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Department of Electrical Engineering City College The City University of New York

Electrical Engineering Laboratory I EE221 Fall 2011

**Lab Report: Experiment #5 RC Circuit Frequency and Time Response
**

Student Last Name: Vazquez First Name: Juan Partner’s name: Adrian Encalada ID #: 6503

Due: November 14 2011

Prof. Orhan Celebi

(ωπf) Where: G(jω) = |Vout/Vin| ∠tan-1(imaginary/real) Figure 1:Low Pass Filter Figure 2: High Pass Filter Calculations for Pre-lab: . in polar form as a function of ω for figures one and two. Pre-lab: The pre-lab asked us to find the expressions for gain. G(jω).Page 2 of 10 Aim: To introduce the student to simple elementary concepts of circuit response in the frequency and time domain.

on all the figures. And lastly we ran an AC .∠tan-1(ωCR /1) = -∠tan-1(ωCR) For Figure 2: High Pass Filter |Vout| = |Vin | ZR ZR + ZC = R R + 1/(jωC) = jωCR jωCR – 1 = sqrt(02 + ωCR2) sqrt(12 + ωCR2) = ωCR _ 1+ ωCR ∠tan-1(imaginary/real) = ∠tan-1(ωCR /0) .Page 3 of 10 For figure 1: Low Pass Filter |Vout| = |Vin | ZC ZR + ZC = 1/(jωC) R + 1/(jωC) = 1 jωCR – 1 = sqrt(12) sqrt(12 + ωCR2) = 1 _ 1 + ωCR ∠tan-1(imaginary/real) = ∠tan-1(0/1) .∠tan-1(ωCR) Laboratory (and simulations) Procedure: My partner Adrian and I used MATLAB program to plot the magnitude versus frequency of the above equations for both figures over a range of 10Hz to 10 MHz. The above figures show the magnitude of gain and phase angle. versus frequency for pre-lab. Next we marked the cutoff frequency.∠tan-1(ωCR /1) = 90˚ . We then continued the laboratory and simulation and we plotted the phase angle versus the above range of frequency. fc= 1/(2πRC).

using the transient analysis and using the square wave given below. 10 Hz to 10MHz. Figure 3: Band-Pass Filter Time Domain Response: For the circuit in figure one.Page 4 of 10 analysis using Multisim program for the third figure and using MATLAB we plotted the magnitude versus the frequency. Adrian and I simulated it with Multisim. .

“Frequency Response”. two and three for the high-pass .Page 5 of 10 We performed three calculations with the period equal to 4RC. For the voltage source we set our function generator to give a 1 VPP sinusoidal waveform with variable frequency. RC and RC/2. Step three we used the custom VI. We repeated the same procedure for figure two except that we used periods equal to 4RC. Laboratory Measurements Frequency Domain Response Procedure: Adrian and I constructed figure one on our protoboard with the same given values of the resistor and the capacitor. 100KHz. 1 KHz. 2RC and RC. and 1 MHz. and comparing with the laboratory (and simulations) procedure. The oscilloscope was then connected to the output voltage on our protoboard using channel one and input voltage on channel two. Step four was to repeat steps one. 10 KHz. Step two we made sure that our circuit was attached correctly by measuring the gain at the following frequencies. 300 Hz. 300KHz. which sweeps the function generator over the range of fifty hertz to two megahertz. we saved the records in an ASCII file for later analysis. After the VI recorded the gain directly from the oscilloscope. 100 Hz.

Time Domain Response Procedure: This procedure was repeated for figure one and figure two. For the Multisim input voltage we have 120 VRMS and for the LabVIEW input voltage we have 1VPP. The periods were the same as described by the simulation in the Time Domain Response one page back. two and three for the band-pass filter. The first step was setting up the function generator to give a square pulse train such that the low voltage was equal to zero and the high voltage was equal to one. ch1 and ch2” and we saved both of the output waveforms as ASCII files. They are both similar because at high frequencies the magnitude drops. Analysis (Post-Lab): This figure compares the gain versus the frequency for the low-pass filter as shown in the figure 1 circuit. The last step was comparing the oscilloscope traces to the results obtained using Multisim. This time we used the LabVIEW VI “Save the Oscilloscope Data: time. but at about ten thousand hertz the rate of change is constant for the LabVIEW simulation and is declining for the Multisim simulation. This explains why the magnitude is different in both . Both are in decibels and I did this by taking the log of the absolute gain and multiplying by twenty.Page 6 of 10 filter and step five was to repeat steps one. Some of the sources of errors are the input voltages. The oscilloscope measured the output voltage on channel one and the input voltage on channel two.

Another thing . Those sources of errors may come from faulty lab equipment. Similarly the sources of error from the low-pass filter apply to the band pass filter.Page 7 of 10 graphs but it still does not explain why the rate of change in gain versus frequency is different. and not using the correct capacitor and resistor values. The only difference is the magnitude of the gain has been shifted down and this is most likely due to the fact that the input voltages were different for both simulations. The frequency range shows that both circuits act in the similar manner. faulty protoboard circuit. High Pass Filter The high-pass filter simulations are very similar since they look very much alike. Band Pass Filter For the band pass filter we can see that the two simulations are not a like at all. faulty lab measurements given from LabVIEW.

8 1 Time Domain Response with a 2RC period 0.2 -0.8 0.2 -0. Another mistake is that the output voltage of LabVIEW dips below 0 volts and that is another error. This could have caused the output of the circuit to behave the way it did. because the output of the circuit resembled very close to the pulse waveform. Another source of error is that LabVIEW and the oscilloscope were not configured correctly.5 Time 0.2 0.8 x 10 2 -3 .4 0 0.4 0.4 0.8 1 Time 1.1 0.6 0.2 0.6 1. Time Domain Response: Doing the Multisim simulation we arrived at correct results. Time Domain Response of a Low Pass Filter with RC period 0. It could have been caused by a faulty oscilloscope connection and also human error by using the LabVIEW program incorrectly.2 0 -0.5 Time 0.3 0.4 Multisim LabView 0 0.4 0 0. We were unable to get similar traces.4 0.6 Voltage 0.2 1. The possible errors were that the rise time of the input waveform was not smaller than the rise time of the entire circuit.8 0.8 0.2 Voltage 0. This is clearly an error and it is most likely due to the fact that the oscilloscope was not getting a correct reading.4 0.Page 8 of 10 that did not make sense to me was that the input voltage reading of the band pass filter circuit was 9. The LabVIEW program seemed confusing to use.6 0.9 x 1037 volts.2 0 -0.7 0.4 1.7 0.9 x 10 1 -3 Time Domain Response of a Low Pass Filter at 4RC period 1 Multisim LabView 0.9 x 10 1 -3 -0.4 0.6 -0.6 Voltage 0.6 0.4 0 0. but Adrian and I doing the LabVIEW VI simulations proved to be much harder.2 0.3 0.6 0.8 0.2 -0.1 0.

8 -1 0 0.3 0.5 2 2.8 0.6 0.4 -0. It is possible that some of our parameters may have been off and we did not take into consideration the rise and fall time of the input waveform. Time Domain Response of High Pass Filter at RC/2 1 Time Domain Response High Pass Filter at RC period 1 0.6 -0.7 0.6 -0.1 0.5 x 10 5 -3 .2 Voltage 0 -0.5 Time 3 3.6 0. I can’t really explain too much of the sources of errors but I believe it came from us when we carried out the experiment.8 0.1 0.2 0.2 -0.4 -0.7 0.9 x 10 1 -3 Time Domain Response of a High Pass Filter at 4RC period 1 0.Page 9 of 10 High time domain response: The same goes for these graphs.5 Time 0.8 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.2 -0.8 -1 Multisim LabView 0 0.9 x 10 1 -3 0 0.4 0.2 Multisim LabView 0.4 0.4 Multisim LabView -0.6 -0.6 0.2 Voltage 0 -0. The weird thing about these graphs is that the voltage changes very rapidly from positive and negative.4 0.5 Time 0.2 0.2 Voltage 0 -0. very similar to a unit impulse. They seem to have the same sources of errors as the above graphs.4 0.6 0.8 -1 -0.8 0.5 1 1.4 0. I am sure that after finishing this lab report we could probably do the experiment again and receive better traces of these graphs since doing the lab helped my understanding of the time domain response.5 4 4.

What happens is that when the input waveform gives a one volt impulse the output is also 1 volt and then slowly declines and when the input waveform goes from one volt to zero volts then the output waveform also spikes down but to a negative voltage and slowly increases in voltage as the input waveform stays at zero and then it repeats again at input square waveform peak. Therefore the phasor method is a quick way of analyzing a circuit and comparing it to the frequency response of that circuit. They help by skipping the first order differential equations that prove to be very tedious to students and engineers during calculations.Page 10 of 10 Conclusion: Phasors are very useful in some cases for circuit analysis. The logarithmic formula also helps us to present the graphs more nicely. It is easier to see the magnitudes of the voltages and gain if we convert voltage to decibel form. . The high-pass filter has an even more interesting affect because it dips below zero and gives off a negative voltage. The time response of the circuit also helps visualize and analyze how the circuit works best. The time domain shows how the circuit reacts to the input voltage and in our case to the impulse of 1 volts and then back down to zero volts. The low pass filter will reach a peak and then go down little by little until another impulse of one volt is given to the circuit.

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