right eous.リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ャ͡ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⇔ ミ セ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ヮルまヱ るレジェ ゅ∠ ∇ルギ∇ャや ヴ͡ ヮ⇒∠ ∇Βゎや¬∠ . び∀ Β͡ ∠ ∀ ∇ヤヌ∠ ポ∇ゲゼャや ラまぴ ユ ヌハ ユ ⊥ ャ ∠ あ z ͡ (Verily. or a nat ion). And We gave him good in t his world. j oining ot hers in worship wit h Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed) (31:13).) (16:120-122). Is t here anyt hing more insane t han deviat ing from t his pat h and following t he pat h of misguidance and deviat ion inst ead Is t here more inj ust ice t han t his Allah said.

t est ifies t o t his fact . びゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ヮΒ͡ よ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま べ∠ よ ヴz ヱヱぴ ⊥ ボ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ∠ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ヰ͡ タ∠ ∠ (And t his (submission t o Allah. Islam. t he Ayah might be referring t o Ibrahim's words. "Submit (i. Allah said next . びヮらボハ ヴ͡ るΒボ⇒∠ るヨヤミ ゅ∠ ヤバィヱぴ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ⇔ ∠ ͡ よ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ . among mankind who have t he best claim t o Ibrahim are t hose who followed him. Islam) was enj oined by Ibrahim upon his sons and by Ya` qub) means. And Allah is t he Wali (Prot ect or and Helper) of t he believers. e. Jinn and all t hat exist s). Verily. Similarly. Ibrahim perfect ly adhered t o Allah's command.リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ ͡∇ジョ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ャ ぺ z ͡ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヨヤ ぁ ヘ レ∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヴらレャや や∠ ⇒∠ ヱ ロヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ヤャ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よみよ サゅz ャや ∠ グz ヱ ぁ ͡ z グ ワ∠ ⊥ バ∠ z ∠ グz∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡͡ ͡ レ び リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ヴャヱ ヮヤャや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ぁ ͡∠ ⊥ z ヱ レ∠ ¬ (Ibrahim was neit her a Jew nor a Christ ian. t hat is.'') This Ayah indicat es t hat Allah commanded Ibrahim t o be sincere wit h Him and t o abide and submit t o Him. Or. Ibrahim commanded his offspring t o follow t his religion. び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ メゅ∠ ∇ユヤ∇シぺ ヮぁ ケ ヮャ メゅ∠ ∇クまぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ ∠ ⊥ よ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ (When his Lord said t o him. be a Muslim)!'' He said. "I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind. びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ャや ゆゲャ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺぴ ∠ ヨ∠ バ あ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (I have submit t ed myself (as a Muslim) t o t he Lord of t he ` Alamin (mankind. Jinn and all t hat exist s)).) (3:6768). but he was a t rue Muslim Hanifa (t o worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. This means t hat t hese Prophet s loved t hese words so much t hat t hey preserved t hem unt il t he t ime of deat h and advised t heir children t o adhere t o t hem aft er t hem.ラゅ∠ リ͡ ャヱ ゅ6 ルや∠ ∇ダル Ιヱ ゅ6 ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ミ ム∠∠ Β͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ Αキ ヰΑ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ ヴ∠∇ヱ∠ ラま . for Allah. and t his Prophet (Muhammad ) and t hose who have believed (Muslims). Allah said. Allah's st at ement .

Adhering to Tawhid until Death Allah said. The Two Sahihs recorded t hat Abu Dharr said. Usually. if Jacob was not alive t hen. La ilaha illallah (none has t he right t o be worshipped but Allah alone) a Word last ing among his offspring. t hus. (Fort y years. one dies upon t he pat h t hat . Also. Also. and We ordained among his offspring prophet hood and t he Book. びるヤプゅ∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シま ヮャ ゅ∠ ∇らワヱヱぴ ⇔ ∠͡ ル ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And We best owed upon him Ishaq. of Ya` qub (Jacob)) (11:71). Also.) I said.(And he (Ibrahim) made it i. t est ifies t hat Jacob was among t hose who received t he advice ment ioned in Ayat above (2:130-132). and (a grandson) Ya` qub) (21:72). びゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑ ペ⇒∠ ∇シま ¬へ∠ ヱ リ͡ ヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シみよ ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ゲゼらプぴ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ͡ ケ∠ ョ∠ ∠ エ ͡͡ ヰ ル z ∠ ∠ (But We gave her (Sarah) glad t idings of Ishaq (Isaac). t here would be no use here in ment ioning him specifically among Isaac's children. "I said. Ιま リゎヲ⊥ ゎ Κプ リΑあ ャや ユムャ ヴ∠ ト∇タや ヮヤャや ラま ヴレら⇒∠ ぴ z ∠ z ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヘ∠ ∠ z z ͡ z ͡∠ Α びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ユ⊥ ル∠ヱ ∠ ヨ͡ ぁ わ ぺ∠ ((Saying). who were present . during t he lifet ime of Ibrahim and Sarah.'') meaning. ` Then' He said. ` O Messenger of Allah! Which Masj id was built first ' He said. Isaac's son. indicat ing t hat t his occurred during Ibrahim's lifet ime. ` How many years lat er' He said. t hat Isaac was endowed wit h Jacob.) I said. and aft er Ishaq.e. It appears.) (29:27). It might be t hat Ibrahim advised his children. t hen die not except as Muslims. ヮわΑケク ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シま ヮャ ゅ∠ ∇らワヱヱぴ ͡ ͡ zあ ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや∠ ∠ ヲらレャや ∠ わ͡ ヱ りz ⊥ ぁ (And We best owed on him (Ibrahim). Ishaq and Ya` qub. including Jacob. t he advice t hat Jacob gave t o his children. perform right eous deeds during your lifet ime and remain on t his pat h. so t hat Allah will endow you wit h t he favor of dying upon it . (t rue Monot heism)) (43:28). )'' Furt her. (Bayt Al. Jacob built Bayt Al-Maqdis. as earlier books t est ified. which we will soon ment ion. "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you t he (t rue) religion. for t he good news includes bot h of t hem in Allah's st at ement . and Allah knows best .Maqdis. Allah said in Surat Al-` Ankabut . and. (Al-Masj id Al-Haram (Al-Ka` bah).

Also.ヴ∠ ∇ピわ∇シや∠ モガよ リ∠ ゅz ぺヱ . ゅ∠ ヴ⇒∂ ェ るレイ∇ャや モ∇ワぺ モヨバよ モヨ∇バΒャ モィゲャや ラま» ョ わ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z z ͡ ヮ∇Βヤハ ペら∇ジΒプ ∀ や∠ ͡ ∇ヱぺ ∀ ゅ∠ ゅzま ゅ∠ レ∇Βよヱ ヮレ∇Βよ ラヲ⊥ Α ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ネ ケク ∠ ネ よ ャ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ム∠ ラまヱ . We will make smoot h for him t he pat h of ease (goodness).ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΒプ ケゅz ャや モ∇ワぺ モヨバよ モヨバ∠ プ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや z ͡∠ ヰ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ Β∠ ⊥ わ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α ゅ∠ ヴわェ ケゅz ャや モワ∠ モヨバよ モヨ∇バΒャ モィゲャや ⊥ ム∠ ョ z ∠ ͡ レ ͡ ぺ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや ヮ∇Βヤハ ペら∇ジΒプ ∀ や∠ ͡ ヱ∠ ∀ ゅ∠ ゅzま ゅ∠ レ∇Βよヱ ヮレ∇Βよ ⊥ わ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ネ ケク ぺ ネ よ ャ͡ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ «ゅ∠ ヤカ∇ギΒプ るレイ∇ャや モ∇ワぺ モヨバよ モヨ∇バΒプ ヰ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Man might perform t he works of t he people of Paradise unt il only a span of out st ret ched arms or a cubit separat es him from it . (92:5-10). but t he Book t akes precedence and he performs t he works of t he people of Paradise and t hus ent ers it . t hen t he Book (dest iny) t akes precedence. メゅ∠ ∇クま れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑ ゲツェ ∇クま ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇ユわレ⊥ ∇ュぺぴ ∠ ホ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ミ ∠ ヮ⇒∠まヱ マヰ⇒∠ま ギら∇バル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ン͡ ∇バよ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ヮΒ͡ らャ ∠ ャ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ギ ∠ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ ͡ レ∠ ͡ . t he Most Generous. We will make smoot h for him t he pat h for evil). But he who is a greedy miser and t hinks himself self-sufficient . And belies Al-Husna (none has t he right t o be worshipped except Allah).ヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャゅ͡ ゆグミヱ ゲ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ジ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ レ ⊥ よ ∠ z ∠ ∠ (As for him who gives (in charit y) and keeps his dut y t o Allah and fears Him. This by no means cont radict s t he aut hent ic Hadit h t hat says. helps t hose who seek t o do good deeds t o remain on t he right eous pat h.ヴ∠ ∇ジエ∇ャゅ͡ ベギタヱ . And believes in AlHusna. Allah. man might perform t he works of t he people of t he Fire unt il only a span of out st ret ched arms or a cubit separat es him from t he Fire. and he performs t he works of t he people of t he Fire and t hus ent ers it .ン∠ ∇ジΒ∇ヤャ ロゲあ Βレジプ レ ∠ ヱ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ ョ∠ ∠ ゲ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ジ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ び ン∠ ∇ジバ∇ヤャ ロゲあ Βレジプ .) Allah said.ヴ∠ ゎや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ハぺ ∇リョ ゅz ほプぴ レ ⊥ よ ∠ z∠ ∠ ボz ヱ ト ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ . .he lived on and is resurrect ed according t o what he died on.

t he son of Ibrahim.) Ya` qub's Will and Testament to His Children upon His Death This Ayah cont ains Allah's crit icism of t he Arab pagans among t he offspring of Isma` il as well as t he disbelievers among t he Children of Israel Jacob t he son of Isaac. ` Ut hman. It was report ed t hat t his was also t he opinion of ` Umar. Zayd bin Thabit and several scholars among t he Salaf and lat er generat ions. according t o Al-Bukhari who narrat ed Abu Bakr's st at ement from Ibn ` Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubayr. Malik. "What will you worship aft er me'' They said. Ibrahim. The st at ement . They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned and you of what you earn. That was a nat ion who has passed away. ヮ⇒∠まヱ マヰ⇒∠ま ギら∇バル ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ン͡ ∇バよ リ͡ ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ャ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ ホ ギ ∠ ョ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ョ びペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま マもべ∠ へ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ ("What will you worship aft er me'' They said. Or were you wit nesses when deat h approached Ya` qub (Jacob) When he said unt o his sons. Ash-Shaf` i and Ahmad said t hat t he inherit ance is divided bet ween t he grandfat her and t he brot hers. Ishaq (Isaac). Isma` il (Ishmael). An-Nahas said t hat t he Arabs call t he uncle a fat her. Al-Bukhari t hen comment ed t hat t here are no opposing opinions regarding t his subj ect . Tawus and ` At a'. and t o Him we submit (in Islam)). "We shall worship your Ilah (God of your fat hers. Al-Hasan Al-Basri. Ibrahim (Abraham). When deat h came t o Jacob. "We shall worship your AIlah (God Allah) t he Ilah of your fat hers. This Ayah is used as evidence t hat t he grandfat her is called a fat her and inherit s. ` Ali.ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ョ ヰ∠ ∠∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱ ユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅz ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ラ ヤヨ Α n(133. he advised his children t o worship Allah alone wit hout part ners. . as Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned). when his son dies). Ishaq. He said t o t hem. because Isma` il is Jacob's uncle.'' (134. This is also t he opinion of ` A'ishah t he Mot her of t he believers. as Abu Bakr assert ed.や⇔ ェや∠ ゅ⇔ ⇒∠ま ペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま マもべ∠ へ ギ͡ ヱ ヰ ャ͡ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ よ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎ .e.'') Allah) t he Ilah Ment ioning Isma` il here is a figure of speech. rat her t han t he brot hers (i. bin Mas` ud. Isma` il. And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do. One Ilah.

び∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ (That was a nat ion who has passed away) meaning. but t he same religion. ゅ⇔ ∇ヲデ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ヴ͡ リ∠ ユヤ∇シぺ ヮャヱぴ ハ ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz プ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ びラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ ヮ∇Βャまヱ ゅ⇔ ∇ゲミヱ ∠ バ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠͡∠ ワ ∠ ∠ (While t o Him submit t ed all creat ures in t he heavens and t he eart h.on t his subj ect . Islam is t he religion of all t he Prophet s. exist ed before your t ime. For inst ance. obedient and submissiveness.) Allah said.and Hadit hs . There are many ot her Ayat . Allah said. even if t heir rei spect ive laws differed.'' びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And t o Him we submit ). «ギ͡ や∠ ゅレ⊥ Α͡ れゅzハ キゅ∠∇ヱぺ ¬ゅ∠ ら∇ルほ∇ャや ゲゼ∇バョ リ∇エル» ェ ヱ レ キ ∃ ヤ∠ ⊥ ャ ∠ ͡ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (We. Similarly.びや⇔ ェや∠ ゅ⇔ ⇒∠まぴ ギ͡ ヱ ヰ ャ ͡ (One Ilah (God)) means. so worship Me (alone and none else)) (21:25). Allah said. Indeed. And t o Him shall t hey all be ret urned) (3:83). in obedience meaning. . t he Prophet s. are brot hers wit h different mot hers. "We single Him out in divinit y and do not associat e anyt hing or anyone wit h Him. willingly or unwillingly. ヮ∇Βャま ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ Ιま メヲ⊥ ケ リ͡ マヤ∇らホ リ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ∠͡ ェ ル z ͡ ∃ シz ョ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ レ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ら∇ハゅ∠ ∇ゅルぺ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ヮz ぺ ͡ ギ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ル∠ (And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad ) but We revealed t o him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana none has t he right t o be worshipped but I (Allah) . t he Prophet said.

This Ayah proclaims. «ヮ⊥ ジル ヮよ ∇ネゲ∇ジΑ ∇ユャ ヮヤヨハ ヮよ ほトよ ∇リョ» ら∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠z ∠ ∠ (Whoever was slowed on account of his deeds will not get any fast er on account of his family lineage. "Be Jews or Christ ians. (we follow) only t he religion of Ibrahim.'' Say (t o t hem O Muhammad ). so Allah revealed. They have t heir deeds and you have yours. (we follow) only t he religion of Ibrahim. unless you perform good deeds t hat bring about you religious benefit .'' Also. び∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ン∠ ⇒∠ ル ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ギ∠ ∠ ゲ ダ∠ ∠ キ ワ ル ミ ャ ホ∠ (And t hey say. Your relat ionship t o t he Prophet s or right eous people among your ancest ors will not benefit you. follow us. "We do not need t he Judaism or Christ ianit y t hat you call us t o. . びラヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do).'' This is why a Hadit h proclaims.)' ∇モよ ∇モホ ∇やヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ン∠ ⇒∠ ル ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヱぴ ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ ゲ ダ∠ ∠ キ ワ ル ミ ャ ホ∠ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ (135. and you will be right ly guided. O Muhammad.びユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅz ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャぴ わ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ∠ (They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned and you of what you earn). "Nay. びゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョ ∇モよ ∇モホぴ ヘ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ ∠ ⊥ (Say (t o t hem O Muhammad ). t hen you will be guided. rat her.'') Allah's st at ement . "Be Jews or Christ ians. and he was not of Al-Mushrikin (t hose who worshipped ot hers along wit h Allah. "The guidance is only what we (Jews) follow. Hanif) means. ) Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat ` Abdullah bin Suriya Al-A` war said t o t he Messenger of Allah. Therefore. "Nay. Hanif (Islamic Monot heism). t hen you will be guided. And t hey say. t he Christ ians said similarly.

Ya` qub (Jacob).'' ヴ∠ま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ぴ ャ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ ャ ホ ヅゅ∠ ∇シΕや∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ͡ ら ∠ ヱ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ リ͡ ラヲぁ らレャや ヶゎヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱ ヴ∠ Β͡ ヱ ヴ∠ ヲ⊥ ヴゎヱ⊥ べ∠ ヱ ョ ∠ Β͡ z ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ジ ハ∠ シ ョ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ∠ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ギェぺ リ∇Βよ ベあ ヘル Ι ∇ユヰよケ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ あ z び (136. believed in. on t he st raight pat h. "The Hanif is what t he Messengers. and t o Al-Asbat (t he offspring of t he t welve sons of Ya` qub).'') The Muslim believes in all that Allah ` revealed and all the Prophets Allah direct ed His believing servant s t o believe in what He sent down t o t hem t hrough His Messenger Muhammad and in what was revealed t o t he previous Prophet s in general. "We believe in some but rej ect ot hers. Also. and t hat which has been given t o t he Prophet s from t heir Lord. Ishaq (Isaac). Say (O Muslims): "We believe in Allah and t hat which has been sent down t o us and t hat which has been sent down t o Ibrahim (Abraham).'' and wish t o adopt a way in bet ween. and t o Him we have submit t ed (in Islam). Some Prophet s Allah ment ioned by name.びゅヘΒ͡ ェ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま るヤョぴ ⇔ レ∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ z͡ ((we follow) only t he religion of Ibrahim. ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Α∠ ヮヤシケヱ ヮヤャや リ∇Βよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゲヘΑ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Αヱぴ ∠ ャ ボ ヱ ͡ ͡⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ホあ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ͡ わ∠ ラ∠ ラヱ⊥ Α͡ Αヱ ヂ∇バらよ ゲヘ∇ムルヱ ヂ∇バらよ リョ∇ぽル グガz Α ぺ ∠ ギ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ びゅボェ ラヱ⊥ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺΚΒ͡ シ マャク リ∇Βよ ⇔∂ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ム ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥⇔ ら∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ (And wish t o make dist inct ion bet ween Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying. Hanif) meaning. Allah direct ed t he believers t o refrain from different iat ing bet ween t he Prophet s and t o believe in t hem all. . We make no dist inct ion bet ween any of t hem. Isma` il (Ishmael). while He did not ment ion t he names of many ot hers. and t hat which has been given t o Musa (Moses) and ` Isa (Jesus). from beginning t o end. They are in t rut h disbelievers) (4:150-151). as Muhammad bin Ka` b Al-Qurazi and ` Isa bin Jariyah st at ed. Abu Qilabah said. They should avoid imit at ing whomever Allah described as.

Rat her. ¬べ∠ ら∇ルぺ ∇ユムΒ͡ モバィ ∇クま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヮヤャや るヨ∇バル ∇やヱ⊥ ミ∇クやぴ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ⊥ びゅミヲ⊥ョ ∇ユムヤバィヱ ⇔ ヤぁ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Remember t he favor of Allah t o you: when He made Prophet s among you. we submit t o Allah)) (3:52) during t he t wo (volunt ary) Rak` at before Faj r. Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i recorded t hat Ibn ` Abbas said. t he Messenger of Allah used t o recit e. Muslim. びゅデゅ∠ ∇シぺ りゲ∇ゼハ ∇ヴわレ∇をや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇バトホヱぴ ⇔ ら ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ⊥ レ z ∠ ∠ (And We divided t hem int o t welve t ribes) (7:160). The Messenger of Allah said.'' . ` We believe in Allah and in what was sent down t o us. :やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ヱ ∇ユワヲ⊥ グムゎ ゅ∠ヱ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや モ∇ワぺ やヲ⊥ あ ダゎ ゅ∠» ャ ホ ⊥ よあ ∠ ⊥ ャ∠ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ホギ∠ ⊥ ャ «ゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴ∇ルぺ ゅ∠ ヱ ぶゅ͡ ゅz ョへ レ ∠͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ よ レ∠ (Do not believe t he People of t he Book. "The People of t he Book used t o read t he Torah in Hebrew and t ranslat e it int o Arabic for t he Muslims. "Most ly.)'' Also. Also.'' This means t hat t he Asbat are t he various t ribes of t he Children of Israel. nor rej ect what t hey say. Allah said. This is why t hey were called AlAsbat .Al-Bukhari narrat ed t hat Abu Hurayrah said.'' Abu Al-` Aliyah. say.'' Al-Khalil bin Ahmad and ot hers said.e. and each one of t hem had an Ummah of people from his descendant s. Al-Qurt ubi said. among whom Allah sent several Prophet s. "Al-Asbat among t he Children of Israel are j ust like t he t ribes among t he Children of Isma` il. and. and bear wit ness t hat we are Muslims (i. made you kings) (5:20). びゅ∠ ∇Βャま メゴル⊥ べ∠ ヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ぴ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ∠ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ (We believe in Allah and t hat which has been sent down t o us) (2: 136). "Sibt is t he group of people or a t ribe all belonging t o t he same ancest ors. びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ジョ ゅz ほよ ∇ギヰ∇セや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゅz ョや∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ル∠͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ レ∠ ¬ (We believe in Allah. Moses said t o t he Children of Israel. "Al-Asbat are t he t welve sons of Jacob. Ar-Rabi` and Qat adah said.

Allah will aid t he believers against t hem. び∇やヱ∠ わ∇ワや ギボプぴ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (t hen t hey are right ly guided) meaning. So Allah will suffice for you against t hem.Qat adah said. t he Knower). believe in all of Allah's Books and Messengers and do not different iat e bet ween any of t hem. but if t hey t urn away. びユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ヲワヱぴ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz ∠ ⊥ ∠ (And He is t he Hearer.) (138. t he Knower. び∇や∇ヲャヲゎ ラ͡ヱぴ z∠ ∠ ま∠ (but if t hey t urn away) from t rut h t o falsehood aft er proof had been present ed t o t hem. if t hey. びヮヤャや るピ∇らタぴ ͡z ∠∠ ͡ . Sulayman bin Habib said. '' Also. but not t o implement t hem. "We were commanded t o believe in t he (original) Torah and Inj il. t hen t hey are only in opposit ion. Our Sibghah (religion) is t he Sibghah of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah can be bet t er t han Allah's And we are His worshippers. So if t hey believe in t he like of t hat which you believe t hen t hey are right ly guided. t he disbelievers among t he People of t he Book and ot her disbelievers. "Allah commanded t he believers t o believe in Him and in all His Books and Messengers.ユΒ͡バ∇ャや ノΒ͡ ジャや ͡z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ͡z ∠∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヨz び ラヱギ͡ ⇒∠ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ るピ∇らタ ∠ ら ハ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ (137.'' ∇ラまヱ ∇やヱ∠ わ∇ワや ギボプ ヮよ ∇ユわレ∠ や∠ べ∠ モ∇んヨよ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ ∇ラみプぴ ͡z ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ョ ¬ ョ ͡ ͡ ͡ レ∠ ¬ ͡∠ ヲワヱ ヮzャや ユヰムΒ͡ ∇ムΒジプ ベゅ∠ セ ヴ͡ ∇ユワ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ∇や∇ヲャヲゎ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ボ͡ プ ⊥ ヨz みプ z∠ ∠ ヮヤャや リョ リジ∇ェぺ ∇リョヱ ヮヤャや るピ∇らタ . And He is t he Hearer. t hey would acquire t he t rut h and be direct ed t o it . びヮzャや ユヰムΒ͡ ∇ムΒジプ ベゅ∠ セ ヴ͡ ∇ユワ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ ぴ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヘ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ボ͡ プ ⊥ ヨz みプ (t hen t hey are only in opposit ion. Allah said. So Allah will suffice you against t hem) meaning.) Allah said.

we worship Him alone and none else. "Disput e you wit h us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord And we are t o be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. and you of what you earn. ` Abdullah bin Kat hir. ` Ikrimah. They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned.'') (141. Ya` qub and Al-Asbat . Ibrahim. びヮヤャや りゲ∇トプぴ ͡ z ∠∠ ͡ (Allah's Fit rah (i. Or say you t hat Ibrahim.e. Isma` il. ` At iyah Al-` Awfi. The Ayah. Qat adah. Say (O Muhammad t o t he Jews and Christ ians). obedience and submission t o Him and in avoiding His prohibit ions. Ad-Dahhak.'' This Tafsir was also report ed of Muj ahid.'') (140. "Do you disput e wit h us regarding t he Oneness of Allah. "Disput e you wit h us about Allah) meaning.) Allah direct ed His Prophet t o pre-empt t he argument s wit h t he idolat ors: びヮヤャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ルヲぁ べ∠ ゎぺ ∇モホぴ ͡ z プ レ∠ ィ エ⊥ ∠ ⊥ (Say (O Muhammad t o t he Jews and Christ ians). And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do. Al-Hasan. "Do you know bet t er or does Allah And who is more unj ust t han he who conceals t he t est imony he has from Allah And Allah is not unaware of what you do.e. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Allah's Islamic Monot heism)) (30:30) direct s Muslims t o. and we obey His orders). Abu Al-` Aliyah. "Hold t o it .'' べ∠ ャヱ ∇ユムよケヱ ゅ∠ よケ ヲワヱ ヮヤャや ヴ͡ ゅ∠ ルヲぁ べ∠ ゎぺ ∇モホぴ レ∠∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z プ レ∠ ィ エ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∇ュぺ . .(The Sibghah of Allah). And we are sincere t o Him (i. As-Suddi and ot her scholars. "The religion of Allah. That was a nat ion who has passed away.ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ∇ユムヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユムャヱ ゅ∠ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∠ ∠ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ レ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゆヲ⊥ ∇バΑヱ ペ⇒⇒∠ ∇シまヱ モΒ͡ ⇒∠ ∇シまヱ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラま ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ∠ ボ ∠ ∠ ∠ エ ͡∠ ∠ バ ヨ ͡∠ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ユヤ∇ハぺ ∇ユわル∠¬ ∇モホ ン∠ ゅ∠ ル ∇ヱぺ や⇔ ヲ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヅゅ∠ ∇シΕや∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ ケ ダ∠ ∠ キ ワ ル ミ ∠ ら ∠ ヱ ヮヤャや リョ ロギレ͡ りギ⇒∠ セ ユわミ ∇リヨョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱ ヮzャや ュぺ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ハ ⇔ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ゅ∠ ャ ∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎ ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱ ヰ∠ ∠∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱ ユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅョ ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ゅ∠ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ ∠ ∠ z ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ラ ヤヨ Α (139. were Jews or Christ ians Say. Ishaq.

びヮヤャや ヴ͡ ヴあ ヲぁ ゅ∠ ゎぺ メゅ∠ ヮョ∇ヲホ ヮz べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ z プ ル ィ エ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ィ ェ ∠ (His people disput ed wit h him. He has full cont rol over us and you. ∇ユわル∠ ∇ユムヤヨハ ∇ユムャヱ ヴ͡∠ ∠ ヴあ モ⊥ プ ポヲ⊥ グミ ラ͡ヱぴ ⊥ ぺ ⊥ ⊥∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ヤヨハ ャ ボ∠ ∠ よz ∠ ま∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ョ ∀ ン͡ ∠ ∇ゅルぺヱ モヨ∇ハぺ べz ョ ラヲ⊥ Α͡ よ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨあ ¬ ゲよ ∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ゃ ゲ∠ (And if t hey belie you.'' . and. and.び∇ユムよケヱ ゅ∠ よケ ヲワヱぴ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ レぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (while He is our Lord and your Lord) meaning.) meaning. say: "For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do.) meaning. He said: "Do you disput e wit h me concerning Allah'') (6:80). j ust as you disown us. Allah said about Ibrahim. He said in t his honorable Ayah. Allah said in anot her Ayah. and I am innocent of what you do!'') (10:41). we disown you and what you worship. びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱ ∇ユムヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユムャヱ ゅ∠ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ べ∠ ャヱぴ ∠ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ レ⊥ ヨ ∠ レ∠∠ (And we are t o be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. び∇ユムヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユムャヱ ゅ∠ ヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ べ∠ ャヱぴ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ レ⊥ ヨ ∠ レ∠∠ (And we are t o be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. and (so have) t hose who follow me'') (3:20). and deserves t he worship alone wit hout part ners. "We disown you j ust as you disown us. リョヱ ヮヤャ ヴヰ∇ィヱ ろ∇ヨヤ∇シぺ ∇モボプ ポヲぁ べ∠ ∇ラみ∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥∠ ∠ ィ ェ プ びリバらゎや ͡ ∠ ∠z (So if t hey disput e wit h you (Muhammad ) say: "I have submit t ed myself t o Allah (in Islam). びヮよケ ヴ͡ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ァべ∠ ン͡ ャや ヴ∠ま ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ͡ あ ͡ プ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ z ェ グz ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ (Have you not looked at him who disput ed wit h Ibrahim about his Lord (Allah)) (2:258). And we are sincere t o Him.

is a t hreat and a warning t hat His knowledge encompasses every one's deeds. but he was a t rue Muslim Hanifa (t o worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin) (3:67) and t he following Ayat . Allah t hen said. nor Christ ians. び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what you do). "Do you know bet t er or does Allah'') meaning. AlH asan Al-Bas ri said. Similarly. nor Christ ians. Isma0 0l. in worship and submission. and He shall award each accordingly. yet hid t hem from t he people. ラゅ∠ リ͡ ャヱ ゅΒルや∠ ∇ダル Ιヱ ゅ6 ͡ ヲ⊥ ∠ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぴ ∠ ミ ム∠∠ 6 ͡ ゲ ∠ ∠ ∠ Αキ ヰΑ ⊥ ワ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ び リΒ͡ ゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや リョ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ゅ⇔ ͡∇ジョ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ェ ∠ ミ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ヨヤ ぁ ヘ レ∠ (Ibrahim was neit her a Jew nor a Christ ian. びユ⊥ ∇らジミ ゅz ユ⊥ ャヱ ∇ろらジミ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ャぴ わ ∠ ∠ ョ ム∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ヰ∠ . exist ed before you. They t est ified t o t hese fact s.) meaning. Allah said. びヮzャや ュぺ ユヤ∇ハぺ ∇ユわル∠¬ ∇モホぴ ⊥ ヤ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぺ∠ ⊥ (Say. Allah said in t he Ayah. Allah also said. Allah t hen crit icized t hem in t he claim t hat Ibrahim. They used t o recit e t he Book of Alla0h He sent t o t hem t hat st at ed t hat t he t rue religion is Isla0m and t hat Muh ammad is t he Messenger of Alla0h. Ish a0q. t he Prophet s who came aft er him and t he Asbat were following t heir religion. Ya qu0b and t he t ribes were neit her Jews. Allah has t he best knowledge and He st at ed t hat t hey were neit her Jews. Alla0h s st at ement . びヮヤャや リョ ロギレ͡ りギ⇒∠ セ ユわミ ∇リヨョ ユヤ∇ニぺ ∇リョヱぴ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ハ ⇔ ∠ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ And who is more unj ust t han he who conceals t he t est imony he has from Alla0h )2:140(. whet her Judaism or Christ ianit y.びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇ガョ ヮャ リ∇エルヱぴ ∠ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And we are sincere t o Him). び∇ろヤカ ∇ギホ ∀ ョぺ マ∇ヤゎぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ るz ⊥ ∠ ͡ (That was a nat ion who has passed away. Their Book also st at ed t hat Ibra0h0m.

unless you imit at e t hem in obeying Allah's orders and following His Messengers who were sent as warners and bearers of good news. He guides whom He wills t o t he st raight way.) meaning. t he Lord of t he worlds.(They shall receive t he reward of what t hey earned. especially if one disbelieves in t he mast er and Final Messenger from Allah. and Jews) among t he people will say: "What has t urned t hem (Muslims) from t heir Qiblah prayer direct ion (t owards Jerusalem) t o which t hey used t o face in prayer. east and t he west . difficult ) except for t hose whom Allah guided. and you of what you earn. t rue followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways) . The fools (idolat ors. disobey t he Messenger). do not be deceived by t he fact t hat you are t heir descendant s. And We made t he Qiblah which you used t o face. t hey bear t heir deeds while you bear yours. only t o t est t hose who followed t he Messenger (Muhammad ) from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels (i. whoever disbelieves in even one Prophet . びラヲ⊥ヨ∇バΑ やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅz ハ ラヲ⊥⇒∇ジゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ル ミ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And you will not be asked of what t hey used t o do) meaning.e. a Wasat (j ust and t he best ) nat ion.ユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ヴ∠ま ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ン͡ ∇ヰΑ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ ャ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ギ ∠ サゅz ャや ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ ͡ レ ヤ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム ∠ あ ト ∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅ∠ ヱ や⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ リz ョ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ノらわΑ リ∠ ユヤ∇バレャ Ιま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ろレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや ヨ͡ ∠ シz ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヰ ∠∠ ∠ ミ わz ヴ∠ハ Ιま りゲΒ͡ ムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ヱ ヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ ヤ∠ z ͡ ⇔ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ま∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ Α ラま ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮヤャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ヮヤャや ン∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ミ ョヱ ⊥ z ギワ ∠ グz び ∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ サゅz ャゅ͡ ヮヤャや ユ ェz フ ¬ゲャ ͡ レ よ ∠ z (142. hypocrit es. ユヰわヤ∇らホ リ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒zヱ ゅ∠ サゅz ャや リョ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや メヲ⊥ Βシぴ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ハ ⊥ ャ∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ ヰ ∠∠ ル ミ わz マャグミヱ . t he fact t hat you are t heir relat ives will not suffice. unless you imit at e t heir good deeds. And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost (i. will have disbelieved in all t he Messengers. Indeed. May Allah's peace and blessings be on Muhammad and t he rest of Allah's Prophet s. Thus We have made you t rue Muslims real believers of Islamic Monot heism. Furt her.'' Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h.. your prayers . t o all mankind and t he Jinns. Indeed it was great (heavy..e.'') (143. t hat you be wit nesses over mankind and t he Messenger (Muhammad ) be a wit ness over you.

Surely. but he wished t hat he could pray facing t he Ka` bah (at Makkah)..) (2:144) A man from among t he Muslims t hen said. t he prayers of t hose Muslims were valid)) (2:143).'' Al-Bukhari collect ed t his narrat ion. Allah t hen revealed: サゅz ャゅ͡ ヮヤャや ラま ∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ レ よ ∠ z z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ び∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ ェz フ ¬ゲャ (And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost (i.e. t owards Makkah) and also about our own prayers. in t he same bowing posit ion). t hat we had performed t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis.e. went out and passed by some people in a mosque who were in t he bowing posit ion (in Ruku` ) during t heir prayers (facing Jerusalem). t he Most Merciful t owards mankind. and we did not know what t o say about t hem (regarding t heir prayers t owards Jerusalem). Truly. The first prayer which he offered (facing t he Ka` bah) was t he ` Asr (Aft ernoon) prayer in t he company of some people. ` By Allah. We shall t urn you t o a Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t hat shall please you. but would keep looking at t he sky await ing Allah's command (t o change t he Qiblah). He addressed t hem saying. Some Muslims who offered prayer t owards t he previous Qiblah (Jerusalem) before it was changed t owards t he House (t he Ka` bah in Makkah) had died or had been mart yred. Muhammad bin Ishaq report ed t hat Al-Bara' narrat ed: Allah's Messenger used t o offer prayers t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis (in Jerusalem).) Changing the Qiblah Direction of the Prayer Imam Al-Bukhari report ed t hat Al-Bara' bin ` Azib narrat ed: "Allah's Messenger offered his prayers facing Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) for sixt een or sevent een mont hs.e. "We wish we could know about t hose among us who died before t he Qiblah was changed (i.' Hearing t hat . Allah is full of kindness. I bear wit ness t hat I have offered prayer wit h t he Prophet facing Makkah (Ka` bah). t hose people immediat ely changed t heir direct ion t owards t he House (Ka` bah) while st ill as t hey were (i. We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven. Then Allah revealed: るヤ∇らホ マレΒャヲレヤプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ びュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲゎ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ワ ッ ∠ (Verily.offered t owards Jerusalem). while Muslim collect ed it using anot her chain of narrat ors.'' Allah t hen revealed: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ... Then one of t hose who had offered t hat prayer wit h him. so t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah).

Allah's Messenger faced Jerusalem for over t en mont hs. Al-Bukhari report ed in his Sahih t hat t he news (of t he change of Qiblah) was conveyed t o some of t he Ansar while t hey were performing t he ` Asr (Aft ernoon) prayer t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis. It is report ed in t he Sahihayn (Al-Bukhari Muslim) t hat Ibn ` Umar narrat ed: While t he people were in Quba' (Mosque) performing t he Faj r (Dawn) prayer. upon hearing t hat . In summary. t hen Allah commanded him t o offer prayer t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis.. ` Ali bin Abu Talhah relat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said: When Allah's Messenger migrat ed t o AlMadinah.(And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost . Allah t hen revealed: びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ (t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion. "A (part of t he) Qur'an was revealed t onight t o Allah's Messenger and he was commanded t o face t he .) unt il t he end of t he Ayah. it s direct ion. Allah commanded him t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). said.) meaning. he liked (t o offer prayer in t he direct ion of) Prophet Ibrahim's Qiblah (t he Ka` bah in Makkah) and used t o supplicat e t o Allah and kept looking up t o t he sky (await ing Allah's command in t his regard). so t hat t he Ka` bah would be bet ween him and Bayt AlMaqdis8. and Jews) among t he people will say. "What made t hem change t he former Qiblah t hat t hey used t o face'' Allah t hen revealed: びサゅz ャや リョ ¬べ∠ ヘジャや メヲ⊥ Βシぴ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヰ∠ ぁ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ (The fools (idolat ors. When t he Prophet migrat ed t o Al-Madinah. The Jews did not like t his change and said. t hey immediat ely changed t heir direct ion and faced t he Ka` bah. The Jews were delight ed t hen.. as Ibn Abbas and t he maj orit y of t he scholars have st at ed. Allah's Messenger was commanded t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis (during t he prayer) and he used t o offer prayer t owards it in Makkah bet ween t he t wo corners (of Ka` bah). hypocrit es. "What made t hem change t he Qiblah t hat t hey used t o face (meaning Jerusalem)'' Allah revealed: ヴ∠ま ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ン͡ ∇ヰΑ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ャ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ギ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h. However. east and t he west .'') There are several ot her Ahadit h on t his subj ect . He guides whom He wills t o t he st raight way. t his pract ice was no longer possible. meaning t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians).) (2:143) The fools among t he people. a man came and said.

. This is why t he Companions ment ioned above were not commanded t o repeat t he previous ` Asr. over His Throne). but Al-Birr is t he one who believes in Allah. right eousness) t hat you t urn your faces t owards east and (or) west (in prayers). we are His servant s and under His disposal. even if t he Nasikh had already been revealed and announced.Ka` bah. his Ummah (Muslim nat ion) is profoundly great .. if He commands us every day t o face different places. t he best act is t o adhere t o Allah's commands. When t he change of Qiblah (t o Ka` bah in Makkah) occurred. and we face what ever He orders us t o face. and cert ainly. "What is t he mat t er wit h t hese people (Muslims) who one t ime face t his direct ion (Jerusalem).) (2:115). and t hen face t hat direct ion (Makkah)'' Allah answered t heir quest ions when He st at ed: びゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h.so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah (and He is High above. since obedience requires implement ing Allah's commands. bot h were led ast ray from t he right guidance and fell int o confusion. Hence. t he command. and: ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや モらホ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ラ∠ ゲら∇ャや ザ∇Βャぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ͡ ∠ z びヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ゲら∇ャや リム⇒∠ヱ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z ͡ z ͡ ャ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ ( It is not Al-Birr (piet y.) meaning. Muhammad . Allah knows best . They were facing Ash-Sham. east and t he west . Allah's care and kindness t owards His servant and Messenger. They said: びゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ユヰわヤ∇らホ リ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒zヱ ゅ∠ ぴ ヰ ∠ ∠ ル ミ わz ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ハ ⊥ ャ ∠ ョ (What has t urned t hem (Muslims) from t heir Qiblah t o which t hey used t o face in prayer. Therefore. t he decision and t he aut horit y are for Allah Alone.) They asked. These Hadit hs prove t hat t he Nasikh (a Text t hat abrogat es a previous Text ) only applies aft er one acquires knowledge of it . Allah has guided .) (2:177) This st at ement means. so t hey t urned t owards t he Ka` bah. face t he Ka` bah. and t he disbelieving Jews. t hose inflict ed wit h hypocrisy and mist rust . we should face. Also. wherever He commands us t o face. Maghrib and ` Isha' prayers (alt hough t hey had prayed t hem t owards Jerusalem aft er Allah had changed t he Qiblah). Hence: びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (. Cert ainly.

and for our saying ` Amin' behind t he Imam (leader of t he prayer).) The Virtues of Muhammad's Nation Allah said: ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ あ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ びや⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ サゅz ャや ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ ͡ レ (Thus We have made you t rue Muslims . t he most honorable house (of worship) on t he face of t he eart h. t he One wit hout a part ner. we will be t he wit nesses over t he nat ions on t he Day of Resurrect ion. The word Wasat in t he . a Wasat (j ust ) (and t he best ) nat ion. which was built by Ibrahim Al-Khalil in t he Name of Allah. t hat you be wit nesses over mankind and t he Messenger (Muhammad ) be a wit ness over you. He has commanded t hem t o face t he Ka` bah. This is why Allah said aft erwards: ヴ∠ま ¬べ∠ Α リ∠ ン͡ ∇ヰΑ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ヮヤャ モ⊥ ぴ ャ͡ ⊥ ゼ∠ ョ ギ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ͡ z∂ ホ びユΒ͡ わ∇ジョ ヅゲタ ∃ ボ∠ ぁ ∃ ∠ ͡ (Say (O Muhammad ): "To Allah belong bot h. He guides whom He wills t o t he st raight way. for t he (t rue) Qiblah t o which Allah has direct ed us and from which t hey were led ast ray.Allah's Khalil (int imat e friend). Hence.'') Imam Ahmad report ed t hat ` A'ishah (t he Prophet 's wife) said t hat Allah's Messenger said about t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians): ゅレ∠ ヱギ͡ ∇エΑ ゅ∠ ミ ¬∇ヶセ ヴ∠ハ ゅ∠ ∠ ヱギ͡ ∇エ∠ Ι ユ⊥ ルま» ル ジ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ レル ジ Α ヰz ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲ⊥ッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るバヨイ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヴ∠ハ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ゅ∠ ∇レハ やヲぁッヱ ゅ∠ ャ ぶや ゅ∠ や∠ ワ ヶ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ヴ∠∠ ∠ ヰ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヰ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ わz ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤハ ヱ «リΒ͡ へ :ュゅ∠ Ηや ブ∇ヤカ ゅ∠ ャ∇ヲホ ヴ∠∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ョ͡ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ∠ ヤハヱ (They do not envy us for a mat t er more t han t hey envy us for Jumu` ah (Friday) t o which Allah has guided us and from which t hey were led ast ray.t hem t o t he Qiblah of (Prophet ) Ibrahim -. east and t he west .) Allah st at ed t hat He has changed our Qiblah t o t he Qiblah of Ibrahim and chose it for us so t hat He makes us t he best nat ion ever. for all of t hem will t hen agree concerning our virt ue.

Also. means t he best . means t he best prayer. Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Abu Sa` id narrat ed: Allah's Messenger said: ∨∠ ∇ピヤよ ∇モワ :ヮャ メゅ∠ Βプ ∩るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ∀ ヲ⊥ ヴ∠ ∇ギΑ» ろ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ゥ ル ハ ⊥ ∇ユムピヤよ ∇モワ :∇ユヰャ メゅ∠ Βプ ヮョ∇ヲホ ヴ∠ ∇ギΒプ ∩∇ユバル :メヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∩∃ ェぺ ∇リョ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぺ ゅ∠ ヱ ゲΑ͡ ル ∇リョ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ぺ ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ ル ゎ ョ∠ ∃ グ∠ ͡ ル ゎ ョ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∩⊥ わョぺ∠ ∀ ヨ∠ ョ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨∠ ∠ ギヰ∇ゼΑ ∇リョ :ゥヲ⊥ ャ メゅ∠ Βプ ヮ⊥ z ⊥ヱ ギz エ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ マャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ :ヮャ∇ヲホ マャグ∠ メゅホ ⊥⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ プ びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ .) and t he clearest Madhhab (met hodology. saying t hat (t he Prophet 's t ribe) Quraysh is in t he Wasat regarding Arab t ribes and t heir areas.Ayah means t he best and t he most honored. Allah said: ∇リョ リΑあ ャや ヴ͡ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ モバィ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユム⇒∠ わ∇ィや ヲワぴ ͡ ͡ ギ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ⊥ ら∠ ∠ ⊥ リ͡ リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや ユム⇒z シ ヲワ ユΒ͡ ゲ∇よま ∇ユムΒ͡ ぺ るヤョ ァゲェ ョ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ ⊥ よ∠ ∠ zあ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ やギΒ͡ セ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Βャ や∠ ⇒∠ ヴ͡ ヱ モ∇らホ ⊥ ∠∠ ⇔ ヰ∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ͡ グ ワ プ∠ ⊥ ∠ びサゅz ャや ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎヱ ͡ レ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ ∠ (He has chosen you (t o convey His Message of Islamic Monot heism t o mankind). Since Allah made t his Ummah (Muslim nat ion) t he Wasat . met hod. It is He (Allah) Who has named you Muslims bot h before and in t his (t he Qur'an). t he prayer t hat is described as ` Wust a' (a variat ion of t he word Wasat ). He has endowed her wit h t he most complet e legislat ion. et c). and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship: it is t he religion of your fat her Ibrahim. Similarly. saying t hat Allah's Messenger was in t he Wasat of his people. mannerism. as t he aut hent ic collect ions of Ahadit h report ed. ` Asr. t hat t he Messenger (Muhammad ) may be a wit ness over you and you be wit nesses over mankind!) (22:78) Moreover. et c.. t he best Manhaj (way. means he was from t he best subt ribe. Therefore.

') This is why Allah said: びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Thus We have made you a Wasat nat ion.ヮャ ラヱ⊥ ヰ∇ゼわプ ラヲ∠ ∇ギわプ ∩⊥ ∇ギバ∇ャや テシヲ∇ャやヱ :メゅ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ハ ⊥∠ メ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ホ «ユ⊥ ∇Βヤハ ギヰ∇セぺ z を パゅ∠ら∇ャゅ͡ ム ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ͡ ヤ∠ よ (Nuh will be called on t he Day of Resurrect ion and will be asked. ` Who t est ifies for you' He will say.' His people will be summoned and asked. You will be summoned t o t est ify t hat Nuh has conveyed (his Message). ` Has Nuh conveyed (t he Message) t o you' They will say. ` Have you conveyed (t he Message)' He will say.' Nuh will be asked. and I will at t est t o your t est imony. (The Wasat means t he ` Adl (j ust ). ` No warner came t o us and no one (Prophet ) was sent t o us.) The Prophet said. An-Nasa'i and Ibn Maj ah. ` Yes.) It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari. Imam Ahmad also report ed t hat Abu Sa` id Khudri narrat ed: Allah's Messenger said: ゲん∇ミぺヱ ラゅ∠ィゲャや ヮバョヱ るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヶらレャや ¬ヶ͡ Α» ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ヤ⊥ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ ͡ z ⊥ イ∠ ∨や∠ ワ ∇ユムピヤよ ∇モワ :メゅボΒプ ∩⊥ ョ∇ヲホ ヴ∠ ∇ギΒプ ∩∠ ャク ∇リョ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヮ⊥ ∠ ハ ⊥ マ͡ ͡ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨∠ ョ∇ヲホ ろ∇ピヤよ ∇モワ :ヮャ メゅボ⊥ プ ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ マ∠ ∠ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ Β∠ ャ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∩⊥ わョぺヱ ∀ ヨ∠ ョ :メヲ⊥ Βプ ∨∠ ∠ ギヰ∇ゼΑ ∇リョ :メゅボ⊥ プ ∩∇ユバル ヮ⊥ z ⊥∠ ギz エ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ マャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ Β∠ ∠ ∠ や∠ ワ ヒヤよ ∇モワ :∇ユヰャ メゅ∠ Βプ ∩⊥ わョぺヱ ∀ ヨ∠ ョ ヴ∠ ∇ギΒプ グ ∠ z∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ヮ⊥ z ⊥∠ ギz エ⊥ ハ ⊥ ∠ ∨∇ユムヨ∇ヤハ ゅ∠ ヱ :メゅ∠ Βプ ∩∇ユバル :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ∨⊥ ョ∇ヲホ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ョ∠ ⊥ ボ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ヮ∠ ∠ ユ∂シヱ ヮΒヤハ ぶや ヴヤタゅ∠ Βらル ゅ∠ ¬ゅ∠ :ラヲ⊥ヲ⊥ Βプ ヤ レぁ ͡ ∠ ル∠ ィ ∠ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ゴハ ヮャ∇ヲホ マ͡グ∠ ∩やヲ⊥ ヤよ ∇ギホ モシゲャや ラぺ ゅ∠ ゲら∇カほプ z ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ャ プ ピz∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぁ z ∠ ル∠ ∠ :モィヱ z∠∠ . ` Muhammad and his Ummah. At -Tirmidhi.

` Umar said. "I said j ust like Allah's Messenger had said: . a j ust (and t he best ) nat ion. ` Yes. Again. ` Muhammad and his Ummah. "What is Waj abat . "Waj abat . ` Our Prophet (Muhammad) came t o us and t old us t hat t he Messengers have conveyed (t heir Messages). ` Who t old you t hat ' They would say.' He would be asked. I sat next t o ` Umar bin AlKhat t ab once when a funeral procession st art ed and t he people praised t he dead person.' He would be asked. ` Yes.)'' Furt hermore. and his people would also be summoned and asked.' They would be asked.'' AbulAswad asked.) He said.' Muhammad and his Ummah would t hen be summoned and asked. ` Have you conveyed (t he Message) t o your people' He would say. "(meaning) t he ` Adl. Waj abat !'' Then anot her funeral was brought fort h and t he people crit icized t he dead person. t hat you be wit nesses over mankind and t he Messenger (Muhammad ) be a wit ness over you. "Waj abat (it will be recorded as such). ') Hence Allah's st at ement : びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ (Thus We have made you a Wasat nat ion.' (he t hen cont inued recit ing t he Ayah): ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ あ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ びや⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ サゅz ャや ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ ͡ レ (Thus We have made you. ` Has he (t heir Prophet ) conveyed (t he Message) t o you' They would say. ` No.びゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ : ヴ∠ハ ¬へ∠ ヰセ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ わャ ゅ⇔ シヱ るョぺ ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ヤバィ マャグミヱぴ ヤ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ル ム∠ あ ト∠ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ びや⇔ Β͡ セ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ラヲ⊥ Αヱ サゅz ャや ギ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ⊥ シz ∠ ム∠ ∠ ͡ レ (The Prophet would come on t he Day of Resurrect ion wit h t wo or more people (his only following!). Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Abul-Aswad narrat ed: I came t o Al-Madinah and found t hat an epidemic had broken out t hat caused many fat alit ies. O Leader of t he fait hful'' He said. ` Has he conveyed (t he Message) t o his people' They would say. ` Umar said. ` Who t est ifies for you' He would say.

«る⇒⇒⇒⇒∠ ゅ∠をヱ» を ヤ∠ ∠ ギェや∠ ∇ャや リハ ヮ∇ャほ∇ジル ∇ユャ ユを.' We did not ask him about (t he t est imony) of one (believing) person. The Wisdom behind changing the Qiblah Allah t hen said: リ∠ ユヤ∇バレャ Ιま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ろレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ わz ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ヱ ヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ リz ョ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ノらわΑ ∠ ミ ま∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ Α ヨ͡ ∠ シz ⊥ ͡ z ∠ びヮzャや ン∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ Ιま りゲΒ͡ ムャ ⊥ ヤ ギワ ∠ グz ヤ∠ z ͡ ⇔ ∠ ら∠ ∠ (And We made t he Qiblah (prayer direct ion t owards Jerusalem) which you used t o face.' We said. ͡ ͡ ヲ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ メゅ∠ :ラゅ∠ ∇をや∠ ゅ∠ ∇ヤボプ :メゅ∠ ∠ ホ ͡ レ ヱ レ ⊥∠ ∠ ホ .) . t hen Allah will ent er him int o Paradise. ` And t hree. At -Tirmidhi. ` What about t hree' He said. Indeed it was great (heavy. ͡͡ ヲ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ z⊥ «ラゅ∠ ∇をや∠ » レ ヱ (Any Muslim for whom four t est ify t hat he was right eous..ぶや ヮヤカ∇キぺ ゲ∇Βガよ るバよ∇ケぺ ヮャ ギヰセ ユヤ∇ジョ ゅ∠ Αぺ» ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∃ ͡ ⊥ ヨぁ ∠ «る⇒⇒zイ∇ャや レ∠ ギェや∠ ∇ャや リハ ヮ∇ャほ∇ジル ∇ユャ z を.' We said.)'' This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari. disobey t he Messenger). ` And t wo. ` And t wo' He said. and An-Nasa'i. only t o t est t hose who followed t he Messenger (Muhammad ) from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels (i.e. difficult ) except for t hose whom Allah guided.

O Muhammad. disbelief and hypocrisy). Similarly. 125) and: るヨ∇ェケヱ ∀ べ∠ ͡ ヲワ ゅ∠ ラや∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや リョ メあ レルヱぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ¬ ヘセ ∠ ⊥ ョ ͡ ¬ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゴ∠ ⊥ ∠ び や⇔ ゅ∠ カ Ιま リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ギΑ͡ Α Ιヱ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ケ ジ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ⊥ ゴ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ あ . decides what He wills. and t hey rej oice. difficult )) The Ayah indicat es t hat changing t he Qiblah from Bayt Al-Maqdis t o t he Ka` bah is heavy on t he heart . some of t hem (hypocrit es) say: "Which of you has had his fait h increased by it '' As for t hose who believe.. びヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ リz ョぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ Α ヨ͡ (. revert s from his religion. (The at t it ude of t he believers in t his respect is) unlike t hose who have a disease in t heir heart s.Allah st at es t hus: We have legislat ed for you. Allah t hen said: びりゲΒ͡ ムャ ∇ろルゅ∠ ラ͡ヱぴ ⇔ ∠ ら∠ ∠ ∠ ミ ま∠ (Indeed it was great (heavy. it causes doubt s. t o whom whenever a mat t er occurs. and t hey die while t hey are disbelievers. It is t hey who believe t hat Allah does what He wills.) meaning. except for whomever Allah has right ly guided t heir heart s. commands His servant s wit h what He wills. j ust as t his same mat t er adds fait h and cert aint y t o t he believers.from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels. facing Bayt Al-Maqdis at first and t hen changed it t o t he Ka` bah so as t o find who will follow and obey you and t hus face what ever you face.) (9:124. it will add doubt and disbelief t o t heir doubt and disbelief. But as for t hose in whose heart s is a disease (of doubt . and t hat He has t he perfect wisdom and t he unequivocal proof in all t his. it has increased t heir fait h. who believe in t he t rut h of t he Messenger wit h cert aint y and t hat what ever he was sent wit h is t he t rut h wit hout doubt . abrogat es any of His commands t hat He wills.. Allah said: ∇ユムΑぺ メヲボΑ リz ∇ユヰ∇レヨプ ∀ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∇ろャゴル⊥ べ∠ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ョ ⊥ ͡ ∠ り ケ シ ∠ ͡ ぺ ョ ク͡ ∠ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや¬ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ほプ ゅレ⇒∠ Α͡ ログ⇒∠ ヮ∇ゎキや∠ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ レ∠ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ⇔ ヨ ま ͡ ͡ ワ ⊥ ∠ コ ユ͡ よヲ⊥ホ ヴ͡ リΑ͡ ャや ゅz ぺヱ ラヱ⊥ ゼ∇らわ∇ジΑ ∇ユワヱ ゅレ⇒∠ Α͡ ヰ͡ ヤ⊥ プ ∠ グz ョ∠∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⇔ ヨ ま び∇ユヰジ∇ィケ ヴ∠ま ゅ⇔ ∇ィケ ∇ユヰ∇ゎキや∠ プ ∀ ∠ ョ ͡ ͡ ͡ ャ͡ ジ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ゴ∠ チゲz (And whenever t here comes down a Surah (chapt er from t he Qur'an).

t hose who remained fait hful t o t he Messenger . Ibn Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas narrat ed: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ (And Allah would never make your fait h t o be lost . and it increases t he wrongdoers in not hing but loss. Some scholars st at ed t hat t he Early Migrant s (who migrat ed wit h t he Prophet from Makkah t o Al-Madinah) and Ansar (t he resident s of Al-Madinah who gave aid and refuge t o bot h t he Prophet and t he Migrant s) were t hose who offered prayers t owards t he t wo Qiblah (Bayt AlMaqdis and t hen t he Ka` bah). wit hout doubt or hesit at ion. may Allah be pleased wit h t hem all. Al-Bukhari report ed in t he explanat ion of t he Ayah (2:143) t hat Ibn ` Umar narrat ed: While t he people were performing t he Faj r (Dawn) prayer in t he Quba' Mosque.) (17:82) Cert ainly.) ent ails: Your (prayer t owards) t he first Qiblah and your believing your Prophet and obeying him by facing t he second Qiblah. Muslim also recorded it . Indeed. obeyed him and faced what ever Allah commanded t hem. Allah said: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ (And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost . At -Tirmidhi added t hat t hey were performing Ruku` (bowing down in prayer). "Qur'an was revealed t o t he Prophet and he was ordered t o face t he Ka` bah.)'' It was also recorded by At -Tirmidhi from Ibn ` Abbas. face t he Ka` bah. He will grant you t he rewards for all t hese act s. and t hen changed t he direct ion (of t he Qiblah) t o t he Ka` bah while st ill bowing down.'' They t hen faced t he Ka` bah. and At -Tirmidhi graded it Sahih. び∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヱ⊥ ∠ ∠ サゅz ャゅ͡ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ユ ェz フ ¬ゲャ ͡ レ よ ∠ z z ͡ . Allah revealed: び∇ユムレ⇒∠ Α͡ ノΒ͡ Βャ ヮzャや ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ま ∠ ツ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ミ ョ∠ (And Allah would never make your fait h (prayers) t o be lost . Muslim report ed t his last narrat ion from Anas. were t he leaders of t he Companions. t he reward of your prayers t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis before would not be lost wit h Allah.) meaning. a man came and said. Therefore.(And We send down of t he Qur'an t hat which is a healing and a mercy t o t hose who believe. These Hadit hs all indicat e t he perfect obedience t he Companions had for Allah and His Messenger and t heir compliance wit h Allah's commandment s. It is report ed in Sahih t hat Abu Ishaq As-Sabi` y relat ed t hat Bara' narrat ed: "The people asked about t he mat t er of t hose who offered prayers t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis and died (before t he Qiblah was changed t o Ka` bah).

And Allah is not unaware of what t hey do). t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion. Whenever she found a boy (infant ) among t he capt ives. it is report ed in t he Sahih t hat Allah's Messenger saw a woman among t he capt ives who was separat ed from her child. t he people who were given t he Script ure (i. she embraced him and gave him her breast t o nurse. Cert ainly.e. she would hold him close t o her chest .. Surely. Allah's Messenger faced it for t en and some mont hs. as she was looking for her boy. And wheresoever you people are. t he Most Merciful t owards mankind. The First Abrogation in the Qur'an was about the Qiblah Ali bin Abu Talhah relat ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas narrat ed: The first abrogat ed part in t he Qur'an was about t he Qiblah. (By Allah! Allah is more merciful wit h His servant s t han t his woman wit h her son. t hat (your t urning t owards t he direct ion of t he Ka` bah at Makkah in prayers) is t he t rut h from t heir Lord.)'' Furt hermore. : «ゅ∠ ギャヲよ ログワ ∇リョ ロキゅ∠ バよ ユェ∇ケぺ ぶ ぶや∠ プ» ワ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ら͡ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヲ∠ (Do you t hink t hat t his woman would willingly t hrow her son in t he fire) They said. t he maj orit y of it s people were Jews. but he liked t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim . so t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah). Verily. When she found her child. Allah is full of kindness. We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven. O Messenger of Allah!'' He said. and Allah commanded him t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis. "No. We shall t urn you t o a Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t hat shall please you. Allah's Messenger said: ケギ∇ボゎ ヶ͡ ヱ ケゅz ャや ヶ͡ ゅ∠ ギャヱ るェケゅデ ログワ ラ∇ヱゲゎぺ » ⊥ ͡ ∠ ワ∠ ͡ レ プ ワ∠ ∠∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ «ヮ∠ ∠ ∇ト∠ ゅ∠ ∇ラぺ ヴヤ∠ ェゲ ゎ ャ ∠ ハ : . The Jews were delight ed t hen.(Truly.) るヤ∇らホ マレΒャヲレヤプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲゎ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ワ ッ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱ ロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ゑ∇Βェヱ ∠ グz z ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮz ぺ ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ラ ヨヤ Βャ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ラ ヤヨ Α ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ (144. Jews and Christ ians) know well t hat . When Allah's Messenger migrat ed t o Al-Madinah.

"To Allah belong bot h. east and t he west .so wherever you t urn (yourselves or your faces) t here is t he Face of Allah) (2:115).'' Say (O Muhammad).'') (2:142) Allah said: びヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヱ ユんプ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇Α∠∠ ぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ヨレ ほプ (. and: リ∠ ユヤ∇バレャ Ιま べ∠ ∇Βヤハ ろレ⊥ ヴ͡ ャや るヤ∇らボ∇ャや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ヰ ∠ ∠ ∠ ミ わz ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ∠ びヮ∇Βらボハ ヴ∠ハ ょヤボレ∠ リz ョ メヲ⊥ ゲャや ノらわΑ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡∠ Α ヨ͡ ∠ シz ⊥ ͡ z ∠ (And We made t he Qiblah (prayer direct ion t owards Jerusalem) which you used t o face.. He used t o supplicat e t o Allah and look up t o t he sky (await ing Allah's command).) The Jews did not like t his ruling and said: ヮヤャ モ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヴ͡ ャや ユヰわヤ∇らホ リ∠ ∇ユヰ⇒zヱ ゅ∠ ぴ ͡ z∂ ホ ヰ ∠∠ ル ミ わz ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ハ ⊥ ャ∠ ョ びゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∠ ("What has t urned t hem (Muslims) from t heir Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t o which t hey used t o face in prayer. unt il. only t o t est t hose who followed t he Messenger (Muhammad ) from t hose who would t urn on t heir heels (i. びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ (t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion.) (2:143) Is the Qiblah the Ka` bah itself or its General Direction .(Ka` bah in Makkah).e.. Allah t hen revealed: び͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ (Verily. disobey t he Messenger). We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven). .

) This Ayah means: The Jews. t he People of t he Book deny t hese fact s because of t heir envy. for one is allowed t o offer it in any direct ion his body is facing. because Allah does not burden a soul beyond what it can bear. t urn your faces (in prayer) in t hat direct ion) is a command from Allah t o face t he Ka` bah from wherever one is on t he eart h: t he east . AlBukhari and Muslim) did not include it in t heir collect ions. nort h or sout h. Jews and t he Christ ians) know well t hat . and t hat Allah has endowed and honored him wit h t he complet e and honorable legislat ion. when t he bat t le is raging. west . while his heart is int ending t he Ka` bah. The Jews read in t heir Books t heir Prophet s' descript ion of Allah's Messenger and his Ummah. Also. The except ion is of t he volunt ary prayer (Nafl) while one is t raveling. Qat adah. included are t hose who are not sure of t he direct ion and offer prayer in t he wrong direct ion.Al-Hakim relat ed t hat ` Ali bin Abu Talib said: びュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプぴ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ (. however he is able. one is allowed t o offer prayer. The Jews had Knowledge that the (Muslim) Qiblah would later be changed Allah st at ed t hat : リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮzぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΒャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱぴ ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz z ͡ ∠ び∇ユヰよケ ͡ あz (Cert ainly.. Sa` id bin Jubayr.. Also. This is why Allah t hreat ened t hem when He said: . t hat (your t urning t owards t he direct ion of t he Ka` bah at Makkah in prayers) is t he t rut h from t heir Lord. ` Ikrimah. Muj ahid.e.so t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah). already knew t hat Allah will command you (O Muhammad) t o face t he Ka` bah. t he people who were given t he Script ure (i.'' Al-Hakim t hen comment ed t hat t he chain of t his narrat ion is aut hent ic and t hat t hey (i.e. disbelief and rebellion. Allah's St at ement : びロゲ∇トセ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ゑ∇Βェヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ (And wheresoever you people are. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and ot hers.. Yet .) means it s direct ion. This ruling concerning t he Qiblah is also t he opinion of Abu Al-` Aliyah. t hinking t hat it is t he direct ion of t he Qiblah. who did not like t hat you change your Qiblah from Bayt Al-Maqdis..

) ゅz るΑや∠ あ ムよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ろ∇Βゎぺ ∇リゃャヱぴ ョ ∃ ∠ ¬ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ ツ∇バよ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰわヤ∇らホ ノよゅ∠ よ ろルぺ べ∠ ヱ マわヤ∇らホ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎ ヰ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ͡ ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや リゃャヱ ヂ∇バよ るヤ∇らホ ノよゅ∠ よ ͡ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ わ͡ び リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ や∠ ま マルま ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや リョ ポ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ z ク͡ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ ョ (145. st ubbornness and defiance of what t hey know of t he t rut h of Allah's Messenger . In anot her inst ance. t hose. evidences. Even if every sign should come t o t hem.) (10:96.び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ヱぴ ラ ヤヨ Α ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョ∠ (And Allah is not unaware of what t hey do.ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι マよケ るヨヤミ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろボェ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡ び ユΒ͡Ιや ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱゲΑ ヴz ェ るΑや¬ ぁ ミ ∇ユヰ∇ゎ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∠ ャx ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ わ∠ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ィ ∠∠ (Truly. against whom t he Word (wrat h) of your Lord has been j ust ified. will not believe. unt il t hey see t he painful t orment . 97) This is why Allah said here: ゅz るΑや∠ あ ムよ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ろ∇Βゎぺ ∇リゃャヱぴ ョ ∃ ∠ ¬ モ⊥ ͡ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ びマわヤ∇らホ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ バ͡ ∠ . Allah said: . t hey would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direct ion). nor are you going t o follow t heir Qiblah. revelat ions. Verily. t hat if t he Prophet brought forward every proof t o t he t rut h of what he was sent wit h. t hen indeed you will be one of t he wrongdoers. And even if you were t o bring t o t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) all t he Ayat (proofs. signs. And t hey will not follow each ot her's Qiblah. t hey will never obey him or abandon following t heir desires.).) The Stubbornness and Disbelief of the Jews Allah describes t he Jews' disbelief. verses. if you follow t heir desires aft er t hat which you have received of knowledge (from Allah). lessons. et c.

This is) t he t rut h from your Lord. t he qualit ies of Muhammad which are writ t en in t he Tawrah and t he Inj il ). But verily. t hey would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direct ion)). et c.) ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇バΑ ゅ∠ ミ ヮルヲ⊥ ゲ∇バΑ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユヰ⇒∠ ∇Βゎへ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ プ͡ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ∠ プ͡ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ グz ∇ユワヱ ペエ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΒャ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ゅ⇔ Α͡ プ ラまヱ ∇ユワ¬べ∠ ∇よぺ ⊥ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ ボ ゲ∠ z ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ レ ∠ リョ リルヲ⊥ ゎ Κプ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャや . signs. in a Hadit h. Hence. This is why Allah said t o His Messenger and his Ummah: リョ ポ¬べ∠ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リあ ユ⊥ ¬へ∠ ∇ワぺ ろ∇バらゎや リゃャヱぴ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ィ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ワ∠ ヲ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ びリΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや リヨャ や∠ ま マルま ユ∇ヤバ∇ャや ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ∠ ͡ z ク͡ ∠ z ͡ ͡ ͡ (Verily. The Jews know that the Prophet is True. and t hat he would never adhere t o t heir desires in any case.e. Similarly. evidences.nor are you going t o follow t heir Qiblah ).∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ラ ヨヤ Α び リΑ͡ わ∇ヨヨ∇ャや ∠ ゲ∠ ⊥ (146. (147. if you follow t heir desires aft er t hat which you have received of knowledge (from Allah). a part y of t hem conceal t he t rut h while t hey know it i. t he Prophet adheres by Allah's commands. obeying Him and following what pleases Him. which is a parable t hat t he Arabs use t o describe what is very apparent .).. revelat ions. Allah's Messenger said t o a man who had a youngst er wit h him: . but because Allah had commanded it . Allah's st at ement : び∇ユヰわヤ∇らホ ノよゅ∠ よ ろル∠ べ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∃ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ぺ ョ∠ (. t hen indeed you will be one of t he wrongdoers... praying t owards Bayt Al-Maqdis was not because it was t he Qiblah of t he Jews.(And even if you were t o bring t o t he People of t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) all t he Ayat (proofs. verses. Allah t hen warns t hose who knowingly defy t he t rut h. because t he proof against t hose who know is st ronger t han against ot her people. j ust as one of t hem knows his own child. Allah's st at ement also indicat es t hat as much as t he Jews adhere t o t heir opinions and desires. Those t o whom We gave t he Script ure (Jews and Christ ians) recognise him (Muhammad or t he Ka` bah at Makkah) as t hey recognize t heir sons. lessons. So be you not one of t hose who doubt ). indicat es t he vigor wit h which Allah's Messenger implement s what Allah commanded him. but they hide the Truth Allah st at es t hat t he scholars of t he People of t he Script ure know t he t rut h of what Allah's Messenger was sent wit h.

about t he Prophet . "Yes.«や∠ ワ マレ∇よや» グ∠ ∠ ⊥ : (Is t his your son) He said. t hat t hey find in t heir Books. "Yes. you would not t ransgress against him nor would he t ransgress against you. O Messenger of Allah! I t est ify t o t his fact .) . t hey st ill: びペエ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΒャぴ z ∠ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ (conceal t he t rut h.) According t o Al-Qurt ubi. it was narrat ed t hat ` Umar said t o ` Abdullah bin Salam (an Israelit e scholar who became a Muslim). び∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ ∇ユワヱぴ ラ ヨヤ Α ⊥ ∠ (while t hey know it . and even more.'' Allah's Messenger said: «ヮ∇Βヤハ ヶ͡ ∇イ∠ ゅ∠ヱ マ∇Βヤハ ヶ͡ ∇イΑ ゅ∠ ヮzま ゅ∠ ぺ» ∠∠ レ ゎ ャ∠ ∠ ∠∠ レ ∠ ャ ⊥ ル͡ ョ∠ (Well. alt hough I do not know anyt hing about his mot her's st ory.. ) Allah t hen st rengt hens t he resolve of His Prophet and t he believers and affirms t hat what t he Prophet came wit h is t he t rut h wit hout doubt . Muhammad's) descript ion and I recognized him. So be you not one of t hose who doubt .'' Allah st at es next t hat alt hough t hey had knowledge and cert aint y in t he Prophet . "Do you recognize Muhammad as you recognize your own son'' He replied. The Honest One descended from heaven on t he Honest One on t he eart h wit h his (i.) The Ayah indicat es t hat t hey hide t he t rut h from t he people.e. saying: び リΑ͡ わ∇ヨヨ∇ャや リョ リルヲ⊥ ゎ Κプ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ャやぴ ∠ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ム∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ((This is) t he t rut h from your Lord.

while Allah's appoint ed Qiblah is what t he believers face. We have prescribed a law and a clear way.) (5:48) In t he Ayah (2:148). Truly. As-Suddi.'' This st at ement was also relat ed t o Muj ahid. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. The Christ ian has a direct ion t o which he faces.リ∇Αぺ れゲ∇Βガ∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ らわ∇シゅ∠ ゅ∠ Βあ∠ ョ ヲワ るヰ∇ィヱ モムャヱぴ ∠ ∠͡ ∠ ∠ ボ ͡ ∠ プ ヰ ャ ヲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ͡ y ⊥ ͡ ∠ あ ミ ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ヮzャや ユムよ れ∇ほΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ ゅ∠ モ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ バ ヨ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ル ム∠ ョ び ∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ (148. The ret urn of you (all) is t o Allah. Allah has guided you. but t hat (He) may t est you in what He has given you. He would have made you one nat ion.'' Abul-` Aliyah said.) Every Nation has a Qiblah Al-` Awfi report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said: びゅ∠ Βあ∠ ョ ヲワ るヰ∇ィヱ モムャヱぴ ヰ ャ ヲ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∀ ∠ ͡ y ⊥ ͡ ∠ (For every nat ion t here is a direct ion t o which t hey face (in t heir prayers)) "This t alks about followers of t he various religions. and ot hers. Hence. Wheresoever you may be. So hast en t owards all t hat is good. Allah said: . Allah is able t o do all t hings. For every nat ion t here is a direct ion t o which t hey face (in t heir prayers). t o a Qiblah which is t he t rue Qiblah. Allah will bring you t oget her (on t he Day of Resurrect ion). so compet e in good deeds. O (Muslim) Ummah. If Allah had willed. This last Ayah is similar t o what Allah said: ヮzャや ¬べ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ゅイ⇒∠ ∇レョヱ るハ∇ゲセ ∇ユムレ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィ y ムャぴ ⊥ ヤ ∠ セ ∠∠ ⇔ ヰ ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ョ レ ∠ ∠ モ⊥ ͡ ユ⊥ ⇒∠ や∠ べ∠ ヴ͡ ∇ユミヲヤ∇らΒあ リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ りギェヱ るョぺ ∇ユムヤバイャ ム ゎ ¬ ョ プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ャ ム ャ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⇔ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ びゅバΒ͡ ィ ∇ユムバィ∇ゲョ ぶや ヴ∠ま れや∠ ∇Βガャや やヲ⊥ らわ∇シゅ∠ ⇔ ヨ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ͡ ゲ ∠ ボ͡ ∠ プ (To each among you. every nat ion and t ribe has it s own Qiblah t hat t hey choose. ` At a' Ad-Dahhak. "The Jew has a direct ion t o which he faces (in t he prayer).

ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ろ∇ィゲカ ゑ∇Βェ ∇リョヱぴ ͡͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ∠ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ヤャ ヮルまヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョヱ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ろ∇ィゲカ ゑ∇Βェ ∇リョヱ .) Why was changing the Qiblah mentioned thrice This is a t hird command from Allah t o face Al-Masj id Al-Haram (t he Sacred Mosque) from every part of t he world (during prayer). Hence.) (150. so fear t hem not . And from wheresoever you st art fort h (for prayers). It was said t hat Allah ment ioned t his ruling again here because it is connect ed t o what ever is before and what ever is aft er it . t hat is indeed t he t rut h from your Lord. Allah first said: るヤ∇らホ マレΒャヲレヤプ ͡ べ∠ ジャや ヶ͡ マヰ∇ィヱ ょヤボゎ ン∠ ル ∇ギホぴ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ∠ z ∠ あ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ¬ ヨz プ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ぁ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ びゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇ゲゎ ワッ ∠ .) meaning: He is able t o gat her you from t he eart h even if your bodies and flesh disint egrat ed and scat t ered. but fear Me! And so t hat I may complet e My blessings on you and t hat you may be guided.∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ラ ヤヨ ゎ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲプ ∇ユわレ⊥ ゅ∠ ゑ∇Βェヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ミ ョ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま ∀ イェ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ サゅz ヤ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α Κゃャ ロゲ∇トセ ∠ グz z ͡ るz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ム∠ z ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ユゎΙヱ ヴ͡ ∇ヲゼ∇カや∠ ∇ユワ∇ヲゼ∇ガゎ Κプ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ z ͡ x ∠ ル ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ヨ∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャヱ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠∠ ⊥ ∠∠ わ∠ ͡ (149. t urn your face in t he direct ion of AlMasj id Al-Haram (at Makkah). t urn your faces t owards it (when you pray) so t hat men may have no argument against you except t hose of t hem t hat are wrongdoers. And from wheresoever you st art fort h (for prayers). Allah is able t o do all t hings. Truly.ヴ∠ハ ヮヤャや ラま ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ヮzャや ユムよ れ∇ほΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ ゅ∠ リ∇Αぺぴ ヤ∠ ∠ z z ͡ バ ヨ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ル ム∠ ョ ∠ ∠ び∀ Α͡ ∠ ¬∇ヴセ あ ミ ゲ ギホ ∃ ∠ モ⊥ (Wheresoever you may be. And Allah is not unaware of what you do. Allah will bring you t oget her (on t he Day of Resurrect ion). t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masj id Al-Haram (at Makkah). and wheresoever you are.

The Arabs used t o honor t he Ka` bah and liked t he fact t hat t he Messenger was commanded t o face it . If t he Muslims did not fit t his descript ion. In t he second command. The Arab disbelievers had no more argument concerning t he Prophet 's Qiblah aft er Allah commanded t he Prophet t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim. Allah said: ギイ∇ジヨ∇ャや ゲ∇トセ マヰ∇ィヱ メヲプ ろ∇ィゲカ ゑ∇Βェ ∇リョヱぴ ͡͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ∠ マよケ リ͡ ペエ∇ヤャ ヮルまヱ ュや∠ エ∇ャや ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ ヤ ョヱ ∠ あ z ョ ぁ ∠ ∠ ⊥ z ͡∠ ͡ ゲ∠ び ∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ラ ヤヨ ゎ (And from wheresoever you st art fort h (for prayers). unt il: リ͡ ペエ∇ャや ヮzぺ ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΒャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ ヱ⊥ リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱぴ ョ ぁ ∠ ⊥ ル∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ わ͡ ゎ ぺ ∠ グz z ͡ ∠ び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ゅz ハ モヘ⇒∠ よ ヮヤャや ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰよケ ラ ヤヨ Α ヨ∠ ∃ ͡ ピ͡ ⊥ z ョ∠ ͡ あ z (Cert ainly.) (2:144) Allah ment ioned in t hese Ayat His fulfillment of t he Prophet 's wish and ordered him t o face t he Qiblah t hat he liked and is pleased wit h. Allah st at es here t hat changing t he Qiblah is also t he t rut h from Him. in which Allah agreed t o what His Prophet had wished for.(Verily. t he Jews would have used t his fact against t he Muslims. We have seen t he t urning of your (Muhammad's) face t owards t he heaven. rat her t han t he Qiblah of t he Jews. Thus Allah st at es t hat t his is also t he t rut h from Him t hat He likes and is pleased wit h. as t hey knew in t heir Books t hat t he Prophet will lat er on be commanded t o face t he Qiblah of Ibrahim. The Wisdom behind abrogating the Previous Qiblah Allah said: び∀ イェ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ サゅz ヤ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α Κゃャぴ るz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ム∠ z ∠ ͡ (. And Allah is not unaware of what t hey do.. t hus upgrading t he subj ect more t han in t he first Ayah..e.) Therefore. We shall t urn you t o a Qiblah (prayer direct ion) t hat shall please you) (2:144). Allah refut es t he Jewish assert ion t hat t he Prophet faced t heir Qiblah. t he people who were given t he Script ure (i. t he People of t he Book knew from t he descript ion of t he Muslim Ummah t hat t hey would be ordered t o face t he Ka` bah. which is more respect ed and honored. If t he Muslims had remained on t he Qiblah of . And Allah is not unaware of what you do. In t he t hird command. t hat (your t urning t owards t he direct ion of t he Ka` bah at Makkah in prayers) is t he t rut h from t heir Lord. t urn your face in t he direct ion of Al-Masid Al-Haram t hat is indeed t he t rut h from your Lord.so t hat men may have no argument against you) Therefore. Jews and t he Christ ians) know well t hat . t he Ka` bah.. Surely.

Bayt Al-Maqdis, which was also t he Qiblah of t he Jews, t his fact could have been used as t he basis of argument by t he Jews against ot her people. Allah's St at ement :

び∇ユヰ∇レョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや Ιまぴ ⊥ ͡ ヨ∠ ∠ ∠ グ z z ͡
(...except t hose of t hem t hat are wrongdoers,) indicat es t he Mushrikin (polyt heist s) of Quraysh. The reasoning of t hese unj ust persons was t he unsound st at ement : "This man (Muhammad) claims t hat he follows t he religion of Ibrahim! Hence, if his facing Bayt Al-Maqdis was a part of t he religion of Ibrahim, why did he change it '' The answer t o t his quest ion is t hat Allah has chosen His Prophet t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis first for cert ain wisdom, and he obeyed Allah regarding t his command. Then, Allah changed t he Qiblah t o t he Qiblah of Ibrahim, which is t he Ka` bah, and he also obeyed Allah in t his command. He, obeys Allah in all cases and never engages in t he defiance of Allah even for an inst ant , and his Ummah imit at es him in t his. Allah said:

びヴ͡ ∇ヲゼ∇カや∠ ∇ユワ∇ヲゼ∇ガゎ Κプぴ ル ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ ∠
(. ..so fear t hem not , but fear Me!) meaning: ` Do not fear t he doubt s t hat t he unj ust , st ubborn persons raise and fear Me Alone.' Indeed, Allah Alone deserves t o be feared. Allah said:

び∇ユム∇Βヤハ ヴ͡ ヨ∇バル ユゎΙヱぴ ⊥ ∠∠ わ∠ ͡ z ͡ x ∠
(...so t hat I may complet e My blessings on you.) This Ayah relat es t o Allah's st at ement :

び∀ イェ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ サゅz ヤ͡ ラヲ⊥ Α Κゃャぴ るz ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ レ ャ ∠ ム∠ z ∠ ͡
(...so t hat men may have no argument against you), meaning: I will perfect My bount y on you by legislat ing for you t o face t he Ka` bah, so t hat t he (Islamic) Shari` ah (law) is complet e in every respect . Allah said:

びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰゎ ∇ユムヤバャヱぴ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠∠
(...t hat you may be guided.), meaning: ` To be direct ed and guided t o what t he nat ions have been led ast ray from, We have guided you t o it and preferred you wit h it .' This is why t his Ummah is t he best and most honored nat ion ever.

ゅ∠ わ⇒∠ へ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥∇わΑ ∇ユム∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユムΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ べ∠ ミぴ レ͡ Α ⊥ ∠∠ ヤ ∠ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ゅz ユ⊥ ヨヤ∠ Α∠ るヨ∇ムエ∇ャや∠ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ユムヨあバΑヱ ∇ユムΒあ ゴΑヱ ョ ム⊥ あバ⊥ ヱ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヱ ∠ わ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ム∇セや∠ ∇ユミ∇ゲミ∇クぺ ヴ͡ ヱ⊥ ミ∇クゅ∠ - ラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バゎ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ゎ ∇ユャ ゲ⊥ ヱ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ル ゲ⊥ プ ∠ ヨ∠ ∠ ル ム∠ ∠ び ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎ Ιヱ ヶ͡ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ
(151. Similarly (t o complet e My blessings on you), We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad ) of your own, recit ing t o you Our verses (t he Qur'an) and purifying you, and t eaching you t he Book (t he Qur'an) and t he Hikmah (i. e., Sunnah, Islamic laws and Fiqh j urisprudence), and t eaching you t hat which you did not know.) (152. Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying). I will remember you, and be grat eful t o Me (for My count less favors on you) and never be ungrat eful t o Me.)

Muhammad's Prophecy is a Great Bounty from Allah
Allah reminds His believing servant s wit h what He has endowed t hem wit h by sending Muhammad as a Messenger t o t hem, recit ing t o t hem Allah's clear Ayat and purifying and cleansing t hem from t he worst t ypes of behavior, t he ills of t he souls and t he act s of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era). The Messenger also t akes t hem away from t he darkness (of disbelief) t o t he light (of fait h) and t eaches t hem t he Book, t he Qur'an, and t he Hikmah (i.e., t he wisdom), which is his Sunnah. He also t eaches t hem what t hey knew not . During t he t ime of Jahiliyyah, t hey used t o ut t er foolish st at ement s. Lat er on, and wit h t he blessing of t he Prophet 's Message and t he goodness of his prophecy, t hey were elevat ed t o t he st at us of t he Awliya' (loyal friends of Allah) and t he rank of t he scholars. Hence, t hey acquired t he deepest knowledge among t he people, t he most pious heart s, and t he most t rut hful t ongues. Allah said:

Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユヰΒ͡ ゑバよ ∇クま ∠ Β͡ ͡ ぽ⊥ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ヮzャや リョ ∇ギボャぴ ⇔ シ∠ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ リ レョ ヨ ヤ∠ ⊥ ヤ z ∠ ∠ ∠ び∇ユ͡ Βあ ∠ Α∠ ヮわ⇒∠ や∠ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇やヲ⊥∇わΑ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ∇リョ ヰ ミゴ⊥ ヱ ͡ ͡ Α ¬ ͡ ∠∠ ヤ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ぺ あ
(Indeed, Allah conferred a great favor on t he believers when He sent among t hem a Messenger (Muhammad ) from among t hemselves, recit ing unt o t hem His verses (t he Qur'an), and purifying t hem (from sins).) (3:164) Allah also crit icized t hose who did not give t his bount y it s due considerat ion, when He said:

∇やヲぁェぺヱ や⇔ ∇ヘミ ヮヤャや ろヨ∇バル ∇やヲ⊥ギよ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ま ゲゎ ∇ユャぺぴ ヤ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ z ∠ ∠ グ z ャ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ケや∠ ら∇ャや ケや∠ ∇ユヰョ∇ヲホ ͡ ヲ∠ ∠ キ ⊥ ∠ ∠

(Have you not seen t hose who have changed t he favors of Allah int o disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad ) and his Message of Islam), and caused t heir people t o dwell in t he house of dest ruct ion) (14:28) Ibn ` Abbas comment ed, "Allah's favor means Muhammad.'' Therefore, Allah has commanded t he believers t o affirm t his favor and t o appreciat e it by t hanking and remembering Him:

び ラヱゲヘ∇ムゎ Ιヱ ヶ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ム∇セや∠ ∇ユミ∇ゲミ∇クぺ ヴ͡ ヱ⊥ ミ∇クゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ゲ⊥ ヱ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ル ゲ ⊥ プ
(Therefore, remember Me. I will remember you, and be grat eful t o Me, and never be ungrat eful t o Me.) Muj ahid said t hat Allah's st at ement :

び∇ユム∇レョ Ιヲ⊥ ケ ∇ユムΒ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヤシ∇ケぺ べ∠ ミぴ ⊥ あ ⇔ シ∠ ⊥ プ レ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠
(Similarly (t o complet e My favor on you), We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad ) of your own,) means: Therefore, remember Me in grat it ude t o My favor. Al-Hasan Al-Basri comment ed about Allah's st at ement :

び∇ユミ∇ゲミ∇クぺ ヴ͡ ヱ⊥ ミ∇クゅ∠ ぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ル ゲ⊥ プ
(Therefore remember Me. I will remember you), "Remember Me regarding what I have commanded you and I will remember you regarding what I have compelled Myself t o do for your benefit (i.e., His rewards and forgiveness).'' An aut hent ic Hadit h st at es:

ヮゎ∇ゲミク ヮジ∇ヘル ヶ͡ ヶ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇リョ :ヴ∠ゅ∠ ゎ ぶや メヲ⊥ Α» ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ルゲミク ∠ ャ バ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ほヤョ ヶ͡ ヮゎ∇ゲミク ほヤョ ヶ͡ ヶ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇リョヱ ヶ͡ ∇ヘル ヶ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ プ ルゲ ミ ク ∠ ∠ ジ ∠ プ «ヮ∇レョ ゲ∇Βカ ͡ ∃ ∠
(Allah t he Exalt ed said, ` Whoever ment ions Me t o himself, t hen I will ment ion him t o Myself; and whoever ment ions Me in a gat hering, I will ment ion him in a bet t er gat hering.)' Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Anas narrat ed t hat Allah's Messenger said:

ヶ͡ ヶ͡ ゎ∇ゲミク ∇ラま ∩∠ キへ リ∇よや ゅ∠ :モィヱ ゴハ ぶや メゅ∠ » プ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ュ∠ ∠ Α z ∠ ∠ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ホ みヤョ ヶ͡ ヶ͡ ゎ∇ゲミク ∇ラま ∩ヶ͡ ∇ヘル ヶ͡ マ⊥ ∇ゲミク マジ∇ヘル ∃∠∠ プ レ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ジ ∠ プ ゎ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゲ∇Βカ みヤョ ヶ͡ :メゅ∠ ∇ヱぺ るムもゅ∠ヨ∇ャや リョ みヤョ ヶ͡ マゎ∇ゲミク ∃ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ プ ∠ ホ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ∠ ͡ ∃ ∠ ∠ プ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∩ゅ⇔ や∠ ク マ∇レョ れ∇ヲルキ や⇔ ∇らセ ヶあ ョ れ∇ヲルキ ∇ラまヱ ヮ∇レョ ハ ケ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲ ͡ レ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ ⊥ ͡ ∇ラま∠ ∩ゅ⇔ ゅ∠ マ∇レョ れ∇ヲルキ ゅ⇔ や∠ ク ヶあ ョ れ∇ヲルキ ∇ラまヱ ヱ ハ よ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ハ ケ͡ レ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡∠ «る∠ヱ∇ゲワ マわ∇Βゎぺ ヶ͡ ∇ヨゎ ヶ͡ わ∇Βゎぺ ャ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゼ ∠ レ∠ ∠ ∠
(Allah t he Exalt ed said, ` O son of Adam! If you ment ion Me t o yourself, I will ment ion you t o Myself. If you ment ion Me in a gat hering, I will ment ion you in a gat hering of t he angels (or said in a bet t er gat hering). If you draw closer t o Me by a hand span, I will draw closer t o you by forearm's lengt h. If you draw closer t o Me by a forearm's lengt h, I will draw closer t o you by an arm's lengt h. And if you come t o Me walking, I will come t o you running). It s chain is Sahih, it was recorded by Al-Bukhari. Allah said:

びラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムゎ Ιヱ ヶ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ム∇セや∠ ぴ ͡ ゲ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ ゲ⊥ ヱ
(...and be grat eful t o Me (for My count less favors on you) and never be ungrat eful t o Me.) In t his Ayah, Allah commands t hat He be t hanked and appreciat ed, and promises even more rewards for t hanking Him. Allah said in anot her Ayah:

リ͡ ャヱ ∇ユムルギΑ͡ Ε ∇ユゎ∇ゲムセ リ͡ ャ ∇ユムよケ ラクほゎ ∇クまヱぴ ゃ∠∠ ⊥ z ∠ コ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゃ∠ ⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ z ∠∠ ͡∠ び ∀ Α͡ ∠ ∠ ヴ͡ や∠ ハ ラま ∇ユゎ∇ゲヘミ ギ ギゼャ よ グ∠ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠
(And (remember) when your Lord proclaimed: "If you give t hanks (by accept ing fait h and worshipping none but Allah), I will give you more (of My blessings); but if you are t hankless (i.e., disbelievers), verily, My punishment is indeed severe.) Abu Raj a' Al-` Ut aridi said: ` Imran bin Husayn came by us once wearing a nice silken garment t hat we never saw him wear before or aft erwards. He said, "Allah's Messenger said:

ン∠ Α ∇ラぺ ぁ エΑ ぶや ラみプ るヨ∇バル ヮ∇Βヤハ ぶや ユバ∇ルぺ ∇リョ» ゲ ∠ ∠ ょ͡ ⊥ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ «ヮ͡ ∇ヤカ ヴ∠ハ ヮわヨ∇バル ゲをぺ ボ ∠ ヤ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠
:

«ロ͡ ∇らハ ヴ∠ハ» ギ ∠ ヤ∠
(Those whom Allah has favored wit h a bount y, t hen Allah likes t o see t he effect of His bount y on His creat ion), or he said, "on His servant '' - according t o Ruh (one of t he narrat ors of t he Hadit h).

りヲ∠ダャや∠ ゲ∇らダャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ わ∇シや ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒∠ ぴ ͡ ヤz ヱ ͡ z よ レ バ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ Α ヴ͡ モわ∇ボΑ リ∠ ャ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιヱ - リΑ͡ ら⇒z ャや ノョ ヮヤャや ラま プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヨ͡ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ダ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ び ラヱ⊥ バ∇ゼゎ Ι リ͡ ャヱ ∀ ゅ∠ ∇ェ∠ ∇モよ ∀ や∠ ∇ョぺ ヮヤャや モΒら∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ z ム∠ ∠ ¬ Β ぺ ∠ れ ヲ ∠ ͡ z ͡ シ
(153. O you who believe! Seek help in pat ience and As-Salah (t he prayer). Truly, Allah is wit h As-Sabirin (t he pat ient ).) (154. And say not of t hose who are killed in t he way of Allah, "They are dead.'' Nay, t hey are living, but you perceive (it ) not .)

The Virtue of Patience and Prayer
Aft er Allah commanded t hat He be appreciat ed, He ordained pat ience and prayer. It is a fact t hat t he servant is eit her enj oying a bount y t hat he should be t hankful for, or suffering a calamit y t hat he should meet wit h pat ience. A Hadit h st at es:

ラゅ∠ ゅzま ¬ゅ∠ ホ ヮャ ぶや ヶ͡ ∇ボ∠ ゅ∠ リョ∇ぽヨ∇ヤャ ゅ⇔ ∠ ∠ » ∠ ミ ャ ⇔ ツ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ツ Α ャ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ らイ ハ ヮャ や⇔ ∇Βカ ラゅ∠ ゲムゼプ ¬やz シ ヮ∇わよゅ∠ ぺ ∇ラま :ヮャ や⇔ ∇Βカ ⊥ ∠ ゲ ∠ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ タ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ゲ ∠ «ヮ∠ や⇔ ∇Βカ ラゅ∠ ゲらダプ ¬やz ッ ヮ∇わよゅ∠ ぺ ∇ラまヱ ャ ゲ ∠ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ∠ ⊥ ∠ タ∠
(Amazing is t he believer, for what ever Allah decrees for him, it is bet t er for him! If he is t est ed wit h a bount y, he is grat eful for it and t his is bet t er for him; and if he is afflict ed wit h a hardship, he is pat ient wit h it and t his is bet t er for him.)

Allah has st at ed t hat t he best t ools t o help ease t he effect s of t he afflict ions are pat ience and prayer. Earlier we ment ioned Allah's st at ement :

Ιま ∀ ゲΒ͡ ムャ ゅ∠ ルまヱ りヲ∠ダャや∠ ゲ∇らダャゅ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ Β͡ わ∇シや∠ ぴ z ͡ り∠ ら∠ ∠ ヰz ͡∠ ͡ ヤz ヱ ͡ z よ レ バ∠ ヱ び リΒ͡ ゼ⇒∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∠ バ͡ ガ ヤ∠
(And seek help in pat ience and As-Salah (t he prayer) and t ruly, it is ext remely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashi` in i.e., t he t rue believers in Allah ) (2:45) There are several t ypes of Sabr pat ience: one for avoiding t he prohibit ions and sins, one for act s of worship and obedience. The second t ype carries more rewards t han t he first t ype. There is a t hird t ype of pat ience required in t he face of t he afflict ions and hardships, which is mandat ory, like repent ance. ` Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "Sabr has t wo part s: pat ience for t he sake of Allah concerning what He is pleased wit h (i.e., act s of worship and obedience), even if it is hard on t he heart and t he body, and pat ience when avoiding what He dislikes, even if it is desired. Those who acquire t hese qualit ies will be among t he pat ient persons whom Allah shall greet (when t hey meet Him in t he Hereaft er; refer t o Surat Al-Ahzab 33:44), Allah willing.''

The Life enjoyed by Martyrs
Allah's st at ement :

∇モよ ∀ や∠ ∇ョぺ ヮヤャや モΒら∠ ヴ͡ モわ∇ボΑ リ∠ ャ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ Ιヱぴ ∠ れ ヲ ∠ ͡ z ͡ シ プ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヨ͡ ャ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ び∀ ゅ∠ ∇ェ∠ ¬Β ぺ
(And say not of t hose who are killed in t he way of Allah, "They are dead.'' Nay, t hey are living,) indicat es t hat t he mart yrs are alive and receiving t heir sust enance. Muslim report ed in his Sahih:

∩∃ ∇ツカ ゲ∇Βデ モタや∠ ェ ヶ͡ ¬や∠ ヰゼャや ゥや∠ ∇ケぺ ラぺ» ゲ ⊥ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヲ∠ プ ͡ ギ∠ ぁ ∠ ヱ ∠ z ∠ ヴ∠ま ヵ͡ ∇ほゎ z を ∩∇れ¬ゅ∠ ゑ∇Βェ るz イ∇ャや ヶ͡ ゥゲ∇ジゎ ャ ヱ ∠ ユ⊥ ∠ セ ⊥ ∠ レ∠ プ ⊥∠ ∠ マよケ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ノヤデゅ∠ ∩͡ ∇ゲバ∇ャや ろ∇エゎ るボヤバョ モΑ͡ ゅ∠ ホ ∠ ぁ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ∠z プ ス ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ z∠ ⊥ ∠ キ レ∠ ヵぺヱ ゅ∠ よケ ゅ∠ :やヲ⊥ゅ∠ プ ∨∠ ヲ⊥ ∇らゎ や∠ ゅ∠ :メゅ∠ プ ∩⇔ ハゅ∠デや z ∠∠ レz ∠ Α ャ ボ∠ ラ ピ ∠ ク ョ ∠ ボ る∠ ヤあ

∇リョ や⇔ ェぺ テ∇バゎ ∇ユャ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ わ∇Β∠ ∇ハ∠ ∇ギホヱ ∩ヶ͡ ∇らル ¬∇ヶセ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ レ ト ぺ ∠ ∠ ピ∠ ∃ ∠ ゅ∠ ユ⊥ ルぺ や∇ヱぺケ ゅz ヤプ ∩や∠ ワ モ∇んヨよ ∇ユヰ∇Βャま キゅ∠ z を ∨∠ ボ∇ヤカ ャ ヰz ∠ ∠∠ ヨ∠∠ グ ͡ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠͡ ∠ ハ ユ⊥ マ͡ ∠ ヴ∠ま ゅ∠ キゲゎ ∇ラぺ ギΑ͡ ル :やヲ⊥ゅホ ∩やヲ⊥ほ∇ジΑ ∇ラぺ ∇リョ ラヲ⊥ ゲ∇わΑ ャ͡ ルz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ャ ∠ ャ∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ミ∠ ⊥ りゲョ マΒ͡ モわ∇ボル ヴz ェ マヤΒ͡ シ ヶ͡ モゎゅ∠ レプ ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや ケやz ャや ⇔ z ∠ ∠ プ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ∠ ∠ ͡ ら∠ プ ∠ ͡ ボ⊥ ∠ Β ぁ ͡ ギ ゆゲャや メヲ⊥ Βプ りキゅヰz ャや ゆやヲ∠ ∇リョ ラ∇ヱゲΑ ゅ∠ ͡ ン∠ ∇カぺ ぁ z ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ゼ ͡ を ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨャ ゲ ⊥ «ラヲ⊥ ィ∇ゲΑ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ ∇Βャま ∇ユヰルぺ ろ∇らわミ ヶあ ま :ヮャゅ∠ィ モィ バ͡ ∠ ャ ヰ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ z ∠
(The souls of t he mart yrs are inside green birds and move about in Paradise wherever t hey wish. Then, t hey t ake refuge in lamps t hat are hanging under t he Throne (of Allah). Your Lord looked at t hem and asked t hem, ` What do you wish for' They said, ` What more could we wish for while You have favored us wit h what You have not favored any ot her of your creat ion' He repeat ed t he quest ion again. When t hey realize t hat t hey will be asked (unt il t hey answer), t hey said, ` We wish t hat You send us back t o t he eart hly life, so t hat we fight in Your cause unt il we are killed in Your cause again,' (because of what t hey enj oy of t he rewards of mart yrdom). The Lord t hen said, ` I have writ t en t hat t hey will not be ret urned t o it (eart hly life) again.) Imam Ahmad report ed t hat ` Abdur-Rahman bin Ka` b bin Malik narrat ed from his fat her t hat Allah's Messenger said:

ヴz ェ るレイ∇ャや ゲイセ ヶ͡ ペヤ∇バゎ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ リョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや るヨジル» わ∠ ͡ z ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲも デ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ «ヮ⊥ ∠ ∇ら∠ ュ∇ヲΑ ロギ∠ ィ ヴ∠ま ぶや ヮバィ∇ゲΑ んバ Α ∠ ∠ ͡ ジ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠
(The believer's soul is a bird t hat feeds on t he t rees of Paradise unt il Allah sends it back t o it s body when t he person is resurrect ed.) This Hadit h includes all t he believers in it s general meaning. Thus, t he fact t hat t he Qur'an ment ions t he mart yrs in part icular in t he above Ayah serves t o honor, glorify and favor t hem (alt hough t he ot her believers share t he rewards t hey enj oy).

ゾ∇ボルヱ ネヲ⊥ ∇ャや∠ ∇フヲ∠ ∇ャや リョ ¬∇ヶゼよ ユ⊥ ル∠ ヤ∇らレャヱぴ ∃ ∠∠ ͡ イ ヱ ガ ∠ あ ∃ ∠ ͡ ム z ヲ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ら⇒z ャや ゲゼよヱ れゲヨんャや∠ ザヘルx や∠ メや∠ ョΙや リョ ∠ ゲ͡ ダ ͡ あ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ヱ ͡ ⊥ Ι ヱ ͡ ヲ∠ x ∠ あ

べ⇒z まヱ ヮヤャ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∀ らΒ͡ ョ ユ⊥ ∇わら⇒∠ ぺ へ∠ ま リΑ͡ ャや ル͡∠ ͡ z͡ ルま ャ ホ る∠ ダぁ ヰ ∠ タ∠ ク͡ ∠ グz ∇ユヰ∇よケ リョ れヲヤタ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ - ラヲバ͡ ケ ヮ∇Βャま ͡ z あ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ∠ ィ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ び ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰヨ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ヱ るヨ∇ェケヱ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠
(155. And cert ainly, We shall t est you wit h somet hing of fear, hunger, loss of wealt h, lives and fruit s, but give glad t idings t o As-Sabirin (t he pat ient ).) (156. Who, when afflict ed wit h calamit y, say: "Truly, t o Allah we belong and t ruly, t o Him we shall ret urn.'') (157. They are t hose on whom are t he Salawat (i.e., who are blessed and will be forgiven) from t heir Lord, and (t hey are t hose who) receive His mercy, and it is t hey who are t he guided ones.)

The Believer is Patient with the Affliction and thus gains a Reward
Allah informs us t hat He t est s and t ries His servant s, j ust as He said in anot her Ayah:

∇ユムレ͡ ⊥ ョ

リΑ͡ ヰ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや ∠ ギ͡ イ⊥

ユヤ∇バル ヴz ェ ∇ユムルヲヤ∇らレャヱぴ ∠∠ ∠ わ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠∠ び ∇ユミゲ⇒∠ ∇カぺ ヲヤ∇らルヱ リΑ͡ ら⇒z ャや∠ ⊥ ∠ ら ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゲ͡ ダ ヱ

(And surely, We shall t ry you t ill We t est t hose who st rive hard (for t he cause of Allah) and AsSabirin (t he pat ient ), and We shall t est your fact s (i.e., t he one who is a liar, and t he one who is t rut hful).) (47:31) Hence, He t est s t hem wit h t he bount y somet imes and somet imes wit h t he afflict ions of fear and hunger. Allah said in anot her Ayah:

びフ∇ヲガ∇ャや∠ ネヲ⊥ ∇ャや サゅ∠ ャ ヮzャや ゅ∠ ホや∠ ほプぴ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ イ ∠ ら͡ ⊥ ヤ ヰ∠ ク∠∠
(So Allah made it t ast e ext reme of hunger (famine) and fear.) (16:112) The fright ened and t he hungry persons show t he effect s of t he afflict ion out wardly and t his is why Allah has used here t he word ` Libas' (cover or clot hes) of fear and hunger. In t he Ayat above, Allah used t he words:

びネヲ⊥ ∇ャや∠ ∇フヲ∠ ∇ャや リョ ¬∇ヶゼよぴ ͡ イ ヱ ガ ∠あ ∃ ∠͡
(wit h somet hing of fear, hunger,) meaning, a lit t le of each. Then (Allah said),

びメや∠ ョΙや リョ ゾ∇ボルヱぴ ͡ ヲ∠ x ∠ あ ∃ ∠ ∠
(loss of wealt h,) meaning, some of t he wealt h will be dest royed,

びザヘルx や∠ ぴ ͡ ⊥ Ιヱ
(lives) meaning, losing friends, relat ives and loved ones t o deat h,

びれゲヨんャや∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ∠z ヱ
(and fruit s,) meaning, t he gardens and t he farms will not produce t he usual or expect ed amount s. This is why Allah said next :

びリΑ͡ ら⇒z ャや ゲゼよヱぴ ∠ ゲ͡ ダ ͡ あ ∠ ∠
(but give glad t idings t o As-Sabirin (t he pat ient ).) He t hen explained whom He meant by ` t he pat ient ' whom He praised:

ヮ∇Βャま べ⇒z まヱ ヮヤャ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ∀ らΒ͡ ョ ユ⊥ ∇わら⇒∠ ぺ へ∠ ま リΑ͡ ャやぴ ͡ ∠͡ ル͡∠ ͡ z͡ ルま ャ ホ る∠ ダぁ ヰ ∠ タ∠ ク͡ ∠ グz び ラヲバ͡ ケ ∠ ィ∠
(Who, when afflict ed wit h calamit y, say: "Truly, t o Allah we belong and t ruly, t o Him we shall ret urn.'') meaning, t hose who recit e t his st at ement t o comfort t hemselves in t he face of t heir loss, know t hat t hey belong t o Allah and t hat He does what He wills wit h His servant s. They also know t hat not hing and no deed, even if it was t he weight of an at om, will be lost wit h Allah on t he Day of Resurrect ion. These fact s t hus compel t hem t o admit t hat t hey are Allah's servant s and t hat t heir ret urn will be t o Him in t he Hereaft er. This is why Allah said: t

びるヨ∇ェケヱ ∇ユヰ∇よケ リあ れヲヤタ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ョ ∀ ∠ ∠∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ
(They are t hose on whom are t he Salawat (i. e. , who are blessed and will be forgiven) from t heir Lord, and (t hey are t hose who) receive His mercy,) meaning, Allah's praise and mercy will be wit h t hem. Sa` id bin Jubayr added, "Meaning, safet y from t he t orment .''

びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰヨ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ヱぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ∠
(and it is t hey who are t he guided ones.) ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab comment ed: "What right eous t hings, and what a great height s.

びるヨ∇ェケヱ ∇ユヰ∇よケ リあ ∀ ヲヤタ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ョ れ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ
(They are t hose on whom are t he Salawat from t heir Lord, and (t hey are t hose who) receive His mercy) are t he t wo right eous t hings.

びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰヨ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ヱぴ ∠ ギ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ∠
(and it is t hey who are t he guided ones) are t he height s.'' The height s means more rewards, and t hese people will be awarded t heir rewards and more.

The Virtue of asserting that We all belong to Allah, during Afflictions
There are several Ahadit h t hat ment ion t he rewards of admit t ing t hat t he ret urn is t o Allah by saying:

びラヲバ͡ ケ ヮ∇Βャま べ⇒z まヱ ヮヤャ ゅz ͡ぴ ∠ ィ∠ ͡ ∠͡ ル͡∠ ͡ z͡ ルま
("Truly, t o Allah we belong and t ruly, t o Him we shall ret urn.'') when afflict ions st rike. For inst ance, Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Umm Salamah narrat ed: Once, Abu Salamah came back aft er he was wit h Allah's Messenger and said: I heard Allah's Messenger recit e a st at ement t hat made me delight ed. He said:

ノィ∇ゲわ∇ジΒプ ∀ らΒ͡ ョ リΒ͡ ヤ∇ジヨ∇ャや リョ や⇔ ェぺ ょΒ͡ Α ゅ∠» ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ る∠ ダ⊥ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ギ∠ ∠ ⊥ ダ⊥ ャ ヶ͡ らΒ͡ ョ ヶ͡ ヶ͡ ∇ゲィ∇ぺ ユヰヤャや :メヲ⊥ Α z を ヮわらΒ͡ ョ ギ∇レハ わ∠ ダ⊥ プ ル ⊥ z ⊥ z ⊥ ボ ユ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ダ⊥ ∠ ͡ «ヮ͡ マャク モバプ ゅzま ∩ゅ∠ ∇レョ や⇔ ∇Βカ ヶ͡ ∇ブヤ∇カぺヱ よ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ャ͡ ヰ ͡ ゲ ∠ ャ ͡ ∠
(No Muslim is st ruck wit h an afflict ion and t hen says Ist irj a` when t he afflict ion st rikes, and t hen says: ` O Allah! Reward me for my loss and give me what is bet t er t han it ,' but Allah will do j ust t hat .) Umm Salamah said: So I memorized t hese words. When Abu Salamah died I said Ist irj a` and said: "O Allah! Compensat e me for my loss and give me what is bet t er t han it .'' I t hen t hought about it and said, "Who is bet t er t han Abu Salamah'' When my ` Iddah (t he period

of t ime before t he widow or divorced woman can remarry) finished, Allah's Messenger asked for permission t o see me while I was dyeing a skin t hat I had. I washed my hands, gave him permission t o ent er and handed him a pillow, and he sat on it . He t hen asked me for marriage and when he finished his speech, I said, "O Messenger of Allah! It is not because I do not want you, but I am very j ealous and I fear t hat you might experience some wrong mannerism from me for which Allah would punish me. I am old and have children.'' He said:

ゴハ ぶや ゅ∠ ら͡ ∇グΑ フ∇ヲジプ りゲ∇Βピ∇ャや リョ れ∇ゲミク ゅ∠ ゅz ぺ» z ∠ ⊥ ヰ⊥ ワ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ョ ∇ギボプ リジャや リョ れ∇ゲミク ゅ∠ ゅz ぺヱ ∩͡ ∇レハ モィヱ ∠ ∠ あ あ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ョ∠ ∠ マ ∠ z ∠ ∠ リョ れ∇ゲミク ゅ∠ ゅz ぺヱ ∩͡ よゅ∠ ぺ ヵ͡ ャや モ∇んョ ヶ͡ よゅ∠ ぺ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ョ∠∠ マ∠ タ∠ グz ⊥ ͡ レ∠ タ∠ «ヶ͡ゅ∠ ハ マャゅ∠ ハ ゅ∠ ル͡∠ メゅ∠ バ∇ャや ャ Β͡ ͡ ⊥ Β͡ ヨz みプ ͡ Β͡
(As for t he j ealousy t hat you ment ioned, Allah t he Exalt ed will remove it from you. As for your being old as you ment ioned, I have suffered what you have suffered. And for your having children, t hey are my children t oo.) She said, "I have surrendered t o Allah's Messenger.'' Allah's Messenger married her and Umm Salamah said lat er, "Allah compensat ed me wit h who is bet t er t han Abu Salamah: Allah's Messenger .'' Muslim report ed a short er version of t his Hadit h.

アェ ∇リヨプ ヮヤャや ゲもべ∠ セ リ͡ りヱ∇ゲヨ∇ャや∠ ゅ∠ ダャや ラまぴ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡ バ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ヘz z ͡ ゅ∠ ヰよ フヲトΑ ラ∠ ヮ∇Βヤハ ゥゅ∠ ィ Κプ ゲヨわ∇ハや ヱぺ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ z z ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヮヤャや ラみプ や⇔ ∇Βカ ネヲトゎ リ∠ ヱ ユ ヤハ ゲミ セ ∠ z z ͡∠ ゲ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ョ∠
(158. Verily, As-Safa and Al-Marwah are of t he symbols of Allah. So it is not a sin on him who performs Haj j or ` Umrah (pilgrimage) of t he House t o perform Tawaf bet ween t hem. And whoever does good volunt arily, t hen verily, Allah is All-Recognizer, All-Knower).

The Meaning of "it is not a sin'' in the Ayah
Imam Ahmad report ed t hat ` Urwah said t hat he asked ` A'ishah about what Allah st at ed:

アェ ∇リヨプ ヮヤャや ゲもべ∠ セ リ͡ りヱ∇ゲヨ∇ャや∠ ゅ∠ ダャや ラまぴ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡ バ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ヘz z ͡ びゅ∠ ͡ ͡ フヲトΑ ラ∠ ヮ∇Βヤハ ゥゅ∠ ィ Κプ ゲヨわ∇ハや ヱぺ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ヨヰよ ∠ z z ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠

(Verily, As-Safa and Al-Marwah (t wo mount ains in Makkah) are of t he symbols of Allah. So it is not a sin on him who performs Haj j or ` Umrah (pilgrimage) of t he House (t he Ka` bah at Makkah) t o perform t he going (Tawaf) bet ween t hem (As-Safa and Al-Marwah).) "By Allah! It is not a sin if someone did not perform Tawaf around t hem.'' ` A'ishah said, "Worst is t hat which you said, O my nephew! If t his is t he meaning of it , it should have read, ` It is not a sin if one did not perform Tawaf around t hem.' Rat her, t he Ayah was revealed regarding t he Ansar, who before Islam, used t o assume Ihlal (or Ihram for Haj j ) in t he area of Mushallal for t heir idol Manat t hat t hey used t o worship. Those who assumed Ihlal for Manat , used t o hesit at e t o perform Tawaf (going) bet ween Mount s As-Safa and Al-Marwah. So t hey (during t he Islamic era) asked Allah's Messenger about it , saying, ` O Messenger of Allah! During t he t ime of Jahiliyyah, we used t o hesit at e t o perform Tawaf bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah.' Allah t hen revealed:

アェ ∇リヨプ ヮヤャや ゲもべ∠ セ リ͡ りヱ∇ゲヨ∇ャや∠ ゅ∠ ダャや ラまぴ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ͡ バ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ヘz z ͡ びゅ∠ ͡ ͡ フヲトΑ ラ∠ ヮ∇Βヤハ ゥゅ∠ ィ Κプ ゲヨわ∇ハや ヱぺ ろ∇Βら∇ャや ヨヰよ ∠ z z ∠ ぺ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ レ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠
(Verily, As-Safa and Al-Marwah are of t he symbols of Allah. So it is not a sin on him who performs Haj j or ` Umrah of t he House t o perform t he going (Tawaf) bet ween t hem.)'' ` A'ishah t hen said, " Allah's Messenger has made it t he Sunnah t o perform Tawaf bet ween t hem (As-Safa and Al-Marwah), and t hus, no one should abandon performing Tawaf bet ween t hem.'' This Hadit h is report ed in t he Sahihayn. In anot her narrat ion, Imam Az-Zuhri report ed t hat ` Urwah said: Lat er on I (` Urwah) t old Abu Bakr bin ` Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Harit h bin Hisham (of ` A'ishah's st at ement ) and he said, "I have not heard of such informat ion. However, I heard learned men saying t hat all t he people, except t hose whom ` A'ishah ment ioned, said, ` Our Tawaf bet ween t hese t wo hills is a pract ice of Jahiliyyah. ' Some ot hers among t he Ansar said, ` We were commanded t o perform Tawaf of t he Ka` bah, but not bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah.' So Allah revealed:

びヮヤャや ゲもべ∠ セ リ͡ りヱ∇ゲヨ∇ャや∠ ゅ∠ ダャや ラまぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡ バ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ヘz z ͡
(Verily, As-Safa and Al-Marwah are of t he symbols of Allah.)'' Abu Bakr bin ` Abdur-Rahman t hen said, "It seems t hat t his verse was revealed concerning t he t wo groups.'' Al-Bukhari collect ed a similar narrat ion by Anas. Ash-Sha` bi said, "Isaf (an idol) was on As-Safa while Na'ilah (an idol) was on Al-Marwah, and t hey used t o t ouch (or kiss) t hem. Aft er Islam came, t hey were hesit ant about performing Tawaf bet ween t hem. Thereaft er, t he Ayah (2:158 above) was revealed.''

The Wisdom behind legislating Sa` i between As-Safa and Al-Marwah
Muslim recorded a long Hadit h in his Sahih from Jabir, in which Allah's Messenger finished t he Tawaf around t he House, and t hen went back t o t he Rukn (pillar, i.e., t he Black St one) and kissed it . He t hen went out from t he door near As-Safa while recit ing:

)''' This Hadit h was used as a proof for t he fact t hat Sa` i is a Rukn of Haj j . fast walking) from t he As-Safa ). As-Safa). he could expiat e t he short coming wit h Damm. t he Prophet said. humbleness and need for Allah t o guide his heart . Allah has st at ed t hat Tawaf bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah is among t he symbols of Allah.) Imam Ahmad report ed t hat Habibah bint Abu Taj rah said. lead his affairs t o success and forgive his sins. Earlier we ment ioned t he Hadit h by Ibn ` Abbas t hat t he origin of Tawaf comes from t he Tawaf of Haj ar (Prophet Ibrahim's wife). whoever performs Sa` i bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah should remember his meekness. where t here was no habit at ion for her. "I saw Allah's Messenger performing Tawaf bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah. meaning..) The Prophet t hen said. In anot her narrat ion of An-Nasa'i. He should ask Allah t o keep him firm on t his pat h unt il he meet s deat h. fright ened and meek before Allah. fearful. which is: «ユ∇ボシ ¬ゅ∠ セヱ∩∃ ∇バデ ュゅ∠ デ» ⊥ ⊥ ヘ͡ ∠ ユ ⊥ ⊥ バ∠ (A t ast y (or nut rit ional) food and a remedy for t he illness. she st ood up and begged Allah for His help and kept going back and fort h in t hat blessed area bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah.) Therefore. among t he act s t hat Allah legislat ed during t he Haj j for Prophet Ibrahim. (I st art wit h what Allah has commanded me t o st art wit h meaning st art t he Sa` i (i. --. (St art wit h what Allah has st art ed wit h (i. As-Safa and Al-Marwah are of t he symbols of Allah. bet ween As-Safa and Al-Marwah seeking wat er for her son (Isma` il) Ibrahim had left t hem in Makkah. while t he people were in front of him and he was behind t hem walking in Sa` i. It was also said t hat Sa` i is Waj ib. She was humble.e. and not a Rukn of Haj j and t hat if one does not perform it by mist ake or by int ent ion. relieved her of her loneliness.«ヶ∇バジャや ユム∇Βヤハ ょわミ ぶや ラみプ や∇ヲバ∇シや» z ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ∠ ∠ (Perform Sa` i. for Allah has prescribed Sa` i on you.t he same providence which was provided t o Haj ar. When Haj ar feared t hat her son would die. and t o change his sit uat ion from t hat of sin and errors t o t hat of perfect ion and being forgiven.e. ended her dilemma and made t he well of Zamzam bring fort h it s wat er for her..びヮヤャや ゲもべ∠ セ リ͡ りヱ∇ゲヨ∇ャや∠ ゅ∠ ダャや ラまぴ ͡ z ͡ ͡ バ∠ ョ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヱ ヘz z ͡ (Verily. He should also want Allah t o eliminat e his short comings and errors and t o guide him t o t he st raight pat h. I saw his garment t wist ed around his knees because of t he fast walking in Sa` i (he was performing) and he was recit ing: . Allah t hen st at es: びや⇔ ∇Βカ ネヲトゎ リ∠ ヱぴ ゲ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ョ∠ . Allah answered her prayers.

t hose who conceal t he clear proofs. and He knows about t he sufficiency of t he reward. Allah is All-Recognizer. which We have sent down. The t hird opinion was at t ribut ed t o Al-Hasan AlBasri. Indeed: るレジェ マゎ ラ͡ヱ りケク メゅ∠ ∇んョ ユヤ∇ヌΑ Ι ヮヤャや ラまぴ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ま∠ ∃ z ∠ ∠ ボ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ び ゅヨΒ͡ ハ やゲ∇ィぺ ヮ∇ルギz リ͡ れ∇ぽΑヱ ゅ∠ ∇ヘバ⇒∠ Α ⇔ ヌ∠ ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ャ ョ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ヰ ͡ ツ⊥ (Surely. it was also said t hat it refers t o volunt ary ` Umrah or Haj j . as Ar-Razi has st at ed. Allah st at es: び∀ Β͡∠ ∀ ͡ ゅ∠ ヮヤャや ラみプぴ ユ ヤハ ゲミ セ ∠ z z ͡∠ (.ラヲ⊥ バ⇒zャや ユヰレバ∇ヤΑヱ ヮzャや エ∠ ∠∠ よ ゎ ∠ グz z ͡ ∠ レ͡ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ゅ∠ ぺヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ぺ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプ ∇やヲ⊥ Βよヱ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz ル∠∠ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ゎ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ レz ∠ ∠ マゃ⇒∠ヱぺ ∀ ゅz ミ ∇ユワヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや ラ͡ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ケ ヘ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ゎ ョ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ま . He will not award insufficient rewards t o anyone.. aft er We have made it clear for t he People in t he Book.t hen verily. Allah wrongs not even of t he weight of an at om. All-Knower. evidences and t he guidance.(And whoever does good volunt arily. Verily. Hence. Allah's reward is immense for t he lit t le deed.) (4:40) ン∠ ヰ∇ャや∠ ろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャや リョ ゅ∠ ∇ャ∠ ル∠ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ギ⊥ ヱ ͡ レあ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ゴ ぺ ョ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ユヰレバ∇ヤΑ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや ヶ͡ サゅz ヤ͡ ヮ⇒z Βよ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ リ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ͡ わ͡ プ ͡ レ ャ ⊥ レz ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇タぺヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや Ιま .. Allah knows best .) meaning. and gives from Him a great reward. t hey are t he ones cursed by . It was also said t hat it means volunt eering t o do good works in general.リΒ͡ ヨ∇ィぺ サゅz ャや∠ るムゃ⇒ヤ∠ ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャや るレ∇バャ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∠ バ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヨ ヱ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∇ユワ Ιヱ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ユヰ∇レハ ブz ガΑ Ι ゅ∠ Β͡ リΑ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ グ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヰ プ ∠ ギ͡ カ び ラヱ⊥ ヌレ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ Α (159. but if t here is any good (done). He doubles it .) It was said t hat t he Ayah describes performing Tawaf more t han seven t imes.

'' Allah t hen st at es t hat everyt hing curses such people for t his evil act . narrat ed t hrough several chains of narrat ors. which We have sent down. And I am t he One Who accept s repent ance. t hen t hose who hide knowledge are cursed by Allah and by t he cursers. May Allah curse t he sinners among t he Children of Adam. "When t he eart h is st ruck by drought . a Hadit h st at es t hat everyt hing. A Hadit h in t he Musnad. and openly declare (t he t rut h which t hey concealed).) It is also recorded by Al-Bukhari t hat Abu Hurayrah said. even t he fish in t he sea and t he bird in t he air. They will abide t herein (under t he curse in Hell). Except t hose who repent and do right eous deeds. including t he fish in t he sea. Verily. t hat st rengt hens t he overall j udgment of t he Hadit h. and die while t hey are disbelievers. t he Most Merciful. Moreover. "If it was not for an Ayah in Allah's Book. The Eternal Curse for Those Who hide Religious Commandments These Ayat st ernly warn against t hose who hide t he clear signs t hat t he Messengers were sent wit h which guide t o t he correct pat h and beneficial guidance for t he heart s. t heir punishment will neit her be light ened nor will t hey be reprieved).) (160. t he animals say. "were revealed about t he People of t he Script ure who hid t he descript ion of Muhammad .) (162. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qat adah said t hat びラヲ⊥ バ⇒zャや ユヰレバ∇ヤΑヱぴ ∠ レ͡ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (and cursed by t he cursers) means t hat t he angels and t he believers will curse t hem. evidences and t he guidance. but he hid it .''' Abu Al-` Aliyah.)'' Muj ahid said.Allah and cursed by t he cursers. combined. j ust as everyt hing asks for forgiveness for t he scholar. asks for forgiveness for t he . Abu Al-` Aliyah said t hat t hese Ayat . I will accept t heir repent ance. it is t hey on whom is t he curse of Allah and of t he angels and of mankind. ` This is because of t he sinners among t he Children of Adam. aft er Allah has made such aspect s clear for His servant s t hrough t he Books t hat He revealed t o His Messengers. Cert ainly. t hen a bridle made of fire will be t ied around his mout h on t he Day of Resurrect ion. t hose who conceal t he clear proofs. t hose who disbelieve. st at es t hat Abu Hurayrah narrat ed t hat Allah's Messenger said: るョゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ユイ∇ャぺ ∩⊥ ヨわムプ ユ∇ヤハ ∇リハ モゃシ ∇リョ» ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヮ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ «ケゅ∠ ∇リョ ュゅ∠ ヤよ ル ͡ ∃ イ͡ ͡ (Whoever was asked about knowledge t hat one has.) (161. These. I would not have narrat ed a Hadit h for anyone: びン∠ ヰ∇ャや∠ ろ⇒∠ Βら∇ャや リョ ゅ∠ ∇ャゴル∠ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ギ⊥ ヱ ͡ レあ ∠ ∠ ͡ レ ∠ ぺ ョ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ (Verily.

t he angels. all humanit y.scholars. びゆや∠ ∠ ∇ャや ユヰ∇レハ ブz ガΑ Ιぴ ⊥ グバ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ヘ∠ ⊥ ∠ (t heir punishment will neit her be light ened) Hence. t he Most Merciful.) This Ayah refers t o t hose who regret what t hey have been doing and correct t heir behavior and.) Therefore. explain t o t he people what t hey have been hiding. t he t orment will not be decreased for t hem. Allah knows best . The Ayah (2:159 above) st at es t hat t hose who hide t he knowledge will be cursed. t hen: サゅz ャや∠ るムゃ⇒ヤ∠ ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャや るレ∇バャ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ͡ レ ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヨ ヱ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ びリΒ͡ ヨ∇ィぺ ∠ バ∠ ∠ びべ∠ Β͡ リΑ͡ ヤ⇒∠ ぴ ヰ プ ∠ ギ͡ カ (it is t hey on whom is t he curse of Allah and of t he angels and of mankind. Allah aft erwards st at es t hat t hose who disbelieve in Him and remain in t his st at e unt il t hey die. by Allah. combined. and repent t o Allah. And I am t he One Who accept s repent ance. or even disbelief. where.) This Ayah also indicat es t hat t hose who used t o call t o innovat ion. They will abide t herein (under t he curse in Hell). t hus. and t hose who curse (including t he animals) each in it s own dist inct way. (in t his life and) on t he Day of Resurrect ion. . t hey will suffer t he et ernal curse unt il t he Day of Resurrect ion and aft er t hat in t he fire of Jahannam. From t his punishment . and openly declare (t he t rut h which t hey concealed). t hen Allah will forgive t hem. I will accept t heir repent ance. びユΒ͡ ゲャや ゆやz わャや ゅ∠ ぺヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ゆヲ⊥ ぺ マゃ⇒∠∇ヱほプぴ ⊥ ェz ⊥ ヲz ル∠∠ ͡ ∠∠ ⊥ ゎ∠ ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥∠ (These. Allah excluded all who repent t o Him: び∇やヲ⊥ Βよヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤ∇タぺヱ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ リΑ͡ ャや Ιまぴ レz ∠ ∠ エ∠ ∠∠ よ ゎ ∠ グz z ͡ (Except t hose who repent and do right eous deeds.

Rat her. a man said. "May Allah curse him! He is being brought repeat edly (t o be flogged for drinking).) The t orment will not be changed or t empered for even an hour. Shahr bin Hawshab report ed t hat Asma' bint Yazid bin As-Sakan narrat ed t hat Allah's Messenger said: リ∇ΒわΑΓや リ∇Βゎゅ∠ ヶ͡ ユヌ∇ハほ∇ャや ぶや ユ∇シや» ͡ ∠∠ ͡ ∠ ワ プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ (Allah's Great est Name is cont ained in t hese t wo Ayat ): .) In t his Ayah. Allah knows best . and t hat He has no part ners or equals. t he Most Gracious. Cursing the Disbelievers is allowed There is no disagreement t hat it is lawful t o curse t he disbelievers. and t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Him. t he Most Merciful Ar-Rahim.'' Allah's Messenger said: «ヮ∠ヲ⊥ ケヱ ぶや ぁ エΑ ヮz みプ ヮ∇レバ∇ヤゎ ゅ∠» ャ シ∠ ∠ ∠ ょ͡ ⊥ ル͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ (Do not curse him. We seek refuge wit h Allah from t his evil end. La ilaha illa Huwa (t here is none who has t he right t o be worshipped but He). He is t he Most Gracious Ar-Rahman. We explained t he meanings of t hese t wo Names in t he beginning of Surat Al-Fat ihah. Ot hers said t hat it is allowed t o curse individual disbelievers. He is Allah.びラヱ⊥ ヌレ⊥ ∇ユワ Ιヱぴ ∠ ゲ∠ Α ⊥ ∠ ∠ (nor will t hey be reprieved. ` Umar bin Al-Khat t ab and t he Imams aft er him used t o curse t he disbelievers in t heir Qunut (a t ype of supplicat ion) during t he prayer and ot herwise. for he loves Allah and His Messenger). t he Sust ainer. t he Most Merciful. As for cursing a specific disbeliever. Allah ment ions t hat He is t he only deit y. And your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God Allah). For proof. t he One and Only. some scholars st at ed t hat it is not allowed t o curse him. リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヲワ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ギェヱ ∀ ⇒∠ま ∇ユムヰ⇒∠まヱぴ ⊥ ヨ z ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ z ∀ ͡ ∠ ヮ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ャ͡∠ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ⊥ ェz (163. because we do not know how Allah will make his end. This Hadit h indicat es t hat it is allowed t o curse t hose who do not love Allah and His Messenger . it is cont inuous and et ernal. t hey ment ion t he st ory about t he man who was brought t o be punished repeat edly for drinking (alcohol).

) The Proofs for Tawhid Allah said: . in t he creat ion of t he heavens and t he eart h. and t he moving (living) creat ures of all kinds t hat He has scat t ered t herein. evidences. t he One Who sust ains and prot ect s all t hat exist s). t he Most Gracious. t he Most Merciful. signs. Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has t he right t o be worshipped but He). et c. La ilaha illa Huwa (t here is none who has t he right t o be worshipped but He). 2)'' Then Allah ment ions some of t he proof t hat He is alone as t he deit y.) (3:1. all of which t est ify t o His Oneness.ユャやぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ あ ギ⊥ ͡ プ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ わ͡ ∠ ͡∠ (Alif-Lam-Mim. t hat He is t he One who creat ed t he heavens and t he eart h and all of t he various creat ures bet ween t hem. and in t he veering of winds and clouds which are held bet ween t he sky and t he eart h.) and: び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ヤャ ン⇔ ワ ヮΒ͡ ょ∇Αケ Ι ゆゅ∠ ム∇ャや マャク . AlHaiyul-Qaiyum (t he Ever Living. and in t he alt ernat ion of night and day. and t he wat er (rain) which Allah sends down from t he sky and makes t he eart h alive t herewit h aft er it s deat h. Verily.リ⇒∠ ∇ェゲャや ヲワ Ιま ヮ⇒∠ま Ι ギェヱ ∀ ⇒∠ま ∇ユムヰ⇒∠まヱぴ ⊥ ヨ z ∠ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ャ͡ z ∀ ͡ ∠ ヮ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ャ͡∠ び ユΒ͡ ゲャや ⊥ ェz (And your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God Allah). are indeed Ayat (proofs. and t he ships which sail t hrough t he sea wit h t hat which is of use t o mankind. Allah said: モ∇Βヤャや ブ⇒∠わ∇カや∠ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ペ∇ヤカ ヶ͡ ラまぴ ͡ z ͡ ヤ͡ ヱ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ プ z ͡ ノヘレ∠ ゅ∠ よ ゲ∇エら∇ャや ヴ͡ ン͡ ∇イゎ ヴ͡ ャや マ∇ヤヘ∇ャや∠ ケゅ∠ レャや∠ ⊥ ∠ Α ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ゲ ∠ わz ͡ ⊥ ヱ ͡ ヰz ヱ ゅ∠ ∇ェほプ ¬べz リ͡ ¬べ∠ ジャや リョ ヮヤャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ヱ サゅz ャや Β ∠∠ ∃ ョ ョ ͡ ヨz ∠ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ぺ ョ∠ ∠ レ るよへ∠ あ ミ リ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ゑよヱ ゅ∠ ゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ チ∇ケΙや ヮよ ∃ z キ モ⊥ ョ ヰ プ z ∠ ∠ ヰ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ x ͡ ͡ ¬べ∠ ジャや リ∇Βよ ゲガジヨ∇ャや ゆゅ∠ ジャや∠ ウ⇒∠ ゲャや ͡ Α͡ ∇ダ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨz ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ͡ エz ヱ ͡ Αあ ブ ゲ ゎヱ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バΑ ュ∇ヲボャ ろ⇒∠ Γ チ∇ケΕや∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ∃ Α ͡ ∠ ヱ (164.) for people of underst anding.

. vast ness.) This (t he night ) comes and t hen goes followed by t he ot her (t he day) which does not delay for even an inst ant .. and export what t hey have t o t hem and vice versa. so people benefit from what t he ot her region has. mount ains. and somet imes vice versa. valleys. and t his eart h. wit h it s densit y. one t akes from t he lengt h of t he ot her. Allah cont inues: び͡ ゅ∠ レャや∠ モ∇Βャや ブ⇒∠わ∇カや∠ ぴ ケ ヰz ヱ ͡ z ͡ ヤ͡ ヱ (. He ext ends t he lengt h of one from t he ot her and vice versa. desert s.びチ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ペ∇ヤカ ヶ͡ ラまぴ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ プ z ͡ (Verily. j ust as Allah said: モ∇Βzや Ιヱ ゲヨボャや ポケ∇ギゎ ラ∠ べ∠ ャ ヴ͡ らレ∠ ザ∇ヨz ャや Ιぴ ⊥ ャ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ぺ ヰ∠ ピ ∠ Α ⊥ ゼ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ ら∇ジΑ マヤプ ヴ͡ モミヱ ケゅ∠ レャや ペよゅ∠ ∠ エ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ プ x ⊥ ∠ ͡ ヰ z ⊥ ͡ シ (It is not for t he sun t o overt ake t he moon. so t hat it is able t o carry ships from one shore t o anot her. it s lowlands.) Therefore. nor does t he night out st rip t he day. seas.and t he ships which sail t hrough t he sea wit h t hat which is of use t o mankind. wit h it s height . in t he creat ion of t he heavens and t he eart h. They all float . int ricat e design.. each in an orbit . . Allah t hen cont inues: びサゅz ャや ノヘレ∠ ゅ∠ よ ゲ∇エら∇ャや ヴ͡ ン͡ ∇イゎ ヴ͡ ャや マ∇ヤヘ∇ャや∠ ぴ ∠ レ ⊥ ∠ Α ヨ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ゲ ∠ わz ͡ ⊥ ヱ (.) Shaping t he sea in t his manner.) (36:40) Somet imes. and beneficial t hings t hat it has..and in t he alt ernat ion of night and day.. t he day grows short er and t he night longer. t he heavenly obj ect s in orbit . Similarly Allah said: びモ∇Βャや ヴ͡ ケゅ∠ レャや アャヲ⊥ ヱ ケゅ∠ レャや ヴ͡ モ∇Βャや アャヲ⊥ ぴ ͡ z プ ∠ ヰz ⊥ ͡ Α∠ ͡ ヰz プ ∠ z ⊥ ͡ Α (Allah merges t he night int o t he day. and He merges t he day int o t he night ) (57:6) meaning. t he sky. Allah t hen cont inues: . and ot her st ruct ures.

We give it life. All is in a Clear Book (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz t he Book of Decrees wit h Allah). which is similar t o Allah's st at ement : ゅ∠ ∇ィゲ∇カぺヱ ゅ∠ ⇒∠ ∇ΒΒ∇ェぺ るわ∇Βヨ∇ャや チ∇ケΙや ユヰz ∀ Αや∠ ヱぴ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヰ レ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ⊥ x ⊥ ⊥ ャ る ∠ ¬∠ び ラヲ⊥ミ∇ほΑ ヮ∇レヨプ ゅらェ ゅ∠ ∇レョ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⇔∂ ∠ ヰ ͡ (And a sign for t hem is t he dead land. in various shapes.) (36:36) Allah cont inues: びるよへ∠ あ ミ リ͡ ゅ∠ Β͡ ゑよヱぴ ∃ z キ モ⊥ ョ ヰ プ z ∠ ∠ (and t he moving (living) creat ures of all kinds t hat He has scat t ered t herein..ヮよ ゅ∠ ∇ェほプ ¬べz リ͡ ͡ べ∠ ジャや リョ ヮヤャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ヱぴ ͡ ͡ Β ∠ ∠ ∃ ョ ョ ¬ ヨz ∠ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ぺ ョ ∠ びゅ∠ ゎ∇ヲョ ギ∇バよ チ∇ケΙや ヰ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ x (. sust ains it . and We bring fort h from it grains. whet her small or large. colors.) (36:33). And He knows it s dwelling place and it s deposit (in t he ut erus or grave). unt il: びラヲ⊥ ヤ∇バΑ Ι ゅz ͡ ∠ ぴ ∠ ヨ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨョヱ (which t hey know not .) (11:6) びウ⇒∠ ゲャや ͡ Α͡ ∇ダ∠ ∠ ぴ ͡ Αあ ブ ゲ ゎヱ .. Allah said: ゅ∠ ホ∇コケ ヮヤャや ヴ∠ハ Ιま チ∇ケΙや ヶ͡ るよへ∠ リ͡ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ヰ⊥ ͡ ͡ z ヤ∠ z ͡ ͡ x プ ∃ z キ ョ ョ∠ リΒ͡ ョ ゆゅ∠ ミ ヴ͡ モミ ゅ∠ ハキ∇ヲわ∇ジョヱ ゅ∠ ゲボわ∇ジョ ユヤ∇バΑヱ ∃ らぁ ∃ わ͡ プ x ⊥ ヰ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ワz ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ び (And no moving (living) creat ure is t here on eart h but it s provision is due from Allah. so t hat t hey eat t hereof. Allah knows all t hat . and not hing is concealed from Him. Similarly.and t he wat er (rain) which Allah sends down from t he sky and makes t he eart h alive t herewit h aft er it s deat h).) meaning. uses and sizes.

(saying): "Our Lord! You have not creat ed (all) t his wit hout purpose.and in t he veering of winds. somet imes from t he west ... Somet imes it brings t he good news of t he clouds t hat follow it . herding t hem. in t he creat ion of t he heavens and t he eart h.. but here is not t he place t o elaborat e on t hat .. There are many books about t he wind rain.) The clouds run bet ween t he sky and t he eart h t o wherever Allah wills of lands and areas. t here are indeed signs for men of underst anding. Allah said: モ∇Βャや ブ⇒∠わ∇カや∠ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ペ∇ヤカ ヴ͡ ラまぴ ͡ z ͡ ヤ͡ ヱ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ プ z ͡ ラヱ⊥ ミ∇グΑ リΑ͡ ャや .ょ⇒∠ ∇ャΙや ヴ͡∇ヱx ろ⇒∠ Ι ケゅ∠ レャや∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz ͡ ら x ャ Ι ∃ Α∂ ͡ ヰz ヱ ヴ͡ ラヱ⊥ ムヘわΑヱ ∇ユヰよヲ⊥ ィ ヴ∠∠ ∠ やキヲ⊥ ホヱ ゅヨ⇒∠ ホ ヮヤャや プ ∠ ゲz ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ レ⊥ ヤハヱ ⇔ バ⊥ ∠ ⇔ Β͡ ∠ z やグ∠ ろ∇ボヤカ ゅ∠ べ∠ よケ チ∇ケΙや∠ れヲ⇒∠ ジャや ペ∇ヤカ ワ ∠ ∠∠ ョ レz ∠ ͡ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ び ケゅz ャや ゆや∠ ハ ゅ∠ ͡ ∠ マレ⇒∠ ∇らシ Κト⇒∠ ͡ レ ∠ グ∠ レボプ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ ⇔ ͡ よ (Verily. and t hink deeply about t he creat ion of t he heavens and t he eart h.are indeed Ayat for people of underst anding.'') (3:190. t he wind comes from t he nort h (t he nort hern wind). glory t o You! (Exalt ed are You above all t hat t hey associat e wit h You as part ners). Those who remember Allah (always. and Allah knows best . st ars and t he regulat ions relat ed t o t hem. and in t he alt ernat ion of night and day. t he wind brings mercy and somet imes t orment .) Somet imes. and somet imes from t he sout h.and clouds which are held bet ween t he sky and t he eart h.. somet imes from t he east . Similarly. Give us salvat ion from t he t orment of t he Fire. all t hese t hings are clear signs t hat t est ify t o Allah's Oneness.(. and lying down on t heir sides. somet imes it leads t he clouds.. scat t ering t hem or direct ing t hem. Allah said next : びラヲ⊥ボ∇バΑ ュ∇ヲボャ ろ⇒∠ Γぴ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∃ ∠ あ ∃ Α (. st riking it s back. Allah cont inues: びチ∇ケΕや∠ ͡ べ∠ ジャや リ∇Βよ ゲガジヨ∇ャや ゆゅ∠ ジャや∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ヱ ¬ ヨz ∠ ∠ ͡ z ∠ ⊥ ͡ エ z ヱ (.. and st riking t he front of t he Ka` bah. 191) .) meaning. and in prayers) st anding. Somet imes. sit t ing..

'' Thus Allah will show t hem t heir deeds as regret s for t hem. love Allah more (t han anyt hing else). Allah ment ions t he condit ion of t he polyt heist s in t his life and t heir dest inat ion in t he Hereaft er.や⇔ や∠ ル∠ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ グガわΑ リ∠ サゅz ャや リョヱぴ キ ギ ぺ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ⊥ ͡ z∠ ョ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ヮヤャ ゅ6 ェ ギセぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ヮヤャや あ エミ ∇ユヰルヲぁ エΑ ͡ z͡ ら⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ ͡ z ょ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ら͡ ⊥ りヲボ∇ャや ラぺ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ラ∇ヱゲΑ ∇クま ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや ン∠ Α ∇ヲャヱ ∠ z ⊥ z ∠ ∠ グ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ゲ∠ ∠∠ リΑ͡ ャや ぺゲらゎ ∇クま .) (166. And t hose who followed will say: "If only we had one more chance t o ret urn (t o t he worldly life). we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) t hem as t hey have disowned (declared t hemselves as innocent from) us. They appoint ed equals and rivals wit h Allah. It is report ed in t he Sahihayn t hat ` Abdullah bin Mas` ud said: I said. If only. and t hey see t he t orment . (167.ゆゅ∠ ∇シΙや ユヰよ ⇔ z ∠ レャ z ∠ ∠ バ∠ z ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ ⊥ ら x ⊥ ͡ ͡ ヮzャや ユヰΑ͡ Α マャグミ ゅz ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ゲらゎ ゅ∠ ミ ∇ユヰ∇レョ ぺゲらわレプ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ レョ ¬z ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ リョ リΒ͡ ゲ⇒∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ れゲジェ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∠ ͡ ∠ ィ͡ ガ͡ ワ ョ∠ ͡ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ び ケゅz ャや ͡ レ (165. when t hey will see t he t orment . Who has neit her rival nor opponent nor part ner.ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ギΑ͡ セ ヮヤャや ラぺヱ ゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ヮヤャ ∠ グz ∠z ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ グ∠ ⊥ ギ∠ ∠ z z ∠∠ バ ヨ∠ ͡ z͡ ∇ろバトボゎヱ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱぺケヱ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ャや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ バ∠ z ∠ グz ∠ ͡ バ͡ ぁ りゲミ ゅ∠ ∠ ラぺ ∇ヲャ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱ . And of mankind are some who t ake (for worship) ot hers besides Allah as rivals (t o Allah). However. When t hose who were followed disown (declare t hemselves innocent of) t hose who followed (t hem). But t hose who believe. And t hey will never get out of t he Fire. t hen all t heir relat ions will be cut off from t hem).) Allah said: . t hose who do wrong could see. Allah is t he only deit y wort hy of worship. j ust as t hey love Allah. t hat all power belongs t o Allah and t hat Allah is severe in punishment . worshipping t hem along wit h Allah and loving t hem. They love t hem as t hey love Allah. "O Messenger of Allah! What is t he great est sin'' He said: «マ∠ ヤカ ヲワヱ や6 ル ぶ モバ∇イゎ ∇ラぺ» ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ギ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ (To appoint a rival t o Allah while He Alone has creat ed you.) The Condition of the Polytheists in this Life and the Hereafter In t hese Ayat .

Rat her. whom t hey used t o claim t hat t hey worshipped.びヮヤャ ゅ6 ェ ギセぺ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ͡ z͡ ら⊥ ぁ ∠ ∠ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヱ (But t hose who believe. but t hey used t o worship t he Jinn. t hat all power belongs t o Allah. It was not us t hey worshipped.) (28:63). and t hat t hose t hey followed will declare t heir innocence of t hem. when t hey will see t he t orment .) t he angels. ラぺ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ラ∇ヱゲΑ ∇クま ∇やヲ⊥ ヤニ リΑ͡ ャや ン∠ Α ∇ヲャヱぴ z ∠ ∠ グ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヨ∠∠ ∠ グz ゲ∠ ∠∠ びゅ⇔ Β͡ ィ ヮヤャ りヲボ∇ャや バ ヨ∠ ͡ z͡ ∠ z ⊥ (If only. declare t heir innocence of t hem in t he Hereaft er. t hen t hey do not associat e anyt hing or anyone wit h Him in t he worship. know His great ness. t hey worship Him Alone. t hen t hey would shun t he deviat ion t hat t hey live by. Then.'') (34:4) . and: ラヱ⊥ ら∇バΑ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ∇モよ ∇ユヰルヱ⊥ リ͡ ゅ∠ Βャヱ ろル∠ マレ⇒∠ ∇らシぴ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ∠ ͡ ͡ キ ョ レぁ ͡∠ ∠ ぺ ∠ ∠ エ ⊥ びラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽョ ユ͡ よ ユ⊥ ゲん⇒∇ミぺ リイ∇ャや ∠ レ͡ ぁ ヰ͡ ワ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ("Glorified be You! You are our Wali (Lord) inst ead of t hem. saying: びラヱ⊥ ら∇バΑ ゅ∠ ゅz ま ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ マ∇Βャま べ∠ ∇ぺゲらゎぴ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ル Α͡ ル ミ ョ ∠ ∠͡ ル z ∠ ∠ (We declare our innocence (from t hem) before You. love Allah more (t han anyt hing else)) Because t hese believers love Allah. Allah warns t hose who commit Shirk. depend on Him and t hey seek help from Him for each and every need. Nay. most of t hem were believers in t hem.) if t hese people knew what t hey will face and t he t errible punishment t hey are t o suffer because of t heir disbelief and Shirk (polyt heism). believe in His Oneness. Allah ment ions t heir false beliefs in t heir idols. t hose who do wrong could see. revere Him. Allah said: び∇やヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ャや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ャや ぺゲらゎ ∇クまぴ バ∠ z ∠ グz ∠ ͡ バ͡ ぁ ∠ グz ∠z ∠ ∠ ͡ (When t hose who were followed disown (declare t hemselves innocent of) t hose who followed (t hem).

The Jinn will also disown t he disbelievers who worshipped t hem. Allah said: Ι リ∠ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ヲ⊥ ∇ギΑ リz ョ モッぺ ∇リョヱぴ z ョ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ ハ ∠ ヨ͡ ぁ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰもべ∠ キ リ∠ ∇ユワヱ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヴ∠ま ヮャ ょΒ͡ わ∇ジΑ ͡ ͡ ハ⊥ ハ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ͡ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ イ∠ ∠ ¬へ∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユヰャ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ サゅz ャや ゲゼェ や∠ まヱ . you shall disown each ot her. and become opponent s t o t hem (on t he Day of Resurrect ion). but on t he Day of Resurrect ion. such as will not answer him t ill t he Day of Resurrect ion.) (19:81. t hat t hey might give t hem honor. The love bet ween you is only in t he life of t his world.) (29:25) Allah said: . 6) Allah said: び やゴハ ∇ユヰャ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Βャ るヰャや¬ ヮヤャや ラヱ⊥ リ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ガゎや∠ ぴ ⇔∂ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ル ム∠ あ ⇔ ∠ ͡ ͡ z ͡ キ ョ グ∠ z ヱ び やギッ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ラヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Αヱ ∇ユヰゎギ⇒∠ バよ ラヱ⊥ ヘ∇ムΒシ Κミぴ ⇔∂ ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ル ム∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ら͡ ͡ ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ∠ z ∠ (And t hey have t aken (for worship) alihah (gods) besides Allah. 82) Prophet Ibrahim said t o his people: ヴ͡ ∇ユムレ∇Βよ りキヲョ ゅレ⇒∠ ∇ヱぺ ヮヤャや ラヱキ リあ ∇ユゎ∇グガゎや ゅ∠ ルまぴ プ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ z ∠ z ⇔ を ∠ ͡ z ͡ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠ z ヨz ͡ ヂ∇バらよ ∇ユムツ∇バよ ゲヘ∇ムΑ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ z を ゅ∠ ∇ルギャや りヲ∠ エ∇ャや ∃ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ユ⊥ Β ぁ ͡ Β∠ リあ ∇ユムャ ゅ∠ ヱ ケゅz ャや ユミや∠ ∇ほョヱ ゅツ∇バよ ∇ユムツ∇バよ リバ∇ヤΑヱ ョ ⊥ ∠ ョ∠ ⊥ レ ⊥ ⊥ ヱ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ びリΑ͡ ダ⇒z ∠ ゲ͡ ル (You have t aken (for worship) idols inst ead of Allah. and you shall have no helper.ラヲ⊥ヘ⇒∠ ⇔ ギ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ル ミ ⊥ レ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ク͡ ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ビ び リΑ͡ ヘ⇒∠ ∇ユヰゎキゅ∠ バよ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱ ∠ ゲ͡ ミ ͡ ͡ ∠ ら͡ ͡ ル ミ∠ (And who is more ast ray t han one who calls on (invokes) besides Allah. and t hey will rej ect t hat worship. t hey (false deit ies) will become t heir enemies and will deny t heir worshipping. and who are (even) unaware of t heir calls (invocat ions) t o t hem And when mankind are gat hered (on t he Day of Resurrect ion).) (46:5. power and glory (and also prot ect t hem from Allah' punishment ). but t hey (t he socalled gods) will deny t heir worship of t hem. Nay. and curse each ot her. and your abode will be t he Fire.

criminals).how t hey will cast t he (blaming) word one t o anot her! Those who were deemed weak will say t o t hose who were arrogant : "Had it not been for you. when you ordered us t o disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals t o Him!'' And each of t hem (part ies) will conceal t heir own regret s (for disobeying Allah during t his worldly life). Are t hey requit ed aught except what t hey used t o do) (34:31-33) Allah said: ∇ユミギハヱ ヮヤャや ラま ゲ∇ョΙや ヴツホ ゅz ャ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ⊥ x ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヨ∠ ⊥ ト z ∠ ホ ∠ ヴャ ラゅ∠ ゅ∠ ヱ ∇ユムわ∇ヘヤ∇カほプ ∇ユムゎギ∠ ヱヱ ペエ∇ャや ギ∇ハヱ ∠ ͡ ∠ ミ ョ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ぁ ハ ∠ ∠ あ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヴ͡ ∇ユわ∇らイわ∇シゅ∠ ∇ユムゎ∇ヲハキ ラ∠ Ιま リ⇒∠ ∇ヤシ リあ ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ャ ⊥ ∠ ∠ プ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ぺ z ͡ ∃ ト ⊥ ョ ⊥ ∠∠ ∇ユムカゲ∇ダヨよ ∇ゅルぺ べz ∇ユムジヘル∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ヱ ヴ͡ ヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ゎ Κプ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ョ ャ ∠ ル ョ ヤ∠ ∠ ∠ . disbelievers. we should cert ainly have been believers!'' And t hose who were arrogant will say t o t hose who were deemed weak: "Did we keep you back from guidance aft er it had come t o you Nay. And We shall put iron collars round t he necks of t hose who disbelieved. when t hey behold t he t orment . but you were Muj rimin (polyt heist s.∇ユヰよケ ギレ͡ ラヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ヲョ ラヲ⊥ ヤ⇒ヌャや クま ン∠ ゎ ∇ヲャヱぴ ͡ ∂ ∠ ∠ ハ ∠ プ ホ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ z ͡ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠∠ リΑ͡ ャや メヲ⊥ Α メ∇ヲボ∇ャや ヂ∇バよ ヴ∠ま ∇ユヰツ∇バよ ノィ∇ゲΑ ∠ グz ⊥ ボ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ゅz ムャ ∇ユわル∠ Ι∇ヲャ ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ムわ∇シや リΑ͡ ヤャ ∇やヲ⊥ バ∇ツわ∇シや レ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ぺ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz͡ ヘ͡ ⊥ ∇やヲ⊥ バ∇ツわ∇シや リΑ͡ ヤャ ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ムわ∇シや リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽョ ヘ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ホ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∇モよ ∇ユミ¬べ∠ ∇クま ギ∇バよ ン∠ ヰ∇ャや リハ ∇ユム⇒∠ キ∠ タ リ∇エルぺ ∠ ⊥ ィ ͡ ∠ ∠ ギ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ル ギ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ リΑ͡ ヤャ ∇やヲ⊥ バ∇ツわ∇シや リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱ リΒ͡ ゲ∇イョ ∇ユわレ⊥ ∠ グz͡ ヘ͡ ⊥ ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ョ͡ ぁ ⊥ ミ ラ∠ べ∠ ルヱ⊥ ョ∇ほゎ ∇クま ケゅ∠ レャや∠ モ∇Βャや ゲ∇ムョ ∇モよ ∇やヱ⊥ ら∇ムわ∇シや ぺ レ∠ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡ ͡ ヰz ヱ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ゅヨャ るョや∠ レャや ∇やヱぁ シぺヱ やキや∠ ル∠ ヮャ モバ∇イルヱ ヮヤャゅ͡ ゲヘ∇ムル z ∠ ∠ ∠ ギz ゲ∠ ∠∠ ⇔ ギ ぺ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ z よ ∠ ⊥ z リΑ͡ ャや ベゅ∠ ∇ハぺ ヴ͡ モ⇒∠∇ビ∇Ιや ゅ∠ ∇ヤバィヱ ∠ や∠ ∠ ∠∇や ∇やヱぺケ ∠ グz ͡ レ ∠ プ ∠ ヤ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゆ グバャ ⊥ ∠∠ び∠ ヲ⊥∠ ∇バ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ ゅ∠ ゅ∠ Ιま ラ∇ヱゴ∇イΑ ∇モワ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ ラ ヤヨ Α ル ミ ョ z ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ (But if you could see when t he Zalimun (polyt heist s and wrongdoers) will be made t o st and before t heir Lord. sinners. but it was your plot t ing by night and day.'' Those who were deemed weak will say t o t hose who were arrogant : "Nay.

ignore t hem and worship Allah Alone inst ead. I cannot help you.'' Muj ahid report ed a similar st at ement in anot her narrat ion by Ibn Abu Naj ih. nor can you help me.) shun t heir worship. So blame me not . and t hey will have no way of making amends. nor will t hey find a way of escape from t he Fire. Allah said: ∇ユヰ∇レョ ぺゲらわレプ りゲミ ゅ∠ ∠ ラぺ ∇ヲャ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや リΑ͡ ャや メゅ∠ ヱぴ ⊥ ͡ ∠z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ z ∠ レャ z ∠ ∠ バ∠ z ∠ グz ∠ ホ∠ びゅz ͡ ∇やヱ⊥ ゲらゎ ゅ∠ ミ レ ョ ¬z ∠ ∠ ヨ ∠ (And t hose who followed will say: "If only we had one more chance t o ret urn (t o t he worldly life). and you responded t o me. we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) t hem as t hey have disowned (declared t hemselves as innocent from) us. when t hey see Allah's t orment . And I t oo promised you.and t hey see t he t orment ..) meaning. but I bet rayed you. t heir power and means of salvat ion are all cut off. I deny your former act in associat ing me (Sat an) as a part ner wit h Allah (by obeying me in t he life of t he world). t hey would only ret urn t o what t hey were prohibit ed from doing. I had no aut horit y over you except t hat I called you.. ` At a' report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said about : びゆゅ∠ ∇シΙや ユヰよ ∇ろバトボゎヱぴ ⊥ ら x ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠∠ (t hen all t heir relat ions will be cut off from t hem.) (14:22) Allah t hen said: びゆゅ∠ ∇シΙや ユヰよ ∇ろバトボゎヱ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや ∇やヱぺケヱぴ ⊥ ら x ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ グ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (. t here is a painful t orment for t he Zalimin (polyt heist s and wrongdoers).ラヲ⊥ わ∇ミゲ∇セぺ べ∠ よ れ∇ゲヘミ ヴあ ま ヴカゲ∇ダヨよ ∇ユわル∠ べ∠ ヱ ͡ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ル͡ z ͡ ͡ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ぺ ョ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ャや ラま モ∇らホ リ͡ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ョ (And Shayt an (Sat an) will say when t he mat t er has been decided: "Verily. t hen all t heir relat ions will be cut off from t hem. because if t hey were given t he chance t o go back. j ust as Allah said. et c. This is why Allah said: . Allah promised you a promise of t rut h. Verily.' But t hey ut t er a lie in t his regard. but blame yourselves. leaders.'') This Ayah means: ` If we only had a chance t o go back t o t he life so t hat we could disown t hem (t heir idols.) "meaning t he friendship.

) (25:23) Allah also said: ∇れギわ∇セや キゅ∠ ゲミ ∇ユヰャゅ∠ ∇ハぺ ∇ユヰよゲよ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや モんz ぴ z ∠ ∃ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ͡ あ ∠ ͡ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ∠ ョ びブタゅ∠ ュ∇ヲΑ ヶ͡ ウΑあ ャや ヮよ ∃ ͡ ハ ∃ ∠ プ ⊥ ゲ ͡͡ (The parable of t hose who disbelieved in t heir Lord is t hat t heir works are as ashes. and: ヮらジ∇エΑ るバΒ͡ よ ゆや∠ ジミ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ボ͡ ∃ ゲ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ヨ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ヱ び¬べ∠ ラべ∇ヨヌャや ⇔ ョ⊥ z (As for t hose who disbelieved.) ゅらあ デ Κ⇒∠ェ チ∇ケΙや ヴ͡ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミ サゅzャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒Αぴ ⇔ Β∠ ⇔ ヤ∠ ͡ x プ ヨョ ヤ⊥ ⊥ レ ヰぁ ∠ び ∀ Β͡ ョ ヱギハ ∇ユムャ ヮz ま リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや れヲトカ ∇やヲ⊥ らわゎ Ιヱ リ らぁ x ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ル͡ ͡ ト z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ . The t hirst y one t hinks it t o be wat er.) meaning. Similarly.び∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ れゲジェ ∇ユヰヤ⇒∠ ∇ハぺ ヮzャや ユヰΑ͡ Α マャグミぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヨ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ͡ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ (Thus Allah will show t hem t heir deeds as regret s for t hem. sinners) did. and We shall make such deeds as scat t ered float ing part icles of dust .) (24:39) This is why Allah said at t he end of t he Ayah 2:167 above びケゅz ャや リョ リΒ͡ ゲ⇒∠ よ ユ⊥ ゅ∠ ヱぴ ͡ レ ∠ ͡ ∠ ィ͡ ガ͡ ワ ョ ∠ (And t hey will never get out of t he Fire. t heir works will vanish and disappear. on which t he wind blows furiously on a st ormy day. polyt heist s.) (14:18). Allah said: ¬べ∠ ワ ロゅ∠ ∇ヤバイプ モヨハ ∇リョ ∇やヲ⊥ヨハ ゅ∠ ヴ∠ま べ∠ ∇ョギホヱぴ ⇔ ら∠ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∃ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヤ͡ ∠ ョ ャ͡ レ ͡ ∠ ∠ び やケヲ⊥ レz ⇔ んョ (And We shall t urn t o what ever deeds t hey (disbelievers. t heir deeds are like a mirage in a desert .

He (Sat an) commands you only what is evil and Fahsha' (sinful).) (169.ヴ∠ハ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ∠ヱ ¬べ∠ ∇エヘ∇ャや∠ ¬ヲぁ ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑ ゅ∠ ルま ヤ∠ ャ ボ∠ ぺ∠ ゼ ∠ ヱ ジ よ ミ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ び-∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ヮヤャや ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ͡ z (168. but t he devils came t o t hem and led t hem ast ray from t heir (t rue) religion and prohibit ed t hem from what I allowed for t hem..O mankind! Eat of t hat which is lawful and good on t he eart h. and He ment ioned a favor t hat He grant ed t hem. and the Prohibition of following the Footsteps of Shaytan Aft er Allah st at ed t hat t here is no deit y wort hy of worship except Him and t hat He Alone creat ed t he creat ion.) .) The Order to eat the Lawful Things. He has allowed t hem t o eat any of t he pure lawful t hings on t he eart h t hat do not cause harm t o t he body or t he mind. or a Wasilah (a she-camel set free for idols because it has given birt h t o a she-camel at it s first delivery and t hen again gives birt h t o a she-camel at it s second delivery).. He also forbade t hem from following t he foot st eps of Shayt an. and t hat you should say about Allah what you know not . ` I have creat ed My servant s Hunafa' (pure or upright ). He st at ed t hat He is t he Sust ainer for all His creat ion.. or Sa'ibah (a she-camel let loose for free past ure for t he idols and not hing was allowed t o be carried on it ).he is t o you an open enemy.' (unt il). meaning his ways and met hods wit h which he misguides his followers. ヲヰプ ヵ͡ ゅ∠ ハ ヮわ∇エレョ メゅ∠ z ミ ラま:ヴ∠ゅ∠ ゎ ぶや メヲ⊥ Α ∠ ⊥ ∠ キ ら͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∃ ョ モ⊥ z ͡ ャ バ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ボ∠ ∩∠ ゅ∠ レェ ヵ͡ ゅ∠ ハ ろ∇ボヤカ ヶあ ͡∠ ヮΒ͡ ヱ ∩∀ ゅ∠ェ ∇ユヰャ ¬ ヘ∠ ⊥ キ ら͡ ⊥ ∠∠ ルまヱ ͡ プ∠ メ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∩∇ユヰレΑ͡ ∇リハ ∇ユヰ∇わャゅ∠ ∇ィゅ∠ リΒ͡ ゅ∠ ゼャや ユヰ∇ゎ¬ゅ∠ プ ͡͡ キ ∠ ⊥ ∠ わ プ ⊥ デ Βz ⊥ ⊥ ∠ イ∠ «ユ⊥ ャ ろ∇ヤヤ∇ェぺ ゅ∠ ∇ユヰ∇Βヤハ ∇ろョゲェヱ ヰ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ (` Every t ype of wealt h I have endowed My servant s is allowed for t hem.. like prohibit ing t he Bahirah (a she-camel whose milk was spared for t he idols and nobody was allowed t o milk it ). Verily. Muslim recorded ` Iyad bin Himar saying t hat Allah's Messenger said t hat Allah t he Exalt ed says. he is t o you an open enemy. and all of t he ot her t hings t hat Shayt an made at t ract ive t o t hem during t he t ime of Jahiliyyah. ') Allah said: び∀ Β͡ ョ ヱギハ ∇ユムャ ヮz まぴ リ らぁ x ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ル͡ (. and follow not t he foot st eps of Shayt an (Sat an).

'' Allah's st at ement : ヴ∠ハ ∇やヲ⊥ヲ⊥ ゎ ラ∠ヱ ¬べ∠ ∇エヘ∇ャや∠ ¬ヲぁ ャゅ͡ ユ⊥ ゲョ∇ほΑ ゅ∠ ルまぴ ヤ∠ ャ ボ∠ ぺ∠ ͡ ゼ ∠ ヱ ͡ ジ よ ミ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヨz ͡ び ∠ ヲ⊥ ∠∇バ∠ Ι ゅ∠ ヮヤャや ラ ヨヤ ゎ ∠ ョ ͡ z (He (Sat an) commands you only what is evil and Fahsha (sinful). He commands you t o commit what is even worse.. and: ∇ユムャ ∇ユワヱ ヴ͡ ヱ⊥ リ͡ ¬べ∠ ャ∇ヱぺ ヮわz あ クヱ ヮルヱ⊥ ガわわプぺぴ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ル キ ョ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ Αケ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ グ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ びΙギよ リΒ͡ ヤ⇒z ヤ͡ ザ∇ゃよ ヱギハ ⇔ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ヌ ャ ∠ ͡ x ⊥ ∠ (Will you t hen t ake him (Iblis) and his offspring as prot ect ors and helpers rat her t han Me while t hey are enemies t o you What an evil is t he exchange for t he Zalimin (polyt heist s. is among t he foot st eps of Shayt an and it s expiat ion is t hat of t he vow.) The verse means: ` Your enemy. commands you t o commit evil act s and what is worse t han t hat . t hat is. et c). He only invit es his Hizb (followers) t hat t hey may become t he dwellers of t he blazing Fire. saying about Allah wit hout knowledge. so t ake (t reat ) him as an enemy. such as adult ery and so fort h. Shayt an is an enemy t o you. Allah said in anot her inst ance: ヲ⊥ ∇ギ∠ ゅ∠ ルま やヱギハ ロヱ⊥ ガゎゅ∠ ヱギハ ∇ユムャ リ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや ラまぴ ハ Α ヨz ͡ ⇔ ∂ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ グ ͡ z プ x ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ト z z ͡ び ゲΒ͡ ジャや ょ⇒∠ ∇タぺ ∇リョ ∇やヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ Βャ ヮよ∇ゴェ ͡ バz ͡ エ ∠ ͡ ル ム∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ͡ (Surely. Sat an.) (18:50) Qat adah and As-Suddi comment ed on what Allah said: びリ⇒∠ ∇Βゼャや れヲトカ ∇やヲ⊥ らわゎ Ιヱぴ ͡ ト z ͡ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ バ͡ z ∠ ∠ ∠ (.' So t his includes every innovat or and disbeliever..warning against Sat an.) (35:6). and t hat you should say about Allah what you know not .and follow not t he foot st eps of Shayt an (Sat an)): Every act of disobedience t o Allah is among t he foot st eps of Sat an. and wrongdoers. . ` Abd bin Humayd report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said: "Any vow or oat h t hat one makes while angry.

and: びラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰΑ Ιヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ラヲ⊥ボ∇バΑ Ιぴ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゃ ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ (.. "Rat her. "Rat her." The Disbeliever is just like an Animal Allah t hen made a parable of t he disbelievers.'' They say: "Nay! We shall follow what we found our fat hers following. t hey will say. Ibn Ishaq report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said t hat t his was revealed about a group of Jews whom Allah's Messenger called t o Islam. j ust as He said in anot her Ayah: .ノらわル ∇モよ ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ヮヤャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ∇やヲ⊥ らゎや ユヰャ モΒ͡ や∠ まヱぴ ⊥ ͡ z ∠ ∠ ャ ホ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ぺ ョ バ͡ z ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ホ ク͡∠ Ι ∇ユワぼゅ∠ や∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ヲャヱぺ べ∠ ¬べ∠ や∠ ヮ∇Βヤハ ゅ∠ ∇Βヘ∇ャぺ べ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ よ ¬ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ∠ ル∠ よ ¬ ͡ ∠ ∠ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや モんョヱ . saying. Allah crit icized t heir reasoning: び∇ユワぼゅ∠ や∠ ラゅ∠ ∇ヲャヱぺぴ ⊥ ⊥ よ ¬ ∠ ミ ∠∠ ∠ ((Would t hey do t hat !) even t hough t heir fat hers).did not underst and anyt hing nor were t hey guided) meaning. (They are) deaf. we shall follow what we found our forefat hers following.'' (Would t hey do t hat !) even t hough t heir fat hers did not underst and anyt hing nor were t hey guided) (171.'' So Allah revealed t his Ayah (2:170) above.ラヱ⊥ わ∇ヰΑ Ιヱ ゅ⇔ ∇Βセ ラヲ⊥ボ∇バΑ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゃ ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ¬へ∠ ルヱ ¬べ∠ キ Ιま ノヨ∇ジΑ Ι ゅ∠ よ ペバ∇レΑ ン͡ ャや モんヨミ ⇔ ギ͡ ∠ ⇔ ハ⊥ z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ グz ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ び ラヲ⊥ボ∇バΑ Ι ∇ユヰプ ∀ ∇ヨハ ∀ ∇ムよ ユタ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ヴ ⊥ ユ ⊥ x ⊥ (170 When it is said t o t hem: "Follow what Allah has sent down. t hey had no sound underst anding or guidance. worshipping t he idols and t he false deit ies. but t hey refused.'' meaning. And t he example of t hose who disbelieve is as t hat of him who shout s t o t hose (flock of sheep) t hat hear not hing but calls and cries.. So t hey do not underst and. meaning.) The Polytheist imitates Other Polytheists Allah st at es t hat if t he disbelievers and polyt heist s are called t o follow what Allah has revealed t o His Messenger and abandon t he pract ices of misguidance and ignorance t hat t hey indulge in. t hose whom t hey follow and whose pract ices t hey imit at e. dumb and blind. We shall follow what we found our fat hers following.

ラヱ⊥ ら∇バゎ ロゅz ま ∇ユわレ⊥ ラ͡ ヮヤャ ∇やヱ⊥ ム∇セや∠ ∠ z ∠ ヨz ͡ ∠ ギ⊥ ∠ ⊥ Α͡ ⊥ ミ ま ͡ z ゲ⊥ ヱ ヮよ z ワぺ べ∠ ヱ ゲΑ͡ レ͡ ∇ャや ユ∇エャヱ ュギャや∠ るわ∇Βヨ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ͡ ͡ モ͡ ⊥ ョ∠ ͡ ゴ ガ ∠ ∠∠ ∠ z ヱ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ユ∇をま Κプ キゅ∠ Ιヱ パゅ∠ ゲ∇Βビ z ト∇ッや リヨプ ヮヤャや ゲ∇Βピャ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∃ ハ ∠ ∠ ∃ よ ∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ ͡z ͡ ∠͡ び ∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ヮヤャや ラま ヮ∇Βヤハ ユ ェz ケ ヘビ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ (172. and t he flesh of swine. dumb. t hen t here is no sin on him. ∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ゅ∠ れゅ∠ Βデ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒Αぴ ⊥ レ ∠ ∠ ョ ͡ らあ ∠ ョ ヤ⊥ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ ュゲェ ゅ∠ ルま .) means. not underst anding what t hey are t old. (173. t hey would not underst and what is act ually being said t o t hem.) (16:60) Similarly. O you who believe (in t he Oneness of Allah Islamic Monot heism)! Eat of t he lawful t hings t hat We have provided you wit h. Allah is Oft -Forgiving. This is what is report ed from Ibn ` Abbas. as t hey do not see or recognize it s pat h and way. as t hey do not ut t er it . びラヲ⊥ボ∇バΑ Ι ∇ユヰプぴ ∠ ヤ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ (So t hey do not underst and. as t hey do not hear t he t rut h. and t hat which is slaught ered as a sacrifice for ot her t han Allah. Abu Al-` Aliyah. Al-Hasan. But if one is forced by necessit y wit hout willful disobedience nor t ransgressing due limit s. mut e.) .び¬∇ヲジャや モんョ りゲカΙゅ͡ ラヲ⊥ ョ∇ぽΑ Ι リΑ͡ ヤャぴ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ x よ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz͡ (For t hose who believe not in t he Hereaf t er is an evil descript ion. if it is indeed He Whom you worship). t hey do not comprehend or underst and anyt hing. Muj ahid. He has forbidden you only t he Mait ah (dead animals). ` At a' AlKhurasani and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. び∀ ∇ヨハ ∀ ∇ムよ ユタぴ ヴ ⊥ ユ ⊥ x⊥ (They are deaf. in t heir inj ust ice.) meaning. misguidance and ignorance. ` At a'. and blind.. ` Ikrimah. and blood. t hey are j ust like wandering animals. for t hey only hear unint elligible sounds. if t he shepherd heralds t hem or calls t hem t o what benefit s t hem..) means. Truly. and blind. Most Merciful. and be grat eful t o Allah. Allah said here (2:171 above) び∇やヱ⊥ ヘミ リΑ͡ ャや モんョヱぴ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ (And t he example of t hose who disbelieve. Qat adah. t hey are deaf.

if t hey are t ruly His servant s. Allah has indeed commanded t he believers wit h what He has commanded t he Messengers. whose hair is unt idy and who is covered in dust . for He said: (O (you) Messengers! Eat of t he Tayyibat and do right eous deeds. as ment ioned in a Hadit h recorded by Imam Ahmad.The Command to eat Pure Things and the Explanation of the Prohibited Things Allah commands His believing servant s t o eat from t he pure t hings t hat He has creat ed for t hem and t o t hank Him for it . j ust as eat ing from impure sources prevent s t he accept ance of supplicat ions and act s of worship. and says. he raises his hands t o t he sky. I am well-acquaint ed wit h what you do) (23:51). t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat Allah's Messenger said: ラま∠ ∩ゅ⇔ ⇒あ デ ゅzま モら∇ボΑ ゅ∠ ∩∀ Βデ ぶや ラま サゅz ャや ゅ∠ Αぺ» z ヱ ら Β∠ ャ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ャ ょあ ∠ ∠ z ͡ ⊥ レ ヰぁ ∠ :メゅ∠ プ ∩∠ Β͡シ∇ゲヨ∇ャや ヮよ ゲョぺ ゅ∠ よ リΒ͡ ョ∇ぽヨ∇ャや ゲョぺ ぶや ∠ ボ∠ リ ヤ∠ ⊥ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゅエ͡⇒∠ ∇やヲ⊥ヨ∇ハや∠ ろ⇒∠ Βトャや リョ ∇やヲ⊥ミ モシぁ ャや ゅ∠ Α∠Αぴ ⇔ ヤ タ ヤ∠ ヱ ͡ らあ z ∠ ͡ ヤ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ゲ ヰぁ ほ び ∀ Β͡∠ ラヲ⊥ヨ∇バゎ ゅ∠ よ ヴあ ま ユ ヤハ ∠ ヤ∠ ∠ ヨ͡ ル͡ :メゅ∠ ヱ ∩ ∠ ホ∠ ゅ∠ れゅ∠ Βデ リ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ミ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒Αぴ ョ ͡ らあ ∠ ョ ヤ⊥ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ び∇ユム⇒∠ ∇ホコケ ⊥ レ∠∠ ぁ ヨΑ ゲら∇ビぺ ゑバ∇セぺ ゲヘジャや モΒ͡ Α モィゲャや ゲミク z を ギ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ⊥ ト ⊥ ∠ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ユ ⊥ ヮヨバ∇トョヱ ∩あ ケ ゅ∠ ゆケ ゅ∠ :¬ゅ∠ ジャや ヴ∠ま ヮ∇ΑギΑ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ゆ∠ Α あ ∠ Α ͡ ヨz ャ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ヵグビヱ ∩∀ や∠ ェ ヮジら∇ヤョ∠ ∩∀ や∠ ェ ヮよゲ∇ゼョヱ ∩∀ や∠ ェ ∠ あ ⊥ ∠ ュ ゲ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ュ ゲ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ュ ゲ∠ «∨∠ ャグ͡ ゆゅ∠ わ∇ジΑ ヴz ほプ ュや∠ エ∇ャゅよ マ͡ ャ ⊥ イ∠ ⊥ ル∠∠ ͡ ゲ∠ (O people! Allah is Tayyib (Pure and Good) and only accept s t hat which is Tayyib. Verily. Eat ing from pure sources is a cause for t he accept ance of supplicat ions and act s of worship. and: (O you who believe! Eat of t he lawful t hings t hat We have provided you wit h) He t hen ment ioned a man. ` O Lord! O Lord!' . (who is engaged in a long j ourney.

t hen it is permissible. alt hough t hey ment ioned t he fact t hat t he Companions at e from t he cheeses made by t he Magians (fire worshippers). and aft er commanding t hem t o eat from t he pure t hings t hat He has provided t hem. The Musnad.) Ash-Shafi` i. Hence. The popular view of t he scholars is t hat it is impure. Al-Muwat t a' and t he Sunan recorded t he Prophet saying about t he sea: «ヮ⊥ ∠ ∇Β∠ モエ∇ャやヱ ロぼゅ∠ ケヲ⊥ トャや ヲワ» わわ ョ ぁ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ヰz ∠ ⊥ (It s wat er is pure and it s dead are permissible. his clot hes are from t he unlawful. and he was nourished by t he unlawful. and Ad-Daraqut ni report ed t hat Ibn ` Umar said t hat t he Prophet said: ギらム∇ャや∠ キや∠ イ∇ャや∠ マヨジャや∩͡ ゅ∠ キヱ ラゅ∠ わ∇Βョ ゅ∠ ∠ z ェぺ» ⊥ ͡ ∠ ヱ ⊥ ゲ∠ ヱ ⊥ ∠ z ラ ョ∠ ∠ ͡ わ ∠ レャ モ͡ ⊥ «メゅ∠ トャや∠ エあ ヱ (We have been allowed t wo dead t hings and t wo bloody t hings: fish and locust s. so how can it (his supplicat ion) be accept ed'') It was also recorded by Muslim and At -Tirmidhi Aft er Allah ment ioned how He has blessed His creat ures by providing t hem wit h provisions. Malik said t hat t hey are pure t hemselves. t he goring of horns or by being part ly eat en by a wild animal. his food is from t he unlawful. and liver and spleen).Yet . Ahmad. because t hey are part of t he dead animal. We will ment ion t his subj ect again in Surat Al-Ma'idah (chapt er 5 in t he Qur'an). Dead animals of t he sea are excluded from t his ruling.'' Ibn Maj ah report ed t hat Salman said t hat Allah's Messenger was asked about but t er. milk and eggs t hat are inside dead unslaught ered animals are not pure. except dead animals. a violent blow. t here is a difference of opinion over t he cheeses (made wit h t he milk) of dead animals. In one narrat ion from him. as Allah said: びヮョゅ∠ デヱ ゲ∇エら∇ャや ギ∇Βタ ∇ユムャ z ェぺぴ ⊥ ⊥ バ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ モ͡ ⊥ (Lawful t o you is (t he pursuit of) wat ergame and it s use for food) (5:96). and because of t he Hadit h about t he whale recorded in t he Sahih. Al-Qurt ubi comment ed: "Since only a small part of t he dead animal is mixed wit h it . In sha' Allah (if Allah wills). He t hen st at ed t hat He has not prohibit ed anyt hing for t hem. but become impure because of t heir locat ion. Ibn Maj ah. Issue: According t o Ash-Shafi` i and ot her scholars. as is explained lat er. a headlong fall. He said: . Allah willing. Similarly. whet her t hey die by st rangling. cheese and fur. because a minut e amount of impurit y does not mat t er if it is mixed wit h a large amount of liquid. Dead animals are t hose t hat die before being slaught ered. his drink is from t he unlawful.

Allah is Oft -Forgiving. or because t he t erm Lahm includes t hat . Al-Qurt ubi ment ioned t hat ` A'ishah was asked about what non-Muslims slaught er for t heir feast s and t hen offer some of it as gift s for Muslims. t hen t he permission applies t o him. t hen t he permission does not apply t o him even if he is in dire need. divinat ion. whet her slaught ered or not .ュゲェ ゅ∠ ュや∠ エ∇ャや∠ ∩͡ よゅ∠ ミ ヶ͡ ぶや モェぺ ゅ∠ メゅ∠エ∇ャや» ∠ z ∠ ョ ⊥ ゲ∠ ヱ ヮ͡ わ͡ プ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ョ ⊥ ヤ∠ «ヮ∇レハ ゅ∠ ハ ゅz ョ ヲヰプ ヮ∇レハ ろムシ ゅ∠ ヱ ∩͡ よゅ∠ ミ ヶ͡ ぶや ∠ ヘ∠ ヨ͡ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ∠ ヮ͡ わ͡ プ ⊥ (The allowed is what Allah has allowed in His Book and t he prohibit ed is what Allah has prohibit ed in His Book. (or feast ) but eat from t heir veget ables. eit her because it is implied. for. or cont inually. or some ot her kinds of disobedience t o Allah. Allah said: びキゅ∠ Ιヱ パゅ∠ ゲ∇Βビ z ト∇ッや リヨプぴ ∃ ハ ∠ ∠ ∃ よ ∠ ∠ ゲ⊥ ͡ ∠∠ (But if one is forced by necessit y wit hout willful disobedience nor t ransgressing due limit s). "Do not eat from what has been slaught ered for t hat day. t hat is what was slaught ered in a name ot her t han His. or t he ot her pract ices of t he t ime of Jahiliyyah. if one eat s such it ems. or out of disobedience t o Allah. Most Merciful. びヮ∇Βヤハ ユ∇をま Κプぴ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (. び∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ヮヤャや ラまぴ ユ ェz ケ ヘビ ∠ z z ͡ (Truly. t hen he would have t o resort t o highway robbery. be it for monument s.) meaning. and t his includes it s fat .) Muj ahid said. Similarly prohibit ed are offerings t o ot her t han Allah. For example.. idols. She said.'' It was report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas comment ed on t he Ayah: . What He has not ment ioned is a part of what He has pardoned. if he didn't . or by analogy. "If one is forced by necessit y wit hout willful disobedience nor t ransgressing t he set limit s.) Allah has prohibit ed eat ing t he meat of swine.'' The Prohibited is Allowed in Cases of Emergency Then Allah permit t ed eat ing t hese t hings when needed for survival or when t here are no permissible t ypes of food available.t hen t here is no sin on him.'' The same was report ed from Sa` id bin Jubayr. rising against t he rulers. wit hout t ransgression or overst epping t he limit s. meaning. "Wit hout believing t hat it is permissible. Sa` id and Muqat il bin Hayyan are report ed t o have said t hat wit hout willful disobedience means. If one does so t ransgressing t he limit s..

. I t ook some grain t hat I cleaned.or a half Wasq .) Muqat il bin Hayyan comment ed on: . "Wit hout willful disobedience means eat ing t he dead animal and not cont inuing t o do so.'' Issue: When one in dire st rait s finds bot h dead animals. I came t o Al-Madinah and ent ered a garden.of food This has a sufficient ly st rong chain of narrat ors and t here are many ot her wit nessing narrat ions t o support it . (You have not fed him when he was hungry .) The Prophet commanded him t o ret urn ` Abbad's garment t o him. such as t he Hadit h t hat ` Amr bin Shu` ayb narrat ed from his fat her t hat his grandfat her said: Allah's Messenger was asked about t he hanging clust ers of dat es.or he said st arving . roughed me up and t ook possession of my garment .びキゅ∠ Ιヱ パゅ∠ ゲ∇Βビぴ ∃ ハ∠ ∠ ∃ よ∠ ∠ (. "One year we suffered from famine. I t hen went t o Allah's Messenger and t old him what had happened. t hat is when t he lawful is available. t hen it is not allowed for him t o eat t he dead animals. t hen I left some of it in my garment . and at e.. He said t o t he man: ヮわ∇ヨヤハ ゅ∠ヱ ゅ⇔ ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ヱぺ ゅ⇔ もゅ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇クま ヮわ∇ヨバ∇デぺ ゅ∠ » ⊥ ∠ z∠ ャ∠ らビ シ ∠ バ͡ ィ ∠ ミ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ョ «ゅ⇔ワゅ∠ ラゅ∠ ∇クま ヤ͡ ィ ∠ ミ ͡ .nor have you t aught him if he was ignorant . He said: グガわョ ゲ∇Βビ ヮΒ͡ よ るィゅ∠ ヵ͡ ∇リョ ヮ∇レョ ゆゅ∠ ぺ ∇リョ» ∃ ͡ z ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ヘ͡ ∃ ∠ ェ ク ͡ ⊥ ͡ ∠ タ∠ ∠ «ヮ∇Βヤハ ¬∇ヶセ ゅ∠プ∩⇔ レ∇らカ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ∠ る∠ ⊥ (There is no harm for whoever t akes some of it in his mout h for a necessit y wit hout put t ing it in his garment . and t o offer him a Wasq (around 180 kilograms) .wit hout willful disobedience nor t ransgressing) saying. and foods belong t o ot her people which he could get wit hout risking t he loss of his hands or causing harm. The owner of t he garden came. Ibn Maj ah report ed t hat ` Abbad bin Shurahbil Al-Ghubari said. Qat adah said: びパゅ∠ ゲ∇Βビぴ ∃ よ∠ ∠ (wit hout willful disobedience) "Wit hout t ransgressing by eat ing from t he dead animals.

t hose who conceal what Allah has sent down of t he Book. and Merciful' in t hat He allowed t he prohibit ed during t imes of necessit y. Most Merciful.'' Masruq said.'' This indicat es t hat eat ing dead animals for t hose who are in need of it for survival is not only permissible but required. but does not eat or drink unt il he dies. t hey eat int o t heir bellies not hing but fire. Allah will not speak t o t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion. all of which t est ify t o his t rut h as a Messenger and a Prophet . ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや リョ ヮヤャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ぺ ョ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ ヶ͡ ラヲ⊥ミ∇ほΑ ゅ∠ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ Κ⇔ ヤホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヮよ ラヱ⊥ わ∇ゼΑヱ プ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ Β͡∠ レ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ Ιヱ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヮzャや ユヰヨあムΑ Ιヱ ケゅz ャや Ιま ∇ユヰルヲ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ レ z ͡ ͡ ͡ ト⊥ ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠ヱぺ . and t heirs will be a painful t orment ).ケゅz ャや ヴ∠ハ あ ∠ よ ∠ わ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ z z ∠͡ ∠ ͡∠ ͡ レ ヤ∠ び ギΒ͡ よ ベゅ∠ セ ヴ͡ ャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤわ∇カや リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱ ∃ バ∠ ∃ ボ͡ ヘ∠ ͡ わ͡ プ ヘ∠∠ ∠ グz z ͡∠ (174. nor purify t hem. Criticizing the Jews for concealing what Allah revealed Allah said: びょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや リョ ヮzャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ぺ ョ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ (Verily. "Allah is pardoning for what has been eat en of t he unlawful.) Meaning t he Jews who concealed t heir Book's descript ions of Muhammad . And verily. (175. Allah is Of t -Forgiving.. "Whoever is in dire need.∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ∇ユヰャヱ ∇ユヰΒあ ゴΑ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ミ∠ ⊥ ∇ユワゲら∇タぺ べ∠ プ りゲヘ∇ピヨ∇ャゅ͡ ゆや∠ バ∇ャや∠ ン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ∠ グ∠ ヱ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや メゴル ヮヤャや ラほよ マャク .) "For what is eat en out of necessit y. They concealed t his informat ion so t hat t hey would not lose . t hose who conceal what Allah has sent down of t he Book. So how bold t hey are (for evil deeds which will push t hem) t o t he Fire). (176. he will ent er t he Fire. Verily..'' Sa` id bin Jubayr said.t hen t here is no sin on him. That is because Allah has sent down t he Book (t he Qur'an) in t rut h. and t orment at t he price of forgiveness. and purchase a small gain t herewit h (of worldly t hings). Truly. Those are t hey who have purchased error at t he price of guidance.び∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ヮヤャや ラま ヮ∇Βヤハ ユ∇をま Κプぴ ユ ェz ケ ヘビ ∠ z z ͡ ͡ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ (. t hose who disput ed as regards t he Book are far away in opposit ion).

Allah said: びケゅz ャや Ιま ∇ユヰルヲ⊥ よ ヶ͡ ラヲ⊥ミ∇ほΑ ゅ∠ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ∠ レ z ͡ ͡ ͡ ト ⊥ プ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ョ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ (. and Allah crit icized t hem again many t imes in His Book.) meaning. what ever t hey eat in ret urn for hiding t he t rut h. t hey eat up only fire int o t heir bellies. t he Jews earned anger on t op of t he wrat h t hat t hey already had earned before. Allah made t he t rut h about His Messenger known anyway. will t urn int o a raging fire in t heir st omachs on t he Day of Resurrect ion. For inst ance. and purchase a small gain t herewit h (of worldly t hings). They preferred t he lit t le t hat t hey gained over guidance and following t he t rut h. t hose whom t he Jews feared would follow t he Prophet . and t hey will be burnt in t he blazing Fire!) (4:10) Also. where t hey would bring t hem gift s. t hen t he people would abandon t hem and follow him. Similarly. Thereaft er. t hose who conceal what Allah has sent down of t he Book. As for t his world. believed in him and followed him anyway. t he j oys and delight s of t his eart hly life.aut horit y and t he posit ion t hat t hey had wit h t he Arabs. believing in t he Messenger and having fait h in what Allah was sent him wit h.t hey eat int o t heir bellies not hing but fire. and honor t hem. t hey have profit ed failure and loss in t his life and t he Hereaft er. The cursed Jews feared t hat if t hey announced what t hey know about Muhammad . So t hey hid t he t rut h so t hat t hey may ret ain t he lit t le t hat t hey were get t ing..) meaning. Thus. report ed in an aut hent ic Hadit h is t hat Allah's Messenger said: るツヘ∇ャや∠ ょワグャや るΒ͡ へ ヶ͡ ゆゲ∇ゼΑ ∇ヱぺ モミ∇ほΑ ヵ͡ ャや» ͡ z ͡ ヱ ͡ ∠ z ͡ ル プ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ グz «ユz ヰィ ケゅ∠ ヮレ∇トよ ヶ͡ ゲィ∇ゲイΑ ゅ∠ ルま レ∠ ∠ ∠ ル ͡ ͡ ∠ プ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ⊥ ヨz . Allah said: ゅ∠ ルま ゅヨ∇ヤニ ヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや メヲ∇ョぺ ラヲ⊥ミ∇ほΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ヨz ͡ ⇔ ⊥ ヨ わ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ び やゲΒ͡ シ ラ∇ヲヤ∇ダΒシヱ やケゅ∠ ∇ユヰルヲ⊥ よ ヴ͡ ラヲ⊥ミ∇ほΑ ⇔ バ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ル ͡ ͡ ト⊥ プ ∠ ヤ⊥ ∠ (Verily. t hose who unj ust ly eat up t he propert y of orphans. by t he clear signs and t he unequivocal proofs. Allah said in t his Ayah (2:174 above): ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや リョ ヮヤャや メゴル∠ べ∠ ラヲ⊥ わ∇ムΑ リΑ͡ ャや ラまぴ ͡ わ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ z ∠ ∠ ぺ ョ ∠ ヨ⊥ ∠ ∠ グz z ͡ びΚ⇔ ヤホ ゅ⇔ ヨを ヮよ ラヱ⊥ わ∇ゼΑヱ Β͡∠ レ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ゲ∠ ∠ ∠ (Verily. Therefore.. and t hey sold t heir souls for t his lit t le profit . and so t hey became his support ers against t hem.

) Allah said: ∇ユヰャヱ ∇ユヰΒあ ゴΑ Ιヱ るヨ⇒∠ ボ∇ャや ュ∇ヲΑ ヮzャや ユヰヨあムΑ Ιヱぴ ⊥ ∠∠ ͡ ミ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ Β͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ヤ ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ び∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ (Allah will not speak t o t hem on t he Day of Resurrect ion. t he news about his prophecy and t he good news of his coming which t he previous Prophet s proclaimed. t hey opposed t he guidance. nor purify t hem. We seek refuge wit h Allah from t his evil end. Allah said about t hem: びン∠ ヰ∇ャゅ͡ るヤ⇒∠ツャや ∇やヱゲわ∇セや リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠∇ヱぺぴ ギ⊥ よ ∠ ∠ ヤz ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ⊥ (Those are t hey who have purchased error for guidance. rej ect ing him and concealing his descript ions t hat were ment ioned in t heir Books. so Allah will not look at t hem or purify t hem. Inst ead. and t heirs will be a painful t orment . RAllah's St at ement : びペエ∇ャゅ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや メゴル ヮヤャや ラほよ マャクぴ あ ∠ よ ∠ わ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ z z ∠ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ .) Allah st at es t hat t hey will suffer such severe. painful t orment t hat t hose who see t hem will be amazed at how t hey could bear t he t remendous punishment . not announcing t he Prophet 's descript ion t hey find in t heir Books. Allah said: びりゲヘ∇ピヨ∇ャゅ͡ ∠ や∠ ∠ ∇ャや∠ ぴ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ よ ゆ グバ ヱ (. t hey preferred t orment over forgiveness due t o t he sins t hey have commit t ed. Then. meaning t hat He will not praise t hem but will cause t hem t o t ast e a severe t orment .(Those who eat or drink in golden or silver plat es are filling t heir st omachs wit h t he fire of Jahannam (Hell). They t hus deserve Allah's anger.. as well as following and believing in him. Allah t hen said: びケゅz ャや ヴ∠ハ ∇ユワゲら∇タぺ べ∠ プぴ ͡ レ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ∠ (So how bold t hey are (for evil deeds which will push t hem) t o t he Fire.) Hence.) meaning.) This is because Allah is furious wit h t hem for concealing t he t rut h. t hat is. t hey preferred misguidance by denying him.and t orment at t he price of forgiveness. t ort ure and pain t hat t hey will suffer..

Yet . but inst ead. and t his is why t hey deserved t he t orment and t he punishment . and who fulfill t heir covenant when t hey make it . mocked t he Ayat t hat Allah revealed t o His Messengers. and t o t hose who ask.(That is because Allah has sent down t he Book (t he Qur'an) in t rut h. t o t he kinsfolk. t hose who disput ed about t he Book are far away in opposit ion. t he Book. but Birr is t he one who believes in Allah. in spit e of love for it . t hey t ook Allah's signs for mockery. and who are pat ient in ext reme povert y and ailment (disease) and at t he t ime of fight ing (during t he bat t les). This Final Messenger Muhammad called t hem t o Allah. t hey defied t he knowledge and rej ect ed it . t hus. and t o set servant s free. Yet . Such are t he people of t he t rut h and t hey are Al-Mut t aqun (t he pious). And verily. t he Prophet s and gives his wealt h. denied and defied him and hid t he t rut h t hat t hey knew about him. It is not Birr t hat you t urn your faces t owards east and (or) west .) ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや モらホ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ラ∠ ゲら∇ャや ザ∇Βャぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ͡ ∠ z ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ゲら∇ャや リム⇒∠ヱ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z ͡ z ͡ ャ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ メゅ∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ や∠ ヱ リΒあ らレャや∠ ͡ ⇒∠ ͡ ∇ャや∠ るムゃ⇒∠ヨ∇ャや∠ ゲカΙや ∠ ヨ ゎ ¬∠ ∠ Β͡ z ヱ ょ わム ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡ ヤ∠ ヱ ͡ ͡ x リΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ ク ヮらェ ヴ∠ハ ∠ ム ジ∠ ヱ ヨ わ∠ ヱ よ ⊥ ヱ∠ ͡ あ ⊥ ヤ∠ ュゅ∠ ぺヱ ゆゅ∠ ゲャや ヶ͡ ヱ リΒ͡もべz ャや∠ モΒ͡ ジャや リ∇よや∠ ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ͡ ホあ プ∠ ∠ ヤ͡ ジ ヱ ͡ らz ∠ ヱ や∠ ま ∇ユワギ∇ヰバよ ラヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ャや∠ りヲ∠ ゴャや ヴ∠ や∠ ヱ りヲ∠ダャや ク͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ヨ ヱ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬∠ ∠ ヤ z リΒ͡ ヱ ¬やz ツャやヱ ¬べ∠ ∇ほら∇ャや ヴ͡ リΑ͡ よゅz ャや∠ ∇やヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ ∠ ェ∠ ͡ ゲ z ͡ シ ∠ プ ∠ ゲ ͡ ダ ヱ ギ∠ ハ ラヲ⊥ わヨ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ヱ やヲ⊥ ギタ リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ サ∇ほら∇ャや ∠ ボz ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ∠ ホ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ ͡ ∠ び (177. t he Last Day. t he Angels. and gives t he Zakah. and t he Prophet s before him. performs As-Salah (Iqamat -As-Salah). They. and t o t he wayfarer. and t hese revelat ions bring about t rut h and expose falsehood. ) means. Their Books ordered t hem t o announce t he t rut h and t o spread t he knowledge. t hey deserve t his painful t orment because Allah has revealed Books t o His Messenger Muhammad . t hey rej ect ed. commanded t hem t o work right eousness and forbade t hem from commit t ing evil.) . t o t he orphans. and t o Al-Masakin (t he poor). This is why Allah said here (2:176): リΑ͡ ャや ラまヱ ペエ∇ャゅ͡ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや メゴル ヮヤャや ラほよ マャクぴ ∠ グz z ͡∠ あ ∠ よ ∠ わ͡ ∠ z ∠ ∠ z z ∠͡ ∠ ͡∠ び ギΒ͡ よ ベゅ∠ セ ヴ͡ ャ ょ⇒∠ ム∇ャや ヴ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ヤわ∇カや ∃ バ∠ ∃ ボ͡ ヘ∠ ͡ わ͡ プ ヘ∠∠ (That is because Allah has sent down t he Book (t he Qur'an) in t rut h.

and it s essence requires implement at ion. while t he Christ ians used t o face t he east for t heir Qiblah. and implement ing what ever He legislat es. This change was difficult for some of t he People of t he Book. t hat is. facing wherever He commands facing.) (22:37) Abu Al-` Aliyah said. unless it is legislat ed by Allah. Allah first commanded t he believers t o face Bayt Al-Maqdis. and even for some Muslims. As for t he explanat ion of t his Ayah.'' Similar was report ed from AlHasan and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. encompassing rulings and correct beliefs. Then Allah sent revelat ion which clarified t he wisdom behind t his command. Righteousness) This Ayah cont ains many great wisdoms. but it is t he piet y from you t hat reaches Him. "The Jews used t o face t he west for t heir Qiblah. Facing t he east or t he west does not necessit at e right eousness or obedience. t hat is t he obj ect ive. "t his is fait h. This is Birr. Allah said about t he sacrifices: ヮャゅ∠ Α リ͡ ⇒∠ヱ ゅ∠ ぼべ∠ キ Ιヱ ゅ∠ ョヲ⊥ ャ ヮヤャや メゅ∠ Α リ∠ぴ ⊥ ⊥ レ∠ ム ャ∠ ワ⊥ ョ͡ ∠ ∠ ヰ⊥ エ⊥ ∠ z ∠ レ∠ ャ び∇ユムレ͡ ン∠ ∇ボわャや ⊥ ョ ヲz (It is neit her t heir meat nor t heir blood t hat reaches Allah. So Allah said: ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや モらホ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ラ∠ ゲら∇ャや ザ∇Βャぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ͡ ∠ z びゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ (It is not Birr t hat you t urn your faces t owards east and (or) west (in prayers)) (2: 177) meaning.) Similarly. and t hen t o face t he Ka` bah during t he prayer. adhering t o His commands.Al-Birr (Piety. Taqwa and complet e fait h. obedience t o Allah. This is why Allah said: ベゲ∇ゼヨ∇ャや モらホ ∇ユムワヲ⊥ ヱ ∇やヲぁヲゎ ラ∠ ゲら∇ャや ザ∇Βャぴ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ィ ⊥ ャ∠ ⊥ ぺ z ͡ ∠ z ュ∇ヲΒ∇ャや∠ ヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ゲら∇ャや リム⇒∠ヱ ゆゲ∇ピヨ∇ャや∠ ͡ ∠ ヱ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z ͡ z ͡ ャ∠ ͡ ͡ ∠ ヱ びゲカΙや ͡͡x (It is not Birr t hat you t urn your faces t owards east and (or) west (in prayers). At h-Thawri recit ed: . but Birr is t he one who believes in Allah and t he Last Day.

びヮヤャゅ͡ リョや∠ ∇リョ ゲら∇ャや リム⇒∠ヱぴ ͡ z よ ∠ ∠ ¬ ∠ z ͡ z ͡ ャ∠
(but Birr is t he one who believes in Allah,) and said t hat what follows are t he t ypes of Birr. He has said t he t rut h. Cert ainly, t hose who acquire t he qualit ies ment ioned in t he Ayah will have indeed embraced all aspect s of Islam and implement ed all t ypes of right eousness; believing in Allah, t hat He is t he only God wort hy of worship, and believing in t he angels t he emissaries bet ween Allah and His Messengers. The ` Books' are t he Divinely revealed Books from Allah t o t he Prophet s, which were finalized by t he most honorable Book (t he Qur'an). The Qur'an supercedes all previous Books, it ment ions all t ypes of right eousness, and t he way t o happiness in t his life and t he Hereaft er. The Qur'an abrogat es all previous Books and t est fies t o all of Allah's Prophet s, from t he first Prophet t o t he Final Prophet , Muhammad, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon t hem all. Allah's st at ement :

びヮらェ ヴ∠ハ メゅ∠ ∇ャや ヴ∠ や∠ ヱぴ ͡ あ ⊥ ヤ ∠ ∠ ヨ ゎ ¬∠
(...and gives his wealt h, in spit e of love for it ,) refers t o t hose who give money away while desiring it and loving it . It is recorded in t he Sahihayn t hat Abu Hurayrah narrat ed t hat t he Prophet said:

∀ Β͡ ∠ ろ∇ルぺヱ ベギダゎ ∇ラぺ るホ∠ ダャや モツ∇プぺ» ウ エタ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ギz ⊥∠ ∠ «ゲ∇ボヘ∇ャや ヴ∠ ∇ガゎヱ ヴ∠ ピ∇ャや モョ∇ほゎ ∩∀ Β͡ セ ゼ ∠ レ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ウ エ∠
(The best charit y is when you give it away while st ill healt hy and t hrift y, hoping t o get rich and fearing povert y.) Allah said:

ゅヨΒ͡ Αヱ ゅレΒ͡ ∇ジョ ヮらェ ヴ∠ハ ュゅ∠ トャや ラヲ⊥ バ∇トΑヱぴ ⇔ わ∠ ∠ ⇔ ム ͡ ͡ あ ⊥ ヤ∠ ∠ バz ∠ ヨ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∇ユムレ͡ ギΑ͡ ル Ι ヮヤャや ヮ∇ィヲャ ∇ユムヨバ∇トル ゅ∠ ルま - やゲΒ͡ ぺヱ ⊥ ョ ⊥ ゲ⊥ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ⊥ ヨz ͡ ⇔ シ∠∠ び やケヲ⊥ セ Ιヱ ¬へ∠ ィ ⇔ ム⊥ ∠ ∠ ⇔ ゴ∠
(And t hey give food, inspit e of t heir love for it , t o t he Miskin (t he poor), t he orphan, and t he capt ive (saying): "We feed you seeking Allah's Face only. We wish for no reward, nor t hanks from you.'') (76:8, 9) and:

びラヲぁ エゎ ゅz ͡ ∇やヲ⊥ ヘレ⊥ ヴz ェ ゲら∇ャや ∇やヲ⊥ゅ∠ ゎ リ∠ぴ ∠ ら͡ ⊥ ヨョ ボ͡ ゎ わ∠ z ͡ ャ レ∠ ャ
(By no means shall you at t ain Birr unless you spend of t hat which you love.) (3:92) Allah's st at ement :

び∀ ∠ ゅ∠ ∠ ∇ユヰよ ラゅ∠ ∇ヲャヱ ∇ユヰジヘル∠ ヴ∠ハ ∠ ヱ⊥ ͡ ∇ぽΑ∠ ぴ る タ ダカ ͡ ͡ ∠ ミ ∠ ∠ ͡ ͡ ⊥ ぺ ヤ ∠ ラ ゲ を ⊥ ヱ
(...and give t hem preference over t hemselves even t hough t hey were in need of t hat ) (59:9) refers t o a higher cat egory and st at us, as t he people ment ioned here give away what t hey need, while t hose ment ioned in t he previous Ayat give away what t hey covet (but not necessarily need). Allah's st at ement :

びヴ∠ ∇ゲボ∇ャや ン͡ クぴ よ ⊥ ヱ∠
(t he kinsfolk) refers t o man's relat ives, who have more right s t han anyone else t o one's charit y, as t he Hadit h support s:

ヵ͡ ヴ∠∠ ヱ ∩∀ ホギタ リΒ͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ るホギダャや» ク ヤハ る∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ミ ジ∠ ヤ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ z サゅレャや ヴ∠∇ヱ∠ ∇ユヰプ ∩∀ ⇒∠タヱ るホギタ :ラゅ∠ レ∇をや ユェゲャや ͡ z ャ ぺ ⊥ ∠ る ヤ͡ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ わ ͡ ͡ z «マ͡ ゅ∠ ∇ハまヱ ポゲらよヱ マよ も ト ͡∠ ∠ あ ͡ ͡ ∠ ∠ ͡
(Sadaqah (i. e., charit y) given t o t he poor is a charit y, while t he Sadaqah given t o t he relat ives is bot h Sadaqah and Silah (nurt uring relat ions), for t hey are t he most deserving of you and your kindness and charit y). Allah has commanded kindness t o t he relat ives in many places in t he Qur'an.

びヴ∠ ⇒∠ Β∇ャや∠ ぴ ヨ わ∠ ヱ
(t o t he orphans) The orphans are children who have none t o look aft er t hem, having lost t heir fat hers while t hey are st ill young, weak and unable t o find t heir own sust enance since t hey have not reached t he age of work and adolescence. ` Abdur-Razzaq report ed t hat ` Ali said t hat t he Prophet said:

びリΒ͡ ⇒∠ ヨ∇ャや∠ ぴ ⊥ ム ジ∠ ヱ

(and t o Al-Masakin) The Miskin is t he person who does not have enough food, clot hing, or he has no dwelling. So t he Miskin should be grant ed t he provisions t o sust ain him enough so t hat he can acquire his needs. In t he Sahihayn it is recorded t hat Abu Hurayrah said t hat Allah's Messenger said:

りゲ∇ヨz ャや ロぁ ゲゎ ヵ͡ ャや フやz トャや や∠ ヰ͡ リΒ͡ ∇ジヨ∇ャや ザ∇Βャ» ⊥ ∠ わ キ⊥ ∠ グz ͡ ヲz グ よ ⊥ ム ͡ ∠ ∠ リΒ͡ ∇ジヨ∇ャや リムャ∠ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ヨ∇ボヤャやヱ るヨ∇ボヤャやヱ ∩͡ ゅ∠ ゲ∇ヨわャやヱ ⊥ ム ͡ ͡ ͡ ヱ ラ わ∠ ぁ ⊥ ∠ ぁ ラ ゎ∠ z ベギダわ⊥ プ ヮャ リト∇ヘΑ ゅ∠ヱ ヮΒ͡ ∇ピΑ ヴレ͡ ギイΑ ゅ∠ ヵ͡ ャや ∠ z ∠ Β∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ャ∠ レ ⊥ ⇔ ビ ⊥ ͡ ∠ ャ グz «ヮ∇Βヤハ ∠∠
(The Miskin is not t he person who roams around, and whose need is met by one or t wo dat es or one or t wo bit es. Rat her, t he Miskin is he who does not have what is sufficient , and t o whom t he people do not pay at t ent ion and, t hus, do not give him from t he charit y.)

びモΒ͡ ジャや リ∇よや∠ ぴ ͡ らz ͡ ヱ
(and t o t he wayfarer) is t he needy t raveler who runs out of money and should, t hus, be grant ed what ever amount t hat helps him t o go back t o his land. Such is t he case wit h whoever int ends t o go on a permissible j ourney, he is given what he needs for his j ourney and back. The guest s are included in t his cat egory. ` Ali bin Abu Talhah report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "Ibn As-Sabil (wayfarer) is t he guest who is host ed by Muslims.'' Furt hermore, Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Abu Ja` far Al-Baqir, Al-Hasan, Qat adah, Ad-Dahhak, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Muqat il bin Hayyan said similarly.

びリΒ͡もべz ャや∠ ぴ ∠ ヤ͡ ジ ヱ
(and t o t hose who ask) refers t o t hose who beg people and are t hus given a part of t he Zakah and general charit y.

びゆゅ∠ ゲャや ヶ͡ ヱぴ ͡ ホあ プ∠
(and t o set servant s free) These are t he servant s who seek t o free t hemselves, but cannot find enough money t o buy t heir freedom. We will ment ion several of t hese cat egories and t ypes under t he Tafsir of t he Ayah on Sadaqah in Surat Bara'ah chapt er 9 in t he Qur'an , In sha' Allah. Allah's st at ement :

びりヲ∠ダャや ュゅ∠ ぺヱぴ ∠ ヤz ∠ ホ ∠ ∠
(performs As-Salah (Iqamat -As-Salah)) means t hose who pray on t ime and give t he prayer it s due right ; t he bowing, prost rat ion, and t he necessary at t ent ion and humbleness required by Allah. Allah's st at ement :

びりヲ∠ ゴャや ヴ∠ や∠ ヱぴ ∠ ミz ゎ ¬∠
(and gives t he Zakah) means t he required charit y (Zakah) due on one's money, as Sa` id bin Jubayr and Muqat il bin Hayyan have st at ed. Allah's st at ement :

び∇やヱ⊥ ヰ⇒∠ や∠ ま ∇ユワギ∇ヰバよ ラヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ ∇ャや∠ ぴ ギ∠ ハ ク ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ ヨ ヱ
(and who fulfill t heir covenant when t hey make it ,) is similar t o:

び ペ⇒∠ Β͡ ∇ャや ラヲ⊥ ボレ͡ Ιヱ ヮヤャや ギ∇ヰバよ ラヲ⊥ ヲ⊥ リΑ͡ ャやぴ ∠ ん ヨ ∠ ツ⊥ Α ∠ ∠ ͡ z ͡ ∠ ͡ ∠ プ Α ∠ グz
(Those who fulfill t he covenant of Allah and break not t he Mit haq (bond, t reat y, covenant ).) (13:20) The opposit e of t his charact erist ic is hypocrisy. As found in a Hadit h:

ギハヱ や∠ ま∠ ∩∠ グミ ゐギェ や∠ ま :∀ ゅ∠∠ ペプゅ∠ ヨ∇ャや るΑへ» ∠ ∠ ∠ ク ヱ ゆ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ク͡ ゐ ヤを ͡ ͡ レ⊥ ⊥ ∠ «ラゅ∠ リヨわ∇もや や∠ ま∠ ∩∠ ヤ∇カぺ カ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ク ヱ ブ∠ ∠
(The signs of a hypocrit e are t hree: if he speaks, he lies; if he promises, he breaks his promise; and if he is ent rust ed, he breaches t he t rust .) In anot her version:

ユタゅ∠ や∠ ま∠ ∩∠ ∠ ∠ ギワゅハ や∠ ま∠ ∩∠ グミ ゐギェ や∠ ま» ∠ ∠ カ ク ヱ ケギビ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク ヱ ゆ∠ ∠ ∠ z ∠ ク͡ «ゲ∠ プ イ∠

(If he speaks, he lies; if he vows, he breaks his vow; and if he disput es, he is lewd.) Allah's st at ement :

リΒ͡ ヱ ͡ やz ツャやヱ ¬べ∠ ∇ほら∇ャや ヴ͡ ∠ Α͡ ͡ ゅz ャや∠ ぴ ∠ ェ∠ ¬ ゲ z ͡ シ∠ プ リ ゲよ ダ ヱ びサ∇ほら∇ャや ͡ ∠
(. ..and who are pat ient in ext reme povert y and ailment (disease) and at t he t ime of fight ing (during t he bat t les).) means, during t he t ime of meekness and ailment .

びサ∇ほら∇ャや リΒ͡ ヱぴ ͡ ∠ ∠ ェ∠
(...and at t he t ime of fight ing (during t he bat t les).) means on t he bat t lefield while facing t he enemy, as Ibn Mas` ud, Ibn ` Abbas, Abu Al-` Aliyah, Murrah Al-Hamdani, Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qat adah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi, Muqat il bin Hayyan, Abu Malik, AdDahhak and ot hers have st at ed. And calling t hem t he pat ient here, is a form of praise, because of t he import ance of pat ience in t hese circumst ances, and t he suffering and difficult ies t hat accompany t hem. And Allah knows best , it is He Whom help is sought from, and upon Him we rely. Allah's st at ement :

びやヲ⊥ ギタ リΑ͡ ャや マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ぴ ホ ∠ ∠ ∠ グz ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ
(Such are t he people of t he t rut h) means, whoever acquires t hese qualit ies, t hese are t rut hful in t heir fait h. This is because t hey have achieved fait h in t he heart and realized it in deed and upon t he t ongue. So t hey are t he t rut hful,

びラヲ⊥ わヨ∇ャや ユワ マゃ⇒∠ヱ⊥ヱぴ ∠ ボz ⊥ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ャ ぺ∠
(and t hey are Al-Mut t aqun (t he pious).) because t hey avoided t he prohibit ions and performed t he act s of obedience.

ヶ͡ ソゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ょわミ ∇やヲ⊥ ョや∠ リΑ͡ ャや ゅ∠ Αほ⇒Αぴ プ ⊥ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ レ∠ ¬ ∠ グz ヰぁ ∠ ヴ∠ ∇ルΙゅよ ヴ∠ ルy や∠ ギ∇らバ∇ャゅ͡ ギ∇らバ∇ャや∠ あ エ∇ャゅ͡ ぁ エ∇ャや ヴ∠∇わ∠ ∇ャや ん y ͡ ん Ι ヱ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ゲ⊥ よ ゲ⊥ ヤボ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ∀ ゅ∠ ゎゅ∠ ∀ ∇ヴ∠ ヮΒ͡ ぺ ∇リョ ヮャ ヴヘハ ∇リヨプ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ ネ ら あ プ ¬ セ ͡ カ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠

∇ユムよケ リあ ∀ Β͡ ∇ガ∠ マャク リ⇒∠ ∇ェみよ ヮ∇Βャま ∀ へ∠ ぺヱ ⊥ あ z ョ ブ ヘ ゎ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∃ ジ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ¬ キ∠ ∠ び ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ヮヤプ マャク ギ∇バよ ン∠ わ∇ハや リヨプ るヨ∇ェケヱ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∇ユムヤバャ ょ⇒∠ ∇ャΙや ヶ͡ヱ⊥Α ∀ ヲ∠ ェ ソゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ヶ͡ ∇ユムャヱ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ ら ャ ほ り Β∠ ͡ ダ͡ プ ⊥ ∠∠ び-ラヲ⊥ わゎ ∠ ボz ∠
(178. O you who believe! Al-Qisas (t he Law of equalit y) is prescribed for you in case of murder: t he free for t he free, t he slave for t he slave, and t he female for t he female. But if t he killer is forgiven by t he brot her (or t he relat ives) of t he killed (against blood money), t hen it should be sought in a good manner, and paid t o him respect fully. This is an alleviat ion and a mercy from your Lord. So aft er t his, whoever t ransgresses t he limit s (i.e. kills t he killer aft er t aking t he blood money), he shall have a painful t orment .) (179. And t here is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisas (t he Law of equalit y in punishment ), O men of underst anding, t hat you may acquire Taqwa.)

The Command and the Wisdom behind the Law of Equality
Allah st at es: O believers! The Law of equalit y has been ordained on you (for cases of murder), t he free for t he free, t he slave for t he slave and t he female for t he female. Therefore, do not t ransgress t he set limit s, as ot hers before you t ransgressed t hem, and t hus changed what Allah has ordained for t hem. The reason behind t his st at ement is t hat (t he Jewish t ribe of) Banu AnNadir invaded Qurayzah (anot her Jewish t ribe) during t he t ime of Jahiliyyah (before Islam) and defeat ed t hem. Hence, (t hey made it a law t hat ) when a person from Nadir kills a person from Quraizah, he is not killed in ret aliat ion, but only pays a hundred Wasq of dat es. However, when a person from Quraizah kills a Nadir man, he would be killed for him. If Nadir want ed (t o forfeit t he execut ion of t he murderer and inst ead require him) t o pay a ransom, t he Quraizah man pays t wo hundred Wasq of dat es double t he amount Nadir pays in Diyah (blood money) . So Allah commanded t hat j ust ice be observed regarding t he penal code, and t hat t he pat h of t he misguided and mischievous persons be avoided, who in disbelief and t ransgression, defy and alt er what Allah has commanded t hem. Allah said:

あ エ∇ャゅ͡ ぁ エ∇ャや ヴ∠∇わ∠ ∇ャや ヶ͡ ソゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ょわミぴ ゲ⊥ よ ゲ⊥ ヤ ボ プ ⊥ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ びヴ∠ ∇ルΙゅ͡ ヴ∠ ルy や∠ ギ∇らバ∇ャゅ͡ ギ∇らバ∇ャや∠ んy よ んΙヱ͡ ∠ よ⊥ ∠ ヱ
(Al-Qisas (t he Law of equalit y in punishment ) is prescribed for you in case of murder: t he free for t he free, t he slave for t he slave, and t he female for t he female.) Allah's st at ement :

びヴ∠ ∇ルΙゅよ ヴ∠ ルy や∠ ギ∇らバ∇ャゅ͡ ギ∇らバ∇ャや∠ あ エ∇ャゅ͡ ぁ エ∇ャやぴ ん y ͡ ん Ι ヱ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ∠ ヱ ゲ⊥ よ ゲ⊥
(t he free for t he free, t he slave for t he slave, and t he female for t he female.) was abrogat ed by t he st at ement life for life (5:45). However, t he maj orit y of scholars agree t hat t he Muslim is not killed for a disbeliever whom he kills. Al- Bukhari report ed t hat ` Ali narrat ed t hat Allah's Messenger said:

«ゲ͡ ゅ∠ よ ∀ ͡∇ジョ モわ∇ボΑ ゅ∠ヱ» プ ム͡ ユヤ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ャ∠
(The Muslim is not killed for t he disbeliever (whom he kills).) No opinion t hat opposes t his ruling could st and correct , nor is t here an aut hent ic Hadit h t o cont radict it . However, Abu Hanifah t hought t hat t he Muslim could be killed for a disbeliever, following t he general meaning of t he Ayah (5:45) in Surat Al-Ma'idah (chapt er 5 in t he Qur'an). The Four Imams (Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafi` i and Ahmad) and t he maj orit y of scholars st at ed t hat t he group is killed for one person whom t hey murder. ` Umar said, about a boy who was killed by seven men, "If all t he resident s of San` a' (capit al of Yemen t oday) collaborat ed on killing him, I would kill t hem all.'' No opposing opinion was known by t he Companions during t hat t ime which const it ut es a near Ij ma` (consensus). There is an opinion at t ribut ed t o Imam Ahmad t hat a group of people is not killed for one person whom t hey kill, and t hat only one person is killed for one person. Ibn Al-Mundhir also at t ribut ed t his opinion t o Mu` adh, Ibn AzZubayr, ` Abdul-Malik bin Marwan, Az-Zuhri, Ibn Sirin and Habib bin Abu Thabit . Allah's st at ement :

フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ∀ ゅ∠ ゎゅ∠ ∀ ∇ヴ∠ ヮΒ͡ ぺ ∇リョ ヮャ ヴヘハ ∇リヨプぴ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ ネ ら あ プ ¬ セ ͡ カ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ びリ⇒∠ ∇ェみよ ヮ∇Βャま ∀ へ∠ ぺヱ ∃ ジ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ¬ キ∠ ∠
(But if t he killer is forgiven by t he brot her (or t he relat ives) of t he killed (against blood money), t hen it should be sought in a good manner, and paid t o him respect fully.) refers t o accept ing blood money (by t he relat ives of t he vict im in ret urn for pardoning t he killer) in cases of int ent ional murder. This opinion is at t ribut ed t o Abu Al-` Aliyah, Abu Sha` t ha', Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, ` At a' Al-Hasan, Qat adah and Muqat il bin Hayyan. Ad-Dahhak said t hat Ibn ` Abbas said:

び∀ ∇ヴ∠ ヮΒ͡ ぺ ∇リョ ヮャ ヴヘハ ∇リヨプぴ ¬ セ ͡ カ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠
(But if t he killer is forgiven by t he brot her (or t he relat ives) of t he killed (against blood money)) means t he killer is pardoned by his brot her (i.e., t he relat ive of t he vict im) and accept ing t he Diyah aft er capit al punishment becomes due (against t he killer), t his is t he ` Afw (pardon ment ioned in t he Ayah).'' Allah's st at ement :

びフヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ ∀ ゅ∠ ゎゅ∠ ぴ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ ネ らあ プ
(...t hen it should be sought in a good manner,) means, when t he relat ive agrees t o t ake t he blood money, he should collect his right ful dues wit h kindness:

びリ⇒∠ ∇ェみよ ヮ∇Βャま ∀ へ∠ ぺヱぴ ∃ ジ ͡ ͡ ͡ ∠ ͡ ¬ キ∠ ∠
( and paid t o him respect fully.) means, t he killer should accept t he t erms of set t lement wit hout causing furt her harm or resist ing t he payment . Allah's st at ement :

びるヨ∇ェケヱ ∇ユムよケ リあ ∀ Β͡ ∇ガ∠ マャクぴ ∀ ∠ ∠ ∠ ⊥ あ z ョ ブ ヘ ゎ ∠ ͡∠
(This is an alleviat ion and a mercy from your Lord.) means t he legislat ion t hat allows you t o accept t he blood money for int ent ional murder is an alleviat ion and a mercy from your Lord. It light ens what was required from t hose who were before you, eit her applying capit al punishment or forgiving. Sa` id bin Mansur report ed t hat Ibn ` Abbas said, "The Children of Israel were required t o apply t he Law of equalit y in murder cases and were not allowed t o offer pardons (in ret urn for blood money). Allah said t o t his Ummah (t he Muslim nat ion):

あ エ∇ャゅ͡ ぁ エ∇ャや ヴ∠∇わ∠ ∇ャや ヶ͡ ソゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ユム∇Βヤハ ょわミぴ ゲ⊥ よ ゲ⊥ ヤ ボ プ ⊥ ダ͡ ⊥ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ∇リョ ヮャ ヴヘハ ∇リヨプ ヴ∠ ∇ルΙゅ͡ ヴ∠ ルy や∠ ギ∇らバ∇ャゅ͡ ギ∇らバ∇ャや∠ ͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ͡⊥ ∠ ∠ ん y よ ん Ι ヱ ͡ ∠ よ ⊥ ∠ ヱ び∀ ∇ヴ∠ ヮΒ͡ ぺ ¬ セ ͡ カ∠
(The Law of equalit y in punishment is prescribed for you in case of murder: t he free for t he free, t he servant for t he servant , and t he female for t he female. But if t he killer is forgiven by t he brot her (or t he relat ives) of t he killed (against blood money),) Hence, ` pardoning' or ` forgiving' means accept ing blood money in int ent ional murder cases.'' Ibn Hibban also recorded t his in his Sahih. Qat adah said:

び∇ユムよケ リあ ∀ Β͡ ∇ガ∠ マャクぴ ⊥ あ z ョ ブ ヘ ゎ ∠ ͡∠
(This is an alleviat ion from your Lord)

Allah had mercy on t his Ummah by giving t hem t he Diyah which was not allowed for any nat ion before it . The People of t he Torah (Jews) were allowed t o eit her apply t he penal code (for murder, i.e., execut ion) or t o pardon t he killer, but t hey were not allowed t o t ake blood money. The People of t he Inj il (t he Gospel - t he Christ ians) were required t o pardon (t he killer, but no Diyah was legislat ed). This Ummah (Muslims) is allowed t o apply t he penal code (execut ion) or t o pardon and accept t he blood money.'' Similar was report ed from Sa` id bin Jubayr, Muqat il bin Hayyan and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Allah's st at ement :

び∀ Β͡∠ ∀ や∠ ∠ ヮヤプ マャク ギ∇バよ ン∠ わ∇ハや リヨプぴ ユ ャぺ ゆ グハ ⊥ ∠∠ ∠ ͡∠ ∠ ∠ ギ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠
(So aft er t his whoever t ransgresses t he limit s, he shall have a painful t orment .) means, t hose who kill in ret aliat ion aft er t aking t he Diyah or accept ing it , t hey will suffer a painful and severe t orment from Allah. The same was report ed from Ibn ` Abbas, Muj ahid, ` At a' ` Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qat adah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Muqat il bin Hayyan.

The Benefits and Wisdom of the Law of Equality
Allah's st at ement :

び∀ ヲ∠ ェ ソゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ヶ͡ ∇ユムャヱぴ り Β∠ ͡ ダ͡ プ ⊥ ∠∠
(And t here is life for you in Al-Qisas) legislat ing t he Law of equalit y, i.e., killing t he murderer, carries great benefit s for you. This way, t he sanct it y of life will be preserved because t he killer will refrain from killing, as he will be cert ain t hat if he kills, he would be killed. Hence life will be preserved. In previous Books, t here is a st at ement t hat killing st ops furt her killing! This meaning came in much clearer and eloquent t erms in t he Qur'an:

び∀ ヲ∠ ェ ソゅ∠ ボ∇ャや ヶ͡ ∇ユムャヱぴ り Β∠ ͡ ダ͡ プ ⊥ ∠∠
(And t here is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisas (t he Law of equalit y in punishment ).) Abu Al-` Aliyah said, "Allah made t he Law of equalit y a ` life'. Hence, how many a man who t hought about killing, but t his Law prevent ed him from killing for fear t hat he will be killed in t urn.'' Similar st at ement s were report ed from Muj ahid, Sa` id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Al-Hasan, Qat adah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Muqat il bin Hayyan. Allah's st at ement :

びラヲ⊥ わゎ ∇ユムヤバャ ょ⇒∠ ∇ャΕや ヶ͡ヱ⊥Αぴ ∠ ボz ∠ ⊥ z∠ ∠ ͡ ら ∠ ャ ほ
(O men of underst anding, t hat you may acquire Taqwa.) means, ` O you who have sound minds, comprehension and underst anding! Perhaps by t his you will be compelled t o refrain from

t ransgressing t he prohibit ions of Allah and what He considers sinful. ' Taqwa (ment ioned in t he Ayah) is a word t hat means doing all act s of obedience and refraining from all prohibit ions.

ポゲゎ ラ͡ れ∇ヲヨ∇ャや ユミギェぺ ゲツェ や∠ ま ∇ユム∇Βヤハ ょわミぴ ∠ ∠ ∠ ま ⊥ ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ク͡ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ⊥ ゅボェ フヱ⊥ ∇バヨ∇ャゅ͡ リΒ͡ ゲ∇ホΙや∠ リ∇Αギャヲ∇ヤャ るΒタヲ∇ャや や⇔ ∇Βカ 6 ∠ ͡ ゲ ∠ よ ∠ よ∠ x ヱ ͡ ∠ ͡∠ ͡ ⊥ z ͡ ∠ ゲ ∠ び リΒ͡ わヨ∇ャや ヴ∠ハ ∠ ボz ⊥ ヤ∠ リΑ͡ ャや ヴ∠ハ ヮヨ∇をま べ∠ ルみプ ヮバヨシ ゅ∠ ギ∇バよ ヮャギよ リ∠ プぴ ∠ グz ヤ∠ ⊥ ⊥ ͡ ヨz ͡∠ ⊥ ∠ ͡ ∠ ョ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠z ∠ ヨ∠ リ͡ フゅ∠ ∇リヨプ - ∀ Β͡∠ ∀ Β͡ シ ヮヤャや ラま ヮルヲ⊥ギらΑ ョ ∠ カ ∠ ∠ ユ ヤハ ノ ヨ∠ ∠ z z ͡ ⊥ ∠ ャあ ∠ ⊥ ヮ∇Βヤハ ユ∇をま Κプ ∇ユヰレ∇Βよ ウヤ∇タほプ ゅ⇔ ∇をま ∇ヱぺ ゅ⇔ レィ ソヲぁ ͡ ∠ ∠ ∠ ͡ ∠ ∠ ⊥ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ∠ ヨ ͡ ∠ ヘ∠ ∠ ∃ ョ び ∀ Β͡ ケ ∀ ヲ⊥ ∠ ヮヤャや ラま ユ ェz ケ ヘビ ∠ z z ͡
(180. It is prescribed for you, when deat h approaches any of you, if he leaves wealt h, t hat he makes a bequest t o parent s and next of kin, according t o reasonable manners. (This is) a dut y upon Al-Mut t aqin (t he pious).) (181. Then whoever changes it aft er hearing it , t he sin shall be on t hose who make t he change. Truly, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.) (182. But he who fears from a t est at or some unj ust act or wrongdoing, and t hereupon he makes peace bet ween t he part ies concerned, t here shall be no sin on him. Cert ainly, Allah is Oft -Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Including Parents and Relatives in the Will was later abrogated
This Ayah cont ains t he command t o include parent s and relat ives in t he will, which was obligat ory, according t o t he most correct view, before t he Ayah about inherit ance was revealed. When t he Ayah of inherit ance was revealed, t his Ayah was abrogat ed, so fixed shares of t he inherit ance for deserving recipient s were legislat ed by Allah. Therefore, deserving inherit or