# CHAPTER 4 SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 4.1/4.

2 Systems of Linear Equations Solution set of a system = set of all ordered pairs that satisfy all the equations in the system. Methods used to solve a system of equations: 1. Graphing 2. Linear Combination 3. Cramer’s Rule- Determinants 4. Matrices- Row Operations When solving a system of equations you can get one, none or a ton of solutions. No solutions: Parallel lines/ planes Planes that do not intersect at one point Inconsistent equations Linear combination will result in a false statement. Cramer’s Rule: nonzero / zero One solution: Intersecting lines/ planes Independent equations Linear equations will result in a solution. Cramer’s Rule: one solution Ton of solutions: Same line/ same plane/ planes intersecting in one line Dependent equations Linear equations will result in a true statement Cramer’s Rule: zero / zero 4.3 Second Order Determinants

a c

b = ad – bc d

4.4 f(x) Terminology f(x) - the value of the independent variable if the dependent variable is x . f(x) = 3x + 2 g(x) = 5x f(1) = 3(1) + 2 = 5 f(g(2)) = f(10) = 32 Be able to solve real world problems using linear equations. 4-5 Linear Equations with 3 or More Variables 3-space x,y,z axis z axis is vertical y axis is horizontal x axis is out at you To graph an equation in 3 variables, find the 3 intercepts and draw the triangle that represents the plane.

4.6 Systems of Linear Equations with 3 or more Variables 3 Equations and 3 Variables Use linear combination to simplify to 2 equations, 2 unknowns Solve that smaller system Use substitution to find the remaining variable. 4-7/4-8 Solutions of Systems by Augmented Matrices (CALCULATOR-OK) Elementary Row Operations - multiply a row by a constant - exchange two rows - add or subtract rows You use elementary row operations to obtain a matrix with 1’s on the diagonal and 0’s elsewhere. Work from the column on the left to the column on the right. Start by getting the 1 by exchanging rows or dividing, then get the 0’s.

10 0 2 010 4 0 016

x = 2, y = 4, z = 6

4.9 Higher Order Determinants (CALCULATOR-OK) Third order and higher determinants can be found by expanding. Each term will contain a (+,-) sign, an entry from the matrix, and a determinant of the reduced matrix. You can expand on any row or column. 2 3 -1 -1 5 3 Expand on the first row. 3 -1 -6 2

5 3 −1 3 −1 5 + -3 + -1 −1 - 6 3 -6 3 -1

2(-30 – ( - 3 ) ) – 3 ( 6 – 9 ) + -1( 1 – 15 ) = 2( -27) – 3( -3 ) + -1( -14) = -31 4.10Systems of Linear Inequalities (CALCULATOR-OK) To solve a system of inequalities, graph each separately and find the intersection of the graphs. You want the points that are common to all the inequalities. To graph an inequality: - Change to an equation and graph the line. < or > use a solid line. < or > use a dotted line - Choose a point on one side of the line and substitute it into the original inequality. - If you get a true statement, shade the same side of the line that the point is on - If you get a false statement, shade the other side 4.11Linear Programming 1. 2. 3. 4. Write the inequalities for the problem- called the constraints Write the max or min equation Graph the inequalities to obtain the feasible region. Find the corner points of the feasible region.

5.

Substitute each corner point into the max/min equation to see which produce a max or min.