Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols HUAWEI MSOFTX3000 Mobile SoftSwitch Center

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 2 RTP and RTCP ............................................................................................................. 2-1 2.1 Brief Introduction................................................................................................................ 2-1 2.2 RTP/RTCP Applications .................................................................................................... 2-1 2.3 Packet Format and Meaning.............................................................................................. 2-2 2.3.1 RTP Header Format................................................................................................ 2-2 2.3.2 RTCP Packet Format .............................................................................................. 2-3 2.3.3 RTCP Functions ...................................................................................................... 2-4 2.3.4 RTCP Transmission Interval ................................................................................... 2-4

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For details about the protocols. please refer to related RFC documents. including payload type identification. So the functionality of UDP needs to be expanded when real-time services are transferred based on it.1 Brief Introduction The IP bearer voice services are transmitted based on UDP. as for bearer handovers between ATM to IP and between TDM to IP. but relies on lower-layer protocols to do so.2 RTP/RTCP Applications The IP bearer of voice services is mainly accomplished by RTP. RTP/RTCP is responsible for IP bearer service processing and adaptation. time stamping and delivery monitoring. and RCTP is used to monitor RTP and QoS. The data transport is augmented by RTCP to allow monitoring of the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks. RTP Control Protocol (RTCP): monitors quality of service and the information about members involving a transfer or a session. RTP can also provide end-to-end network transport functions over multicast or unicast network services. for example). RTP guarantees timely transmission and synchronization of audio and video. such as interactive audio and. For that purpose. which are suitable for applications transmitting various real-time data. sequence numbering. The Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-1 . RTP itself does not provide any mechanism to ensure timely delivery or provide other quality-of-service guarantees. such as video and simulation data. RTP does not address resource reservation and does not guarantee quality-of-service for real-time services. which however doesn’t take real-time service transmission into account (media stream synchronization. as it is designed to be dedicated to data stream transmission. RTP/RTCP is designed to be independent from the underlying transport layer and network layer. At present.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols HUAWEI MSOFTX3000 Mobile SoftSwitch Center Chapter 2 RTP and RTCP Chapter 2 RTP and RTCP 2. RTP provides real-time end-to-end data delivery services. Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP): transports the information featured with real time. and to provide minimal control and identification functionality. IETF defines a new protocol RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol). RTP involves two closely correlated parts. RTP/RTCP is widely used in IP bearer voice service flow transmission. In the UMG8900 device. 2.

RTP accomplishes Nb UP adaptation and RTCP monitors RTP packets. It is set by specific protocols.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols HUAWEI MSOFTX3000 Mobile SoftSwitch Center Chapter 2 RTP and RTCP functions of RTP/TCP are provided and fulfilled by MRPU of the UMG8900 device. The version defined here is two. The application of RTP/RTCP in MRPU is shown in Figure 2-1. Padding may be needed by some encryption algorithms or for carrying several RTP packets in a lower-layer protocol data packet.3 Packet Format and Meaning 2.1 RTP Header Format A RTP header contains many fields as shown in Table 2-1. 2. MRPU Nb UP RTP UDP IP ETH IP RTCP Figure 2-1 Applications of RTP/RTCP in the UMG8900 device RTP/RTCP is the protocol on top of the transport layer. Padding(P) 1 Extension (X) CSRC Count (CC) Mark (M) Payload Type (PT) 1 4 1 7 Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-2 . If the extension bit is set to 1. Table 2-1 The meaning of RTP header fields Field Version Length (bit) 2 Meaning The field defines the version of RTP. In IP calls. The CSRC count contains the number of CSRC identifiers that follow the header. The last octet of the padding contains a count of padding octets. If the padding bit is set to 1. the packet contains one or more additional padding octets at the end of the header. it is set to 1 in the first RTP data packet transferred after mute. This field identifies the format of the RTP payload.3. the RTP header is followed by exactly one header extension. and it is set to 0 in other cases.

The timestamp reflects the sampling instant of the first octet in the RTP data packet. The number of identifiers is given by the CC field. If a source changes its source transport address. The initial value of the sequence number is random and increments by one for each RTP data packet sent. 32 bits each. Although the probability of multiple sources choosing the same identifier is low. Indicates end of voice transfer. 0 to 15 items. Table 2-2 RTCP packets Control information SR (sender report) RR (receiver report) SDES (source description item) BYE APP Description Describe transmission and reception statistics from the gateways that are active senders Describe reception statistics from the gateways that are receivers Describe the sources sending RTCP packets. The CSRC list identifies CSRC in packets. At most 15 CSRC identifiers are defined and are inserted by mixers. including CNAME.3. Application specific functionality extension. The initial value of the timestamp is random. The sampling instant must accommodate to synchronization to allow synchronization and jitter calculations.2 RTCP Packet Format RTCP defines several types of RCTP packets to carry a variety of control information as shown in Table 2-2.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols HUAWEI MSOFTX3000 Mobile SoftSwitch Center Chapter 2 RTP and RTCP Field Length (bit) Meaning The sequence number is used by the receiver to detect packet loss and to restore packet sequence. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-3 . The SSRC field identifies the RTP packet sender. and increments with the size of packet data. all RTP implementations must be prepared to detect and resolve collisions. with the intent that no two RTP packet senders within the same gateway will have the same SSRC identifier. This identifier is chosen randomly. it must also choose a new SSRC identifier to avoid being interpreted as a looped source. using the SSRC identifiers Sequence Number 16 Timestamp 32 SSRC 32 CSRC List 0-480 2.

multiple RTCP packets form a compound RTCP packet that is sent in a single packet of the lower layer protocol. The first RTCP packet sent after joining a session is also delayed by a random variation of half the minimum RTCP interval in case the application is started at multiple sites simultaneously. RTCP carries a persistent identifier for a RTP source. which is called the canonical name (CNAME).5] times the calculated interval to avoid unintended synchronization of all participants. The feedback function is accomplished through sending and receiving reports by RTCP.3 RTCP Functions RTCP transmits RTP control packets based on the periodic transmission. 2.5. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-4 . There is no explicit count of individual RTCP packets in the compound packet since the lower layer protocols are expected to provide an overall length to determine the end of the compound packet. RTCP chiefly performs two functions.3.4 RTCP Transmission Interval The interval between RTCP packets transmitted is varied randomly over the range [0. The alignment requirement and a length field in the fixed part make RTCP packets "stackable". followed by structured elements that may be of variable length according to the packet type but always end on a 32-bit boundary. for example UDP.Technical Manual – Signaling & Protocols HUAWEI MSOFTX3000 Mobile SoftSwitch Center Chapter 2 RTP and RTCP Each RTCP packet begins with a fixed part similar to that of RTP data packets. The receiver diagnoses faults on transport lines and controls RTP packet transfer according to the feedback information in RTCP packets. that is. using the same distribution mechanism as the data packets. 2. 1. The primary function is to provide feedback on the quality of the data distribution. receivers require the CNAME to keep track of each participant.3. Since the RTP header may change if a conflict is discovered or a program is restarted.