The late blight situation in USA and trends of pathogen’s population and control - William Fry

The late blight situation in USA and trends of pathogen’s population and control • Pathogen population 2009-2011 • Control

2009: pandemic northeastern USA
W. E. Fry, M. T. McGrath, A. Seaman, T. A. Zitter, A. McLeod, G. Danies, I. Small, K. Myers, K. Everts, A. Gevans, B.K. Gugino, S. Johnson, H. Judelson, J. Ristaino, P. Roberts, G. Secor, K. Seebold, K. Snover-Clift, A. Wyenandt, N.J. Grunwald, and C. D. Smart

New York Times, July 17 2009: “A highly contagious fungus that destroys tomato plants has quickly spread to nearly every state in the Northeast and the mid-Atlantic, and the weather over the next week may determine whether the outbreak abates or whether tomato crops are ruined…” .

New York Times, August 9, 2009: “You say tomato, I say agricultural disaster”

Date: Tue, 23 Jun 2009 17:14:59 -0400 To: cce-staff-lateblight-l@cornell.edu From: Abby Seaman <ajs32@cornell.edu> Subject: Weekly Late Blight Update 6.23.09 Late blight has been found at several locations in our reporting area this past week: From Meg McGrath 6/23: Late Blight on LI in Potatoes Sample just came in and will soon be on its way to Bill Fry. Lots of sporulation. Field had been sprayed twice with Penncozeb: last Monday and about 10 days prior to that. One hot spot which grower is now taking out. Will be spraying with Curzate.

Date: Fri, 26 Jun 2009 08:32:16 -0400 To: CCE-STAFF-LATEBLIGHT-L@cornell.edu From: Tom Zitter <taz1@cornell.edu> Subject: Late Blight in Local Stores
HI all, Just a followup to my earlier report. Yesterday I did a quick tour of garden centers in the Ithaca area. All three big retail stores had late blight infected tomatoes on their shelves yesterday afternoon. Some agreed to remove the plants while I was there, and others were waiting word from the NY supplier. Tomato plants had been replaced with additional plants every few days. Plants appear to have originated from a producer in New York, and after speaking to them, they were in the process of remove plants from shelves. When I visited 4 local retail outlets, some close to the larger stores, I found no additional infected plants. These tomato plants had been grown by the local retailer or had been gotten from other NYS producers near Syracuse and elsewhere. I also received word that LB infected plants from large retailers were found in Sayre, PA, Schenectady County, and as far east as Presque Isle, Maine and beyond. NYS Ag and Mkt inspectors were to visit the NY producing site and take appropriate action. Tom Zitter

9 July 2009

Composition of the 2009 late blight population? Fry lab: >70 samples  10 (from potatoes) were US8 (Gpi = 100/111/122)

remainder: (Gpi = 100/122)

Date: Fri, 24 Jul 2009 18:03:47 -0700 “FYI: I am an organic gardener in Amsterdam, NY with 63 heirloom tomato plants of 23 different varieties, all gone. I was growing very rare vareities, blacks, greens, oranges, whites. All purchased from a very reputable grower in Schoharie. Tonight I had to leave home as my husband is pulling and bagging all 63 plants. I have 100% loss. We live on ten acres. I inspected every day and it seems the blight took my plants in matter of hours. I was hoping to sell them for additional income.”

Gpi 100/122 Gpi 100/122 = US22 Gpi 100/111/122 = US8

? ?

US22

US22

Reports to Cornell’s diagnostic lab of late blight 2009

49 reports, 37 in stores

2010
US8, A2 mating type, mefenoxam resistant, (potato ) 9 samples (potato) PA, NY, Ontario
US22,A2 mating type, “sensitive” to mefenoxam, 30 samples (27 tomato, 3 potato) LA, KY, NY, WI, PA, ME, NH, CT, US23: A1 mating type , “sensitive” to mefenoxam (5 samples, tomato) MD, CT, WI, NH, US24, A1 mating type, “sensitive”- “intermediate” to mefenoxam 7 samples (potato) MT, ND, WA

Host preference
A. B.

A.

B.

Sensitivity to mefenoxam
US8 US23

0 μg mL-1

5 μg mL-1

100 μg mL-1

0 μg mL-1

5 μg mL-1

100 μg mL-1

Mefenoxam concentration US22

Mefenoxam concentration US24

0 μg mL-1

5 μg mL-1

100 μg mL-1

0 μg mL-1

5 μg mL-1

100 μg mL-1

Mefenoxam concentration

Mefenoxam concentration

Rapid ID of lineage? Microsatellites ? (Simple Sequence Repeats) PCR  prdt  sequencing

Gpi 100/122 Gpi 100/122 = US22 Gpi 100/111/122 = US8

Microsatellite markers - Simple Sequence Repeats 31 October 2011: 140 samples: >80% 24-48 hr turn around time

April

May

June

July

August

Sept

Oct

US 22, 2011

April

May

June

July

August

Sept

Oct

US 23, 2011

?

April

May

June

July

August

Sept

Oct

US 24, 2011

Diversity in US late blight
US080003
US0
US070001
Pi_001_
US08 0001

400 0

9

US US 110 09 102 00 37

US

59 01 11

ND 82 2P I

04 00 11 US

US

10 00 07

US

11 01 12
US

US 110 064

11

22 00 10 US
00 71

019 100 US

US05 0007

Remaining questions : Source? Migration? Recombination?
0039 US11
17 US1100 FL2009P4

02 00 11 US

0029 US09 004 rave 080 Harg US 01 00 10 US

US1100 28

US110065 US110086

US110062

32 US1000

0054 US11 0029 10 US

US

85 00 11
US 11 00 72

SA 960 00

9

SA96 0008

Ug1_US _1

U

3 02 00 S1

US 10 00 69

061 110 US
34 000 US1

93 083 00 10 11 S1 US U

NC04

Ba US 11 nks S 01 38 tL

_6_

SC R

I_C

7

U

3 03 00 S1

110

082

US940494
US11 0057

US970001
NC97_1_3

US

US-17

NC0

7_1

9

0.06

The late blight situation in USA and trends of pathogen’s population and control • Population

• Control

DSS:  Integrated management Weather, cultivar resistance, forecasting, pathogen type, fungicide

33

Future weather Observed weather

DSS:  Integrated management Weather, cultivar resistance, forecasting, pathogen type, fungicide

35

Host resistance,

Simcast:
Fungicide Weather

DSS:  Integrated management Weather, cultivar resistance, pathogen type, fungicide

37

38

Susceptible

Moderately Resistant

Susceptible

Moderately Resistant

39

Late blight DSS evaluation
Katahdin (moderately susceptible) Kennebec (moderately resistant) Weekly sprays vs DSS (Simcast)

Weekly sprays: DSS, Katahdin: DSS, Kennebec:

8 appl’ns 6 appl’ns 5 appl’ns

Late blight source

0.5 mile

P ≤ 0.05

A
Source of late blight -- 0.5 mile ~ upwind

B C C C C

Standard grower practice (weekly applications after 18 Blitecast severity values) – 8 applications DSS schedule Katahdin (moderately susceptible) – 6 applications DSS schedule Kennebec (moderately resistant cultivar) – 5 applications

DSS:  Integrated management Weather, cultivar resistance, pathogen type, fungicide

42

43

44

Other fungicides?

45

Fungicides

A

P ≤ 0.05

AB

B

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

2010

* *

P ≤ 0.05 *

DSS:  Integrated management Weather, cultivar resistance, pathogen type, fungicide

51

US-8 vs US-24 on potato
100 90 80 US-8 (default)

US-24 Spor. Rate (0.31)

Disease severity (%)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Development of an aerial-dispersal risk component

53

Source

In transit

Your farm

Sporulation x dispersal x survival x wind risk x germination = Risk index

RH

=

Late Blight Decision Support System

Sporulation x dispersal x survival x wind risk x germination = Risk index

55

What’s next?
Highly localized management
• • • •

Cultivar resistance Weather (Fungicide) “real time”

What’s next?
Highly localized  highly effective management
• • • • Cultivar resistance Weather (Fungicide) “real time”

What’s next?
Highly localized  highly effective management
• • • • • Cultivar resistance Weather (Fungicide) “real time” (Pathogen Presence/Lineage)

2013

Thanks very much

Thanks very much … and

Thanks to ….

Eduardo Mizubuti Ian Small Kevin Myers

Jorge Andrade

Giovanna Danies

? ?

US22

US22

mef - S

mef - S

mef – S (I)

mef – R,I

The late blight pandemic in northeastern USA in 2009 -causes and results • • • • Migrations in the USA 2009 2010 2011 (results)

US22

Adele McLeod, Ian Small, Sanjoy Guha Roy

The late blight pandemic in northeastern USA in 2009 -causes and results • Migrations in the USA • 2009 • 2010

• 2011 (Results)

The late blight situation in USA and trends of pathogen’s population and control • 2009

• 2010
• 2011 (Results)

Control
1.6 cm2/d

Bravo WS
1.4 cm2/d

Curzate 60 DF + Bravo WS
1.4 cm2/d

Tattoo C

1.0 cm2/d

4

5

6