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**Mohit Garg http://mohitgarg.vectorstar.net
**

Abstract In this article, we discuss the statistical model of the wireless channel in reasonable detail. We start with the most intuitive model of the time-varying channel and derive statistical parameters which are used to characterise reallife channels. We derive both the ﬁrst and second order statistics and indicate their physical signiﬁcance.

1

Introduction

The wireless channel is a widely used but rarely understood element in the design of communication systems today. One can often ﬁnd people working with various parameters of a wireless channel without an understanding of the basics. The author has till date not found any good tutorial which explains all the basic elements of the channel in reasonable detail. Most books only touch upon some aspects of the channel and ignore the rest. Moreover, there is a large variation in the treatment of the topic across books which thoroughly confuses the reader. In this article we introduce the channel as a two-dimensional random process and derive the various parameters used to characterise it. The focus of this article is to derive the diﬀerent statistical parameters in an intuitive manner. The aim is to bridge the gap between the statistical model and the physical understanding of the channel. Therefore, we skip the mathematical derivations and focus on the physical signiﬁcance of the diﬀerent observable parameters that can be derived from the statistical model.

2

Complex Baseband Channel Model

The wireless channel is incomparably more hostile than the AWGN channel which is usually the channel model assumed for most wired communication systems. A typical wireless channel is a time-varying system in which the parameters are random and liable to change with time.

1

τ )] = 0) or Ricean (when E [h(t. the autocorrelation function depends only on the diﬀerence between the time instants rather than on the actual time instants. τ )| is a Rayleigh (when E [h(t. The general autocorrelation function can be written as Rhh (t1 . τ1 )h∗ (t2 . ∞ H(t. f ) = −∞ h(t. τ ). we now look at the autocorrelation properties of this process. τ ) with respect to the delay variable τ .e. τ )s(t − τ )dτ (1) where s(t) : The input signal h(t. τ1 . at any time t. t2 .1 Channel Autocorrelation Functions Autocorrelation of the Impulse Response Since the channel coeﬃcients h(t. Then. the absolute value |h(t. τ )e−j2πf τ dτ (2) where f denotes the frequency variable. The time-varying transfer function of the channel is deﬁned as the Fourier transform of h(t. τ ) deﬁne a random process. 3 3. This deﬁnes a two-dimensional random process h(t. τ )] = 0) distributed random variable. the (baseband) output of the channel is deﬁned by the convolution integral ∞ so (t) = 0 h(t − τ. τ2 )] We make the following assumptions about the channel statistics • The channel is assumed to be Wide Sense Stationary (WSS) in the time-domain. Thus. τ2 ) = E [h(t1 . τ ) : The complex channel gain (a random process) τ : The propagation delay so (t) : The output signal The ﬁrst order distribution of the complex channel gain h(t.The channel is modeled as a linear time-varying random ﬁlter whose impulse response can be expressed as a set of complex (baseband) channel gains at a given time t and a given delay τ . 2 (3) . i. This time-varying transfer function can be viewed as a frequency transmission characteristic of the channel. τ ) is typically modeled by a complex Gaussian random variable.

f2 ) = E [H(t + ∆t.2 Power Delay Spectrum Evaluating the autocorrelation of the channel transfer function (6) at ∆t = 0. τ )|∆t=0 (7) This is called the multipath intensity proﬁle or the power delay proﬁle of the channel. This gives the average power output of the channel as a function of the delay τ . Thus. τ2 )] = Rhh (∆t. ∆f )|∆t=0 (8) This provides us with a measure of the frequency coherence of the channel and the bandwidth (∆f )c of RHH (f ) is called the coherence bandwidth of the channel.1 Autocorrelation with respect to the Delay Variable τ Power Delay Proﬁle Evaluating the autocorrelation of the channel impulse reponse (4) at ∆t = 0.2 Autocorrelation of the Transfer Function Taking the autocorrelation of the time-varying transfer function of the channel (2). τ ) = Rhh (∆t. i. f )H ∗ (t. f + ∆f )] = RHH (∆t. the contribution from the scatterers with diﬀerent delays is uncorrelated.3 3. τ1 )h∗ (t.• The channel exhibits uncorrelated scattering. we can write (3) as E [h(t + ∆t. E [H(t + ∆t.3. we get Rhh (τ ) ≡ Rhh (0. τ1 )δ(τ1 − τ2 ) (4) 3.e. ∆f ) (6) 3. With these assumptions. ∆f ) = RHH (∆t. f2 )] (5) It can be shown that the assumption of uncorrelated scattering implies that the autocorrelation function of the channel transfer function is only a function of the frequency diﬀerence [1].3. The range of values over which Rhh (τ ) is non-zero is called the multi-path delay spread of the channel and is denoted by Tm . It is a measure of the frequency selectivity of the channel during transmission and 3 . This is simply the maximum propagation delay observed in the channel which in turn characterises the time dispersiveness (Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)) of the channel. 3. f1 )H ∗ (t. we get RHH (∆f ) ≡ RHH (0. f1 . we get RHH (∆t.

τ )dτ (12) 4 . Thus. τ0 ). 3. Rhh (τ ) and RHH (f ) form a Fourier transform pair. if (∆f )c is large in comparison to the transmitted signal bandwidth. two sinusoids with frequency separation greater than (∆f )c undergo diﬀerent attenuations in the channel. τ0 ) = −∞ Rhh (∆t. the reciprocal of the multi-path delay spread is a measure of the coherence bandwidth of the channel.2 Doppler Spectrum Integrating the scattering function over all possible delays. 3. it can be easily shown that Rhh (τ ) ←→ RHH (f ) F (9) i.4 Autocorrelation with respect to the Time Variable t The autocorrelation with respect to the time variable t denotes the behaviour of the random process at each delay τ . we get ∞ S(λ) = −∞ S(λ. the channel is said to be frequency non-selective or frequency ﬂat. we get ∞ S(λ. τ0 )e−j2πλ∆t d(∆t) (11) This is called as the scattering function of the channel. i. If (∆f )c is small in comparison to the bandwidth of the transmitted signal. As a result of this relationship. On the other hand. the autocorrelation with respect to t characterises the random process h(t.1 Scattering Function Taking the Fourier transform (with respect to ∆t) of the autocorrelation of the channel impulse reponse (4) at τ = τ0 .4. That is.e. for a given τ = τ0 . Also.indicates the frequency width over which the channel can be considered to be ﬂat.e. It gives us the power spectral density of the random process which deﬁnes the channel coeﬃcient at a particular delay τ0 . (∆f )c ≈ 1 Tm (10) 3. the channel is said to be frequency selective.4.

i. 7.org/ftp/Specs/archive/45 series/45.org/groups/802/20/Contribs/C802. Technical Speciﬁcation Group GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network.e.3gpp.” IEEE 802. the channel is said to be fast fading. Available: http://grouper. That is (∆t)c ≈ 1 Bd (14) Thus. Digital Communications. if (∆t)c is large in comparison to the transmission time interval.ieee.In other words. 2005. τ )e−j2πf τ dτ f =0 (13) S(λ) is called the Doppler spectrum of the channel and is a measure of the frequency dispersiveness of the channel. 4th ed. the channel is said to be slow fading. 2005. if (∆t)c is small in comparison to the transmission time interval. last accessed on June 12. The discrete-time discrete-delay equivalents of all of the above functions can be derived analogous to the above analysis. discrete-time discrete-delay models of the wireless channel are used. The models in these references deﬁne the number of multi-paths and the relative average power received for each multi-path delay.005/45005-700. ∞ S(λ) ≡ S(λ. References [1] J. G. Rev. S(λ) is the Fourier transform of (11) with respect to τ0 evaluated at f = 0. 3GPP Technical Speciﬁcation. 2005. Proakis.20 MBWA system simulations.5 Discrete-Time Discrete-Delay Channel Model While designing digital wireless communication systems. They also deﬁne the Doppler spectrum which broadly characterises the time variations of the channel. 3]. 2001. [Online]. [Online].zip [3] “Channel models for IEEE 802.pdf 5 . Available: http://www.20-03-70. faster will be the time variations in the channel. The reciprocal of the Doppler spread is a measure of the coherence time of the channel which denotes the rate of varations in the channel with respect to time. [2] 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3. last accessed on June 12. Examples of the characterisation of practical wireless channels can be found in [2.20-03/70. The bandwidth of S(λ) is also referred to as the Doppler spread of the channel. f )|f =0 = −∞ S(λ. Smaller the coherence time (∆t)c .20 MBWA Contribution C802. McGraw-Hill. On the other hand. Radio transmission and reception.

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