Emmins, K.

, 000567018, Dissertation

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MARK1024: Dissertation -Events & Tourism Dissertation with Reflective Commentary C McRandal

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BU/UG 100.00% 29/03/2012

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1 March 2012

Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation


9,469 Words

2 March 2012

Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

Acknowledgements Attending university after a previously failed attempt did not ever seem like something I would be willing to do but thanks to the support from a network of people I have been able to achieve something I never thought would even be an option. My Father, Chris, in his unwavering belief in me and willingness to bail me out when student loans just didn’t stretch far enough, my Mother, Andrea, for her staggering ability to make me see that things really aren’t as bad as I think and Tash, my sister who’s incredible upbeat spirit, though frustrating at times will always make me laugh and smile. I could not have survived the last 3 hectic years without them and owe everything I have and will achieve to them, the people who love me and I love without question. My boyfriend, Alex, who must have wondered at times if my stressing was worth the hassle, who stuck by me and kept me going when I thought the work was going to swallow me whole, who provided me with inspiration and kept on telling me I could do it and forced me to work even when I didn’t want to. My supervisor, Claire, who kept me calm, made me laugh and chatted to me when I didn’t feel like I knew what I was doing, without her none of this work would ever have been finished and I am so grateful for her help in jumping this last hurdle. The residents of Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch, for completing the surveys allowing me to collect all of my primary data, without which none of this work would have been possible.

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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

Abstract The mega event sector is growing annually, with a wide spectrum of different events and thus an array of different impacts to host communities. To create successfully and widely accepted event organisers must plan every aspect and be aware of every angle, positive or negative. The purpose of this research was to study the local community of Bournemouth the impacts of the Bournemouth Air Festival, Dorset. Bournemouth is a town in Dorset on the South coast with a population of approximately 164,000 people, it is the host town for the Bournemouth Air Festival; an annual event which takes place around August Bank Holiday weekend. There are problems that arise every year surrounding the festival, the central issue being that of public transport and general perceived overcrowding. The aim of the research is to discover and analyse the local community’s opinions and perceived impacts, both positive and negative, and look at what affects the residents and business in the area and how these may differ according to demographics such as age, postal area and gender. Such a study is important to identify and address the areas which are most detriment to the lives of local residents and those which are positive, thus allowing organisers of large events to better understand impacts on local communities, how to minimise or manage the negative and increase their assets. For the purpose of this dissertation the approach used was mixed-method; using qualitative and quantitative for research. Data was gathered by use of an online survey which was based the feelings, perceptions and “quality” of the festival as well as raw data such as areas most affected, how much and by how many. The sample of data was gathered through random sampling of local residents of Bournemouth and the surrounding areas of Poole and Christchurch, which resulted in a total of 85 completed surveys. Individuals taking part in the survey were asked 14 questions (10 closed, 4 open) relating to the demographic they were part of, the areas they lived in, their opinion of the festival as a whole and specifically how it impacts their lives. Analysis of collected responses was centred on social, social-environmental and social-economic impacts. The findings from the analysis show that the Air Festival is overall well received by the host community, though certain demographics in lower age groups and more central postcodes are more greatly impacted by negative aspects such as crowding. The study was able to pin-point the most widely mentioned impacts were lack of transport and the increase in local business, with most residents believing the positives outweigh the negatives. It is the author’s opinion that this study was conclusive in identifying the key aspects of the Bournemouth Air Festival’s impacts on the local community and that further investigation should be conducted by event planners to recognise these impacts, minimise the negative, maximise the positive and better understand the needs, wants and expectations of those affected.

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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

TABLE OF CONTENTS Coursework header sheet Title page Acknowledgments Abstract Contents page List of Tables and Figures 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Reason for Research 2.3 Impacts and Benefits 2.4 Event Legacy 2.5 Social Impacts 2.6 Conclusion 3. Research Problem 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Aim 3.3 Research Objectives 3.4 Research Question 3.5 Research Hypotheses 4. Methodology 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Research Philosophy 4.3 Purpose of the Research 4.4 Research Design 4.5 Literature Review and Secondary Research 4.6 Primary Research 4.7 Research Approach 4.8 Research Strategy 4.9 Data Collection and Analysis 4.9.1 The Time Horizon 4.9.2 Method of Data Collection Online Survey and Questionnaire 4.9.3 Sampling Strategy 4.9.4 Data Analysis 4.10 Limitations of Research 4.10.1 Bias 4.10.2 Time Limitations 4.10.3 Data Input 4.11 Conclusion 5. Findings and Analysis 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Response
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

5.3 Clarity of Response 5.4 Analysis of Findings 5.5 Demographic Responses 5.5.1 Gender Influence 5.5.2 Age Influence 5.5.3 Time Lived in Area 5.5.4 Postcode Influence 5.6 Likes and Dislikes 5.6.1 Correlation between Age Group and Like or Dislike 5.6.2 Correlation between Postcode Area and Like or Dislike 5.7 Positive and Negative Impacts 5.7.1 Relationship between Postcode, Like and Perceived Local Impacts 5.7.2 Relationship between Postcode, dislike and specific personal negative impacts perceived 5.8 Transport 5.8.1 Relationship between Age and sufficient transport 5.9 Conclusion 6. Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Introduction 6.2 To identify the impacts of mega events 6.3 To examine the specific social impacts of mega-events 6.4 To discover if the impacts of mega-events can be predetermined and controlled 6.5 To determine if the overall impact on the host community is positive or negative 6.6 Hypothesis 1 - Higher negative impacts will be perceived by younger age ranges. 6.7 Hypothesis 2 - The host population perceive the event to have a more negative than positive impact. 6.8 Hypothesis 3 - Postcode area and types of impacts identified are related. 6.9 Hypothesis 4 - Transport will be perceived to be insufficient by the host community. 6.10 Hypothesis 5 - Overcrowding in the town will be a central issue. 6.11 The Future for Bournemouth Air Festival 6.12 Conclusion and Opportunities for Further Study 7. REFERENCES 8. APPENDICES 8.1 Appendix 1: Declaration Form 8.2 Appendix 2: Timetable of Work 8.3 Appendix 3: Questionnaire 8.4 Appendix 4: Tables and Graphs 8.5 Appendix 5: Reflective Commentary

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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

List of Table and Figures

Table 5.5.2: Age Influence Table 5.5.3: Time Lived in Area Table 5.6.1: Correlation between Age Group and Like or Dislike Table 5.6.2: Correlation between Postcode Area and Like or Dislike Table 5.7.1: Relationship between Postcode, Like and Perceived Local Impacts Table 5.7.2: Relationship between Postcode, dislike and specific personal negative impacts perceived Table 5.8.1: Relationship between Age and sufficient transport Figure 4.2: Research Onion Figure 4.8.3: Sampling Strategy Figure 5.5.1: Age Responses Figure 5.5.2: Postcode Area of Residence Figure 5.5.3: Gender Figure 5.5.4: Time Lived in Area Figure 5.6.1: Age Group and Like or Dislike Figure 5.6.2: Postcode and Like or Dislike

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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

1. Introduction Every year since 2008, on or around the August Bank Holiday weekend, the town of Bournemouth hosts a mega-event called the Bournemouth Air Festival. The festival takes place over 4 days at the end of the week and includes aerial displays from Red Arrows, Black Cats and other air-born acrobatic teams as well as ground displays by both the Royal Marines and local groups, concluding with a large firework display by Bournemouth Beach. According to the festival’s official site it went from around 750,000 visitors to around 2million since its first year and in 2011 it also raised just over £21,000 for armed forces charities from donation schemes during the event. With incredibly large numbers of visitors flocking to one town over one weekend it inevitably impacts the host community and can cause both positive and negative repercussions. Each year the local council and show organisers have to adapt to the increasing number of attendees, introducing park and ride facilities to cope with the limited road system in and out of the area as well and with the 2012 Air Show being held on the same weekend as the 2012 Paralympic sailing, just 45 minutes away in Weymouth, locals and organisers will likely be swamped with an even higher number of tourists. There are mega events which take place at four year intervals such as the FIFA World Cup, the Olympics and the UEFA Euro Championships; these events spread the attendance over a long period of time and cause fewer disturbances to host cities as they may only ever host the event once or twice throughout history. However, sports events such as F1, music festivals such as the Isle of Wight Festival and general mega-events like the Bournemouth Air Festival can cause week long impacts every single year and therefore the specific impacts are more noticeable through their annual repetitiveness. This yearly impact on the lives of local people and businesses provides an important area of study that can help future organisers of mega-events, as well as the councils of host towns to commission in-depth research into what exactly local people think, what they perceive affects them most, whether it be positive or negative and how this information can be collected and used to the advantage of future event production companies. The organisation and planning of mega-events and the impacts they have, have been the centre of much comment and debate in the events and tourism market. According to Getz (1991) hosting megaevents such as the Bournemouth Air Festival has many advantages for the host population, including; attracting tourists and visitors from national and international markets, attract the attention of media and promote further attractions in the local area, and also encourage investments in the area through employment created by events. Events based tourism is a valuable asset in attracting more tourists to
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any area, as suggested by Kotler et al (2006), local businesses are keen to host events because of the influx of business and money. Although these events may be a valuable asset they can have vast impacts on local communities other than the potential tourism increase and according to Williams and Bowdin (2007) such impacts should be identified and analysed during planning. This dissertation looks at the impacts of Bournemouth Air Festival of the local community of Bournemouth, Dorset, on the South coast of England. The South East Dorset conurbation, that is made up of Bournemouth and its neighbouring towns of Christchurch and Poole has a population of just over 400,000 people (Bournemouth.gov.uk, Poole.nhs.uk, Dorsetforyou.com), with a stable population age and around 72.5% of the working age population are employed, an incredibly high 91.4% are employed in the service sector in the leisure and tourism industry, making events important to the town. Bournemouth Air Festival is organised by Bournemouth Borough Council, who contract out production and logistics to Brighter Productions Ltd. and is sponsored by a wide range of well known brands including Corona and National Express. During the 4 day festival, which usually takes place on or around the August Bank Holiday weekend, visitors and local residents can enjoy shows from numerous air craft as well as a temporary fair, stall and the other attractions, like the golden beach, Bournemouth has to offer. The festival allows people to experience the might of RAF planes, live music and entertainment and miles of warm sandy beaches; its helps boost the local area’s economy, promotes the town’s image and encourages repeat visits to the area at other times of the year. The event industry has and is growing at a rapid pace in the industry and thus in an academic research area, it is because of this increase in popularity, particularly in free events such as the Bournemouth Air Show, that it is important to analyse and understand the impacts such an event has.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Introduction “Knowledge doesn’t exist in a vacuum, and your work only has value in relation to other people’s. Your work and your findings will be significant only to the extent that they’re the same as, or different from, other people’s work and findings.” Jankowicz (1995) The aim of this literature review is to analyse the relevant, available literature that is published on the impact of large events on the populations of host towns, in order that the researcher may better understand the Bournemouth Air Festival’s impacts on Bournemouth’s residents and that what is
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

learned may be used by future event planners when considering host towns. Research such as this is important as it can be used to more effectively plan and design events whilst minimising the negative impacts to local people, therefore allowing the event planner to create a positive legacy. 2.2 Reason for Research There are a number of different ways to measure the impact of events on populations and research such as this is important as it can be used to more effectively plan and design events whilst minimising the negative impacts to local people, therefore allowing the event planner to create a positive legacy. This research aims to benefit the local and host communities which are affected in an array of different ways by mega-events and by allowing organisers to better understand local residents it will thus allow local residents to be less impacted by the negative and further impacted by the positive.

2.3 Impacts and Benefits “Impacts are essentially the outcomes of an event. Planned or not, impacts of events have to be taken into account during the planning process and should be measured and evaluated” Dickinson (2010). The impacts of an event can be vast and very different depending on the type and location of said event, impacts may be considered minimal by a planner but life changing to those that it affects, which is why it is so important for an event manager to try and understand an event’s impacts on behalf of all the stakeholders. Hiller (1998) has suggested that most research in this field focuses on analysing the visible economic impacts and claiming there to be predominantly positive outcomes, leaving short the analysis of social impacts. However Fredline (2005) gives the contrasting view that events can cause vast difficulties and nuisances to host communities and local people, and although both Hiller (1998) and Fredline (2005) identify these perceived negative impacts, Fredline (2005) focuses more on the social repercussions. It is evident from the available material that less literature has been published considering the social and cultural impacts of an event, but it is also true that within the last decade it has become a more relevant topic of interest. With social impacts being affected by both economic and environmental changes in the way events are planned, social impacts are being more widely researched and understood.

2.4 Event Legacy “An event legacy refers to all the planned and unplanned, positive and negative, tangible and intangible structures created for and by an event that remain longer than the event itself.” Bowen (2010). Bowen’s theory goes hand-in-hand with, Ritchie (2000) who suggests that “Regardless of the actual form that a legacy may take, the idea underlying legacy creation is that it represents something of substance that will enhance the long-term well-being or lifestyle of destination residents. The ideas
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

of both authors show that legacy is focused on for its positive impacts of host communities rather than the potential negative effects; evidence shows event managers and researchers are most likely to study and consider how to create positive outcomes rather than how to stop negative ones and in most cases this involves an event’s tangible legacy. This idea of creating a tangible legacy as described by Chalip (2004) involves planning an event that will need new and improved housing or road systems and regenerated areas, as well as using this process to maximise the appeal of an event to host communities. With events such as the Bournemouth Air Festival, where the Borough Council organises the event with a separate event management company the regeneration or tangible legacy aspect may be less important to the planner and these possible positive impacts are not seen by the host community. The available literature on the subject of event legacy discusses in much more detail the positive aspects of legacy, rather than the negative but when something goes wrong and unplanned and negative legacy may be created, though the author suggests more research is needed in this area

2.5 Social Impacts “Unlike economic impacts, social impacts of events can be difficult to measure objectively as many of them cannot be quantified, and they often have a differential effect on different members of the community. For this reason, social impacts are frequently examined through investigation of residents' perceptions of the impacts.” Fredline (2003). Social impacts can be vast and often go hand in hand with economic and environmental issues, therefore being overlooked during the event measurement stages. According to Bull (2007) this is due to the intangible nature of social impacts, the profit or loss is analysed “but the social impacts of events can remain vague and unexplored.” Bulll (2007). When considering the positive social impacts of events many authors suggest the bringing together of local people in “shared experience, building community pride, increased community participation, expanding cultural perspectives” McDonnell (2010) create “nationalistic sentiments” Fredline (2005) and therefore improve the community experience and legacy. However these emotional responses to an event are again intangible impacts and though they create positive feedback in the short term, they do not necessarily have any long term positive effect on host communities. Social impacts can also be tangible and thus easier to measure and along with “the relatively short-term impacts of collective sharing, residents’ quality of life can be enhanced in a more long-term manner through urban regeneration” (Ohmann 2006). Urban regeneration schemes are becoming more and more common as they create jobs, homes, help the environment and leave a positive legacy; the idea of these schemes is to leave behind a more long term positive effect for local communities. “The bigger an event the more physical improvements made to a host town” Carlsen (2000); this idea is expanded on by Hall (2004), who explains that improvements may improve not only a community’s self and outer image but also
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

due to redevelopment schemes; improved road networks, decreased noise and air pollution and better local amenities. Positive impacts may be wide and varying, according to many authors, so are the negative; “community alienation, negative community image, substance abuse, loss of amenities” McDonnell (2010). Like McDonnel (2010), Fredline (2003) provides a similar perspective and also suggests that these negative impacts such as; overcrowded transport, congested roads and lack of available parking may be unavoidable. The negative impacts of events have frequently been down played by event planners and over exaggerated by those they affect, though the negative impacts often receive more attention from the individual and the media, with particular emphasis on those of a criminal nature. Large events attract large crowds and in particular open air events, such as the Bournemouth Air (or any other) Festival, where there are more people there is likely to be increased crime, whether it be pre-planned or spontaneous. Barker (2002) suggests this increase in crime is a trend created and supported by its surroundings and certain event enthusiasts, this may be more relevant to sporting events such as football, but as events like air shows also have a loyal fan base or target market, it is also relevant to any event that has developed a following of a particular crowd of people. Ohmann (2006) agrees with Barker (2002) that there is substantial evidence to support increases in crime around large events, though disagrees that it impacts local residents as the victims are more likely to be event attendees rather than those from the host community, that said it could also be argues that at many events the majority of attendees will be from the host community. It is evident from the material and secondary research available that positive and negative social impacts have been researched in different ways but often to the advantage of the researcher or skewed by the words of the media. In this researcher’s opinion more primary data should be collected from host communities to better understand the specific social impacts of an event and in the case of Bournemouth Air Festival, whether they be predominantly positive or negative. 2.6 Conclusion The literature analysed and used has enabled the author to identify the main factors that can and do impact the host towns and local residents in places such as Bournemouth. Large scale events such as Bournemouth Air Festival and others used by the author affect host populations in social, cultural, environmental and economical ways, though economic and environmental factors are more widely researched and written about. The legacy theory and the previous research that exists support the belief that events impact host communities in both positive and negative ways, though more research is needed to better understand, identify and analyse the social impacts of large events. In order to create a better understanding of these social impacts the author believes further primary research is needed to gain firsthand experience of the true impacts of events.
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

3. Research Problem 3.1 Introduction The research for the dissertation centres on the study of event planning and the impact of mega-events on local communities. In the past there have been a lot of different types of perceived impacts, for example the negative environmental affect of the Sydney Olympic Games or the positive planned legacy and impacts for the London 2012 Olympic Games, and therefore the researcher believes it to be an important area for further investigation. There have been a wide made of comments made about

3.2 Research Aim The aim of this research is to identify and examine the impacts of mega events on host communities.

3.3 Research Objectives The objectives of this research are to: 1. Identify the impacts of mega events 2. Examine the specific social impacts of mega events 3. Discover if the impacts of mega events can be predetermined and controlled 4. Determine if the overall impact on the host community itself is positive or negative

3.4 Research Question Are the social impacts of the Bournemouth Air Festival predominantly positive or negative for the host community?

3.5 Research Hypotheses 1. Higher negative impacts will be perceived by younger age ranges. 2. The host population perceive the event to have a more negative than positive impact. 3. Postcode area and types of impacts identified are related. 4. Transport will be perceived to be insufficient by the host community. 5. Overcrowding in the town will be a central issue.

4. Methodology 4.1 Introduction Methodology according to Saunders can be defined as “the theory of how research should be undertaken, including the theoretical and philosophical assumptions upon which research is based and the implications of these for the method or methods adopted” Saunders (2009). The methodology is
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

the breakdown of the design, approaches and plans for the methods which will be used by the researcher to collect the relevant data in order to answer the research question. This chapter defines the research methods chosen for the dissertation and study of the impacts of Bournemouth Air Festival on the host population. This dissertation aims to highlight the central impacts perceived by the local community, an issue into which almost no previous research has taken place and published research is sparse.

4.2 Research Philosophy According to the “Research Onion” Saunders (2009) (fig4.2) there are 4 different types of research philosophy, these include; Positivism, Realism, Interpretivism and Pragmatism, for the purpose of this research Positivism will be used. Saunders defines positivism as “the epistemological position that advocates working with an observable social reality.” Saunders (2009). Positivism, first developed by Auguste Comte and later refined by Emile Durkheim, is an objective and external form of epistemology and is based on the fact that social science is more reliable when it is wholly verifiable. Positivism is associated mainly with quantitative research and a small amount of qualitative research to reinforce the quantitative. Positivism is appropriate for this research as it focuses primarily on the facts and truths and identifiable impacts the Bournemouth Air Festival has on the host population, rather than the emotional responses to these impacts.

4.3 Purpose of the Research The purpose for research can be either exploratory, descriptive or explanatory and for this research the purpose is descriptive. Descriptive research can be defined as “research for which the purpose is to produce an accurate representation of persons, events or situations” Saunders (2009). Although the purpose of the research has been identified as descriptive Robson (2009) suggests that the purpose of research may change during the course of the research in order to meet the needs of the research subject.

4.4 Research Design Research design is defined by Saunders as “the framework for the collection and analysis of data. For the purpose of this research the researcher will be using a mixed-method approach; mixed-method involves the “use of more than one data collection technique and corresponding analysis procedure or procedures” Saunders (2009). The mixed-method approach will be used for the purpose of this research as it is appropriate to carry out quantitative and qualitative research; the researcher will be using questionnaires and online surveys to generate and analyse the primary data in order to obtain numerical and statistical data as well as semi-structured interviews.

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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

4.5 The Literature Review and Secondary Research According to Bell (1999) an important part of any research or study is to look at previously published data and articles to gain a more broad understanding of the topic area and allow a comparison between secondary data and primary data, thus letting the author analyse information in a deeper way. While conducting the literature review the author will look at relevant and current published documents from multiple media including academic journals, online databases such as Emerald, relevant online forums and blogs and internet sites. However all internet research must be read and checked carefully for solidarity and facts due to forum, internet site and blogs containing large amount of unconfirmed information. The literature review will give the researcher a foundation for research on which to build the research design and lead into the primary collection of data from questionnaires and online surveys.

4.6 Primary Research It is suggested by Clark et al (2002) that by using more than one research method the researcher can improve their understanding of a topic and that where primary research may indicate one thing, secondary research may indicate something totally different, it is because of this it is important for both methods to be used in this research.

4.8 Research Approach The approach to research may be Inductive or Deductive and for the purpose of this research a deductive approach will be used. Bryman defines the deductive method as “an approach to the relationship between theory and research in which the latter is conducted with reference to hypotheses and ideas inferred from the former.” Bryman (2007). The process of using deduction is more scientific than induction as it uses greater structure in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses of the research question, allowing the question to be answered using research and data rather than subjectivism.

4.9 Research Strategy The research strategy is the “general plan of how the researcher will go about answering the research question” Saunders (2009), and as one strategy may be right for one hypotheses or question, it may not be right for another. The researcher will be using primarily survey research with some archival research for the purpose of answering this research question. The survey strategy has a strong affiliation with the deductive approach as surveys enable the collection of large quantities of variable data. Using surveys and questionnaires also enables the researcher to use the many different types of media available including the internet, face-to-face, telephone or postal questionnaires in order to gather large quantities of quantitative data. Archival research uses secondary data such as documents

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and records as primary sources and the sources for this research will be more recent data from published articles and social media.

4.9 Data Collection and Analysis

4.9.1 The Time Horizon The time horizon of this research will be cross-sectional; cross sectional design “entails the collection of data on more than one case at a single point in time in order to collect a body of quantitative data” Bryman (2007). The time horizon may be cross-sectional or longitudinal, but the cross-sectional approach uses a particular moment in time it is more relevant for the data required to analyse for the research question.

4.9.2 Method of Data Collection Due to the use of the positivism philosophy the data collected must be factual and objective, in order to collect such data the researcher will be using online surveys and face-to-face questionnaires for the collection of primary data. Online Survey and Questionnaire According to Veal (1997) surveys are one of the most common methods of research in the fields of tourism, hospitality and leisure and entail using a pre-determined and specifically designed list of questions used to attain data from an individual or group. The online survey makes it easier to reach a larger number of people from the host community in a shorter space of time and makes it easy for those completing the survey to do so in their own time. This also gives the added advantage of being able to reach people through the use of social media such as ‘Facebook’, and thus reaching a wider number of the target audience. The questionnaire used as will consist of 14 questions; 10 closed and 4 open to gain a broad and deep enough spectrum of answers that provide opinion and fact from members of the host community. For the purpose of the research the survey will be emailed to 200 individuals as well as being posted on social networking sites and relevant forums, in order to gain a sufficient number of completed replies. If necessary the same list of questions from the survey will be used as a face-to-face questionnaire to ensure numbers of completed surveys are high enough. A copy of the questions used can be seen in Appendix 3.

4.9.3 Sampling Strategy Sampling is an important part of researching a topic as it enables the researcher to save time and money, whilst still collecting important and relevant data; allowing the researcher to select random or specific members of the target community to identify an ‘average’ response. A sample is a “sub-group
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

or part of a larger population” Saunders (2009) (see fig 4.8.3) and sampling techniques may be used to collect sample data; sampling techniques can be divided into two types; probability and nonprobability sampling. The researcher will be collecting data from approximately 80 persons from the host community for the purpose of this research and will be using probability sampling. Probability sampling is made up of five main techniques; simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster and multistage. The target sample population for the research will include males and females 18 years and over, this wide range of potential data will allow the researcher to identify any possible relationships between age or gender and differing identified impacts. All those who take part in the research will be 18 years or over in order for the researcher to avoid possible ethical complications that could arise when working with minors. An especially important criteria is that those providing data for the research must live within the boundaries of Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch in the county of Dorset. Anyone living outside these areas will not be affected directly, if it all, by the event and therefore their perceived social impacts would not provide relevant data and could create statistical anomalies in the data.

4.9.4 Data Analysis Saunders asserts that data analysis is “the ability to break-down data and to clarify the nature of the component parts and the relationship between them” Saunders (2009), to best do this the researchers will be using the following analytical techniques; pie charts, dot graphs and tables in order to identify positive, negative or absent correlations. From these techniques the researcher will be able to more clearly isolate the specific social impacts of the Bournemouth Air Festival to the host population and thus allowing identification of the overall positive or negative social effect on the host population. The researcher will analyse the data in layers; the first layer being basic responses to questions, how many responded, what they said and an analysis of demographic breakdown. The second layer will use results of two different questions in order to cross reference the data and identify any relationships between types of individuals and types of answer given. The third stage will be to compare the data using 3 filters such as age group, dislike and impacts named; this thirds layer will allow the researcher to pinpoint specific impacts to specific areas or groups of people and identify the size or variation of such impacts. By using this technique and filtering answers using rules the author is able to pick out key words and issues that are repetitive in nature.

4.10 Limitations of Research Limitations of the research are those factors that may affect the overall outcome of the answer to the research question and can include; the same size, researcher bias, bias in analysis, the researcher corrupting the interviewees answers by actively or subconsciously leading the interview and

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individuals answering questions incorrectly by accident or purposefully. All of these limitations could potentially corrupt the data collection process and therefore corrupt the data collected.

4.10.1 Bias Part of the use of a research design is to prevent the researcher from pre-determining conclusions or trying to predict the outcome of research, though it is important to have an aim and set hypotheses the researcher should not try to guess the end result. The further along the study is and the more in-depth the researcher is the higher the likelihood of bias affecting the final outcome of the study as they may subconsciously or consciously manipulate data. Following the research study and the use of questionnaires and surveys rather than interviews helps alleviate the risk as the researcher is less able to control the data gathered and should focus on the plan they have set.

4.10.2 Time Limitations Time is always a limitation or constraint of any work or research study and thus will be important to the author, with the limited time available to complete research it is important to have a timetable of work. Should the author have more time a more comprehensive study would be advantageous. A timetable of work is available in Appendix 2.

4.10.3 Data Input The author feels it important also to recognise that as there is only one researcher bearing in mind the size of the sample and number of questions, and as the single author will be inputting and checking all data the accuracy of input should be noted as a limitation. However all data recorded, filtered and used will be checked repeatedly and any anomalies are likely to be identified by the filtering and rule system used in the table of data obtained, though this will not identify any inaccuracy of input on the part of the respondents.

4.11 Conclusion The literature review was successful in identifying the most suitable areas of research and in doing so it allowed the researcher to identify key gaps in the research and therefore the literature available. The social impacts to host populations are interconnected with environmental, cultural and economic impacts but are not often focused on with the intention of identifying specific social impacts to host populations. The research design and methodology are designed in order to answer the question in a more specific and measurable way. The methodology has provided a description of the design and strategy that will be used by the researcher in a deductive manner with mainly quantitative and some qualitative data in order to identify and analyse the specific impacts of Bournemouth Air Festival on the host community.
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5. Findings and Analysis

5.1 Introduction This section will look at the data collected from the online questionnaire and will analyse the findings using graphs and tables. Data collected was analysed using Microsoft Excel for Windows to filter responses, pick out key words and organise data into groups, making it easier to read. According to Cooper et Al (2000) the accuracy of results is dependent on how accurately the data was entered into the table; as data was input by humans and a computer can only filter what it is given, it cannot make corrections and accuracy of results can only be as good as accuracy of raw data.

5.2 Response As discussed in the methodology section, questionnaires were posted online in appropriate forums, social networking site and sent by email to Bournemouth residents, along with the explanation of use. In total 85 responses were received over a space of 2 weeks; a satisfactory response rate, with around 50% of targeted individuals taking part and completing a full questionnaire online. It appears that 37% of participants were connected to the researcher in some way and though it is unlikely, it should be noted responses could be bias. All participants provided answers to closed questions with 98% also providing full answers to open questions, resulting in a significant amount of both quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative data that was gathered from open question responses was analysed and a summary of the key points is shown and discussed in section 5.7.

5.3 Clarity of Response All participants seemed to clearly understand the questions and flow of the questionnaire and answered correctly and specifically and less than 1% of answers received were with the statement “I don’t know”. As Clark et Al (2002) explains it is important to ask questions that people will be able to answer, not everyone is an expert and participants will not complete a questionnaire if they don’t understand the topic, with this in mind the researcher phrased questions simply and asked questions that were specific to each individual’s perceptions and views, not expecting them to know vast amounts about any topic. As responses of “I don’t know” or N/A could not be use as analysable responses, and key words were not present they were not included in the qualitative analysis.

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5.4 Analysis of Findings A simplified version of the most significant findings is broken down and discussed throughout the next part of this chapter; the results represent the views of a sample of 85 Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch residents in relation to the Bournemouth Air Festival.

5.5 Demographic Responses The first section of the questionnaire, as seen in Appendix 4, focused on the demographic areas of the respondents. The demographics have been divided into the following groups;     Age of respondent Postcode Area of residence Gender of resident Time lived in Bournemouth area

The data received from the first group is solely quantitative and resulted in basic statistics to reveal the demographics of respondents; in the following sections each demographic area will be discussed using tables and corresponding graphs available in Appendix 4.

5.5.1 Gender Influence The first question asked the participants to identify their gender; 44.7% were male and 55.3% were female. Showing that more women were able to respond or were more willing to respond than possible male participants.

5.5.2 Age Influence This question asked the respondents to confirm which age group they were part of. Table 5.5.2 Age Groups (years) 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56+

Number of Respondents % of Respondents 28 28 5 19 5 32.9 32.9 5.9 22.4 5.9

As can be seen in the above table, the highest number of respondents were in the 18-25 and 26-35 categories, together making up 65.8% of all questionnaire responses received, the next highest were from the 46-55 age group and lowest two were the 36-45 and 56+ age groups, making up just 11.8% of responses.

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5.5.3 Time Lived in Area The 3rd question asked “Do you live in Bournemouth?” all respondents answered yes as was expected and appropriate for the questionnaire. The subsequent question asked how long respondents had been permanent residents in the Bournemouth area, this question was designed to see if there would be any identifiable correlation between time lived in the area and opinions of the Bournemouth Air Festival. Table 5.5.3 Time Lived In Bournemouth Area (years) 0-3 4-8 9-14 15+

Number of Respondents 26 24 9 26

% of Respondents 30.6 28.2 10.6 30.6

As is visible in the table above, the most respondents were in the 0-3 and 15+ years groups, both being equal on 30.6%, making up 61.2% of all responses, the fewest responses came from respondents who lived in Bournemouth 9-14 years, with only 10.6% being from that group.

5.5.4 Postcode Influence Respondents were asked to enter their BH postcode area in the questionnaire in order to allow the researcher to better understand any links between postcode lived in and impacts perceived. 16.5% of respondents lived in the BH9 area, 14.1% lived in the BH12 area, 12.9% in BH6 and 10.6% in BH12; these four groups made up 54.1% of all respondents. BH5, BH10, BH11, BH15, BH18, BH21, BH23 respondents made up just 11.8% in total.

5.6 Likes and Dislikes Respondents were asked if overall they “liked or disliked the Bournemouth Air Festival”. Surprisingly for the author 64.7% stated that they liked the festival more than they disliked it, with 35.3% stating they disliked it.

5.6.1 Correlation between Age Group and Like or Dislike The researcher thought it relevant next to establish if there were any links between the postcode area of respondents and their response to if the liked or disliked the air festival overall. Below is the result of the cross-referenced answers.

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Table 5.6.1 Age Group (years) 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56+

Dislike 13 17 1 1 0

Like 15 11 4 18 5

As can be seen in the table above those in the 36-45, 46-55 and 56+ age groups all primarily like the festival, including 94.7% of the 46-55 age group. The 18-25 group, who are very likely made up of predominantly students, are almost evenly split with 46.4% choosing dislike and 53.6% choosing like. The only age group which had a higher number of dislikes was the 26-33 year olds, of whom 60.7% stated they disliked the festival. Other than the 26-35 age group these statistics show that the older the age group, the higher the ratio of likes, this can be more clearly seen in the graph in Appendix 4, fig 5.6.1

5.6.2 Correlation between Postcode Area and Like or Dislike The researcher followed up by comparing the Postcode Area and selection of Like or Dislike, to identify any possible correlation between to the two aspects of respondents. Table 5.6.2 Postcode Area BH1 BH2 BH3 BH4 BH5 BH6 BH7 BH8 BH9 BH10 BH11 BH12 BH15 BH18 BH21 BH23

Dislike 4 8 0 4 1 1 1 4 5 0 0 4 0 0 0 0

Like 3 4 7 0 1 10 4 3 9 2 1 5 1 1 1 2

The table above shows that respondents in areas closer to the town centre such as the BH1, BH2 and BH8 postcodes were more likely to select the dislike option, and those in areas further from the town centre, and therefore further from the Air Festival base are more likely to like the festival. This interestingly shows that the lower the number of impacts felt by the respondents, the more they like

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the festival. Appendix 4, fig 5.6.2 shows in graph form the relationship between postcodes and like or dislike by respondents.

5.7 Positive and Negative Impacts Next respondents were asked “Do you think the Bournemouth Air Festival has a positive or negative impact on local people and businesses?”; 57.6% said they believed the festival to be overall positive for the local community, with 32.9% selecting the option that the festival was both positive and negative and only 9.4% of respondents stating it was predominantly negative. This set of results concurs with Fredline(2005) in the belief that although events have many negative effects, the overall opinion of host communities is that the positive increase of business and money, outweigh the negative aspects caused to individual persons.

5.7.1 Relationship between Postcode, Like and Perceived Local Impacts The researcher followed up by looking at the relationship between postcodes, like and specifically mentioned positive impacts to the local community. Table 5.7.1 Postcode BH1 BH2 BH3 BH5 BH6 BH7 BH8 BH9 BH10 BH11 BH12 BH15 BH18 BH21 BH23

Like 4 4 7 1 10 4 4 9 2 1 5 1 1 1 2

Community Money Tourism Media Jobs 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 2 5 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 6 2 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 3 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

The table above shows the researcher that money is the prominent positive aspect perceived by respondents, with at least one respondent from every postcode mentioning it. Second to Money came Community and the sense of community that respondents feel is enhanced by large events involving the local community, with one respondent stating that the Air Festival “Brings the people of the town together in celebration”. Both McDonald (2010) and Fredline (2005) have put forward the idea that community plays a big part in the perceived success of an event such as the Bournemouth Air festival, when host populations are affected on a large scale. The research done by the author through the
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questionnaire agrees with their theory of a community legacy joining the people of an area in celebration being a widely perceived positive impact.

5.7.2 Relationship between Postcode, dislike and specific personal negative impacts perceived The researcher went on to look at the relationship between postcodes, overall dislike of the air festival and personal negative impacts perceived. Table 5.7.2 Postcode BH1 BH2 BH4 BH5 BH6 BH7 BH8 BH9 BH12 Dislike 3 8 4 1 1 1 3 5 4 Negative Impacts 3 6 1 1 1 1 3 5 4 Parking 2 5 2 1 1 1 3 5 2 Busy 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Roads Transport 1 2 0 0 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 2 3 2

It was evident from this cross-section of filters in the data that the central negative impact in the lack of available parking, 12 respondents stating they weren’t able to park outside their homes or at work during the festival, causing significant disruption to their lives. As stated by Bull (2007) and discussed in the earlier research, these perceived social impacts differ between events and therefore the underlying impacts to host communities should be studied for every event rather than relying on the statistics of impacts from previous different events, no matter how similar they may be, what Bull (2007) suggests is correct in that perceived impacts will always vary depending on the type of event, the host area and the type of people or demographics who live in said area.

5.8 Transport Respondents were also asked the question “Do you think the council and local transport provide sufficient public transport during the Air Festival?”; 59.6% answered “No”, suggesting the majority of the local residents find the public transport system ill-equipped to deal with the influx of tourists, the other 40.4% answered “Yes”, but it is possible that these respondents were from post code areas that do not require use of the public transport system, therefore the researcher cross referenced the two groups of answers. After comparing the postcodes of respondents and their opinion of public transport sufficiency it was shown that of the 40.4% that stated the transport is not sufficient 44.1% of these were from post codes in which they would be unlikely to use the town centre transport system, including residents who live in the BH21, BH18, BH23 and BH6 areas.

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5.8.1 Relationship between Age and sufficient transport After looking at the relationship between transport and postcodes the researcher thought it important to see if there was also a relationship between age group and opinion of transport sufficiency. Table 5.8.1 Age Groups (years) 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56+

Yes 12 5 0 15 4

No 16 23 5 4 1

The table above shows the relationship between respondent age group and perceived sufficiency of public transport; it shows that those is younger age groups like 18-35, 26-35 and 36-45 find the transport to be insufficient in dealing with the influx of visitors. The researcher deduces that those in younger age ranges are more likely to use public transport due to lack of driving licences or higher likelihood of drinking and therefore have a stronger opinion or be more likely to notice overcrowding or other problems.

5.9 Conclusion The researcher has found the analysis of questionnaire responses to be interesting but suggests that a more in-depth questionnaire aimed at a much larger sample population, targeting people by demographic would provide a more conclusive and solid foundation on which to better understand the impacts perceived according to age and certainly postcode area. Overall this has been the most thought provoking chapter for the author but there is still likely more specific conclusions that could be drawn if more time and a wider spectrum of participants could be involved, thus leading to the recommendation of additional research being made in order to better understand the host community.

6. Conclusions and recommendations

6.1 Introduction The aim of this dissertation is to identify and analyse the impacts of hosting the Bournemouth Air Festival and mega-events to the local community and people. In order to complete this task four objectives were set in Chapter 3, these objectives were to; 1. Identify the impacts of mega events

2. Examine the specific social impacts of mega events 3. Discover if the impacts of mega events can be predetermined and controlled 4. Determine if the overall impact on the host community is positive or negative
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The research aim and objectives have been examined through the use of a literature review and research under-taken by the author in Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch in Dorset.

6.2 To identify the impacts of mega events For the purpose of this dissertation an investigation of possible impacts was conducted using a literature review, and though acknowledging that every event or even air festival is different, the author was able to identify key topics and trends within each festival. Bournemouth Air Festival has already started its planning process for the 2012 Air Show and as discussed in Chapter 1 have confirmed dates that coincide with the Olympic Sailing only 1 hour away in Weymouth. The literature review and primary research were both able to highlight how economical, cultural and social impacts have vast affects on host communities, but the social impacts, as is suggested by Bull (2007), though less researched should be considered some of the most important.

6.3 To examine the specific social impacts of mega-events After identifying the types of impacts of mega-events like the Bournemouth Air Festival in section 6.2 the researcher thought it important to look out the specific impacts, considering mainly the social aspects, of mega-events. The literature review in Chapter 2 allowed the researcher to identify social impacts of past events both positive and negative and primary research carried put using a survey of the local residents allowed these impacts to be examined in greater detail more specific to the research needs of the dissertation. The researcher was able to examine social impacts by type such as the sense of community affiliated with similar events, the increase of money, media coverage and tourism and also to better understand the important negative impacts like difficulties parking, perceived insufficient local transport systems and overcrowding on the beaches. These negative impacts are what should be most important to an event organiser, positive impacts are mainly a natural result of an increase in visitors to the town due to a mega-event, where as it is obvious to the author from the literature review and primary data that negative impacts are a result that should be carefully identified and minimised.

6.4 To discover if the impacts of mega-events can be predetermined and controlled As discussed in the literature review and section 6.2 this factor is dependent on the organisation of the event production team planning with plenty of time and properly conducting their own research or hiring an outside body to do so. With good time keeping and proper research the organisers of any event can better understand what the impacts of their event maybe, looking at past research for precedent they can better predict what impacts they may create before during and after the event and what the event’s legacy might be. Good organisation and effective planning means that event
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managers should be able to predetermine what the impacts maybe and have contingencies in place to increase the positive and decrease the negative, through transport changes, road bollards and extra policing. The ability to entirely predetermine any event, manmade or of nature is never fully possible, however forecasting and assessing these impacts is vital.

6.5 To determine if the overall impact on the host community is positive or negative A natural progression of the research after identifying the types of impacts and examining the specific social impacts of mega-events was to look at if it is possible to determine whether these impacts be overall positive or negative for the host community, local residents and businesses. According to the literature it is suggested by Fredline (2005) that positives of increased revenue will most often outweigh negatives as host communities in towns like Bournemouth, which consist primarily of service industry workers who will gain from increased business. The primary data collected from survey respondents concurred with this idea and although certain demographics, as was discussed in the data analysis in Chapter 5 find the event more negative, more than 50% of residents find it to have an overall positive impact on their lives. Although certain mega-events may be detrimental to host communities, the event legacy of Bournemouth Air Festival has been shown to be perceived as a good thing for the local area and when many seaside resorts are failing it is important to be able to still bring in high numbers of tourists to the Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch areas.

6.6 Hypothesis 1 - Higher negative impacts will be perceived by younger age ranges. True – The data generated from primary research shows a positive relationship between the age range of respondents and dislike, perception of negative impacts number of negative impacts identified. As hypothesised by the author the lower age ranges of 18-25 and 26-35 year olds were more likely to state they disliked the festival at 46.4% and 60.7% respectively choosing the dislike option. Those respondents belonging to the 18-25 and 26-35 age groups also found a larger problem with the transport system, this is likely because of the fact that those of younger ages are more likely to use local transport during the festival and are more likely to notice any insufficiencies. Those in the 3656+ categories almost all stated they liked the Bournemouth Air Festival and found it to be an overall positive experience for the host town, this links in closely with the fact that a large number of older respondents pin-pointed a key positive impact of the festival is community pride, something which was shown to be more important to older generations than younger.

6.7 Hypothesis 2 - The host population perceive the event to have a more negative than positive impact. False – The findings from research shows that the majority of the host population who completed the survey perceive the mega-event to be primarily positive to the town. As discussed in the findings and
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analysis in Chapter 5 64.7% of respondents stated they liked the festival more that they disliked it and 57.6% stated they thought it had an overall more positive than negative impact to their local area. Although this different between demographics and was affected by both age and postcode area the data conclusively, though only by a small margin disproved the author’s hypothesis. With such a small sample gathered from an area with a population of more than 200,000 people however and the fact that a large number of respondents were from the lower age-ranges the author suggests that this margin would be even greater if a larger and more equal demographic sample was to be taken. This result also suggests that the influx of money and tourism is more important to the local residents and business owners than the personal disruption caused over the course of the event weekend.

6.8 Hypothesis 3 - Postcode area and types of impacts identified are related. True – There was a strong correlation between the postcode area respondents lived in and the impacts that affect them specifically or those they could identify. As discussed in Chapter 5 residents who live in the BH1, BH2 and BH8 postcode areas, which are all closer to the centre of town stated one of the main impacts to them as being the lack of parking near their homes, just as those from postcodes in BH6 and BH5 believe that transport is insufficient as they live in postcodes that boarder Bournemouth and Christchurch and are more likely to use the bus services. Residents in the BH1 and BH2 areas also were far more likely to name an impact to them as being the noise in the town centre and night, as these postcodes are located in what is always a busy area of town and is primarily pedestrianised and therefore filled with festival revellers late into each night. Respondents in postcodes such as BH6 were also more likely than any other postcode to name the sense of community as a positive impact; the BH6 area contains 10 retirement communities, 4 schools and cul-de-sac style roads as well as being a long distance from the university and so is more likely to contain the types of people who find community important.

6.9 Hypothesis 4 - Transport will be perceived to be insufficient by the host community. True – Transport was named as a central issue by the residents who completed the survey, with 59.6% stating when asked the question “Do you think the council and local transport provide sufficient public transport during the Air Festival?” “No” they did not think it was sufficient. Though age group and postcode area also affected the perceived inadequacy of the transport system, when asked to name specific or personal impacts in open questions at least one respondent in all but 2 postcode areas stated it as a negative impact of the festival.

6.10 Hypothesis 5 - Overcrowding in the town will be a central issue. False – Though overcrowding, the increased numbers of people in the town and the perceived business was mentioned by at least one or more resident in postcodes BH1, BH2, BH8 and BH9, there
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was not sufficient evidence to suggest the local community view it as a key issue. The data collected from the survey shows that those in postcodes near what are busy areas generally or close to the centre of town and therefore entertainment provided by the event believe a direct impact is the busyness however it is not substantial enough for the researcher to conclude it is a central issue. This result shows that the event organisers should consider looking at the areas named as being busy and find if there is away to decrease this impact to the residents of the postcodes BH1, BH2, BH8 and BH9 but as it is not something which causes problems to the majority of the population it is not a key impact to be controlled.

6.11 The Future for Bournemouth Air Festival Though the primary research gathered from surveys showed that there are is wide variety, mainly consisting of a lack of public transport and noise control during the festival weekend, it also emphasised the overall positive outcome of the event. It showed the author that the influx of tourism and media exposure is widely seen to be the best impact of the festival and the majority of the sample respondents perceive the event as a way to increase the way the community works and plays together as well as raising money for local causes. The researcher believes that Bournemouth Borough Council and the festival organisers, who continue to expand the show every year plan to do so for a long time, and with this year’s set to be the largest yet, and with a town that will already be filled with Olympics enthusiasts it is likely to gain more attention than any previous year. With the event growing by such a large proportion each year, the organisers must ensure to continue to identify and understand the impacts by listening to local people and businesses.

6.12 Conclusion and Opportunities for Further Study The researcher overall considers the research to have been successful in meeting its aims and objectives. Should the researcher decide to hold do this study again she would commence the literature review section of the research from an earlier date, thus allowing more to be read and the vast literature on the topic to be better sampled and analysed. This would also allow the researcher to spend an increased amount of time on the primary research and an increased number of surveys could be completed, as well as interviews with Bournemouth Residents. The author believes that the Bournemouth Air Festival organisers along with the council would find such research valuable and may be interested to know for future studies what exactly is affecting the local community, what is making them happy and what is upsetting their daily lives. She would therefore suggest that further and more in-depth study should be carried-out by all involved bodies to meet the needs of residents and local businesses as well as emphasising the positive aspects and would be interested to see the more detailed impacts the festival has.
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7. References Barker, M., 2004, Crime and sport events tourism: The 1999 - 2000 America’s Cup, in Sport Tourism: interrelationships, impacts and issues by Ritchie and Adair, Clevedon, Channel View Publications Barker, M., Page, S., and Meyer, D., 2002, Evaluating the impact of the 2000 America’s Cup on Auckland, Event Management, Volume 7, 80 - 92. Bell, E. and Bryman, A., 2007, Business Research Methods, 2nd Edition. New York, Oxford University Press, 16-25, 179-222 & 726-733 Bournemouth Air Festival | Information on the Bournemouth Air Festival 2011. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bournemouthair.co.uk/. [Accessed 25th October 2011] Bournemouth Council | Information on the Bournemouth Census. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bournemouth.gov.uk/. [Accessed 21st January 2012] Bowen, D., Clarke, J, 2010, Contemporary Tourist Behaviour: Yourself and Others as Tourists, 1st Edition, London, Cambridge University Press, 233 – 235 Bull, C. And Weed, M., 2004, Sports tourism: participants, policy and providers. Oxford, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann Carlsen, J., Getz, D., Soutar, G., 2000, Event Evaluation Research, Event Management, Volume 6, 247-25 Chalip, L., 2006, Towards social leverage of sport events. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 109–127 Chalip, L., McGuirty, J., 2004, Bundling sport events with the host destination. Journal of Sport Tourism, Volume 9, 269-275 Clark M, Riley M, Wilkie E and Wood RC, 2002, Researching and Writing Dissertations in Hospitality and Tourism. London, Thomson Learning Comte, A., (translated from the original French by Bridges, J. H.) 1907, 1 st Edition, London, Routledge Dickinson, G., Robinson, P., Wale, D., 2010, Event Management, 1 st Edition, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 181 – 189 Dorset For You | Information on Dorset and Population Statistics. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.dorsetforyou.com/. [Accessed 30th January 2012] Events & Festivals Research, UK Centre for Events Management 2011 [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.eventsandfestivalsresearch.com/. [Accessed 25th October 2011] Fredline, E., Jago, L., Deery, M., 2003, The development of a generic scale to measure the social impact of events, Event Management, Volume 8, 23 - 37

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Fredline, E., 2005, Host and guest relations and sport tourism, Sport, Culture and Society, Volume 8, 263 - 279. Hall, M., 2004, Sport tourism and urban regeneration, in Sport tourism: interrelationships, impacts and issues by Ritchie and Adair, Clevedon, Channelview Publications Hiller, H.H., 1998, Assessing the impact of mega-events: a linkage model, Current Issues in Tourism, Volume 1, 49 Jankowicz, A. D., 1995, Business Research Projects, 2nd Edition, London, Thomson Learning, 128-9 Johnson Morgan, M., Summers, J., 2005, Sports Marketing, 1 st Edition, Victoria, Thomson Learning, 66-68 Kotler, P., 2006, A Framework for Management, 3rd Edition, London, Prentice Hall, p265-268 Lewis, P., Saunders, M. And Thornhill, A., 2009. Research Methods for Business Students, 5 th Edition, Essex, Pearson Education Ltd, 150-158 & 588-595 McBurney, D. H. and White, T. L., 2009, Research Methods, 8th Edition, Belmont, Cengage Learning McDonnell, I., Allen, J. and O’Toole, W., 2010. Festival and Special Event Management, 5 th Edition, London, John Wiley & Sons Ohmann, S., Jones, I., & Wilkes, K., 2006, The perceived social impacts of the 2006 Football World Cup on Munich residents. Journal of Sport and Tourism, Volume 11, 129–152. Poole Council | Information on the Poole Census Data. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.poole.nhs.uk/. [Accessed 21st January 2012] Ritchie, B. W., Adair, D., 2000, Sport tourism: interrelationships, impacts and issues, Clevedon, Channel View Publications Ritchie, J. R. B. and Smith, B., 1991. The impact of a mega-event on host-region awareness: a longitudinal study. Journal of Travel Research, 3-10 Robson, C., 2002, Real World Research, 2nd Edition, Oxford, Blackwell, 146-158 Veal, A. J., 1992, Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: a practical guide. England, Longman

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Appendices Appendix 1 – Declaration Form Declaration Form


I confirm that the work contained in this dissertation is my own work. It has not been previously published or submitted for assessment elsewhere. I confirm that all other sources of information have been acknowledged in line with the regulations for referencing. I confirm that I have fully complied with all University regulations regarding plagiarism and unfair practice. I confirm that the word count for the dissertation is 9,237 words and I include a disc for verification purposes if I am submitting in hard copy. Signed…K.Emmins……………………………………………………………… Name... Katrina H. Emmins.……………………………………….....………… Date... 28th March 2012…………………….

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Appendix 2 – Timetable of Work

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Appendix 3 - Questionnaire

Bournemouth Air Festival Questionnaire
The data you provide will be analysed anonymously along with other data and included in an academic dissertation which will be submitted by the researcher who is a BA Events Management student at the University of Greenwich, towards her degree. *Required Are you male or female? *   Male Female Age Range? (Years) *      18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56+ Do you live in Bournemouth? *   Yes No

Please give the first part of your postcode, e.g. BH1 * How long have you lived in the Bournemouth area? (Years) *     0-3 4-8 9-14 15+ Have you actively attended the Bournemouth Air Festival? *   Yes No Do you think the Bournemouth Air Festival has a positive or negative impact on local people and businesses? *    Positive Negative Both

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Please give reasoning for your previous answer (i.e. why you think it is positive or negative) *

Do you think the council and local transport provide sufficient public transport during the Air Festival? *   Yes No

Do you think the Bournemouth Air Festival has a positive or negative impact on local environment? *    Positive Negative Neither

Please give reasoning for your previous answer (i.e. why you think it is positive or negative) *

Does the Bournemouth Air Festival have any specific negative or positive impacts on your life personally? *   Yes No

Please give reasoning for your previous answer (i.e. why you think it is positive or negative) *

Overall do you like or dislike the Bournemouth Air Festival? *   Like Dislike

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Appendix 4 – Additional Graphs and Tables
Figure 4.2, Research Onion, Saunders et al (2009)

Figure 4.8.3, Population, sample and individual cases, Saunders et al (2009)

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Figure 5.5.1: Age Responses
Age range (years)
56+ 4655

2635 1825 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Figure 5.5.2: Postcode Area of Residence
What Postcode area of Bournemouth do you live in?
16 14

10 8 6 4 2 0 BH1 BH2 BH3 BH4 BH5 BH6 BH7 BH8 BH9 BH10 BH11 BH12 BH15 BH18 BH21 BH23

Figure 5.5.3: Gender
Are you Male or Female?

Male Female

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Figure 5.5.4: Time Lived in Area


4-8 0-3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Figure 5.6.1: Age Group and Like or Dislike
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40%


20% 10% 0% 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56+

Figure 5.6.2: Postcode and Like or Dislike
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% like dislike

















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Appendix 5 Reflective Commentary 1. Introduction The following is a reflective essay, the aim of which is to look at knowledge gained during the study on the impacts of Bournemouth Air Festival on the host population process and to better understand how the author worked, what she learned, challenges she encountered and what she would do differently it the process had to be repeated.

2. The Process 2.1 Getting Ready Prior to starting the dissertation itself I thought it important to gather as many academic journals as possible and make a list of important quotes and where to find them so when it came to doing my literature review, which was the first section I did, I would have a coherent library of documents, articles, journals, facts and quotes. I also constructed a template for the entire dissertation, which has changed and adapted as the process has progressed, but this allowed me to fill in sections little by little rather than stressing over massive parts it was broken down when I came to filling it in.

2.2 In The Thick of It Whilst constructing the full dissertation itself as certain sections had be prepared it was easier to work through without feeling too overwhelmed with work, however certain sections took so much more time; the conclusions section for example was not template as I did not know until after the analysis section how the conclusions would need to be structured.

2.3 The Aftermath Now the work is finished I have learnt how the most valuable thing one can have is a plan, as is repeated and highlighted time and again in the literature review and at other points, the most important tool is a clear plan and schedule, even if it isn’t stuck to it is a framework which allows the author or planner of anything to build around it and created a solid structure and fluid argument from the research.

3. Concerns During the process my main concerns were time and money; the time constraints were always going to be an issue as other commitments including work and my group event for Delivery and Production left me with almost no time to do any dissertation work between February and the beginning of March. Money was a concern when days had to be taken off work or work opportunities had to be
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Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation

turned down due to time constraints and as sites such as Survey Monkey charge for full use of facilities, I changed and used Google Docs instead so I could build an online survey and collect data at no cost.

3.1 Overcoming Fears My biggest fear during the project was that I just didn’t know what I was doing, to be clearer, it was that with such a large piece of written work with so many different sections I would forget what I had written weeks before and the dissertation would lose its fluidity. The only way to overcome this was to read and re-read and stay in check with my supervisor section by section so I could keep her and myself up-to-date with what was going on.

4. Key Moments Over the last 6 months there have been good parts and bad parts, sections that have made me ecstatic and sections that have made me want to cry, it seems an important part of a reflective piece to identify and highlight what has been the most enjoyable and what has been most frustrating.

4.1 The Best Bits The best bits were when I got to learn something new in the process of working, discovering something I didn’t know about past mega-events or statistics and data that surprised me. Another great bit was the feeling when I knew I had completed a chapter and could move on to obsessing over the next section.

4.2 The Worst Bits The worst bit without a doubt was beginning a section, having to read through all the previous chapters to be able to start a new one and not lose the fluidity of the writing, alongside the long nights staring at a computer losing focus and wanting to through the laptop out of the window

5. SWOT Analysis of Myself Strengths Good spoken and written English Adaptability Variety of work experience Strong I.T skills Good at taking criticism onboard and adapting where needed
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Weaknesses Perfectionist Stubborn Closed off emotionally Dislike of asking others for help

Emmins, K., 000567018, Dissertation



Lots of contacts in events/marketing University – gaining a degree Meeting new people and learning new skills whilst in London and at university Learning from others

Competitors in market, at work and at university Not working hard enough – failing exams Losing my job Trying to balance too much work

6. Organisation and Personal Technique I am instinctively not a very organised person, I don’t like planning, I don’t enjoy rules and I certainly am not good at putting my thoughts into an organised piece of work more than 9,000 words long. My personal technique or process depends on massive amounts of stress, I need to feel like if I don’t work the world is going to come to an end, and personally I have to wait until the last week or two before a project is due so that I can focus entirely on the topic and nothing else.

7. What Would Be Done Differently If I was to repeat the process I would start the survey and data gathering section a month earlier to give me more time to gather data allowing for a larger number of respondents and also giving more time to work through the data, highlight important remarks and have a better and deeper understanding of the topic. I would also like to have had more meetings with my supervisor and more advice in lectures on how to write this reflective commentary. All in all I worked in the only way I know how in order to get something done; I took in all the pressure and let it sink in and I work as hard as I could and focused solely on the dissertation for 5 days.

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