INDUSTRIAL VOCATIONAL SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

(SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT OF THE COURSE OF B.TECH)

UNDERTAKEN AT: N.T.P.C. BADARPUR, NEW DELHI. Duration: 26th JUNE 2012 to 4th AUGUST 2012

SUBMITTED TO: MRS. RACHNA SINGH SUBMITTED BY: MEHUL SAHU (10715604909) N.T.P.C. Badarpur B.Tech 3rd Year Branch: Electrical and Electronics Engineering NORTHERN INDIA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
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TABLE OF CONTENT Certificate Acknowledgement 2. Training at BTPS
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3. Introduction NTPC Badarpur Thermal Power Station Operation
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Electrical Maintenance Division-I ¨ HT/LT Switch Gear ¨ HT/LT Motors, Turbine & Boilers Side

5. Electrical Maintenance Division-II a. Generator b. Transformer & Switchyard c. Lighting 6. Control & Instrumentation ¨ Protection and interlock Lab ¨ Pyrometry Lab ¨ Water Treatment Plant ¨ Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System ¨ Electronic Test Lab

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Certificate

This is to certify that-----------------------------------, student of Batch Electrical & Electronics Branch III rd Year, Enrollment no.10715604909 of ‘NORTERN INDIA ENGINEERING COLLEGE’ affiliated to GGSIPU has successfully completed his industrial training at Badarpur Thermal power station New Delhi of six week from 26th June to 4th August 2012. He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him. Training In charge BTPS/NTPC NEW DELHI

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Acknowledgement
With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training at BTPS/NTPC. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS/NTPC for their cooperation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me.

________________ Mehul Sahu (B.Tech 6th Semester Electrical and Electronics NIEC)

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Training at BTPS
I was appointed to do six-week training at this esteemed organization from 13th June to 23rd July 2011. In these six weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were: 1. Electrical maintenance division I (EMD-I) 2. Electrical maintenance division II (EMD-II) 3. Control and instrumentation (C&I) This six-week training was a very educational adventure for me. It was really amazing to see the plant by myself and learn how electricity, which is one of our daily requirements of life, is produced. This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS.

ABOUT NTPC
India’s largest power company, NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. Apart from power generation, which is the mainstay of the company, NTPC has already ventured into consultancy, power trading, ash utilization and coal mining. NTPC ranked 341st in the ‘2010, Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the World’s biggest companies. NTPC became a Maharatna company in May, 2010, one of the only four companies to be awarded this status. The total installed capacity of the company is 34,854 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 5 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1,28,000 MW by the year 2032. The capacity will have a diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal, 16% Gas, 11% Nuclear and 17% Renewable Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. By 2032, non fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPC’s portfolio. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has 17.75% of the total national capacity, it contributes 27.40% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.

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POWER GENERATION IN INDIA
NTPC’s core business is engineering, construction and operation of power generating plants. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. As on date the installed capacity of NTPC is 27,904 MW through its 15 coal based (22,895 MW), 7 gas based (3,955 MW) and 4 Joint Venture Projects (1,054 MW). NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd. (SPSCL). This JV Company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur (120 MW), Rourkela (120 MW) and Bhilai (74 MW). NTPC also has 28.33% stake in Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Limited (RGPPL) a joint venture company between NTPC, GAIL, Indian Financial Institutions and Maharashtra SEB Co Ltd.

In October 2004, NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25% as fresh issue and 5.25% as offer for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed company in November 2004 with the Government holding 89.5% of the equity share capital. In February 2010, the Shareholding of Government of India was reduced from 89.5% to 84.5% through Further Public Offer. The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Public.

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NTPC BADARPUR PLANT
Installed capacity Derated Capacity Location Coal Source Water Source Beneficiary States Unit Sizes 720 MW 705 MW New Delhi Jharia Coal Fields Agra Canal Delhi 3X95 MW 2X210 MW Unit I- 95 MW - July 1973 Unit II- 95 MW August 1974 Unit III- 95 MW March 1975 Unit IV - 210 MW December 1978 Unit V - 210 MW - December 1981 Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06.2006 through GOI’s Gazette Notification.

Units Commissioned

International Assistance

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ELECTRICITY FROM COAL
Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C.H.P. this coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts. Coal is then transported to mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of P.A fan. This fan takes atmospheric air, a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. Atmospheric air from F.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine. Flue gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan, which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F.D fan. These fuel gases transfer there heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators, where the ash particles are extracted. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines, where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam. The turbine in turn rotates the generator which produces the electricity. The steam from the turbine is taken at the condensers where the steam is cooled down for reuse .

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MAIN GENERATOR
Maximum continuous KVA rating 24700KVA Maximum continuous KW 210000KW Rated terminal voltage 15750V Rated Stator current 9050 A Rated Power Factor 0.85 lag Excitation current at MCR Condition 2600 A Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition 310 V Rated Speed 3000 rpm Rated Frequency 50 Hz Short circuit ratio 0.49 Efficiency at MCR Condition 98.4% Direction of rotation viewed Anti Clockwise Phase Connection Double Star Number of terminals brought out 9(6 neutral and 3 phases)

MAIN TURBINE
Rated output of Turbine 210 MW Rated speed of turbine 3000 rpm Rated pressure of steam before emergency 137 kg/cm^2 Stop valve rated live steam temperature 540 degree Celsius Rated steam temperature after reheat at inlet to receptor valve 340 degree Celsius Steam flow at valve wide open condition 670 tons/hour

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THERMAL POWER PLANT

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Components of a coal fired thermal power station
1. COAL HANDLING PLANT (C.H.P) 2. NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT (N.C.H.P) The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2,3,4,5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and to second and third stages in the advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers, from where it is send to furnace. Major Components 1. Wagon Tippler: - Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here. The process is performed by a slip – ring motor of rating: 55 KW, 415V, 1480 RPM. This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on the conveyor through vibrators. Tippler has raised lower system which enables it to switch off motor when required till wagon is back to its original position. It is titled by weight balancing principle. The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights, which in turn tilts the conveyor. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine. 2. Conveyor: - There are 14 conveyors in the plant. They are numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated. Conveyors are made of rubber and more with a speed of 250-300m/min. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP. Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour. Few conveyors are double belt, this is done for imp. Conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled. The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in case of emergency. The conveyors are 1m wide, 3 cm thick 11

and made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber. The max angular elevation of conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees. 3. Zero Speed Switch:-It is safety device for motors, i.e., if belt is not moving and the motor is on the motor may burn. So to protect this switch checks the speed of the belt and switches off the motor when speed is zero. 4. Metal Separators: - As the belt takes coal to the crusher, No metal pieces should go along with coal. To achieve this objective, we use metal separators. When coal is dropped to the crusher hoots, the separator drops metal pieces ahead of coal. It has a magnet and a belt and the belt is moving, the pieces are thrown away. The capacity of this device is around 50 kg. .The CHP is supposed to transfer 600 tons of coal/hr, but practically only 300-400 tons coal is transferred.

5. Crusher: - Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL. Motors. The crusher is of ring type and motor ratings are 400 HP, 606 KV. Crusher is designed to crush the pieces to 20 mm size i.e. practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor.

BOILER AUXILLARIES Boiler is a device for generating steam for power, processing or heating purposes. Boiler is designed to transmit heat from an external combustion source (usually fuel combustion to a fluid) contained within the boiler itself. The heat generating unit includes a furnace in which the fuel is burned. With the advantage of water-cooled furnace walls, superheaters, air heaters and economizers, the term 'steam generator’ was evolved as a better description of the apparatus. 1. Boiler Drum: The function of steam drum is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam to below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm. The drum is located on the upper front of boiler.

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2. Economizer: The purpose of economizer is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is introduced into the steam drum by recovering heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler. The economizer is located in the boiler rear gas pass below the rear horizontal superheater. The economizer is continuous unfinned loop type and water flows in upward direction and gas in the downward direction. Earlier the economizers were introduced mainly to recover the heat available in flue gas that leaves the boiler and provision of this additional heating surface increased the efficiency of steam generation, saving in fuel consumption, thus the name “Economizer In the modern boilers used for power generation feed water heaters were used to increase the efficiency of turbine unit and feed water temperature and hence the relative size of economizer is less than earlier units. This is a good proposition as the heat available in boiler exit flue gas can be economically recovered using airheater which is essential for pulverised fuel fired boilers.

3. Super Heater: A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine, and were widely adopted. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam; non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam There are total 14 superheater coils in the flue gas path some of which are low temp. SH, platen SH and final SH.The outlet temperature and pressure of the steam coming out from the superheater is 540°C and 137 Kg/Cm respectively for H.P.units . 4. Burners: The pulverised coal burners are arranged in such a way that six mills (A,B,C,D,E,F) supply the coal the burners at 4 corners, of the furnace. All the nozzles of the burners are inter linked and can be tilted as a single unit from +30° to -30°. The oil burners are fed with heavy fuel oil till boiler load reaches to about 25%. 5. Igniters: The atomizing airs for igniters are taken from plant air compressors at 7Kg/cm (gauge). Igniters are used for lighting the main oil gun. There are two igniter air fans supply air for combustion of igniter oil. The oil used is the high speed diesel. 13

110v is being step up to 10,000v due to which a spark is produced which in turn burns up the oil in the furnace.

6. Pulverizer or Mills: Pulverized fuel firing is a method whereby the crushed coal, generally reduced to a fine mesh such that 70-80% passes through a 200 mesh sieve, is carried forward by air through pipes directly to burners or storage bins from where it is passed to burners. In chain type of feeders a continuous chain is moving round the sprockets in which a sprocket is driven by a variable speed DC motor and the other sprocket is a return sprocket. On this chain, at different intervals, MS plates are connected which are called as scrapers. This type of chain feeders is called scraper feeders. The Coal from the RC bunker falls on a platform, which is below the scraper feeder. When the scraper moves it will scrap the coal and at the end of the table or platform the coal falls into the pulverizer. The actual fuel bed thickness carried by the scrapers will be more. To restrict this height regulating plate is provided so that height of fuel scraped by the scraper can be controlled.
7. Deaerator: The presence of certain gases, principally oxygen, carbon-dioxide and ammonia, dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals, particularly at elevated temperatures. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore, is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen. This is achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit, whose function is to remove dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. Particularly the unit must reduce the oxygen

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content of the feed water to as low a valve as is possible or desirable, depending upon the individual circumstances, residual oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified is 0.005/litre or less.

Draught System
Fully preheated secondary air for combustion enters the furnace around the pulverized coal nozzles and through the auxiliary air compartments directly adjacent to the coal nozzle compartments. The pulverized coal and air streams entering the furnace are initially ignited by a suitable ignition source at the nozzle exit. Above a predictable minimum loading condition the ignition becomes self sustaining. Combustion is completed as the gases spiral up in the furnace. Primary Air System The primary air (P.A.) draught plant supplies hot air to the coal mills to dry and convey pulverized coal to the burners. Coal air ducts, however, are included in the system to regulate mill temperature and seal mill components against any ingress of coal dust. Secondary Air System The secondary air draught plant supplies the balance of air required for pulverized coal combustion, air for fuel oil combustion, and over fire air to minimize the production of nitrous oxides (NOX) The secondary air system comprises two forced draft (F.D.) fans Hot air from secondary air preheater is sent to wind boxes at each side of the boiler furnace for proper combustion as secondary and over fire air. Flue Gas Handling System The flue gas handling plant draws hot flue gases from the furnace and-discharges, them to atmosphere through the chimney. During its passage to the chimney, flue gas is passed through a feed water economizer and regenerative air preheaters to improve boiler efficiency, and through electrostatic precipitators to keep dust emission from chimney within prescribed limits. Flue gases travel upward in the furnace and downward through the rear gas pass to the boiler outlet (boiler rear gas pass below the economizer). It then passes through the primary and secondary air preheaters, the electrostatic precipitators and induced draught (I.D.) fans to the chimney.

Some other Components of a coal fired thermal power station
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1. Boiler feed water pump 2. Bottom ash hoppers 3. Forced draught (draft) fan 4. Reheater 5. Electrostatic Precipitator 6. Induced draught (draft) fan 7. Low pressure steam turbine. 8. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 9. Steam control valve(actuator) 10.High pressure steam turbine 11.Cooling towers 12.Electrical Generator 13.Step up transformer 14.three-phase transmission line

The description of some of the components written above is described as follows:
• Boiler feed water pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. It is the most powerful pump used in the plant. Hoppers The hoppers are of pyramidal type also rough type and flat-bottom precipitators with scraper conveyors are available for some applications. The valley angle of the hoppers (angle between hopper corner and horizontal) is never less than 550 and offer more to ensure easy dust flow down to the feed out flange. All hoppers have gas baffles. The upper portions of the two adjacent hoppers have a reinforced ridge to support the hoppers across the precipitator width. To ensure free flow of ash into the disposal system lower portions of the hoppers are 16

provided with electrical heaters with thermostatic control. • Electrostatic Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. ESP’s continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired). The electrostatic precipitator essentially consists of two sets of electrodes, one in the form of Thin wires called discharge or emitting electrodes and other set called collecting electrodes in The form of pipes or plates. The emitting electrodes are placed in the centre of pipes or midway between two plates and are connected usually to negative polarity of high voltage d.c. source of the order of 25-100kV. The collecting electrodes are connected to the positive polarity of the source and grounded. The high electric field in the vicinity of the emitting electrodes creates ‘corona discharge’ ionising the gas molecules. The dust particles entrained in the gas acquire negative charge and experience a force which drives them toward the collecting electrodes where they get deposited. The collected material is dislodged by knocking the electrode by a process called ‘rapping.’ Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESP’s to stay in operation for years at a time.

Control valves Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature,pressure,flow,and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a “set point” to a “process variable” whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems Flue gas stack 17

A Flue gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. Flue gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other large combustion device. Flue gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. When the flue gases exhausted from stoves, ovens, fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes, restaurants , hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys.

Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. Chemical plants , power plants and building cooling, for example. The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter, or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. Smaller towers are normally factory built, while larger ones are constructed on site. The primary use of large, industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities .The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forceddraft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants. 18

Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. The source of mechanical energy may be a turbine steam engine, , water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment , to 2,000,000 hp(1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in ‘Boilers’. Electrical power station use large steam turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the world’s electricity . These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators .As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system, the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems, and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy. Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase, two phase, or direct current system at the same voltage. In a three phase system, three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Taking one conductor as the reference, the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current. This delay between “phases” has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor.

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At the power station, an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents, one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. The current are sinusoidal functions of time, all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally, giving a phase separation of one-third one cycle. The electricity is usually produced in the stator windings of large modem generators at about 25,000 volts and is fed through terminal connections to one side of a transformer (1) that steps up the voltage to 132000,220000 or 400000 volts. From here conductors carry it to a series of three switches comprising an isolator, a circuit-breaker and another isolator .The circuitbreaker, which is a heavyduty switch capable of operating in a fraction of a second, is used to switch off the current flowing to the transmission lines. Once the current has been interrupted the isolators can be opened. These isolate the circuit- breaker being applied to its terminals. Maintenance or repair work can then be carried out safely. From the circuit-breaker the current is taken to the busbars - conductors which run the length of the switching compound - and then to another circuit-breaker with its associated isolators, before being fed to the Grid . Each generator in a power station has its own transformer, circuit-breaker and associated isolators but the electricity generated is fed into a common set of busbars. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i.e. the “household” voltage).

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EMD I
Electrical Maintenance division I
I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division I from 13th June 2011 to 18th June 2011. This one week of training in this division were divided as follows. • • HT/LT switchgear HT/LT Motors

Electrical maintenance division 1 it is responsible for maintenance of:

1. Boiler side motors 2. Turbine side motors 3. Outside motors 4. Switchgear
1. Motors: Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy by the interaction between the magnetic fields set up in the stator and rotor windings. Industrial electric motors can be broadly classified as induction motors, direct current motors or synchronous motors. All motor types have the same four operating components: stator (stationary windings), rotor (rotating windings), bearings, and frame (enclosure).

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Induction Motors:

Induction motors are the most commonly used prime mover for various equipments in industrial applications. In induction motors, the induced magnetic field of the stator winding induces a current in the rotor. This induced rotor current produces a second magnetic field, which tries to oppose the stator magnetic field, and this causes the rotor to rotate. The 3-phase squirrel cage motor is the workhorse of industry; it is rugged and reliable, and is far the most common motor type used in industry. These motors drive pumps, blowers and fans, compressors, conveyers and production lines. The 3-phase induction motor has three winding search connected to a separate phase of the power supply.

• Mills Fans: Six in all and are running condition all the time . They are of 3 types: (a) ID Fans: - Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil (b) FD Fans: - Designed to handle secondary air for boiler. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. Type-axial Speed-990 rpm Rating-440 KW 22

Voltage-6.6 KV (c)Primary Air Fans: - Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius, 2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing. Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous

SWITCH GEARIt makes or breaks an electrical circuit. 1. Isolation: - A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is switched on to no load. Isolation is normally used in various ways for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. 2. Switching Isolation: - It is capable of doing things like interrupting transformer magnetized current, interrupting line charging current and even perform load transfer switching. The main application of switching isolation is in connection with transformer feeders as unit makes it possible to switch out one transformer while other is still on load. 3. Circuit Breakers: - One which can make or break the circuit on load and even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers. This equipment is the most important and is heavy duty equipment mainly utilized for protection of various circuits and operations on load. Normally circuit breakers installed are accompanied by isolators. 4. Load Break Switches: - These are those interrupting devices which can make or break circuits. These are normally on same circuit, which are backed by circuit breakers. 5. Earth Switches: - Devices which are used normally to earth a particular system, to avoid any accident happening due to induction on account of live adjoining circuits. These equipments do not handle any appreciable current at all. Apart from this equipment there are a number of relays etc. which are used in switchgear.

LT Switchgear
It is classified in following ways:1. Main Switch:- Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply. The main switch for 3 phase supply is available for the range 32A, 63A, 100A, 200Q, 300A at 500V grade. 23

2. Fuses: - With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy currents would flow in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in process. It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection .Rotary switch up to 25A. With fuses, quick break, quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A, switch fuses for 200A, 400A, 600A, 800A and 1000A are used. 3. Contactors: - AC Contactors are 3 poles suitable for D.O.L Starting of motors and protecting the connected motors. 4. Overload Relay: - For overload protection, thermal over relay are best suited for this purpose. They operate due to the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element. 5. Air Circuit Breakers: - It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire. So in all circuits breakers at large capacity, air at high pressure is used which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. This reduces the possibility of sparking. The pressure may vary from 50-60 kg/cm^2 for high and medium capacity circuit breakers.

HT SWITCH GEAR:1. Minimum oil Circuit Breaker: - These use oil as quenching medium. It comprises of simple dead tank row pursuing projection from it. The moving contacts are carried on an iron arm lifted by a long insulating tension rod and are closed simultaneously pneumatic operating mechanism by means of tensions but throw off spring to be provided at mouth of the control the main current within the controlled device. · Rated Voltage-66 KV · Normal Current-1250A · Frequency-5Hz · Breaking Capacity-3.4+KA · Motor Voltage-220 V/DC 2. Air Circuit Breaker: - In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm^2 is used for extinction of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit. The breaker is closed by applying pressure at lower opening and opened by applying pressure at upper opening. When contacts operate, the cold air rushes around the movable contacts and blown the arc. It has the following advantages over OCB:i. Fire hazard due to oil are eliminated. 24

ii. Operation takes place quickly. iii. There is less burning of contacts since the duration is short and consistent. iv. Facility for frequent operation since the cooling medium is replaced constantly. Rated Voltage-6.6 KV Current-630 A Auxiliary current-220 V/DC 3. SF6 Circuit Breaker: - This type of circuit breaker is of construction to dead tank bulk oil to circuit breaker but the principle of current interruption is similar o that of air blast circuit breaker. It simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6. The performance of gas. When it is broken down under an electrical stress. It will quickly reconstitute itself · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Insulation Level-28/75 KV · Rated Frequency-50 Hz · Breaking Current-40 KA · Rated Current-1600 A · Motor-220 V/DC · SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0.25 KG · SF6 Gas Per pole-0.25 KG 4. Vacuum Circuit Breaker: - It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation and it implies that pr. Of gas at which breakdown voltage independent of pressure. It regards of insulation and strength, vacuum is superior dielectric medium and is better that all other medium except air sulphur which are generally used at high pressure. · Rated frequency-50 Hz · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC · Rated Current-1250 A · Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC

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EMD II
Electrical Maintenance division II I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division II from 20th June 2011 to 25th June 2011. This one week of training in this division were divided as follows. - Generator - Transformer & switchyard - Lightning Generator and Auxiliaries Generator and Auxiliaries Generator Fundamentals The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator.

Working Principle:
The A.C. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. The stator housed the armature windings. The rotor houses the field windings. D.C. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. When the rotor is rotated, the lines of magnetic flux (viz magnetic field) cut through the stator windings. This induces an electromagnetic force (e.m.f.) in the stator windings. The magnitude of this e.m.f. is given by the following expression. E = 4.44 /O FN volts 0 = Strength of magnetic field in Weber’s. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz. N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = P*n/120 Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor. From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency, number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa. Therefore, low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles, where as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 poles. Pole rotors are used in low speed generators, because the cost advantage as well as easier construction.

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Development The first A.C. Generator concept was enunciated by Michael Faraday in 1831. In 1889 Sir Charles A. Parsons developed the first AC turbo-generator. Although slow speed AC generators have been built for some time, it was not long before that the high-speed generators made its impact. Development contained until, in 1922, the increased use of solid forgings and improved techniques permitted an increase in generator rating to 20MW at 300rpm. Up to the outbreak of second world war, in 1939, most large generator were of the order of 30 to 50 MW at 3000 rpm. During the war, the development and installation of power plants was delayed and in order to catch up with the delay in plant installation, a large number of 30 MW and 60 MW at 3000 rpm units were constructed during the years immediately following the war. The changes in design in this period were relatively small. In any development programme the costs of material and labour involved in manufacturing and erection must be a basic consideration. Coupled very closely with these considerations is the restriction in size and weight imposed by transport limitations. Development of suitable insulating materials for large turbo-generators is one of the most important tasks and need continues watch as size and ratings of machines increase. The present trend is the use only class "B" and higher grade materials and extensive work has gone into compositions of mica; glass and asbestos with appropriate bonding material. An insulation to meet the stresses in generator slots must follow very closely the thermal expansion of the insulated conductor without cracking or any plastic deformation. Insulation for rotor is subjected to lower dielectric stress but must withstand high dynamic stresses and the newly developed epoxy resins, glass and/or asbestos molded in resin and other synthetic resins are finding wide applications.

Generator component
It deals with the two main components of the Generator viz. Rotor, its winding & balancing and stator, its frame, core & windings.

Rotor
The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design. It revolves in most modern generators at a speed of 3,000 revolutions per minute. The problem of guaranteeing the dynamic strength and operating stability of such a rotor is complicated by the fact that a massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which possess complex dynamic be behavior peculiar to themselves. It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current. The passage of the current through the windings generates heat but the temperature must not be allowed to become so high, otherwise difficulties will be experienced with insulation. To keep the temperature down, 27

the cross section of the conductor could not be increased but this would introduce another problems. In order to make room for the large conductors, body and this would cause mechanical weakness. The problem is really to get the maximum amount of copper into the windings without reducing the mechanical strength. With good design and great care in construction this can be achieved. The rotor is a cast steel ingot, and it is further forged and machined. Very often a hole is bored through the centre of the rotor axially from one end of the other for inspection. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation. Rotor winding Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. Later designs of windings for large rotor incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors. When rotating at high speed. Centrifugal force tries to lift the windings out of the slots and they are contained by wedges. The end rings are secured to a turned recess in the rotor body, by shrinking or screwing and supported at the other end by fittings carried by the rotor body. The two ends of windings are connected to slip rings, usually made of forged steel, and mounted on insulated sleeves.

Stator
Stator frame: The stator is the heaviest load to be transported. The major part of this load is the stator core. This comprises an inner frame and outer frame. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates, within this shell is a fixed cage of girder built circular and axial ribs. The ribs divide the yoke in the compartments through which hydrogen flows into radial ducts in the stator core and circulate through the gas coolers housed in the frame. The inner cage is usually fixed in to the yoke by an arrangement of springs to dampen the double frequency vibrations inherent in 2 pole generators. The end shields of hydrogen cooled generators must be strong enough to carry shaft seals. In large generators the frame is constructed as two separate parts. The fabricated inner cage is inserted in the outer frame after the stator core has been constructed and the winding completed. Stator core: The stator core is built up from a large number of 'punching" or sections of thin steel plates. The use of cold rolled grain-oriented steel can contribute to reduction in the weight of stator core for two main reasons: a) There is an increase in core stacking factor with improvement in lamination cold Rolling and in cold buildings techniques. b) The advantage can be taken of the high magnetic permeance of grain-oriented steels of work the stator core at comparatively high magnetic saturation without fear or excessive iron loss of two heavy a demand for excitation ampere turns from the generator rotor. Stator Windings 28

Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without overheating. The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage currents flowing between the phases to earth. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tape which is impregnated with varnish, dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation bar. These bars are then place in the stator slots and held in with wedges to form the complete winding which is connected together at each end of the core forming the end turns. These end turns are rigidly braced and packed with blocks of insulation material to withstand the heavy forces which might result from a short circuit or other fault conditions. The generator terminals are usually arranged below the stator. On recent generators (210 MW) the windings are made up from copper tubes instead of strips through which water is circulated for cooling purposes. The water is fed to the windings through plastic tubes. Generator Cooling System The 200/210 MW Generator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. Hydrogen Cooling System Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. But in view of its forming an explosive mixture with oxygen, proper arrangement for filling, purging and maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. Also, in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing, shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing. The hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand, a drier, an liquid level indicator, hydrogen control panel, gas purity measuring and indicating instruments, The system is capable of performing the following functions :  Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in contact with air.  Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value at all the times.

Rating of 95 MW Generator Manufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL) Capacity - 117500 KVA Voltage - 10500V Speed - 3000 rpm Hydrogen - 2.5 Kg/cm2 Power factor - 0.85 (lagging) Stator current - 6475 A Frequency - 50 Hz Stator wdg connection - 3 phase

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Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity - 247000 KVA Voltage (stator) - 15750 V Current (stator) - 9050 A Voltage (rotor) - 310 V Current (rotor) - 2600 V Speed - 3000 rpm Power factor - 0.85 Frequency - 50 Hz Hydrogen - 3.5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection - 3 phase star connection Insulation class - B

TRANSFORMER
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling without requiring relative motion between its parts. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings, and in most cases, a core to concentrate magnetic flux. An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core, which includes a voltage in the other windings. Varying the relative number of turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages, thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage, low-current form and back again, the transformer greatly reduces energy losses and so enables the economic transmission of power over long distances. It has thus shape the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be located remotely from point of demand. All but a fraction of the world’s electrical power has passed through a series of transformer by the time it reaches the consumer. Some of the auxiliaries of the transformer are: 1. Conservator – It is a small tank placed on the top of main tank. It maintains the level of oil in the main tank through the breather, which consists of silica gel. Moreover, if the level of the oil rises, the air is pushed out to maintain the pressure. An indicator on the surface of the conservator can monitor the level of the oil. 30

This arrangement also ensures that surface area of the transformer oil exposed to the atmosphere is limited to prevent fast oxidation and consequent deterioration of insulating properties of the oil. 2. Silicon Gel BreatherA breather is provided to prevent the contamination of the transformer oil in the conservator by the moisture present in the air. Outside air is drawn into the conservator through the breather every time, the transformer cools down. The breather is filled with silica gel, which has the property of absorbing all water vapour, contained in the air passing through it there by making the air quite dry. After sometime the silica gel gets saturated with moisture completely very important to replace when it turns pick in color. The old silica gel can be reconditioned and used again by heating up to 150-200 C in an oven to drive out all the absorbed moisture. The dry silica gel will be blue in color. 3. Buchholz relayIt is employed for the protection against gas formed inside the transformer due to heating (CO2, CO) and other resource such as presence of unwanted materials inside the transformer. It can protect the transformer against both incipient and sudden faults. 4. DiaphragmIn case of a severe fault in the transformer, the internal pressure may build up to a very high level, which may result in an explosion of the tank. If Buchholz relay is not working then to protect the transformer from any instantaneous fault a diaphragm is connected to the transformer’s main tank. Rising Gas pressure breaks the thin membrane of backlit sheet of an opening through a bent pipe and formed gases escape out. 5. Cooling SystemIt consists of Radiator, fans, pump. The assembly circulated oil in the transformer, which provides insulation as well as cooling. The oil is circulated outside the transformer tank in radiators to cool it. Air circulated between the radiators fins cools the oil. The circulation of oil and air can be both natural and forced. The different cooling types are: • ONAN- Oil Natural Air Natural

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• •

ONAF-Oil Natural Air Forced OFAF-Oil Forced Air Forced

6. Tap ChangerTap changers are used to compensate for the variation of grids voltage. They are connected to HV side of the transformers. There are two types of tap changers•

ON Load Tap Changer- The position of tap’s in this tap changer can be changed when the transformer is running on load. This type of changer can only be used in small and medium size transformers. Off Load Tap Changer- The position of tap’s in this changer can be changed only after removing load from the transformer. This is used in the larger transformers only. In others, on-load tap changers are preferred.

7. Oil Gauge MeterOne gauge meter is employed at the conservator tank for showing the oil level in the conservator and another at the bottom to show the circulating pressure of oil.

Rating of transformer:
Manufactured by Bharat heavy electrical limited No load voltage (hv) - 229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10.5 KV Line current (hv) - 315.2 A Line current (lv) - 873.2 A Temp rise - 45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg Total weight - 147725 Kg Core & winding - 84325 Kg Phase - 3 Frequency - 50 Hz

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C&I (CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION)
I was assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 27th June 2011 to 23rd July 2011. CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. It has following labs: PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB PYROMETER LAB WATER TREATEMENT LAB FURNACE SAFETY SUPERVISORY SYSTEM (FSSS) ELECTRONICS TEST LAB This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry, all fall under this. 5.1 PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB 5.1.1 INTERLOCKING It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. 33

For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. When a fault occurs and any one of the tripping is satisfied a signal is sent to the relay, which trips the circuit. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1. RELAY It is a protective device. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage, current, phase angle and velocity. 2. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit, which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat. 5.1.2 MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER They are used with combination of the control circuits to. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. It consists of current carrying contacts, one movable and other fixed. When a fault occurs the contacts separate. There are three types of - MANUAL TRIP - THERMAL TRIP - SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP 5.2 PYROMETER LAB (1) LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. (2) ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. (3) THERMOCOUPLES 34

This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. This is an important part in the plant. 5.3WATER TREATMENT LAB Here the water used in the plant is being demineralised before sending it further into the boiler otherwise which would cause boiler corrosion. The fluids used in ion exchanging process are NaOH and HCl. These fluids remove +ive and –ive ions respectively from the water coming from the Agra canal. 5.4 FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 52 m. It is made up of mild steel. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from oil guns which feed light diesel oil to the furnace for burning. The 10kv spark from the igniter is used to burn up the oil. After a certain temperature is attained, pulverized coal is being fed from 6 mills. It should be noted that at the time of starting residual fuel should be removed from the furnace to avoid a blast. 5.5 ELECTRONICS LAB This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes, integrated circuits, cards auto analyzers etc. Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. Transmitter converts mV to mA. 2. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. It extracts the magnetic portion.

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