THE CONTRIBUTE OF MUSICAL ICONOGRAPHY IN THE

PORTUGUESE, LUSO-FLEMISH AND FLEMISH PAINTINGS IN
PORTUGAL AT SIXTEENTH CENTURY TO THE RECOGNIZING OF
MUSIC TECHNIQUES IN THOSE TIMES: SOURCES AND MODELS
USING IN THE ‘ATELIER’.

VOLUME I

Sónia Maria da Silva Duarte
___________________________________________________

Master in Musicology
SEPTEMBER, 2011

ABSTRACT

THE CONTRIBUTE OF MUSICAL ICONOGRAPHY IN THE PORTUGUESE, LUSO-FLEMISH AND
FLEMISH PAINTINGS IN PORTUGAL AT SIXTEENTH CENTURY TO THE RECOGNIZING OF
MUSIC TECHNIQUES IN THOSE TIMES: SOURCES AND MODELS USING IN THE ‘ATELIER’.

Sónia Maria da Silva Duarte

KEYWORDS: musical iconography, portuguese painting, luso-flemish painting,
Flemish paintings, 15

th

century, 16th century, chordophones, aerophones, idiophones,

membranophones, musical notation.

Is yet to be made the study of musical iconography in portuguese’s retable, luso-flemish
and Flemish in Portugal, between the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, covering
not only the living works of the National and Municipal Museums – spaces par
excellence of gathering, storage, preservation and disclosure of pieces – but extending it
to other microspaces such as mercies, sanctuaries, public chapels, oratories, private
chapels/private collections and parochial churches. Abandoned the single largest project
that was announced – the 1976 survey, by the Direcção-Geral do Património Cultural, to
the District Boards, Municipalities, Civil Governments, Libraries, Archives and
Museums in the country – aimed at raising the entire musical iconography in Portugal in
various art forms, we must now analyze the little that has been done for lack of funds
and consider other solutions to walk toward the construction of a future
multidisciplinary endeavor, focusing, for now, the painting on wood since the most
remote example found, A Virgem com o Menino e Anjos from Álvaro Pires de Évora
up to the paintings that bring us closer to 1580, as the Assunção of Portalegre. Based on
the survey file and taking, then all efforts with owners and institutions, we were able to
analyze and identify, on the spot, the musical aspects in more than eight dozen tables
(primary sources) supporting a historical-artistic interpretation, as much as we could, on
the use of secondary sources as the original instruments, theoretical works and other art
forms that refer to sources and models used in ‘atelier’.

«Pintores, luminadores
agora no cume estam,
ourivizes, esculptores,
sam mais sotis, e melhores,
que quantos passados sam:
Vimos o gram Michael,
Alberto e Raphael;
e em Portugal há taes,
tam grande e naturaes,
que vem quase ao liuel.»1

Capa: Nativity (detail), Gregório Lopes, oil on wood, ca. 1525-50, private collection.

1

Cf. Garcia de RESENDE, Crónica de D. João II e Miscelânea [ed. fac-similada da edição de 1798],

prefácio de Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 1991, p. 363.

INDEX
SIGLAS E ABREVIATURAS .................................................................................................................
INTRODUÇÃO ..................................................................................................................................
1.

FORTUNA CRÍTICA E STATUS QUESTIONIS: A ICONOGRAFIA MUSICAL NA PINTURA QUATROCENTISTA E

QUINHENTISTA EM PORTUGAL AOS OLHOS DA HISTÓRIA DA ARTE E DAS CIÊNCIAS MUSICAIS ............................

1.1 Modos de ver pelas Ciências Musicais..................................................................................
1.2 Modos de ver pela História da Arte .......................................................................................
1.3 Fortuna Crítica e Status Questionis: considerações finais.....................................................
1.4 Metodologia ..........................................................................................................................
2.

ICONOGRAFIA MUSICAL NA PINTURA RELIGIOSA QUATROCENTISTA E QUINHENTISTA SOBRE MADEIRA:

TEMAS E FONTES LITERÁRIAS. .................................................................................................................
2.1 Iconografia musical: muito breve definição. .........................................................................
2.2 Os temas iconográficos .........................................................................................................
3.

PINTURA E MÚSICA EM PORTUGAL DURANTE E ÉPOCA DE QUATROCENTOS QUINHENTOS ..........................

3.1 Os ambientes de Quatrocentos ............................................................................................
3.2 Os ambientes de Quinhentos ................................................................................................
4.

O RECONHECIMENTO DA ICONOGRAFIA MUSICAL VOCAL E INSTRUMENTAL: FONTES E MODELOS ...............
4.1 Os Intérpretes de música baixa e de música alta .................................................................
4.2 Os Idiofones...........................................................................................................................
4.3 Os Membranofones...............................................................................................................
4.4 Os Cordofones .......................................................................................................................
4.5 Os Aerofones .........................................................................................................................
4.6 A Dança .................................................................................................................................

CONCLUSÃO ....................................................................................................................................
BIBLIOGRAFIA ..................................................................................................................................

O CONTRIBUTO DA ICONOGRAFIA MUSICAL NA PINTURA
QUINHENTISTA PORTUGUESA, LUSO-FLAMENGA E FLAMENGA EM

PORTUGAL, PARA O RECONHECIMENTO DAS PRÁTICAS MUSICAIS
DA ÉPOCA: FONTES E MODELOS UTILIZADOS NAS OFICINAS DE
PINTURA.

VOLUME II - ANEXOS

Sónia Maria da Silva Duarte
___________________________________________________

Dissertação de Mestrado em Ciências Musicais
SETEMBRO, 2011

THE INVENTORY

«If I didn’t hear, I never saw it. »2
Till-Holger Borchert (Groeningemuseum)

2

Oral transmission.