H1 METHODS OF MEASURING HIGH VOLTAGE

INTRODUCTION
Various methods for measuring high voltages are to be introduced in this lab.

FIVE METHODS FOR HIGH VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Resistive potential divider capacitive potential divider High resistance in series with micro ammeter Electrostatic voltmeter Calibrated sphere gap in series with suitable limiting resistance

1. RESISTIVE POTENTIAL DIVIDER
A resistive potential divider is usually employed for the measurement of direct voltages. The divider resistive arms should-in the case of alternating voltage-be looked upon as impedances Z which is generally possess resistive and reactive components.

Fig.1.Unscreened potential divider

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2. where the measured voltage is the voltage across R2.3.Simplified Resistive Potential divider 2 . R2<<R1 V2=V1 (R1/ (R1+R2)) Fig.Screened potential divider From figure 3.Fig. a simplified potential divider shows that R1 is selected to be higher than R2.

5. They are limited only by their internal inductances or the dielectric losses of their components.4.2.Simplified Capacitive Potential divider 3 .Simplified Capacitive Potential divider 3. High RESISTANCE WITH MICRO AMETER Fig. Fig. These factors limit their use to voltages below 100 kV at 50Hz and even lower voltages at higher frequencies. particularly at high voltages and high frequencies. CAPACITIVE POTENTIAL DIVIDER Resistive potential dividers suffer from two main drawbacks. Capacitive potential dividers are therefore more suitable to use with AC voltage. power losses and stray capacitance to earth.

This relation should be within 3% (IEC. so measurement can be used for AC or DC. the electrostatic voltmeter is seen to be made up of two parallel plates. 4 . The sphere gap arrangement is shown in Figure 1. a relation between the peak voltage.4. One is fixed and the other has a very small movable part that is restrained by a spring. Fig. 1973). 5. one of the spheres is earthed and the other is connected to high voltage. Referring to Figure 6.6. determined by spark over between the spheres. and the reading of a voltmeter on the primary or input side of the high-voltage source. for a particular test circuit. A horizontal sphere gap arrangement is sometimes preferred at lower measured voltages. ELECTROSTATIC VOLTMETER An electrostatic voltmeter utilizes the force existing between two opposite plates.Electrostatic voltmeter The force is directly proportional to the square of the applied voltage. SPHERE GAPS When sphere gaps are used in high-voltage measurement. The force is created by the process in which a change in stored electrostatic energy is converted into mechanical work. The force of attraction F(t) created by the applied voltage causes the movable part-to which a mirror is attached-to assume a position at which a balance of forces takes place. The procedure is to establish.

The breakdown voltage Vs is related to its value under normal atmospheric conditions by Vs = δ Vn Where δ is a factor related to the relative air density δ.Fig. δ = (P\P0)*(T0\T) NTP: At normal pressure &temp T0=273+27 K P0=760 mmHg VTP = δ VNTP 5 .7. however. Temperature and pressure. Vertical Sphere Gap The effect of humidity is to increase the breakdown voltage of sphere gaps by up to 3%. have a significant influence on breakdown voltages.

6. 4. 2. 7.8. Draw the relation between the distance and the break-down voltage at normal pressure and temperature Fig. Lab setup 6 . 4d and 5d Take the lab temperature and pressure readings. 3d. Make sure that the lab setup shown in the figure below is connected properly Adjust the distance between the spheres to a certain distance d Increase the voltage gradually using the VARIAC until the break-down occurs Read the break-down voltage Repeat steps 2&3 for 2d. 6. Lab Procedure 1. 3. 5.