UNIT -2 1.Define Transistor. Transistor is transfer resistor. When a third doped element is added to a diode in such a way that the pn junctions are formed . The resulting devices is known as transistor.

2. Define BJT. Bipolar junction transistor is often applied to 3-terminal devices. Bipolar reflects that holes and electrons participate in the injection process into the oppositely polarized material .if only one carrier is employed (i.e) electron or hole it is called as unipolar .eg: schottky diode.

3. What are the types of transistor? There are two types of transistor namely, • • Npn transistor Pnp transistor

4. Define emitter. The section on one side that supplies charge carriers(e- or holes) is called emitter. The emitter is always forward bias with respect to base so that it can supply a large number of majority carriers (i.e)holes if emitter is p-type and e- if that emitter is n-type.

5. Define base. The middle section which forms two pn-junction between the emitter and the collector is called base. The base-emitter junction is forward bias, allowing low resistance for the emitter circuit. The base should be much thinner than the emitter and it is lightly doped.

6. Define collector. The section on the other side that collects the charges is called collector. The collector is always reverse biased .its function is to removes charges from its junction with the base.

7. Define emitter diode. The transistor has two pn-junction (i.e) it is like two diodes. The junction between emitter and base may be called emitter -base diode or emitter diode.

8. What are the various transistor configuration? The transistor can be classified into three types of configuration .they are • • • Common base configuration Common emitter configuration Common collector configuration

9. Define amplification factor. The ratio of change in output current to change in input current is known as amplification factor. Amplification factor = d io/d iin

10. Compare transistor configuration. Sl.no. Character Cb Ce Cc


Input resistance



Very high


Output resistance


Very high



Voltage gain



Less than 1



For high frequency appln.

For audio appln.

Impedance matching

11. What is transistor biasing and what is the need for it? The proper flow of zero signal collector current and the maintenance of proper collector emitter voltage during the passage of signal is known as transistor biasing. The need for this is to keep the base – emitter junction properly forward and collector-base junction properly reverse biased.

12. Define faithful amplification. The process of raising the strength of a week signal without any change in its general shape is known as faithful amplification. 13. Define stability factor. Is defined as the rate of change of collector current ic with respect to the collector leakage current ico at constant base current and beta is called stability factor. S=d ic /d ico 14. Define transistor biasing types.

Fixed bias Collector to base bias

Self bias

15. Discuss the merits and demerits of various transustor biasing methods. Fixed bias: Merits: •

This biasing ckt is very simple as only one resistor is used Biasing condition can be easily be set and the calculations are simple

Demerits: • This method provides poor stabilisation

Stability factor is very high.

Collector to base bias: Merits: • It is a simple method as it requires only one resistance

• •

This ckt provides a negative feedback which reduces the gain The ckt does not provide good stabilisation because s is fairly high though it is lesser than that of fixed bias

Voltage divider bias: Merits: •

Most widely used method The smallest possible value of s is obtained

16. Define load line . The straight line that is used for the analysis of collector current for various collector emitter voltages is called as load line.

17. Define q-point. The zero signal values of ic and vce are known as operating point. It is also called as quiescent(silent) point. The transistor is silent at this point where ther is no input signal. 18. Define voltage gain. It is defined as the ratio of output voltage to input voltage Av=vo/vin 19. Define current gain. It is defined as the ratio of output current to input current. Ai=io/iin 20. Define input impedance. It is defined as ratio of input voltage to input current. Zi=vi/ii 21. Define output admittance. It is defined as the ratio of output current to output voltage. Yo=io/vo 22. Define power gain. It is defined as the ratio of load power to source power. Ap=pl/pi

23. What is h-parameters? To obtain the accurate results of i/p and o/p ckts four parameters of transistors are used. These parameters are called as hybrid (or)h-parameters of the transistor.

24. Define fet. Field effect transistor has large input impedance. It is generally much less noisy than bjt.

25. Discuss the types of fet. 1. Jfet • • N-channel jfet P-channel jfet

2. Mesfet (metal semiconductor fet) • • N-channel mesfet P-channel mesfet

3. Mosfet (metal oxide silicon fet) • De-mosfet(depletion mosfet) ->n-channel de-mosfet ->p-channel de-mosfet • E-mosfet(enhancement mosfet) ->n-channel e-mosfet ->p-channel e-mosfet

26. Define the terminals of jfet. The two pn junction forming diodes are connected internally and a common terminal called gate (g).the other terminals are source(s) and drain(d).

27. Define the breakdown region in fet.

If vds is increased beyond pinch off voltage (vp) the drain current id remains constant. If vds is further increased the drain current increases very rapidly and the device may be destroyed. This region is called breakdown region. 28. Define pinch off voltage. The voltage vds at which the current id reaches to its constant saturation level is called pinch off voltage.

29. What are the parameters of jfet?
• • •

Trans conductance (gm) Input resistance (ri) Drain to source resistance (rd)

• Amplification factor
• Power dissipation (pd)

30. Define trans conductance. It is defined as the change in drain current for the given change in gate to source voltage with drain to source voltage as constant. Gm=d id /vgs, at constant vds 31. Define amplification factor in fet. It is defined as the ratio of change in drain to source voltage to change in gate to source voltage. Amplification factor= d vds/vgs 32. What are the types biasing in fet. • • • Fixed bias Voltage divider bias Self bias

33. What are the fet amplifier configurations?

• • •

Common source amplifier Common drain amplifier Common gate amplifier