Brought to you by: Capucion, Jaimee Andrea Casil, Precious Joy Quelnan, Charmane

Lesson 4 – Breads • Baking bread has become a highly specialized industry. When before bread used to be baked at home, now most families prefer store-brought bread for convenience. However homemade bread is generally superior in flavor and in eating quality. The mixture of flour and other ingredients stiff enough to knead or roll is called dough. • Doughs are generally used to make breads and pastries. Working with bread dough can be among the most fascinating and rewarding of experiences. • Bread doughs are of two kinds: lean and right dough. • Lean dough is made of the basic ingredients for bread; flour, yeast, salt, a little sugar, and shortening. • Rich dough contains the basic ingredients for bread with such ingredients added as more sugar, butter, buts, fruits, eggs, and condiments.

Ingredients and Their Functions in Bread: • Flour Is the major ingredient in making bread. It provides the structural framework of the bread because it contains gluten, which gives the bread strength to keep its shape when baking. • Yeast Is the leavener used in bread making. Yeast acts with the sugar in water to form carbon dioxide which will make the bread rise. Two kinds of yeast are compressed or fresh yeast and dry yeast. • Sugar Is added as food for the yeast and also for flavor. It also helps in browning the crust. • Salt Does not only improve or enhance the flavor of the bread it also controls the growth of the yeast to prevent over rising of the dough. • Liquid Such as water, milk, and juice, is needed to hydrate and bind the flour, to develop the gluten, and to dissolve the yeast. • Egg Is added to make bread tender, rich in flavor, and golden brown in color. • Fat In the form of oil, butter, margarine, or shortening, is added to enrich the dough and to keep it soft. It gives the bread a moist crumb with a soft crust. • Other ingredients, like dried fruitsm nuts, cheese, ham, and flavorings, make bread flavorful.

Conventional Bread-Making Methods • These methods are established or approved practices of baking bread. Through the years, bakers have followed these procedures which have become standard as they resulted in improved baking techniques and wellbaked breads.

Conventional Methods • Straight dough method All the ingredients are kneaded together at one time and set aside to rise. • Sponge dough method Involves mixing part of the liquid and flour and all of the yeast to make a soft mixture. This is set aside late then the mixture is kneaded again in the straight dough method. • Batter or no-knead method Eliminates shaping and kneading. Batters containing less flour are allowed to risr at least once.