Abis, Mary Dianne Alvarez, Michael Russelle Dueñas, Queenie Lyn

Bangsal, Karen Louise Casanova, Jannelle

Cua, Sharmaine Jesselyn Dela Cruz, Janine Marriah

Exercise 15: External Respiration Abstract
External respiration is the processes by which external air is drawn into the body in order to supply the lungs with oxygen (inhalation), and (used) air is expelled from the lungs in order to remove carbon dioxide from the body (exhalation). The rate of breathing is a function of the metabolic activity of an organism. In the experiment, the effect of three factors: physical activities, amount of carbon dioxide produced and changes in temperature were determined, The effect of physical activities on breathing rate of an individual was evaluated by getting the breathing rate of the individual after sitting quietly, performing an exercise, and holding one’s breath. The relationship between breathing rate and amount of carbon dioxide produced was determined by getting the minimum time for the limewater to turn cloudy. Lastly, the effect of changes in temperature of the surrounding was assessed by subjecting a jar of water containing a goldfish into temperatures below and above room temperature and counting the number of times the operculum movements.

Introduction External respiration refers to the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation. It occurs in the lungs, and involves the exchange of oxygen into, and carbon dioxide out of the bloodstream. The mechanics of breathing include inhalation and exhalation. In Inhalation, the rib cage is pulled upward, and the diaphragm and muscles between the ribs contract. As a result, lungs inside expand in volume, creating lower air pressure inside the lungs compared with the outside air. While in exhalation, air pressure inside the lungs is then higher than the outside air, so air is forced out of the lungs. If too much carbon dioxide is detected in the bloodstream, it stimulates the respiratory tract to breathe. After exercise, humans have a fast breathing rate to rid the body of excess carbon dioxide. At the same time, they are taking in oxygen. The effect of temperature in the breathing rate of organisms depends on their method of thermoregulation. According to the method of how they regulate their internal temperature, there are 2 ways to group organism: poikilotherms and homeotherms. Poikilotherms such as fishes and reptiles have body temperatures that vary depending on the

external environment. Both their metabolic activities and breathing rate have a direct relationship with temperature. On the other hand, homeotherms like birds and humans have a relatively constant internal temperature achieved by regulating metabolic activities that are dependent on respiration. Their metabolic activities and breathing rate have an indirect relationship with temperature. The objectives of the experiment are: to be able to measure the breathing rate of an individual, to relate the breathing rate to the amount of carbon dioxide produced, to determine how exercise affects breathing rate, and to determine how temperature affects breathing rate, particularly for the goldfish.

Methodology Part A: One hundred milliliters (100 mL) of saturated Calcium Hydroxide in water or lime water was poured into a 125-ml capacity Erlenmeyer flask. It was then diluted with distilled water until the slightly cloudy solution turned clear. Using a straw, the individual had blown air into the solution. Changes were noted as the clear solution becomes cloudy.

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Afterwards, the breathing rate of the individual was determined after performing the following exercises: a. Normal, unforced breathing while sitting down b. Unforced breathing while sitting down after vigorous exercise, such as doing at least 100 jumping jacks c. Unforced breathing while sitting down after holding one’s breath for as long as possible One inhalation and one exhalation were counted as one breath. Three trials were made for each exercise, then it was averaged. The individual, after performing each exercise, immediately blew into a flask of the limewater (100ml). The minimum time it takes for the clear solution to turn cloudy was also recorded. Part B: The goldfish was placed in a jar filled with sufficient amount of dechlorinated water. A thermometer was used to measure the temperature of the water. The aquatic breathing rate of the fish was measured by counting the number of times the operculum opens and closes in one time. Afterwards, the jar was immersed in an ice bath. The temperature and aquatic breathing rate of the fish were then evaluated. Lastly, the temperature and aquatic breathing rate of the fish were measured in a set-up where the jar was in a warm water bath with a temperature of about 37°C but not exceeding 39°C. Three trials per set-up were performed.

The chemical equation for the clear solution of calcium hydroxide after one had blown air into it is: 2Ca(OH)2 + 4C02  2CaCO3 + 2H2CO3 Lime water is a solution of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). They react to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and water. Calcium carbonate is insoluble and forms a white precipitate (the source of cloudiness of the solution). If CO2 continues to be passed, more carbonic acid(H2CO3) forms, which then reacts with the calcium carbonate to form calcium hydrogencarbonate (HCO3 ), which is soluble, so the precipitate is seen to dissolve, giving the solution a cloudy appearance upon blowing with a straw. In the external respiration of humans, gases diffuse in either direction across the walls of the alveoli. Oxygen diffuses from the air into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the air. Most of the carbon dioxide combines with water in the blood and is carried to the lungs in plasma as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). When blood enters the pulmonary capillaries, the bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions are converted to carbonic acid (H2CO3) and then back into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. The blood is pumped to the lungs where the carbonic acid is split back into carbon dioxide and water and the carbon dioxide is expelled from the body. As seen from the table above, the rate of breathing is fastest after doing the exercise in which there is a need for rapid increase of ATP, such as doing jumping jacks as compared to those which need a constant supply of ATP, such as sitting quietly. It is because when we exercise, the body needs to produce more energy; therefore, the cells burn oxygen at a faster rate. This produces more carbon dioxide to be breathed out. The intensity of exercise affect respiration rate as the body works harder, the more oxygen we take in, the faster and harder the cells in the body have to work to keep up the supply of energy (ATP). Speeding up of gas exchange in the lungs is one reason intense exercise significantly increases respiration rate. So the relationship between breathing rate and intensity of an exercise is direct. As a result, the time it takes for the lime water solution to be cloudy is least for the vigorous exercise, due to higher level of CO 2 Page 2 of 4

Results and Discussion Part A: BREATHING RATE 30 min 56 min 36 min breaths/ breaths/ breaths/ MINIMUM TIME for LIMEWATER 35.09 s 18.24 s 38.89 s

ACTIVITY Sitting quietly After exercise Holding breath

produced. It is then followed by the exercise holding one’s breath, and is longest for the activity, sitting quietly. So the relationship between activity and rate of change in solution is indirect or inverse. Whereas the relationship between breathing rate with rate of change in solution is also inverse. Part B: At room temperature which is 29°C, the average respiration rate for the goldfish was 123 breaths per minute. Different rates were observed when the temperature was changed. When the temperature was lowered to 24°C, the rate was only 107 breaths per minute. It rose to 153 breaths per minute when the goldfish was placed in a warm water bath with a temperature of 37°C. By looking at the results, it can be deduced that there is a direct relationship between goldfish respiration rate and water temperature. This is expected as goldfishes are poikilotherms, organisms whose body temperature varies with the temperature of the external environment. Changes in the temperature of their surroundings influence both their respiration and metabolism. When subjected to cooler temperatures, the metabolism of the goldfish slows down dramatically to the point that it will no longer be able to digest food. Because of the decrease in the metabolic activity, less oxygen is needed by the goldfish to support these processes causing the rate of respiration to dramatically decline. On the other hand, when the temperature is raised, the goldfish will experience a spike in metabolic activities. It will require more food and produce more wastes. This increase in activity of the organism will require more oxygen; hence, respiration rate will increase. Another factor to be considered in this experiment is the differences in the amount of dissolved oxygen in varying temperatures. At higher temperatures, the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water containing the fish decreases. When the oxygen level is lowered, the respiratory rate increases to absorb more oxygen into the gills. When the oxygen level is increased, respiratory rate decreases to avoid oxygen poisoning. Hence, breathing rate of the goldfish will adjust accordingly to the changes in oxygen level to regulate the oxygen intake.

Animals that have a relatively constant internal temperature are known as homeotherms. They respond to fluctuations in environmental temperature by internal heat generation coming from their metabolism. In contrast with poikilotherms, the metabolic rate of homeotherms increases when ambient temperature is decreased and decreases as ambient temperature increases to regulate internal heat in order to maintain body temperature. Correspondingly, as rate of breathing is a function of the metabolic activity of an organism, homeotherms are expected to have an indirect relationship between respiration rates and surrounding temperature. Homeotherms are able to maintain a constant internal body temperature even when subjected to fluctuating environmental temperatures.

Conclusion Respiration is the process by which the body gets the oxygen it needs to burn fuel. Because the body demands more oxygen when you exercise, the respiration rate increases, and so is the amount of carbon dioxide released as a by- product of the energy process taking place within our cells. Respiration rate is how many breaths (one inhale and one exhale) you take in one minute. The breathing rate is directly proportional to the amount of carbon dioxide produced, to the amount of ATP required to perform a certain task or activity and to temperature of environment among fishes.

References Bloodworth, R. (n.d). The Effect of External Temperature Change on Homeotherms and Poikilotherms. University of Georgia. Judge, M. (2002). Hamster and Cricket Respiration Rates. Retrieved from http://spot.colorado.edu/~basey/judge.html Styles, S. (n.d.). Goldfish Respiration Information. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_6459417_goldfishrespiration-information.html

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http://biofeedbackinternational.com/capno/P hysiology/External_respiration.htm http://qldscienceteachers.tripod.com/biology /06human_physiology/02respiratory_system .pdf
http://www.livestrong.com/article/236675causes-of-high-co2-bloodlevels/#ixzz25C40UgaH http://www.livestrong.com/article/32449exercise-effects-breathing-rate/#ixzz25CJYwbrw

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