Personal Effectiveness Lab

- An Experiential Learning Platform


Personal Effectiveness Lab

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Dear Future Manager Hearty Welcome to the World of Soft Skills Training at IBS. Training in Soft Skills is imparted to the Management Graduates through the Personal Effectiveness Lab (PEL). PEL is an experiential platform where kinesthetic learning takes place with the active involvement of students. It is an activity-based learning module where the emphasis is more on activity rather than theory. The main focus of the module is to groom and transform the students into an employable human resource catering to the future needs and challenges of the corporate world. The training is aimed at transforming the students into CARPET (Confident, Adaptable, Realistic, Positive, Enthusiastic and Time & Target oriented) personalities. The expected result is to achieve the right blend of ASK - Attitude, Skills and Knowledge.

The pedagogy of PEL is an interesting combination of student presentations, role-plays, videos, exercises, games (in-house and outbound) and other instruments. It complements the domain knowledge by equipping the students with adequate life or personal skills. Whatever may be the domain specialization, it is the skill set that matters. A manager irrespective of the domain has to be adequately equipped with the Soft Skills to become a complete and well-rounded personality. The Personal Effectiveness Lab is designed to empower you with the required Soft Skills and create a brand...YOU - a successful manager. Have a wonderful learning experience...

Input & Output Sessions Listening Skills Goal Setting Time Management Interpersonal Skills .The Soft Skills Canopy @ IBS Self Awareness Perception & Attitudes Body Language Effective Presentation Skills .com 3 .files.Conversational & Assertive Skills Leadership & Team Building Social Skills.wordpress.ntuinspyre. Dining Etiquette and Telephone Etiquettes Stress Management Negotiation Skills & Conflict Management Structured Thinking Source:www. Netiquette.

be Video 1. Srinivas Cheedi Source:www. Mahesh Kumar Video 1.? Video 1.5 Prof T.Prof.Soft Skills . Monika v=qCQPINrl4V4 v=uAsF2ljzUUQ& 4 .Are They Important. Kalyana Chakravarthi v=trZcL3Zy0k0&feature=youtu.1Prof R Vaidyanathan Video =-coYoDkfmZM& Prof ?v=phmkCuWObsk&feature=yout Video 1.

lawrence.C HAPTER 2 Self Awareness Self Awareness Self Assessment .

youtube.Section 1 Self Awareness “To know that we know what we know and that we don’t know what we don’t know is true knowledge”.files. you should be able to build the brand Video 2. If you are passionately involved in the process of self development to build a brand YOU…. wordpress.Self Awareness Exercises Do I have the competencies and skills required in my chosen field of work? Do I face any imperfections and shortcomings? Am I aware of the fact that each shortcoming could become a threat or stumbling block in my career? How do I plan to overcome those shortcomings? What are the opportunities available to me? atch?v=vA2cDV4K9jg What are the threats I am faced with? 6 . you are one of the trillion living creatures on the his strengths and weaknesses. The exciting journey of personal effectiveness starts with knowing self i.Self Awareness YOU. A person aspiring for success should dig into himself and try to better himself by identifying Source:www.1. spotting opportunities and preparing to deal effectively with /watch?v=DmJpc0EiYZc Video 2. Every individual should pose a question to self “Am I Living or just existing?” If you only ‘exist’.1. you should answer the following questions: Do I know myself? Have I set the right goals for myself? Source:www. Self But if you are ‘living’.2.daletedder.1 .e.

Always Source:www. s a t i s f a c t i o n .Once I know where I should go. P Seligman. List out twenty strengths and rate them on a scale of ten. a person seeking finance as a specialization could look for national and international opportunities with a national corporation or a multi-national corporation in the areas of investment banking. Signature Strengths are the strengths of character/personality which a person feels he is authentic about. Weaknesses. It is rightly said. If you are outdated you are not dated (by the corporate to hire you). Remember to spot competition and try to meet it. Engaging or harnessing the strengths produces positive emotions like harmony. There is a simple method to identify the Signature identify your core strengths and harness them in a right way to produce winwin results. Always upgrade yourself with respect to the latest technology which is changing very fast. sense of pride and fulfillment. Threats to an individual could be in terms of technology and competition. project consultancy and a host of other areas of finance. Life is a continuous process of learning. He owns them and feels a sense of joy. author of. wealth management. “If you are not 7 . unlearning and relearning. I should be aware of the skills and competencies required. SWOT Analysis The simplest approach to Self Awareness is through the SWOT (Strengths. happiness. ‘Authentic Happiness’. For example. According to Martin E. a person can also identify his “Signature Strengths”. j o y. Opportunities and Threats) Analysis. Weaknesses or negative points in our personality should be identified and a committed plan of action made to overcome them. The top four or five strengths could be called the Signature Strengths. Strengths or positive points would always produce a positive emotion that is invariably authentic. Many individuals try to camouflage their weak points or try to hide them under a carpet. Successful individuals spot their opportunities and utilize them in the best possible way. portfolio management. Further. If you are not updated you are outdated. A manager has to spot his Signature Strengths and see whether they are in tune with the overall goals and objectives. Remember that every weak point is a stumbling block in your career. satisfaction and pride while displaying them. As a successful manager you must develop a proactive approach to spot them and overcome the same. elation.

in communication skills. body language. Self Awareness is the first step in personality enhancement and growth. Prepare a SWOT chart referring to the SWOT grid (table 2. you are fighting it”. stage fear.1.. A SWOT grid is provided with suggested traits.Behavioral --------------------------------Psychological ----------------------------.meeting competition.1. Besides competition and technology. a person can mention language. 2..1). 1.1 SWOT Grid Strengths Communication Skills -----------------Interpersonal Skills -----------------Leadership Skills --------------------Emotional Aspects ---------------------- Weaknesses Communication Skills -----------------Interpersonal Skills --------------------Leadership Skills -----------------------Emotional Aspects --------------------- Social Skills ------------------------------. Table 2.Psychological ---------------------------Creativity ---------------------------------Others ---------------------------------Creativity -------------------------------Others ---------------------------------- Opportunities 1 2 3 4 5 Source: IBS Hyderabad 1 2 3 4 5 Threats 8 . For Example. voice as a strength or weakness. Stress ---------------------------------Finance ---------------------------------Spiritual ---------------------------------- Behavioral --------------------------------. every weak point is a threat in your career path. Prepare an action plan to overcome the weaknesses in your personality.Social Skills ------------------------------Family ---------------------------------Physical ---------------------------------Health ---------------------------------Family ---------------------------------Physical ---------------------------------Health ---------------------------------Stress ---------------------------------Finance ---------------------------------Spiritual ---------------------------------- Tasks to Perform.

C HAPTER 3 Perception and Attitudes Perception Attitude

com /watch?v=s2XLZsiCBsA organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment in which he lives. an individual’s perception may be far removed from the reality.1.Section 1 Meaning and Significance of Perception Perception may be defined as the process by which an individual selects.fbstat ic.1: Perception Source:www. a union leader decides to withdraw some of the demands of the union and asks his fellow employees to cooperate with the management. depending on the needs. Suppose. 10 .files. comes to each employee’s desk and interacts with him. after a meeting with Video 3. one employee may perceive the manager’s visit as friendly in nature while another may perceive the visit as an attempt by the manager to keep an eye on them.lottolab. values and expectations of the individual. If a manager. It is a complex cognitive process and differs from one individual to another. The perception of two individuals may differ even if they are exposed to the same stimuli. under the same conditions. in an organization. though the reality may be that the union leader actually got convinced by the management about the inability of the organization to fulfill some of the demands of the workers’ union owing to the firm’s weak financial situation. This may lead some employees to believe that the union leader might have been bribed by the management to act in their favor. Source:www.

sometimes can mislead the individuals by distorting their perception. education and the environment in which a person is brought up. but in reality. For understanding the processes and subprocesses of perception and the factors that influence perception. some subordinates do not want to have decision-making power. the experience. While these factors help shape perception. Hence it is important to recognize the differences in the perceptions of individuals to understand their behavior at the workplace. Here. they. The perception of an individual is influenced by several factors. the perceptions of the managers differ from that of the subordinates. While some organizations perceive that it is 11 . Perceptual differences can sometimes lead to conflicts in the organization. most managers assume that all employees want to be empowered to make decisions.qvbrands. others perceive factors such as cooperation. however. the object or target being perceived. team culture and preservation of individual identities crucial for their success. The factors which influence perception include the perceiver himself. the situation in which the perception occurs. Differences can be resolved and work environment can be improved by Perception vs Reality the aggressive and dominating culture as well as the maintenance of conformity (of all employees to certain beliefs and values) that are essential for their success. because it will impose on them additional responsibilities and they will be accountable for even wrong decisions. Perceptions may also differ from organization to organization.People respond to situations on the basis of their perceptions about reality rather than the reality itself. Source:www.

..1.Task to Perform. Refer to the keynote 3. Adapted from various sources 12 .1: Perception Source: IBS Hyderabad.1.1. Keynote 3. follow the pictures or images and write on a paper the first impressions that appear in your mind.

Attitude is a state of mind of an individual towards something. Attitudes are evaluative statements that can be either favorable or unfavorable. Rakesh may not like his colleague Deepak because he takes bribes. say Rakesh. 13 . For example.istockimg. This is the cognitive component of Rakesh’s attitude. The affective component represents the feelings of a person toward something. if a person does not like a certain aspect of his job. For defined as a tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards objects. Components of Attitudes Attitudes consist of three components – cognitive. The cognitive component indicates the opinions. he is said to have a negative attitude towards that assignment. Rakesh may decide to avoid Deepak. The behavioral component of a person indicates the intention of a person to behave in a particular way. The characteristics of attitudes are described as follows: The attitudes of an individual generally remain unchanged for a prolonged period of time unless he is influenced by external forces.i. Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs held by an individual towards an object (or event or a person). values or beliefs of an individual about something. For example. affective and behavioral.Section 2 Concept and Components of Attitudes Concept of Attitude Personality describes the whole person and attitude determines the personality. It may be Source: www. a person. people or events. may believe that taking or giving a bribe is wrong. For example.

4.1: Attitude Video ?v=H8ZuKF3dxCY Interactive 14 .youtube.4.1: Attitude is Everything Video 3.2.3: Attitude Determines Altitudes Source:www.2.2: Inspirational Video Video 3.Keynote atch?v=jUhOU1LnXJ8 ch?v=z_OCmWEEkcQ&featur e=related Source: Jigsaw Puzzle on Extrasensory Perception Source:www.

com .api.C HAPTER 4 Body Language Source:www.ning.

shoulders not raised or drooping. Some people call it bodily communication.cehjournal. Oral communication comprises basically of three elements: 1. Posture is the way we present ourselves physically the way we stand. Paralanguage .postures. Without speaking a single word we communicate something with our body.tone of communication (38%) 3. It is a sign of 16 . It is the unspoken or non-verbal part of communication.Section 1 Various Aspects of Body Language Body language is one of the key aspects of oral communication and it has a tremendous impact on the minds of communicants or receivers. eye-contact and mannerisms. It constitutes a solid 55% of oral communication. facial expressions. Body language (55%) 2. We need to stand straight. Language (7%) It is expected of communication learners to focus on body language and fine-tune it to create a better impact on the minds of The various aspects of body language are . Source:www. chest up and wide open. the way we sit and the way we walk. gestures.

handresearch. focus your vision on the right side corner of the last row and bring it diagonally down to the left side corner of the first row. down or sideward while talking or making a presentation.. They are as follows: i. natural and should synchronize with what we speak. People tend to look up. Source:www.1. Our gestures should be simple. avoiding a slanting posture . a raised thumb indicates everything is alright. Therefore. We need to focus our vision on the listener or audience. Open palm Al Gore Hand Gestures gestures are very good and people tend to believe us when we showcase or display open palm gestures. Gestures/Emblems are the actions or movements of our hands as also that of the head (i. we need to support our body uniformly on both legs. a “V” www. head nod).com/digit-ratio/ george-clooney-hand-gesture. three types of eye movements are suggested. we have to avoid a bent posture. Eye Contact forms a vital link between the communicator (sender) and communicant (receiver).. similarly.confidence and composure. Good gestures elevate the impact of our communication. It is a sign of nervousness. indicates victory. The X-type eye movement: Focus your vision at the left corner of the last row and bring it diagonally down to the right corner of the first row.etiquette-tips.1: and enthusiasm. Further. use of head nod is good in communication. Refer to the keynote 4. we should always maintain a perfect eye contact while addressing a gathering or speaking to a group.jpg 17 . At all Posture & Gestures times. While making a on right or left leg. Emblems are the signs we show by using the fingers e.e.1 Source: IBS Hyderabad for the body postures and gestures.1. There should be a perfect harmony in our speech and gestures. We have to walk briskly and show a lot of energy Keynote 4.

The face has to look radiant with a smile. covering all the rows.ii. tapping the thighs or scratching the head/ the impact of communication. The feelings or expressions that we display on the face are very much significant. iii. Facial Expression is also an important aspect of our body language. nostrils. Hence we should avoid gestures such as stroking the 18 . twiddling with the fingers. wrinkles on forehead).nosweatp communication rather than disrupt ublicspeaking.. and develop those mannerisms which create a positive impact to the extent possible. move it horizontally to the right corner of the last row and bring it diagonally down to the left corner of the first row. serene and natural expression. It also includes the micro gestures (movement of eyebrows. move it to the right corner of the first row.bitstrips. The Z-type eye movement: Focus your vision on the left corner of the last row. The micro gestures should elevate the Source:www. Body Language Source:www. Mannerisms are some unique actions or gestures specific to an individual which either enhance or disturb the communication. Remember. playing with pen. Mannerisms are habitual gestures or a way of speaking/behaving that become abnormal through over-exaggeration and repetition. The Inverted U Type: Focus your vision on the left corner of the first row and bring it to the right corner of the first row moving it in the inverted U form. Therefore body language is an important aspect of the communication eco system which has to be refined to create a positive impact. rubbing the nose. Always maintain a sober. etc. chin. it constitutes 55 percent of our communication.

com/watc h?v=PYcID4KWKe4&feature=re lated 19 a relative.1: Importance of Smile Tasks to Perform. atch?v=prM0jRIxC2I Video 4. atch?v=aWnVlV356r4 Video 4. Observe the Body Language of the Chairman & Marketing Manager of a company... Source:www. close friend and note the observations.2: Indra Nooyi Keep reading people for their Body Language in different situations.3: Body Language: The Meanings of Hand Gestures Source:www.1.1. .bp.4.C HAPTER 5 Effective Presentation Skills Source: www.

2. the focus is on basic tips or Source:www. we should take care to convey to the audience the gist of the entire presentation. We should also highlight and ensure that the intended action or response is received. Body and 3. no communication is effective without the content. Content or subject matter is very important for think of the opening and body of the presentation. The following points may be considered in delivering an effective presentation: 1. we should make it clear to the audience about the topic and the broad points to be covered. Ralph C. “A speech without a specific purpose is like a journey without a destination. Proper care should be taken to chose a topic/subject that suits the audience. The opening should be effective. The content/ subject should be organized into: 1. paralanguage (voice and tone) and language. Depending on the topic we could devote about 10% of the scheduled time for the opening and closing and 21 . In the body of presentation. Probably. Opening. Sometimes a Joke could prove effective. It could be started by a “Quote”.learningnlptechniqu tenets of making an effective es. In this section. Body language was discussed in the earlier chapter. One can share an anecdote or an incident and relate it to the presentation. Proper salutation or greeting should precede the process.Section 1 Tips for Effective Presentations Effective presentation is a perfect blend of body language. the main points about the topic have to be covered with relevant examples and explanation. In the opening few lines. followed by relating it to the subject. It is strongly recommended that we should first think of and write how to ‘close’ the presentation and then probably. In the closing part of the presentation. Smedley rightly stated. The purpose or objective of the speech is conveyed to the audience. Closing.

balance time for the body. The overall impact should be powerful. 2. Voice Control is the key to any good presentation. When we talk of voice the following aspects are to be noted: 1. Pitch, 2. Modulation and 3. Tone or emotion. Pitch is the intensity or the height at which we speak or communicate whereas modulation is the change of pitch. Voice inflection is very important and we should not make it monotonous and boring to the listeners. A soft tone or emotion is very much needed. It should be appealing rather then conceited. The tone of our voice does the entire job of communicating and hence we have to select an appropriate tone that suits a situation. It is apt to quote Fredrick Nietzsche, who said, “We often refuse to accept an idea merely because the tone of voice in which it has been expressed is unsympathetic to us”. A cheerful and joyous tone is always welcome whereas a harsh/rigid tone doesn’t go well with the audience. Remember that the tone and voice constitute a whooping 38% of the communication. 3. Language or spoken word is important in terms of grammar, accent, vocabulary and expression. Effort should be made to develop the language to avoid grammatical errors and MTI (Mother Tongue Influence). The expression should be smooth and perfect. Avoid fillers like “Ahs and Uhs”. When you want to speak good English, think in English. That is to say, the

thought process has to take place in the English language. Most people think in their mother tongue and convert it into English while making a presentation. It hampers the expression and also the communication.

4. Positive Emphasis plays an important role in successful and effective communication. It refers to the positive words, syllables, sentences or the tone used in communicating with the people. By and large, positive thinking leads us to positive emphasis in communication. Try to infuse a sense of positive thinking into the listener’s mind by using positive words, phrases and sentences. The following examples will illustrate the positive emphasis in communication: Wrong - Our office closes at 6 pm. Right - Our office is open till 6 pm. Wrong - Ma, I am going to a movie with my friends. I will not come home till 11 pm. Right - Ma, I will come home positively at 11 pm after watching a movie with my friends.


Wrong - Sir, We will not be able to complete the report until Sunday. Right - Sir, We will complete the report by Sunday. Wrong - We don’t exchange goods which are damaged. Right - We exchange only the good ones. The listener will not be positively tuned or oriented to hear negative words and sentences from our communication. It will trigger negative emotions. It will lead to mood disturbances and anger in the people. Hearing positive words and phrases will have a better impact on the mind of the listener. 5. Correct Emphasis has a better impact on the readers/ listeners. More impact - Ravi is an intelligent investor who made investments at a proper time and could reap maximum profits. Less impact - Ravi could reap maximum profits because he made investments at a proper time. He is an intelligent investor. 6. Pace, Pause & Emphasis They add a lot of variety to our speech and help in sustaining the interest of the audience.

Pace is the speed at which we speak, i.e., the number of words we speak per minute. Pause in a spoken text is like a comma or a full stop of a written text. We should effectively use the pause to drive home the point perfectly. With effective use of pause, the pace can be maintained properly. Emphasis is the stress we lay on important words, syllables or phrases. However, not each and every word should be emphasized. The following example demonstrates the use of emphasis in our speech: He has gone to a MOVIE. (Here, movie is emphasized). He has gone to a movie (Here, Syllable he is emphasized) He has gone to a movie (Imagine, how it would appear if we emphasis each and every word or syllable of the sentence). 7. Body Orientation is a significant aspect of our presentation. We need to orient ourselves properly to the audience. That is, we should stand face to face to the audience. Avoid being left or right oriented. 8. Personal Grooming is also important. In formal situations and presentations, one has to dress up in formals. It is said that the way we dress up also influences our mind and the way we think. If we are dressed formally, our thought process also would be influenced to be formal rather than causal. It is rightly

said that we need to dress up to impress. Dark trouser and light shirt with black shoes and tie is recommended for gentlemen. A Business suit or light colored chudidar or sari is the formal attire recommended for ladies. We should remember, we are going to make a statement, about ourselves, by our attire. 9. Audio Visual (AV) Aids constitute an important aspect of presentations. The perfect use of AV aids enhances the overall impact of a presentation. It is dealt in detail in the Section: 8. 10. Presentation Supplements include handouts, questionnaires, articles, notes, take aways, powerpoint/ keynote, collar mike, cue cards, etc. The notes, take aways, handouts should be handed over to the audience at an appropriate time. Handouts could be given at the end of the presentation to facilitate additional reading. Cue cards of the size 3 inches by 2 inches are used to jot down main points of the presentation. They should comfortably fit into the palm of your hands. They should be properly numbered. Video 5.1.1: Tips on Effective Presentation Skills

Presentation in a Nutshell Important Ingredients of an Effective Presentation are: Purpose Plan Procure Prepare Points Practice Preview Perfect Present Presence - make it lively with humor and contemporary things Passion - care and enthusiasm Personality h?v=7-bRmiKja2U

Video 5.1.2: Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam’s Speech h?v=ehFDeHHHIME


com speech purposes. may lead to changes of beliefs.Section 2 Speech Purposes .to inform. A speaker whose immediate purpose is to impart information often uses amusing or dramatic illustrations to entertain his or her audience. Moreover. In informative speaking. Let us now briefly examine these three types of speeches. The teacher talking to a class or the manager of a department store explaining the duties of a job to staff members are both engaged in informative speaking. thus holding their attention. although such results may not be a part of the speaker’s purpose. As we discuss these www. to persuade. your main concern is to make the audience understand and remember the information you present. How to grow vegetables in a greenhouse. and to entertain (these three purposes apply equally to public or private communication).photos. 25 . The working of a pollution-free engine. How much the listener knows at the conclusion of a talk is the real test of the speech. we should remember that we are in reality talking about responses we desire from our audience. Informative speeches may also entertain or change beliefs. Any discourse concerning this topic must take into account the obvious fact that all individuals are different and therefore what is intended by the speaker as a speech to inform may well persuade or entertain certain members of the audience.auzzieimports. Some examples of informative subjects are: The procedures to be followed for adding new courses to the college curriculum. Informative Speeches The purpose of informative communication is to increase the receiver’s knowledge and understanding of a subject. information. even it if consists only of facts.General and Specific There are three general speech purposes .

How to write a political speech. Interactive Image 5. The person asking for a raise. Here the word “entertainment” is used in its broadest sense to include anything that stimulates a pleasurable response. whether it be humorous or dramatic.1. The Indian Government should condemn the actions of Pakistan.all are trying to persuade someone to do something.2. The salesperson uses the speech to persuade as a means of getting the customer to buy a coat. Entertaining Speeches The third major type of speech has the purpose of entertaining the audience. feel or act in a manner selected by the speaker. Through such speeches the speaker wants the people present to have an enjoyable time. the wife trying to get her husband to fix the tap. Students should be given time off to campaign on behalf of political candidates.Persuasive Speeches The major function of the persuasive speech is to induce the audience to think. or you may merely want to strengthen opinions that they already hold. The speaker is not concerned with ensuring that they learn a great deal or that they change their mind in one direction or another. Entertainment is the purpose of many after-dinner speeches. 26 . The following are examples of subjects that need persuasive treatment: Final examinations in our colleges should be abolished. General Speech Purposes Entertaining Speech Persuasive Speech Informative Speech Some subjects that lend themselves to humorous treatment are: My first day as a college student. You may want your listeners to discard old beliefs or form new ones. The gourmet food served in the college cafeteria. the teacher trying to get the class to study .

Specific The general reaction you want to secure from your audience may be stated in terms of informing. then. your specific purpose might be: To get the audience to give money to a college fund to beautify the campus. you will have a guide for your preparation . To get the audience to agree that India should withdraw its soldiers from Kashmir. it should be worded in terms of the audience response desired. feel. directly relates to your specific purpose. your specific purpose might be: To make the audience laugh at the “clear” statements of some political leaders. persuading. If you know exactly what the purpose of your speech is. To have the audience understand the history of the modern Animal Rights movement If your general purpose is to persuade. This will give you a constant target at which to aim. are the three major speech purposes. 27 . There are three requirements a purpose of a speech should meet: it should contain only one central idea.a reminder that each bit of material contained in your presentation should contribute something to the accomplishment of your purpose. The specific purpose describes the exact nature of the response you want from your audience. at a glance. to see if the material you have gathered. You might find it helpful to write down your specific purpose on a sheet of paper. To have the audience enjoy hearing about the best ways to escape the clutches of the hostel warden. Speech Purposes . When your general purpose is to inform. and the organization of that material. It allows you. But the particular and immediate reaction that you seek must be precisely formulated into a specific purpose. To get the audience to agree that we should have a Department of Women’s Studies at our University.These. your specific purpose might be: To have the audience understand the important aspects of ‘student government’. most important. or entertaining. It states specifically what you want your audience to know. and. If your general purpose is to entertain. To have the audience understand the fundamentals of boating safety. believe. or do. it should be clear and concise.

and (3) delivering in an impromptu/extemporaneous manner. audience and occasion.3.3.Section 3 Methods of Speaking The method of speaking or the type of delivery should suit the subject.3. The methods of speaking are briefed in the keynote Killer Presentation Skills Source: Internal 28 . a situation may call for a combination of two or three h?v=whTwjG4ZIJg Video 5.1: Methods of Speaking Source:www. Sometimes.1 annexed. There are different methods of presenting a speech: (1) reading from a manuscript. (2) speaking from memory. Keynote 5.

4.Source:www.and yourself . Audience analysis means.4. finding out all you can about the people you are talking to or will be talking to. way process involving sender and receiver. You discover what your receivers are like so that you can adapt your material directly to their needs.Section 4 Analyzing the Audience To communicate your purpose effectively. you need to understand the audience. Audience analysis enables you to establish a rapport with your listeners. Remember that communication is a two. By understanding your audience you can adapt your materials . in a very practical sense. Only by seeing things from their viewpoint you can deal directly with their predispositions.1: Audience Analysis Source: Internal 29 . experiences and attitudes.static.1. As a public speaker you must also make an analysis of your audience if your speech is to be meaningful. Audience analysis is dealt in detail in the keynote Keynote 5. The speaker who presents a speech without considering the audience has very little chance of gaining support or being the people with whom you want to communicate.

if needed).Section 5 Why Organize a Speech? The organizational process benefits speakers in several ways. The message must be understood at the moment of encounter because the listener. Clear organization facilitates understanding and encourages the listener to remain attentive. whether it is prepared in advance or composed instantly. The traditional three-fold division of the presentation . It enables them to juxtapose ideas in a variety of ways and determine the sequence that is best suited to their audience and the accomplishment of the purpose. This three-fold division has also been humorously but appropriately expressed as: 1) Tell them what you are going to tell them 2) Tell them 3) Tell them what you told them. 30 . the basic approach involves formulating a core statement which expresses the central idea of the message. It helps them detect any weaknesses in the fabric of their logic and any inadequacies in the amount and quality of their evidence (for supporting their argument). cannot freeze the message and study it at leisure. The various main points and sub points of the presentation that clarify. unlike the reader. amplify. phrasing main points to support the core statement (and sub-points to support the main points. While there are a variety of ways to approach the task of organizing the message. the body and the conclusion . Finally. they benefit from the added credibility gained. Clear organization also helps speakers to retain ideas with greater ease during a presentation. it is a useful approach for studying organizational structure. or prove the core statement have to be organized systematically so that they can be easily understood by the listener.the introduction. Whether the message is a formal speech or an informal presentation. Although this division may not be applicable to all situations. it will be more effective and have a greater impact on the listeners if it has organizational clarity. and choosing appropriate patterns to show relationships among the points.will be followed on most occasions.

Speeches that seem to leap from point to point without any sense of direction seldom leave the listener with anything meaningful to focus on. The body of the speech could be organized in one or a combination of the methods mentioned in the keynote attached: Keynote 5.Innumerable patterns of organization are available since each speaking situation is unique. let us restrict our survey of organizational patterns to those that are found most commonly in informative and persuasive speeches.1: Methods to Organize the Body of Speech Source: Internal 31 .5. So. Systematic arrangement of material is crucial in informative speaking if the listener is to retain the information presented.

6. it should be remembered that the argument is to be supported adequately to convince the audience. Keynote 5.1: Supporting Ideas for Presentations 32 . fables.6. Suppose a speaker at the college campus advocated that the cricket team be disbanded on the ground that it was a financial burden to the student body. listeners want the assertions to be supported with proof or facts. But more frequently.Section 6 Supporting Your Ideas Supporting material or evidence is an essential part of a presentation.1. There may be some assertions that listeners will accept at face value because the assertions are consistent with their beliefs and prejudices. Simply stating a point does not necessarily make it believable. Would anyone believe him in the absence of proof to support his charge? Some of the best ways of supporting the presentation are: Illustration (example) Statistics Expert testimony Analogies Anecdotes. parables Whatever technique is adapted. Source: Internal Best ways of supporting the presentations are further discussed in detail in the keynote 5.

As a rule.Section 7 Visual Aids Most formal speeches and presentations incorporate visual aids. Visual aids should be just “aids. who can use them as a tool for remembering the details of the message. Graphic visuals. text visuals are more effective when they consist of no more than six lines. they support the “support” or “proof” used in the oral presentation. Because text visuals are simplified outlines of a presentation. the visual aids have to be simple enough for the audience to understand within a moment or two. clear type (using uppercase a n d lowercase letters). with extra white s p a c e between lines of type. They help the audience grasp numerical data and other information that would be hard to follow if presented orally. List items should be phrased in parallel grammatical form. Designing and Presenting Visual Aids Two types of visual aids are used to supplement speeches and presentations: Text and Graphic. Text visuals consist of words and help the audience follow the flow of ideas. illustrate the main points. They should be typed in large. they are a convenience to the speaker. on the other hand.” They should enhance the speech by explaining and emphasizing key points. with a maximum of six words per line. The wording should be telegraphic Source:www. From a purely practical standpoint. they can be used to summarize and preview the message and to signal major shifts in thought. In a sense. Because people can’t read and listen at the same time. Visual aids also dramatically increase the audience’s ability to absorb and remember information. Too many or too flashy visuals can distract the 33 .o5.

Handouts work well in informal situations where the audience takes an active role. Illustrate only the main points. The following guidelines are suggested: Be sure that all members of the audience can see the visual aids. After discussing the point illustrated by the visual. or supplementary material such as tables. not the other way. brief) but not cryptic. The second typically lists the three or four major points that will be covered. pie and bar charts. The remaining text visuals are used to emphasize the transitions between main points. listeners can refer to them while you are speaking.jpg notes on the handouts. it should be removed from the audience’s view. thus providing a road map of what is to come.. Simplify the graphics so that they can be grasped easily by the audience.e. maps.(i.20070322_presentation_handout make their own s_recall. drawings and tables. don’t read it word for word. The visual aids are there to supplement the speech. handouts can be distracting because people are inclined to read the material 34 . Allow the audience time to read a visual aid before providing an explanation. they often Source:www. so select those that are best suited to your speaking occasion. However. not to study the visual aids. Visual aids should be such that (a) they can be understood quickly by the audience and (b) they do not detract from the presentation. not the entire presentation. flow charts and organization charts. In addition. charts and graphs. use headings that state the message in one clear phrase or sentence. Selecting the Right Medium There are a variety of media to choose from. Paraphrase the text of the visual aid. Handouts: You may choose to distribute sheets of paper bearing an agenda. diagrams. The speaker should remember that the audience is there to listen to him. an abstract. The first is usually the equivalent of a title page: it announces the subject and signals the audience that the presentation is underway. To help the audience focus immediately on the point of each graphic visual. Limit each visual aid to one idea. A variety of graphic visuals can be used: line. Handouts can help the listeners by reminding them of the subject and the main ideas of the presentation. Many presentations begin with several text visuals. a written report. an outline of the program.

informal groups. Computers: With a special projector. which can be projected on a screen in full daylight. com have to dim the lights.businessm on. if you are discussing financial projections. However. Chalkboards and whiteboards: When addressing a small group of people. Each chart illustrates or clarifies a point. revealed when m a y need someone to operate the projector.spiralofcanada. You might have a few lines from your outline on one. You can use an opaque projector to show the audience a photograph or an excerpt from a report.tra . you might find this approach worthwhile. This technique is effective in small. Because you don’t Source:www. Such boards provide flexibility because they can be altered on the spot. Overheads: One of the most common visual aids in business is the overhead transparency. For example. they are too informal (and messy) for certain situations. by 35 . By using different colored achinesonline. so you will have to coordinate the slide presentation with your speech. for instance. a graph or diagram on another and so Source:www. you don’t lose contact with the audience. H o w e v e r. professional atmosphere. so many speakers distribute handouts after the presentation. Using multiple boards. Flip charts: Large sheets of paper are attached at the top so that you can “flip” or turn the pages as you speak. Moreover. Transparencies are easy to make using a typed original on regular paper.europa. Slides: The content of slides may be text. When the presentation is over. use a board to list points as they eb. text www urce: So orcom graphics can also be prepared in advance and orea.w are mentioned. you can print out hard copies of the visual aids for interested members of the audience. and when you want to draw out their dek ideas. graphics or pictures. If you are trying to create a polished. you Source:www. b e a r i n mind that you will have to speak in a darkened room. you can show how a change in sales forecasts will affect profits by typing in a new number. a copying machine or a paper-size sheet of plastic. a personal computer can be turned into a large-screen “intelligent chalkboard” that allows you to create and modify your visual aids as the presentation markers you can highlight ideas as you go along.rather than listen to the presentation. Opaque projections are similar to transparencies but do not require as much preparation. You can also make a computer-generated slide show.

In today’s visual age.7. make an impression and illustrate ideas and concepts that are difficult to express in words alone. Table 5. L. However. and projector screen Drawing or typing time. Computer presentations can also be mailed (email or snail mail) to potential customers . Audiotapes. A scale model of a proposed office building can give the audience a clear idea of its spaciousness. dim lighting Design and photographing time. a videotape showing mock interviews would be an effective aid in illustrating effective interviewing strategies in a human resources management training seminar. Properly integrated into a presentation.1 summarizes some of the factors to consider when selecting a visual medium. create interest. with writing implements Drawing time only Inexpensive Over Heads About 100 Formal or informal Simple Text.using Microsoft Powerpoint software. The accompanying table 5. Videotapes. an audience relates well to the color and elaborate production provided by these visuals. these tapes can be mailed to different people (if required). IV Edition. plastic sheets. projector. photocopying time Inexpensive unless professionally designed or typeset Slides Several hundred Formal Anything that can be photo-graphed Slides. ( New York: McGraw Hill. Like computer presentations. With all visual aids. Bovee and J. the crucial factor is how you use them. Filmstrips and Films: These can be used to illustrate major points. at least 24 hours production time Relatively expensive Source: C.1 . Business Communication Today. 1995) 36 . remember that visuals are intended to support the speech. not replace it. Using this technology. they can save time.7.V Thill. photocopying machine. add variety. which gives you the opportunity to make changes right up to the minute you start speaking. both customers and employees.Guidelines for Selecting Visuals Visual Optimum Audience Size Degree of Formality Design Complexity Equipment and Room Requirements Production Time Cost Handouts Fewer than 110 Informal Simple Typed text and photocopying machine Typing or drawing time. photocopying time Inexpensive Boards and Flip Charts Fewer than 20 Informal Simple Chalkboard or whiteboard or easel and chart. you can incorporate both animation and photos in your presentation. and screen. For example. Models and Physical Objects: A sample of a product or a replica to exact scale allows the audience to visualize and become involved with the idea being presented.

offer to do so. No one expects you to know the answer to every question. Adapted from various sources Interactive 5. a useful technique is to offer politely to discuss the matter further after the session.Post-Presentation On all but the most formal occasions. If it is appropriate to stay after the session to talk individually with members of the audience. tell the truth. Sometimes this can be done as an introduction to your response: “Your question about the efficiency of these three techniques. ask if you understood the question correctly. ask for a clarification.. you should ask if everyone has heard the question..1 Crossword Presentation Skills IBS Hyderabad 37 . If you have some ideas about how to find the answer . you might offer to meet him afterwards to discuss the answer. When fielding questions. If you are unfortunate enough to have a belligerent character in the audience who is not content with your response and insists on restating his original point. If you understand the question but don’t know the answer. Or you could offer to research the issue and get back by a certain time with the answer. After responding. Don’t forget to thank them for their courtesy in listening to you. 7. This will prevent the person from boring or annoying the rest of the audience. make sure that everyone in the audience has heard the question. If the question is obviously important to the person who asked it. an oral presentation is followed by a question-and-answer session. Keynote 5. If they haven’t.1 .Effective Presentation Skills (EPS) Source: IBS Hyderabad. repeat or paraphrase it yourself. Questions from the audience indicate that people have listened to you and are interested in your presentation.” If you hear the question but don’t understand it.. If there is no moderator to do this job. Don’t be intimidated by checking a certain reference text. for example share them.

3 Effective Presentation Skills Discussion will be made in the classrooms on communication and presentation skills.1 .com/watc h?v=Jll5baCAaQU 38 .com/watc h?v=4x-kcvcOH10&feature=fvsr Video 5. pace. paralanguage and language. pause and emphasis. body orientation. Video cases Video 5.7.2 =Q3MAgkHHIaY Video organization of content.7.Barack Obama’s Speech Source:www.Video Case Analysis The students are expected to watch the videos and critically analyze them in terms of body language. Source:www.Rahul Dravid’s farewell Speech Source:www.

Students will be given topic on current corporate issues/problems/ situations and are expected to make three minute presentations.. 39 .. Movie Review (MR) . which are throughly evaluated by the faculty and feedback given. Each group has to make a 12minute presentation. Student Presentations .Individual and Group Students will make presentations on: 1.Tasks to Perform. Current Corporate Analysis (CCA) . Each group has to make movie reviews which are evaluated by the faculty and feedback given.Students are formed into groups of four and are given some select movies. 2.

com .C HAPTER 6 Listening Skills Source:www.p2w2.

” As he continued to talk. immediately after a ten-minute presentation. Amit is certainly not an oddity in the business world. But he knew that there were some in the other departments who favored the MIP (monthlyinstallment-payment) scheme. hoping the OTP scheme would be adopted. According to some researchers. and began to speak. As soon as the meeting ended. put his papers in front.Listening Skills Amit Suri was asked to represent his department at the Benefits Committee meeting. he rushed back to his department with the news. and I won’t keep you in suspense. Twenty minutes later Amit’s colleagues walked up to his desk.finntrack. He says the MIP will be the primary scheme. What do you think happened in this case? Amit was present throughout the meeting. Further. We have decided that the MIP scheme will be our primary scheme. Why? Because he wasn’t listening. He walked into the room. Various Facets to Effective Listening Source:www. Everyone was upset. Why? Let us see why listening is so important in a modern-day organization. The purpose of the meeting was to announce changes in the company’s home loan schemes. he didn’t really hear what the speaker was saying. the recall level is only 25 percent! Does this bode well for organizations? No. Amit fumed. but those who wish to do so.” Amit couldn’t believe his ears. “I know you are all here to learn about our new home loan scheme. Yet. He called up another colleague. “Are you sure the MIP is the only scheme the company is adopting? I just spoke to a friend in the Accounts Department. And after 24 hours. The head of the committee entered the 41 . If research studies are anything to go by. Amit and the others in his department were unanimous in their support of the OTP (one-timepayment) scheme. can opt for the OTP. who confirmed what he had just a normal listener can recall only 50 percent of the information conveyed. the average listening efficiency rate is only 25 percent. walked up to the podium.

meetings have to be rescheduled.” Listening can improve work quality and boost productivity. personnel at all levels spend about 32. shipments have to be rerouted. Poor listening leads to innumerable mistakes because of which letters have to be retyped. skills and attitudes. Listening on the job is not only frequent. despite the advantages of doing just the opposite.5 percent of their waking hours listening. on an average. etc. Recent studies that focus on the workplace show that.nettekconsultants.8% of their time and writing 22. while speaking takes up 25. Stephen Covey identifies listening as one of the “seven habits of highly effective people.Section 1 The Importance of Listening One primary reason why listening is so important is the amount of time people spend doing just that – listening. Listening is the most frequent. Top executives spend even more time listening than other employees.6%. it is very important as well. All this affects productivity and hence profits. most managers agree that “active listening” is the most crucial skill for becoming a successful manager. A number of studies have revealed why people listen poorly. Source:www. Good listening skills are needed in the business world today because of the benefits stated. In fact. Apart from the obvious benefits. perhaps the most important type of on-the-job communication. Good listening also helps them to improve their speaking. good listening helps employees to update and revise their collection of facts. Studies indicate that adults spend about 42 .7% of their time listening.

uncomfortable seating arrangements can all hamper effective listening. however.Section 2 Barriers to Effective Listening When we hear.collectormen tor. However. You find 43 .com effective hearing. Speaking-Thinking rate According to an estimate. then after a point your receptivity dulls. Physiological Barriers Hearing impairment Sometimes poor listening can be traced to hearing deficiencies. When all your attention is focused on what is being said. we speak at an average of 125 to 150 words a minute. One may hear the words another person utters. they can usually be treated. can process nearly 500 words per minute. without really understanding them. poor acoustics. This gives listeners a good deal of spare time. But then it is not impossible to counter these distractions through concentration. the other noises take backseat in your consciousness. once these deficiencies are detected. Unless of course. Environmental Barriers Physical distractions Distracting sounds. which is often used for mental excursions ranging from daydreaming to thinking about the speaker’s hairstyle! Spending this time for analyzing the message would make for better listening. Let us look at some of the factors that impede Source:www. Our mind. the noises are too powerful. this hearing is accompanied by a deliberate and purposeful act of the mind. Message overload When you are forced to listen to a quick succession of messages. but when we listen. we only perceive sounds. To listen means to get meaning from what is heard.

For instance. we assume that we can do it without much concentration and effort. we must achieve some control over our instinctive responses and learn to postpone judgement until we have listened to exactly what is being said. To break down this barrier. because of their preconceived attitudes. A Casual Attitude Because hearing is relatively easy. As students. This attitude is often a major barrier to listening. when politicians of two different political parties argue an issue. all of you must have had days when you registered nothing of what was said in class. because your thoughts were on the freshers’ party you had to arrange the next impossible to listen attentively. they do not give each other a fair hearing.2. Coping with a deluge of information is like juggling – you can keep only a few things going at a time. Figure 6. Preoccupation Sometimes we are preoccupied with other concerns. Attitudinal Barriers Prejudices Sometimes our prejudices and deep-seated beliefs make it impossible for us to be receptive to the speaker.1: Barriers to Effective Listening 44 .

Four of the most common bad habits are: Faking Attention: Many of us fake attention so as not to appear discourteous.faculty. this can become habitual and turn out to be a barrier to effective listening. Three personal concerns dominate their listening behavior. tends to follow consistent Selective Listening and avoiding difficult and uninteresting material: Sometimes we switch off our attention when what is being said is difficult. Poor Listening Habits Listening. either direct or indirect. 45 . Can you imagine a farmer. trying to understand the message of a VJ of a television channel? Tips for Effective Listening Source:www. of the concepts being discussed. Listening Only for Facts: In looking only for the facts. Lack of Common Experiences It is difficult for a person to understand what is being said. because they are overly concerned with themselves. this turning off becomes a consistent if he or she has no experience. or simply uninteresting. These can be summed up in three sentences: 1) I must defend my position.Egocentrism Many people are poor listeners. like much of human behavior. we often forget to locate the main idea. If we do this often. Focusing on Delivery: Sometimes we are so concerned with how someone says something that we pay scant attention to what he or she is actually saying. 3) How am I coming through? These concerns set up effective barriers that destroy the critical link between speaker and listener. Most of us develop certain bad listening habits that eventually create a pattern. unfamiliar. who has lived all his life in a small village.londondeanery. However. 2) I already know what you have to say.

a listener adopts one of the following listening approaches discussed here. sometimes they listen. Critical Listening When a person wants to sift through what he has heard and come to a also learn to identify vocal cues such as tone of voice. Comprehensive Listening A person trying to understand a speaker’s message in totality.guim. Eventually. is engaged in comprehensive listening. we . Sometimes people listen because they want some information from the speaker.Section 3 Approaches to Listening Now that we’ve considered some of the barriers to effective listening. we come to recognize not only the sounds heard in a lecture and rely upon it for future use. volume.gstatic. accuracy and reliability of the evidence that is presented Source:t0. Discriminative Listening Discriminative listening involves an attempt to distinguish one sound from all the others. pitch and rate. the answers to this question are many and 46 .co. Depending on the purpose. This involves judging the clarity. We learn how to discriminate among sounds at an early age. all of which contribute to the total meaning of a message. Stopping work to determine whether the phone is ringing is an example. because they enjoy what they’re hearing.ggpht that make up our language. to interpret the meaning as precisely as possible. he must listen critically.lh3. This kind of listening is generally practiced in the classroom when we must remember what we have Source:static. let us look at another question: Why do people listen at all? Well.

It entails supportive behavior that tells the speaker. Sometimes active listeners provide the speakers with neutral summaries of what they have heard in order to affirm that they have understood what they have heard.” When you listen actively. Active Listening Active listening is also called empathic listening. Active listening involves responding to the emotional content as well. “I understand.and being alert to the effects of emotional appeals. apart from the bare verbal message. This kind of listening goes beyond just paying attention or listening 47 . you encourage the speaker to express himself fully.provenmodels. An active listener is alert to all cues and carefully observes the nonverbal behavior of the speaker to get the total picture. Source:www. Please go on.

the more active and alert he becomes as a receiver. Be Objective From your own experiences. Researchers have concluded that the more motivated a listener is. Adapted from various sources 48 Video 6. the speaker. you would have noticed that you are more receptive to a message when you approach it with an open mind.1: Listening Skills Source:www. it is the first prerequisite to becoming a good listener.Section 4 How to be a better listener? Listening skills can be improved with a conscious effort regardless of whether the situation calls for appreciative. Be Motivated to Listen When you resolve that you will listen. This will help you to better understand and appraise what the speaker is saying. and the situation. Preparations could also include attempts to minimize physical barriers between yourself and the speaker and to eliminate all distractions in the environment. critical. discriminative or active ch?v=c_dtRSJl2W4 . an improvement in your listening skills will become immediately noticeable. Though motivation alone cannot solve all problems in listening. Keynote 6. It is helpful to gather as much relevant information as you can about the subject.4. Be Prepared to Listen Sometimes you need to make some preparation beforehand in order to listen effectively to a particular Source: IBS NR Narayana Murthy’s Speech piece of communication.4.

inflection. Keep your critical faculties on the alert. rather than on what would be the appropriate response to the message. there is always the danger that you may fail to register things the speaker says that may not exactly tie in with your judgement. If you make a judgement too fast. we normally think much faster than we speak. While using feedback. one must avoid jumping to conclusions.webng. Be Alert to all Cues Look for the speaker’s main ideas. Focus on what the speaker is saying. This lets you hear the message again. If you are a listener you can use this gap to your advantage by mentally summarizing and reviewing what the speaker has said. Use Feedback Using feedback is one way we can get more from our communication encounters. Objective listening entails a conscious effort to keep our emotions and prejudices at 49 . when your emotional responses pull down the shutters over your receptivity. Even an act as simple as smiling can offer warmth and support to the speaker and help him to get over his nervousness. Make Good Use of the Thinking-Speaking Time Difference As mentioned earlier. Sometimes nodding the head slightly or casual remarks like ‘I see’ can tell the speaker that you’re actively involved in the communication process. Looking out the window while somebody is speaking affects the morale of the speaker. The speaker’s voice quality. make sure that the speaker receives your message.To be objective. which must be taken into consideration if the message is to be fully understood. emphasis and body movement can all offer vital clues to what the speaker feels is most important. Sometimes this feedback may be as simple as telling the speaker that you don’t understand. Besides. Establishing eye contact with the speaker can go a long way in reassuring him or her. but do not make a judgement until all points are fully developed. Source:www1. that there’s no ambiguity about your feedback and that your feedback is related to what is going on. Use Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Encourage the Speaker The listener can use a number of verbal and nonverbal cues to aid the speaker in communicating. these cues also give you insights into the emotional content of the speaker’s message. The example given at the beginning of the chapter shows how you can miss important facts.

Many of the barriers to effective listening can be successfully overcome through practice. is the result of conscious effort.Tasks to Perform.. 50 . Commit and force yourself to listen to speeches and lectures that seem to hold no obvious interest value. Listen to a news capsule on the TV and try to recollect what is heard. like in any other skill. character wise. Watch a movie or a TV serial and summarize the total content and also. Doing this will help you overcome the temptation to “switch off” when the messages seem dull or difficult.. Have a group discussion in the peer group and summarize the discussion. Simple Tips to Practice Listening Proficiency in listening.

benbruno.C HAPTER 7 Goal Setting Source: .

Anticipating and making time for such situations would help in avoiding confusion. 52 . A goal is defined as a desired result. An abstract goal such as ‘to become successful’ is not effective. However. On the other hand.Section 1 Setting Goals and Objectives Personal Effectiveness depends on setting goals and objectives according to long-term and short-term plans. Goals must be set in such a way that there is enough time left to take care of deviations if any. They can identify the areas to which resources and efforts need to be channeled. It is ideal to have separate goals for long and short-term plans. However. Achievement of goals is a good motivator to the managers to set bigger and higher goals and achieve them. result or outcome. Advantages of Goal Setting Many managers believe that setting goals improves the productivity of the employees and the organization. a goal like “to become a CEO of an FMCG company in 25 years” is clearer and more effective. Goals and objectives should be measurable. A manager may have the goal of increasing productivity.1 for stretch goals. this is vague since a goal must have a numerical or quantitative value related to the desired result. It is vital to allow time for a deviation or an unforeseen situation. Goals provide a standard way to measure an outcome or result or an accomplishment. It enables them to work better. goals and objectives should be in accordance with the plans.1. The goal setting makes managers feel more responsible and accountable for their work and activities. Refer to table 7. A goal provides managers with regular feedback on their performance. It specifies a performance. The goal can be redefined as improving productivity by 2% within the next four weeks. Goal setting can improve the performance of managers for a number of reasons. The goals should be achievable so that they act as motivators for the setting up of higher goals.

If they are not. He was successful in turning around the fate of GE. then it is difficult to achieve them. a manager may have a goal of “getting two new 53 Setting Goals A goal is a powerful tool to focus energy and resources. he/she feels motivated to set bigger goals and higher targets.askmen. a short-term goal could be “to meet the sales target of 10 crore in one year ” and the long-term goal could be “to capture 2% of the global market share in five years. This process gives longlasting fulfillment and motivates them to Source:www.1 Stretch Goals A goal can act as a motivator. a manager has the goal of finishing a project within fifteen months. Managers should set goals that are in harmony with the organization’s long-term plans and objectives. Measurable. than by achieving goals set by others. Specific The goals must be specific. 47_success. a manager should set small. 1. who and where and relate well to both the manager as well as the organization.Table 7. For example. is known for the tough goals that he had set for both the organization and employees.” Measurable The goals must be measurable. why. The stretch goal pushes people to stretch their capabilities to the limit and hence helps them to achieve more. the former CEO of GE and author of various books. Manager learns to overcome obstacles. Reviewable and Timed (SMART) goals. A worthwhile goal gives a manager something he/she personally cares about having or being. . Managers must be able to measure their goals.html> achieve higher goals. On achieving these goals. develop strengths and discover new objectives in the process. Welch believed in pushing the employees to give their best by stretching goals. The manager must set Specific. Adapted from <http://www. This enables the manager to fully utilize his/her capabilities and resources. the short and mediumterm goals should be framed in tune with the long-term goals. For an organization. Jack Welch. Managers often find greater fulfillment in achieving goals which they set themselves. Then the managers can decide the amount of time they would like to spend on that particular goal. For example. They should answer the questions of what. Always.acti vegarage. simple goals. The goals can be measured by the amount of time required to achieve them. Achievable. a shortterm goal for a manager could be “to earn 1 lakh per month” and a long-term goal could be “to buy a home in a desired place in the next 15 years”. For example. he/she can set a stretch goal of 12 months. Goals play a vital role in the time management process.

two. earning one. goals could be defined in terms of money or rank or position or percentage. For example.e. 54 . Besides time. to earn 5 crore in 5 years. For example. four and five crores at the end of each year. Reviewable The goals should be reviewable. Achievable The goals should be achievable and ideally be practical and realistic.clients in a month. three..” The best course of action to achieve this goal should be selected so as to avoid wastage of time. monthly. These deadlines act as reminders of what else needs to be achieved. The manager should be able to review the goals at specific time intervals . He should be reviewing the goal each year to accomplish the goal attainment. quarterly. half-yearly and yearly . 5 crores in 5 years. Timed The goals should have a time target or deadline. A target helps in keeping track of the goals achieved till then. to become the top most CEO of the country at the age of 40. An achievable goal helps managers to accomplish it easily and hence motivates them to set even higher goals. The deadlines need to be reviewed without any changes in the goals. a person sets a financial goal of earning review the progress in terms of achievement of the goal. i. A manager should set time limits and deadlines for realizing the goals.weekly.

Social goals 5.1 Goal Chart S.2. Spiritual goals Types of goals 1. Skills development. Professional goals . No. Personal goals . Goal type/ Action Goal area area Action Time Remarks taken 55 . Physical and Pleasure 2. Health.Section 2 Goal Areas A manager has to set SMART goals in the following areas: 1.Career and Financial 3. Source: IBS Hyderabad Goal Chart An effective manager can prepare a goal chart which is in essence a plan of action for success. The suggested goal chart (table 7. Immediate goals (within 6 months) 2. Family goals 4.2. Long-term goals (more than 4 years) Students are expected to prepare their goal chart and come to the classroom to discuss the same. Mid-term goals (2 to 4 years) 4. Short-term goals (6 months to one year) 3.Financial.1) is as follows: Table 7.

Analytical Skills and Risk-Taking ability. What weak points or negatives should be unlearnt. Write a self-affirmative statement For example. 1. Refer Chapter no. For example. training. A role model need not be from the same profession or chosen goal area.. A role model could be a parent. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Task to Perform. Check the traits required for the goal achievement with the traits in your personality. The manager always looks to the role model as a source of tremendous inspiration.2. 1. List out the traits/competencies required for the goal For example.2. Steps 1 Table 7. planning and decision-making. Check whether your strong points are suited or redundant for a particular goal. an aspiring CEO can choose a leading CEO of a company as a goal model and emulate the CEO for his integrity. Similarly. Prepare goal chart ACT (Action with Commitment to Time) to succeed.2) of goal setting in action. sibling. Finance . Prepare goal chart duly referring to the table (7. Goal Model A manager can also select or follow a goal model who is a person who excels in the chosen goal area. emulate or get influenced. teacher. preparation. Make a Goal Statement For example. Source: IBS Hyderabad 56 . Refer chapter no. relative. a person aspiring to become a cricketer can choose a leading cricketer as a goal model and follow his rigor. planning and his commitment to the profession. Check whether the goal statement satisfies the SMART principle.2 Goal Setting in Action Action Analyze self Write your strengths & weaknesses. He is just an individual who wields a considerable influence on the person..Portfolio Management. I want to become one of the top ten portfolio managers in the country by 2020 by imbibing or learning the requisite traits/competencies. I want to become one of the top ten portfolio managers in the country by 2020. honesty.Role Model A manager can draw inspiration by following a role model who could be a person whom the manager tries to follow. What additional strengths/ competencies should be learnt to achieve the goal. friend or any celebrity.

By recording your dreams and goals on paper. Attitude. If one does not dream and plan. If you want to make your dreams come true. -Swami Vivekananda Shoot for the moon. One half of knowing what you want is knowing what you must give up before you get it. the knowledge of what one wants and a burning desire to possess it.. we never lose.and that is definiteness of purpose. you set in motion the process of becoming the person you most want to be. you will land up among the stars. Video 7. What you think about comes about. All the success and strength that you want are within yourself. -Napoleon Hill My philosophy of life is that if we make up our mind about what are we going to make of our lives. one may not go far. but if one does not plan and only dream.2.Goal Setting-some inspirational quotes If you are born poor it is not your mistake.1: Goal Setting Source:www. the first thing you should do is to wake up. but if you die poor it’s surely your mistake. A dream is just a dream.. Even if you miss. then work hard towards that goal. This is one quality one must posses to -Ronald Reagan Stand up. KASH is KING . You control your destiny. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline. Skills and Habits. The impossible is often the untried. Put your future in good hands: your own.. be bold and take the whole responsibility on your shoulders and know that you are the creator of your destiny.Knowledge. Set your goals high and don’t stop till you get there. You cannot hit the target if you cannot see ?v=RNPbamAf9r4 57 .Bo Jackson A goal is essentially an end towards which an effort is directed. one may go nowhere at all.

timesheetscript.C HAPTER 8 Time Management Source: .

Motorola.1: Effective Time Management Techniques Source:www. Companies like Essar. Many organizations provide training to help employees manage their time better. Jeff Immelt. Video ch?v=rM1A9zFkfHw Source. time management is a very important skill for any manager or leader to have. Wipro. or a leader needs to spend time on important things by setting priorities. since proper time management improves the efficiency of a manager.productivityjunkies. It is said that a successful man has time for everything. But to achieve success.www. TCS provides mandatory training in time management for every employee. an 59 . time management is an essential skill a manager has to learn and practice with a sense of dedication and commitment. According to the CEO of management is very important for personal effectiveness. A manager. organize time management workshops for their employees.

the time pressure has increased with tougher deadlines and targets having to be met. Working faster may result in many errors while working for long hours may exhaust the person. e-mails. This results in an increased workload and also greater need for effective time management. A flatter structure means a broader span of control for managers. The focus is not so much on ‘managing’ or ‘spending time’ as on ‘investing time’ in activities or tasks that are important. technology has not made time management any easier. Time management starts with analyzing the pattern of spending time both in personal and work life. Time management has become more important in organizations due to the flatter organization structure. it is also about identifying and avoiding time-wasting activities. Many people believe in working faster or for long stretches of time. There is a constant flow of information from the Internet. and the intranet. Effective managers can juggle between different roles without feeling the pressure of lack of time. Successful managers treat time as a very valuable Source:www. The flatter structure also integrates multiple roles for the managers. People have many tasks to perform and many roles to play in both their personal as well as professional lives. Developing long-term and short-term goals and planning to achieve them is one of the essential elements of efficient time management. resource.csdiary.Section 1 Importance of Time Management Time is a very precious resource – something that cannot be stored. Improvement in technology has changed the approach to time management. They have to manage time more effectively and efficiently. Time management is not just about utilizing time appropriately. It helps to balance various aspects of life and analyze time-wasters and interruptions. But both cases reflect poor time management. especially in the professional area. Time management is important in every facet of life. which is helping managers to take decisions quickly. This means that the managers have to spend the same amount of time handling more responsibilities. However. 60 . In fact. It is therefore important to plan time well and spend it wisely.

daily time logs can be prepared. but ated once they get used to it. the truth is that he/she may be poor at time management. After maintaining time logs for a period (say four or five weeks). It is important to update the time log at regular intervals and to make entries of the various tasks performed through the day. It is therefore necessary to analyze where the time is spent. Once the major time spending patterns have been identified on a broad scale. It involves identifying the time-wasters and time abusers with the help of time logs. An effective manager has the ability to gain control over time and make the best use of it. A daily time log allows managers to evaluate how productively a day has been spent. Many managers may feel that they are working hard and making optimum utilization of their time. weekly or fortnightly use and can help in identifying how many hours an individual spends on actual work. however. It is true that it may h?v=SLibyXxsUdY&feature=rel take some time initially. The description should. For instance. a manager skipping his/her lunch may feel that he/she is working hard. managers can analyze their pattern of spending time.1) are used by employees to fill in a detailed account of the time spent at the workplace. They can be designed for activity. The number of minutes spent on each activity should also be included.1: containing only about one Time Management to four words.2. However. a manager may spend most of his/her time arranging documents and searching for files and this may cause significant wastage of time.Section 2 Analysis of Time Effective time management starts with analyzing where and how time is spent. Another manager may spend time by starting to do too many things and finishing none.2. be very brief. Some managers feel that maintaining time logs is a time consuming Source:www. Time Logs Time logs (refer to table 8. 61 . Video Time logs help managers in identifying activities that waste time and the amount of time wasted. For instance.

1 Time Log (From d/m/y To d/m/y) Time Spent Each Day at Workplace (Hrs/Min) Tasks Working on the actual task Use of telephone (work related) Use of telephone (personal use) Use of Internet (work related) Use of Internet (personal use) Meetings/seminars attended Tea/Coffee breaks/Lunch at work Preparing for seminars/presentations Socializing with colleagues Meeting visitors Filing and maintaining records Time spent on solving others’ problems Work related travels (to meet clients/ customers) Reading and analyzing Reports Total Hours Spent at Workplace. “Your Current use of Time.2. p19 Mon Tue Wed Thurs Fri 62 .Table 8. David. Adapted from Fontana. BPS Books. First Edition.” Managing Time. New Delhi 1996.

. time logs should be used only to improve performance and effectiveness and not to monitor employees.each entry will take less than 15 seconds and the whole process.. Professional goals .1) should be prepared on a weekly basis and be reviewed every week to find out whether the budgeted time is spent as per the plan. The time budget (refer table 8. Regular maintenance of time logs gives the managers an idea of the time required for performing any given task.2.2 and keynote 8. Time logs improve the performance of managers and increase the organization’s time 4. Family goals .2. They should be used along with planning. 1. It must be a productivity tool and not a monitoring tool.personal time 2. Time Budget Budgeting of time is an important aspect for a successful manager.2. only 5 to 10 minutes a day. Sincere efforts should be made to stick to the plan and avoid time wasters. The manager has to allocate time to various goal areas as discussed in goal setting. Spiritual goals . Managers start feeling accountable for the way they spend their time.spiritual time.1: Time Budget Source: IBS Hyderabad Tasks to Perform. The time budget for various goal areas can be prepared as follows: time 5. However. Prepare your time log for the last 30 days 2. Prepare your time budget 63 . Social goals . Moreover. Keynote 8. This enables them to plan accordingly. scheduling and delegating to overcome potential wastage of time and help in effective time management. time logs alone cannot help to bring about efficient time management. Personal goals .professional time 3. time Social goals .2 Time Budget Area Personal goals .Table 8.professional time Classroom/lecture Homework Library Internet Professional magazines Others Family goals .spiritual time Prayer and meditation Total time per week 64 Time per day Time per week Remarks .personal time Sleep Exercise Getting ready Breakfast/lunch/dinner Watching TV Newspapers Internet/networking Hobbies Friends Commuting time Others Professional goals .social time Friends Movies/Hotels Clubs Chatting Spiritual goals .

C HAPTER 9 Interpersonal Skills .learning3pointzero.

sales and finance participated in the survey.In 2004. Interpersonal skill was the most important soft skill required by people in the information technology business. business aptitude and professional conduct. It was found that 32% of the respondents considered interpersonal skills as the most essential attribute for 66 . The results showed that 53 percent of the companies provided a survey was conducted among 1. “While strong interpersonal skills are essential at all levels. etc.” In this chapter.skills training to their employees. It was found that 70 percent of the companies in the business services also gave soft skills training to their employees – a higher percentage than any other sector. according to the survey results.420 Chief Information Officers of various American companies which had 100 or more employees. The company also conducted a survey of the top 100 organizations in Canada to find out the most important skills required by managers. whose primary job responsibilities include hiring. conducted by an independent research group for Robert Half Technology. The major objective of the survey. respectively. we will examine the importance of interpersonal skills and the various ways to improve them. supervising. Interpersonal Skills Source:www. was to find out how many of these companies offered their IT staff soft skills training in areas like leadership. RHI Management Resources. communication. Communication skills came next. executive director. they’re particularly critical for managers.adelphi-associates. and retaining employees. Only 11% percent of the respondents believed that hard work was the most important quality. According to Paul McDonald. Honesty (28%) and open mindedness (23%) were the second and third preference. marketing. The findings of the survey concluded that interpersonal skills were very important for managers at all levels. followed by skills like aptitude to work under pressure. mentoring. Senior managers from various departments like personnel.

com 67 .job-interview-site. In the organizational context. interpersonal skills refer to a person’s ability to interact effectively with other members of the organization like subordinates. solving a problem. a manager would have to interact with employees. commending a good performance. taking a decision.. etc. In various job situations like providing training.Section 1 Introduction to Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal skills are the essential skills required for interacting and connecting with others. directing. the manager would require better interpersonal skills. In other words. it is the capability to interpret and manage one’s own feelings. peers and superiors. giving a warning. who report directly to him/her. actions and motivations and those of others in social contacts. An employee with good interpersonal skills would essentially have the following qualities: Ability to treat everyone in the organization with respect Ability to get along with others Readiness to share knowledge with others Willingness to train others in the organization Good negotiation skills Ability to resolve conflicts in time Readiness to accept feedback Source:www. For example.

1: Conversational Skills To succeed in team-based organizations. Source:www.Ability to learn from mistakes Readiness to accept responsibility for his/her actions Ability to manage behavior in personal interactions Ability to align with team goals in shared activities while pursuing own goals Ability to listen to others Ability to influence the behavior of others positively A team usually contains members who are from diverse backgrounds and who have diverse v=gw5bkBk0gz4&feature=related 68 it is important to have good interpersonal Video 9.uow.

Managers who want to develop assertiveness should think about how they would want to be treated by others at the workplace and try to treat all others in the organization the same way. Assertive people are able to engage in discussions where they respect the viewpoints of others without losing their own point of view. Assertiveness is essential in solving problems in organizations in such a way that all the parties concerned are able to come out of the situation reasonably satisfied. 69 . They should avoid all disturbing gestures while they communicate and try to look friendly. The tone of their voices should be appropriate to what they are trying to take a middle path in such situations. Others may be extremely aggressive and tend to provide over-directions in the workplace. It helps a person to cope effectively with uneasy people and uneasy situations. it affects the way they put across things.totaldiplomacy. But assertive people would be able to Source: www. It should not give the impression that they are aggressive.Section 2 Developing Interpersonal Skills Developing Assertiveness Assertiveness can be defined as the ability to state your point clearly without being aggressive. What they are trying to say should correspond with how they are saying it. their body language is very important. Still others may adopt passive positions at the workplace just to avoid confrontations. People who fail to use their assertive skills are likely to be manipulative and try to make others do what they do not really want to do. If they are anxious. When trying to communicate assertively. Assertiveness is essential for a manager to work effectively in organizations.

the manager should ask for immediate feedback from the subordinate. 70 . then all the communication Source:www. This applies primarily in the case of negative emotion like anger. This will not only affect the positive outcome of that interaction. a manager may move around giving instructions to everyone. In interpersonal communication. negative emotions can prove to be another major block to interpersonal interactions. when a person is excessively angry. if one person is talking and the other person is not listening to what is being said. The best possible course of action in such a situation would be to stop the interaction till the people involved are able to get their emotions under control. it may also cause a dent in the relationship. An angry manager may say something unpleasant to an employee on the spur of the moment. In addition. The most common causes are: Poor Listening Listening attentively to what the other person says ensures the effectiveness of interpersonal interactions. In such a situation. For example. the manager should ask the person to explain in his/her own words what was said. it is also likely to affect future interactions between them. Anger often breeds anger and may lead to arguments between the persons concerned. For example. This is especially true in organizations where everyone is busy and has no time to get feedback on what they have said. when a manager is communicating with a subordinate. Lack of Time Time pressure can affect the interpersonal interactions between two persons to a great extent. he/she may not be able to understand the perspective of another person fully.Factors Hampering Interpersonal Interactions There are many hindrances to effective interpersonal interactions. Emotional Arousal In excess. But he/she may not wait for the feedback. However. An understanding of these will go a long way in developing interpersonal skills.itechsolutions. Instead of asking the subordinate whether he/she has understood the attempts of the first person would go waste. For example. it is essential to obtain feedback as a failure to do so could result in misunderstandings and prove costly at a later stage. the subordinate may give the impression that he/she has fully understood what is being said even if that is not actually the case. Another problem is of the listener jumping to conclusions.

the parties involved may sometimes have differences in objectives or interests. Such interpersonal interactions can be fruitful only when both the parties involved have a common objective. Enact role plays within your peer group by assuming corporate situations..2. as a Marketing Manager of a construction company. IBS HO 71 . The objective of the subordinate may be to avoid being criticized for that problem.1: Conversational Leads Task to Perform. For example. Keynote 9. They both have different objectives. The objective of the manager may be to find a solution to a problem related to the loss of work hours due to machine failure.Differences in objectives In interpersonal interactions. take the case of an interaction between a manager and a subordinate. For example. explain the features of your gated community of houses to the customer. Source: Soft Skills Handbook.. .C HAPTER 10 Leadership and Team-Building Source:www.

And there is no single leadership style which is applicable to all situations.Leadership needs a sensitive negotiator as the leader. Leadership can be defined as the act of influencing the behavior of another person. Some leaders are charismatic while some others maintain a low profile. but they can be made by proper grooming and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a n d /watch?v=GPeeZ6viNgY leadership tactics. Effective leaders use different methods to direct an organization. Source:www. The effectiveness of a leadership style depends on the others are instinctive. leadership in itself is a set of qualities and traits that guide an motivation.Section 1 Leadership Skills Leadership is an essential trait for personal effectiveness. In achievement of success. 73 . They have a vision about the organization. It is the leadership factor which differentiates a successful organization from others. to turn around an organization requires a leader with a very powerful characteristics they exhibit.4. some are methodical. we will discuss how to develop leadership skills and the various skills that effective leaders need to have like vision. In this chapter. they motivate. leaders have to influence all the members to carry out the tasks of the organization. They are able to focus on the value of their people and to empower them.bp. For example. Leaders are not just born.blogspot. persuasion. while an organization which is planning a merger Video . his team and his organization towards the Source:www. persuade and usually get work done in the way they want it done because of a certain set of Source:www.

assuming responsibility for actions done and also for mistakes committed and the ability to keep promises. Individual Consideration: The ability to coach. Respect for others: The ability to honor and consider the opinion of others. advise and teach people and to help the newcomers in the organization. A charismatic leader has the ability to convey a strong sense of purpose and vision and is aware of the requirements of others. in spite of their position in the organizational hierarchy. doing what is morally correct. Judgment: The ability to evaluate all possible courses of action and use that ability to make decisions based on previous experiences and logic. Leadership style is unique to a person or situation and the objective of any leadership styles is to accomplish success in terms of achieving organizational goals. It also includes the ability to help others think differently. Courage: The ability to do what is good for the organization and workforce even in the face of difficulties. Flexibility: The ability to change as per the demands of the situation and to manage various tasks at a time. Dependability: The ability to work independently. Leadership style 74 . Intellectual Stimulation: The ability to make others in the organization use logic and facts in order to evolve new ways to solve problems. It also includes the skill to listen actively. It is also the ability to withstand the pressure tactics of others and stand firm on matters that one feels is right. which are as follows: Charisma: The ability to instill faith.Aspiring leaders are rated on the basis of the ‘Nine Facets of Leadership’. respect and trust. Integrity: The ability to honor position or authority and to act as a role model.

Each and every member of the team should be thorough in terms of responsibility and role clarity.” These two quotes on ‘team’ highlight the importance of designing teams for all occasions. represented by ‘14Ps’. Team building is the crux of all managerial effort.dream stime. The following sterling qualities.Section 2 Team-Building “Together Everyone Achieves More.” “Togetherness Energizes All Members. The objective of any corporate should be to design and build teams of individuals who should be highly responsive and result-oriented with a positive outlook and a perspective to work shoulder to shoulder with the other team members. are expected of a 75 . Purpose Priorities Personal Traits Procedures Positive approach Passion for work Perfection (in the respective field) Patience Problem-solving Powerful (sufficient authority to be vested) Professional Pragmatic Proactive Source:www. Team Building is a process of enabling people to reach their goals and objectives. All efforts must be directed in building functional and responsive teams that could work efficiently and effectively towards the organizational goals and objectives.

to influence and inspire people to work as team players and foster a sense of team spirit.2.People-friendly Once the people are selected. 76 . the task of creating teams that endeavor and endure for all seasons is done.2. “working together always works”..2: Team Building Source: IBS Hyderabad Source:www. leadership. building relationships and above all. Adapted from various sources Keynote 10. Source: IBS Hyderabad..1: Team Building in Action @ IBS Keynote 10. Good management of teams calls for an effective supervision. Team Building Module is executed through games and activities .2.slideshare.1: Team Building Gallery 10. There is no substitute for the age old adage.

Video 10.2.1: The Hare and the Tortoise story

Interactive 10.2.1: Jigsaw Puzzle on TeamBuilding Ejynrk66CU

Keynote 10.2.3: Team Building Task to Perform... Attend the outbound training session on Leadership and Team Building executed through games. m/file/view/Flight+of+geese.ppt



Social Skills


Section 1

Social Skills
Personal Effectiveness of a manager is not limited to knowing or ingraining some skills or traits that help in the attainment of personal, team or organizational success. A successful manager has to learn and imbibe certain social skills which are indispensable on the corporate platform. The social skills are essential to develop and enhance good relationships with clients and customers and sometimes in clinching important business deals. A manager showcasing refined manners is paid a lot of attention by a guest or a client. Hence, the social skills form an important facet of personal effectiveness. Some of the social skills that a manager has to learn are introducing self and others, receiving guests and seeing of guests, extending invitations for formal events, exchanging business cards, some pleasantries and niceties, gifting, table manners and dining etiquettes, telephone and e-mail etiquettes (refer to keynote 11.1.2) (netiquette), etc. Keynote 11.1.2: E-Mail Etiquette

Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from various sources

Keynote 11.1.1: Corporate Etiquette

Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from various sources

Video ?v=AUSVhUFmBT8&feature=rel ated 80 .4: Tips on Handshake Source:www.1.2: Why Do We Shake Hands Video h?v=RYCCec0FHZc&feature=fv wrel Telephone Etiquette E-mail Etiquette Video h?v=0-Mmp_hGVRY =Sizse4t4Su4 Video 11.

It is executed as a theory or input session followed by a practical session. Gallery 11.listverse.1: Dining Etiquette Sessions @ IBS Source:www.jpg Dining Etiquette is one of the most sought after sessions at IBS.wordpress.Section 2 Practical Session on Dining Etiquette watched or observed by the faculty and appropriate advice is given on the spot. It is closely Source: IBS Hyderabad 81 .2. The menu is designed in such a way that the students will use all the items of silverware or cutlery.comns-grill-place-setting.files.

. 82 . Attend the Dining Etiquette session in formal attire (full suit with tie) to practice the usage of silverware/ Task to Perform..Eating Difficult foods

com .cdn3.C HAPTER 12 Stress Management Source:us.123rf.

It is very important to know the sources of stress and also to manage it because the long term ill-effects of stress are very disastrous leading to a plethora of psycho-somatic disorders. Simply stated. attitudes and the way of thinking determine the stress levels on an individual. the body’s resistance is weakened and leads to a number of diseases.i. stress leads to an imbalance in the body’s immunological system. in the process.static5. a n g e Financial Pressures or Money Pressures: One of the greatest pressures on an individual is money or finance. j e a l o u s y. positphotos. e n v y. We don’t properly estimate the time or sometimes we start late and want to rush through and accomplish the things in a haste. hopeless and worthless with low energy levels. Types of Pressures on an Individual An individual is subjected to three types of pressures viz. feeling depressed.Pressures on an Individual Stress is one of the offshoots of globalization and it affects everyone. a person feeling helpless. . In most cases. In spite of the tremendous advancements.e.improve-th lot of stress on of pressure per se on the human beings. ion. exerting a Source:www. Prolonged periods of stress and strain lead to what is known as BOSS (Burn Out Stress Syndrome). Source:www. There is a lot Source:www..stress-and-relaxat expenditure. poor management of finances leads to a mismatch between income and www. As a 84 . Time Pressure: We are poor managers of time and invariably put ourselves to time-related pressures. money pressures and emotional pressures. prejudices. We never plan our time Emotional Pressures: Ego.healblog.. man is not leading a satisfied and comfortable life.Section 1 Stress . luxuries and comforts of the modern world. time pressures. nervous breakdown and in some cases suicidal tendencies.

Our relations with friends. mores and social commitments are the other stressors. In families. Family: Relations between the family members and health and wealth of the family determine the pressure on the individuals in the family. there is a lot of pressure on the members of a family. neighbors. regulations. ethics. Perhaps. job or profession and the person himself or herself. procedures. In those families where the female member plays the dual role of the house wife and that of bread-earner (Hidden Contract Altered) there is a lot of pressure on her. we subject ourselves to what is known as social status stress. rules. The bureaucratic behemoth is perhaps the greatest stressor for people dealing with the government departments. Under the influence of the western society. where the “Hidden Contract of Marriage” is altered. We are very much affected by the controls. Government: Our lives are controlled by the government directly or indirectly. codes. laws and enactments formulated by the government from time to time. society. family. morals.Section 2 Sources of Stress The primary sources of stress could be Government. Society: The society exerts a lot of stress on an individual in various ways. Religion. policies. According to the social scientists. It is easy to enhance the status and is very difficult to maintain.hot100tips. the hidden contract of marriage is the simple and implied understanding that goes with the marriage that the male member is an earning member and also provides the security to the family while the female member brings up the children and looks after the family. the same pressure gets Source:www. relatives and the numerous new acquaintances that we make everyday put us to a lot of 85 . There are many people who put up a false show to the society especially in terms of display of valuables. vehicles and other possessions. An entrepreneur has to comply with almost 15 to 20 Government departments and the cumbersome procedures take a heavy toll on the individual.

could be the cause of stress on an individual. subordinates and the superiors.c om 86 . gradation. An impatient and a hasty person is prone to stress. s k i l l u p Source. relations with the colleagues. Worry often casts a big shadow of a small problem. interpersonal skills.theag very aggressive.. beliefs. A-Type personalities. competition. Job or Profession: It is perhaps the most important source of stress on an individual. calm and composed.www. the person himself or herself is the cause of stress. who are relatively cool.stress-management-for-peak-performance.mrsguided. decisions and the choices to be made among the available alternatives. work ambience or environment. Type of job. Based on the behavioral response. A person who worries more is also subjected to a lot of tension and pressure. Person: In most cases. Attitudes. promotion and transfers. type of thinking. workload. d e a d l i n e s . B-Type personalities. etc.transmitted to the other family members. Source:/www. are relatively less prone to stress than the A-Type individuals. the persons are categorized into different personality types.images. emotional make up. action oriented go-getters. are prone to more tension and ambitious. role clarity. e. A polyphasic individual (a person doing two or more things at a time) is subjected to a lot of stress. who are Source:www. are the various factors that contribute to a person’s stress.

org 87 .apa.Source:www.

isolation (unable to interact with the other people). Physical Symptoms: Headache. back pain. excessive heart beat and excessive 88 . lack of interest on the job. suicidal tendencies Personal or Professional Symptoms: Poor personal hygiene. obesity. high blood pressure. smoking and escapist drinking and in extreme cases. diarrohea. poor self esteem. racy thoughts. Insomnia (sleeplessness). wrinkles on the fore head. hopeless and worthless. Cardio-vascular Heart Disease (CHD). premature greying of hair. nervous break down Behavioral or Psychological Symptoms: Irritation. muscle and joint pains. reduced efficiency. ulcers. falling of hair. dark circles around the eyes.Section 3 Symptoms of Stress The symptoms of stress could be categorized into four groups. feeling helpless. Physiological Symptoms: Indigestion. lack of morale. Source:www. etc. anger.apa. impatience.

However. Hence success coupled with satisfaction and good health should be our objective. let us keep ourselves fit and fine to enjoy the fruits of nagement-for-peak-per (coming out of the stress). It should be remembered that some amount of stress or tension is needed in our lives. we should have some m e c h a n i s m t o D e s t r e s s Source:www. Intellectual Level (review of the intellect) 89 .Section 4 Stress Management The objective of any stress management program is “Add life to years. No doubt. It is then that the negative stress or Dystress begins to operate. we have our own abilities and capabilities and cannot work beyond a Hence we need to manage the stress in such a way that we always operate at the positive levels by a systemic and sustained process of stress busting or de-stressing. But then. As we get stressed. This tension which propels us to work is called positive stress or Eustress. as managers we are highly focused on success. Body level (strengthening of the body) 2. not years to life”. Mind Level (controlling of mind) 3. Video atch?v=xOpZU320v5E We prescribe a Psychosomatic (body-mind) approach at three levels: 1.1: Stress Management Source:www. formance.4. Man is inherently lazy and does not move or get charged to work without some pressure.

bend and release. During this stage. up and down. move the ankle or foot joint. Stress Exercise: A simple two-minute exercise to release the tension from the muscles and joints of the body. Stress Management Food Pyramid Source:www.rolling to the left and right.move the torso to the left and right.Body Level Physical Exercise: Half an hour of rigorous physical exercise.myhousecallmd.2: Endorphin Release through Brainwave Entrainment feet . After a work-out we sweat a lot and we will be in a feel good state. the anti-depressants or anti-stress enzymes or endorphins (sedative/comatose substances produced inside the body) are released into the blood stream which take care of the daily stress and strain. every day. slowly bend backwards for a count of 10 (repeat six times).bend and release fingers.4.forward and backward. Body Stretching: raise both hands above the head. 90 . bend and release the knee-joint. follow a routine of heavy breakfast. rotate right.move the head to the left and =BSBbQ9vnIi8&feature=related (Repeat each movement six times) Fingers . shoulder roll . This state is called ‘Exercise Euphoria’.youtube. leading to joint pains and muscular pains. wrists . waist . Stress percolates down to the body’s muscles and joints as a result of which they become very stiff and hard. Video 12. Source:www. follow it with side stretching (six times). clasp them. head roll . rotate left. Food and Food Habits: Supplement the food intake by fruits and vegetables (at least 20%). light lunch and heavy early dinner. is a Avoid coffee and tea to the extent possible and take fruit juices.

without any lip movement.. Alphabets and numbers.. 1 0 0 … s h r e e m . Lie flat on the floor. BY. Sometimes the mind goes offtrack. Repeat the numbers backwards. Recite alphabets backwards from Z to A 2. Repeat at least 10 times.” Rhythmic chanting of the shlokas and the mantras triggers the release of antistress hormones. for ten times. Autogenic Training: It is a powerful technique wherein we focus on the self . 3. Mind Exercises: Sit with a straight posture and be in a cool and composed state. Z 26. AZ. we have to invent one. 1. the release of hormone Seritonin reduces stress and leads to a pleasant Source:www.stres mood.e. Take a deep breath (counting 1 to 10).. heart-beat. alternatively.breathing.And so release of Seritonin. it is better to spend sometime on prayer and meditation. . Stress is basically a chemical/hormonal reaction.e. especially the negative one and too much thinking of the problem on hand without a modicum of concentration on the solution. You can concentrate only on exhaling. 100 to 1 4. feeling the pulse or any other part of the body. s h r e e m 97 ..shreem and so on (recite the word “shreem” loudly and the numbers to be recited within mind).. Prayer and meditation triggers the s-problems. Someone has rightly said. 9 8 . CX. On the contrary. Only even numbers backwards 6. Mind Level (Controlling of Mind) Much of the stress and tension is caused by the thought process. i. slowly release the breath (counting 1 to 10). Recite the exercises within mind. hold the breath (counting 1 to 20). backwards. A simple way is to count the breath for ten times. Bring it back and repeat. . 9 9 … s h r e e m . Increased levels of the hormone Cortisol causes stress and bad mood. start from one.Deep Breathing: It is the most energizing exercise. Prayer and Meditation: Minimum ten minutes of prayer and meditation is recommended. First and last alphabet. Only odd numbers backwards 5. 91 . You may be an atheist or a theist. i. second and second last alphabet. “If there is no God. Y 25. If you lose the track. X 24 7. close the eyes and concentrate on the breathing or on the pulse.

Give a break to the monotonous routine and enjoy an outing in the company of family or friends. Minimum six hours of sleep everyday is suggested. If the mind side tracks or gets diverted. Foster Friendships Socialize but not over socialize Relax: It is very much different from rest. Images or symbols like yellow rose. Intellectual Level (Review of the Intellect) Self Directed Study: Make a SWOT analysis of your personality and take up projects accordingly. Work-Life Balance: Depending on the type of profession. badminton are good both for the mind and the body. Feel the beauty of the forest with its beautiful flora (flowers) and fauna (Animals). visualize the sounds of the chirping of birds and Relax…. and start imagining a symbol or an image. Creative Imagery or Visualization: Instead of focusing the mind on one symbol or an image. letter ‘S’. Sleep: It is an intelligent decision and hence included in the intellectual category. If you cannot get a job you like. close the eyes. it is directed to concentrate or focus on a series of creative images pertaining to a subject or a situation. If you love your job or profession. If you don’t like the job. Attitude: Develop a positive mindset and always think positively and develop a positive attitude to life and profession. maintain a proper work-life balance. tennis. All work and no play leads to burn out in the long run with the concomitant stress disorders. you need not work for a minute. bring it back and concentrate on the image or symbol. Dancing. ‘Z’ could be focused upon. Many studies have proved that laughter reduces the levels of stress hormones (Cortisol and Epinephrine) in the blood. Imagine the long path with trees on either side. Someone has rightly said that visualization is like a ‘short mental vacation’ before embarking on the assigned job/work. Rest is forced on us where as relaxation is by choice. Active and Creative Diversions: Associate with a hobby where you are actively involved.Scanning Relaxation Technique: Take a deep breath. There are a lot of images or symbols that could be concentrated on. Extra hours of sleep lead to body pains. Sit in a relaxed posture and imagine being in a jungle or a forest. Imagine the flowing river. All play and no work would lead to hedonistic paradox. focus the vision between the two eyebrows. the mind is on a guided tour. It means. 92 . Humor and Entertainment: Humor and lots of laughter lead to a positive neuro-endocrine response. at least once in a month. you have to work every minute. then like the job you get. The mind is fixed or focused on the symbol or the image.

I can do v=FrsOco9Hbu0&feature=related Keynote 12.bettycjung. Proper Planning and Time Management: Plan the 5 ‘M’s of men.1: Stress Management Source: IBS Hyderabad Source:www. We never plan to fail. 93 . machines and materials.Auto Suggestion: Always.4. methods. try to reinforce yourself with positive thoughts and feelings like. but we always fail to plan.3: Deep Meditation Music Source:www. NOT YEARS TO LIFE Video 12. this problem is nothing and I can overcome it with little bit of attention.4. I am fine. concentration and a concerted effort. ADD LIFE TO YEARS ….youtube.

Prepare a list of stressors bugging you . 3. 94 .. 4. family. Prepare an action plan to combat them (refer Goal Chart).stressmanagement. job and personal sources.. Check your stress levels instantly Stress levels http://www. Attend the practical / workout session on Stress tress-test.Government.Tasks to Perform.htm 2. society. 1.

C HAPTER 13 Negotiation Skills and Conflict Management Source:www.youthempowermentsoluti .insideoutimpact.

when the person wants to reduce the extent of loss in a losing situation.Section 1 Approaches to Negotiation & Conflict Management Negotiation is one of the important communication skill in personal effectiveness training.term approach to conflict management. all the parties involved in the negotiation should be happy and satisfied. they avoid or ignore each other. when the issue is not as important to the person as it is to the other party. Psychological avoidance involves refusing to acknowledge the existence of a problem or its seriousness. Some of the situations where the accommodating approach can be used are: a). refusing to meet the parties involved in the conflict. Negotiation involves communicating or discussing with one or more individuals about an issue. Sometimes. There should not be any dissatisfaction or dissonance in any one of the parties involved in the negotiations. When one party is weak and another party is strong.think8. etc. Avoidance. however. Physical avoidance could be in the form of refusing to take a phone call. b). Some of them are as follows: Avoiding/Ignoring This approach involves avoiding the conflict when confronted by The objective of any negotiation should be such that the conflicts are removed and a better understanding is reached between the parties. the weak 96 . There are various approaches to negotiation. Accommodating This approach involves sacrificing one’s own position and paying more importance to reaching an agreement. c). Post-negotiation. Avoidance can be physical or psychological. when a person is sure that he/she is wrong. problem. can only be used as a short. business deal or any transaction where two or more individuals/parties have to come to a negotiated settlement. Source:www. when both the negotiating parties are strong and do not foresee any loss.

Collaborating In the collaborative approach. instead of saying. It is better for them to convey their feelings about an incident rather than accuse a person directly. this approach is required. This approach is necessary when it is necessary to ensure a long term relationship between the parties involved in the conflict. in case of an emergency. In this approach. In such cases. both the parties involved in the conflict forgo something that they were trying to achieve in order to reach an agreement. this approach may be preferred. Both the parties are strong and realize that they stand to loose something by not reaching a negotiated settlement. Hence they are prepared to give in or loose something to solve the issue. Compromising In compromise. They should be specific. interpersonal skills are very critical. the needs of both the parties involved in the conflict are met. Some benefit is better than no benefit. or compromising – the way people conduct themselves is very important. While trying to avoid conflict or accommodate the demand of another person.youthempowermentsoluti b e i m p r o v e d w h i l e ons. For some organizational issues like reducing costs or imposing certain unpopular decisions which are in the interests of the organization. While this approach creates animosity in most cases. “You are never on target”.party tries to accept and accommodate the proposals of the stronger party. an aggressive approach has to be avoided as this only serves to alienate the other party involved in the 97 . This is lose-lose approach. Through this resolving the conflict at the same time. it is better if they start with “I am disappointed because…” In short. while trying to use the other three approaches – collaborating. For example. Competing/Confrontation/Aggressive This approach to conflict involves not paying any heed to the concerns of the other person/party. But. For example. the basic assumption is that conflict is a natural part of life and that it can be solved. it may be necessary in some situations. competing. it is necessary to take quick action. the relationship between the parties involved can Source:www. This approach can be considered as a backup when attempts for collaboration fail. Both the parties are strong and realize the importance of the other party to strengthen themselves individually. This is called win-win approach. This is called lose-win approach. objective and non-emotional while describing the issue at hand.

The objective of a successful manager is to avoid conflicts and legal wrangles and aim for a negotiated settlement.1. Refer to the keynote =w2P9jW4_Q8s&feature=related 98 .conflict.1: Thomas Kilman on Conflict Management Source: IBS Hyderabad Source:www.2: Negotiation Styles Source:www. for further explanation on negotiation skills and conflict management Keynote ?v=cixhfR17TxQ Interactive 13.1.1: Crossword: Negotiation Skills Source: IBS Hyderabad Video 13. An assertive communication style helps in getting the point across without showing any disrespect.1: Negotiation Skills and Conflict Management Video

For example. Enact role plays within the peer group.Task to Perform.. Negotiate the terms and conditions. 99 . you are Marketing Manager of ABC Ltd... selling computers to a client. .C HAPTER 14 Structured Thinking Source:www.

Thinking good always leads to good and effective decision making. discouragement to their ideas and plans. Many a time. Making career choices. bottlenecks. A manager has to enrich and empower himself with the structured thinking to get a panoramic view of an issue. these are the occasions when a manager has to think in a rational. especially business and management. individuals take decisions that do not have a 360 degree perspective as a result of which they encounter problems. practical. It is rightly said that confusion is the biggest enemy of one’s thinking. Managers rely on a set of decision making tools that are scientific. Thinking big should be preceded by thinking good. investment decisions are sometimes baffling and put a manager in a state of indecision. opposition. decisions and the consequences or results constitute the hallmark of a manager’s personal or professional life. Six Thinking Hats Source:www. The challenge before a person or a professional is to take a decision which is foolproof and failsafe. In fact. factual and emotional. Decision Making is the essence of any profession. Thinking good encompasses different facets of being 101 . selecting the profile of a company. rational. problem or situation to come out with an effective decision.challengenes. Sometimes. There are numerous techniques or tools which help a manager in decision making. it could happen in choosing a business or project. Choices. pragmatic and methodical way to arrive at good decisions.Structured Thinking is one of the important aspects of personal effectiveness. Six Thinking Hats is a powerful decision-making tool which allows structured thinking. rational and methodical in all respects. logical.

This decision making tool could be used by individuals. It can be put into action by an individual or a group of people. a manager is puzzled with the complexity of a problem or situation and does not know how to proceed in a given 102 . It is a comprehensive approach which avoids the pitfalls by identifying the lacunae or gaps in an individuals thinking or approach to various issues. This method of Six Thinking Hats is very simple to understand. Six Thinking Hats. It was propounded by the legendary Edward De Bono in his widely acclaimed book of the same title. both personal and organizational. In fact. The best and the beautiful aspect of Keynote 14. The hats are visual cues for a manager to allow an easy switch in his mode of thinking. Therefore. implement and reap good results.1: Six Thinking Hats Source:www. Sometimes.1. A hat is something one can easily put on and take off. The process allows the manager to consider all the perspectives. It is a process of structured thinking which guides a manager to take a decision after taking into consideration six important facets of thought. For example. a definite approach by thinking in a set pattern. Each hat is a metaphor for a thinking state. managers or organizations to address a plethora of problems and issues.Section 1 Structured Thinking with Six Thinking Hats Six Thinking Hats is a powerful tool in decision making followed by many individuals and organizations the world over. Six Thinking Hats is a perfect tool which bestows on a manager. it is a perfect guide in the decision making process. the six hats represent six facets of thought or thinking in six different angles. The person is encouraged to use his brain by wearing a hat of a particular color.johnkapeleris. ‘Wearing a particular Hat’ is a symbolic representation of thinking in a particular direction. putting a red hat or red hat thinking enables a manager to think of emotional issues of a problem.

All the advantages are focused upon. hurdles and obstructions. Operational focus is the important aspect of the blue hat thinking. gut reactions. Green Hat is the creative hat and focuses on the creative solutions to the problems. Black Hat 5. project or issue on which a decision has to be taken. emotional aspects or the intuitions.Yellow Hat 4. During the Black Hat thinking the following points or questions could be raised: What could be problems. it will help to analyze the past and also extrapolate the future trends. Source:www.. All the weak points or the negatives of taking a decision are considered. Black hat thinking focuses on problems. Green Hat thinking focuses on better ways of doing a particular thing or choosing alternatives. No criticism is put forth to encourage an incessant flow of ideas from the people. The ‘Six Hats’ being considered are: 1. the blue hat people are the top managers or the people chairing the meetings. Person or group putting on the green hat will come out with creative ideas of implementing the decision. Red Hat is the emotional hat. where can we go wrong.Green Hat and 6. The person or group will concentrate on feelings. information needed and sources of information. Besides. The person or group wearing the White Hat is entrusted with the job of collecting the data and information relating to a problem. Blue Hat focuses on the implementation aspects of the plans. negatives. wearing a yellow hat or yellow hat thinking offers the motivational tonic. This will help to identify the gaps or lacunae in the knowledge. information already known. Identification of the weak points helps a manager in preparing the contingency plan or be ready with an action plan for a detour. Red Hat 3. etc. the practicality of the solutions is considered at a later time by the implementation team.triz-journal. barriers.Blue Hat. White Hat is the information hat.this method is that it can be taught to children as well as top managers. White Hat 2. Generally. In times of 103 . Black Hat is a hat of judgment and caution. The white Hat thinking revolves around three important aspects viz. Of course. Yellow Hat is about the positives or strong points. instincts.

The pessimists in a group are asked to wear the Black Hat and the optimists are allowed to wear the Yellow Hat. A person having leadership traits is encouraged to put on the blue hat. all the members are involved in the role-play at the appointed time. 104 .. For example. When a manager has to decide individually. When using the Six Hats method in a group. 1.. Similarly emotional managers are provided with the red hat and creative geniuses are encouraged to go the green way. Analyze a problem faced by you using the decision tool of Six Thinking Hats. Everyone wears a different hat and switches to another at the same time. Becoming an entrepreneur or taking up a job in a top IT company . It is possible that while thinking the positive aspects of an issue the negative points could flash.The advantages of the six thinking hats approach are listed below: Different view points are considered Creative decision making is involved Plans are sound and resilient Saves a lot of time Team building Addresses the ego problems Logical decisions are arrived at Execution of Six Thinking Hats It can be adopted by an individual manager or a group of managers in arriving at a decision. he has to put on the ‘Yellow Hat’.analyze the situation using Six Thinking Hats decision tool. A trouble-shooting manager or a doubter is asked to wear the Black Hat and play a devil’s advocate. They are recorded by the manager immediately. A better way is to allow the person to wear a hat according to his attitude or thinking style. No person is asked to wear a single hat for the entire time. 2. he can direct his thinking in a particular dimension and the points are noted. when the manager has to decide the positives of a decision. Tasks to Perform.

Neither are they static. Soft skills are to be imbibed and internalized in such a way that they become part and parcel of one’s personality. you would have taken the final step of the course but. it is the first step in professional life. . as a leader one needs to understand what drives the people and the implications for the job. Learning in this field is a continuous cycle of unlearning and relearning. In today’s corporate world. in reality... Wishing you All the Best to be the Best in creating the Brand YOU. The soft skills module has many real-life simulations which may possibly occur both at professional as well as personal levels. being a good team player is essential for everyone. Managers constantly face employees who for some reason or the other do not perform their jobs satisfactorily and it is here that soft skills become useful to overcome such practical ?v=gEpe7Czlmjk&feature=relate d We are sure that the soft skills training at IBS would certainly help you to unlock your hidden leadership qualities to put you on the track to become successful managers. It is ever dynamic. Hence once you finish the soft skills course at All managers agree that they need to work in teams.. One cannot deny the fact that the soft skills are hard to acquire and acquiring such skills is a continuous process throughout one’s career.C HAPTER 15 Epilogue.changingwork. Video 15. Soft skills are Source:www.1: Shiv Khera’s Success Secrets Source:www. Soft skills should not be treated as a capsule of medicine or an instant key to managerial not bound by any limits.. At the same time.

net/projects/completedprojects/national-early-warning-system/ Organizational Behavior (2004).itu. Malathy.htm-(dated Jan 11. Anderson.1.M. prof. Edward De Bono Six Thinking References Source:www.doc Stress and coping-D.A decision-making tool for Techniques/ Mahesh Kumar 106 .com http://www. Available http://www.pdf(dated January 9.tchin58. 2012). Authentic happiness by Martin v=UIO7lRNgQCc Prof. (2005. March 17) v=MkvcCz3jP2E nandan Nilekani-http://www. cooper & Judi Marshall “Understand stress and improve quality of life”.wordpress.http://jibc. LIRNEasia and Vanguard Foundation. ICMR: Hyderabad “Team building for disaster management”. et al. Mahesh Kumar http://www. National Early Warning System Sri Lanka: A Participatory Concept Paper for the Design of an Effective All Hazard Public Warning System Version 2. 2006.files. Peter. Knight-John. Dr. Seligman The art of reading minds.foodsec.php? c1=ppc&source=google&kw=sixthinkinghats&gclid=COe A Summary by Sylvie Labelle-http:// members. 2012) Attitude is Everything: Keith Harrel. Mahesh Kumar Six Thinking Hats. Prof. trainerresources/ Kalyana Chakravarthi Understanding executive stress-Cary L. Rohan.Henrik Fexeus Soft Skills Labs faculty handbook-IBS 2009 Business Communication by Mallika Nawal Kalpana Kochhar- Managing stress-Cooper & Dewe Executive stress-Frederick Betz Soft Skills for Managers.

htm http://www.orst. 2012) 2012) http://www.php/six-thinkinghats/(dated January dated January 24.html http://www.htm( dated January 22. 2012) 2012) dated January 24.html?cat=3 107 . 2012) http://www.getsetgrow.htm( dated January impact_in_the_classroom.cof.

used in a spreadsheet. No part of this publication may be reproduced.CHAPTER 2 This document is authorized for internal use only at IBS campuses. photocopying or otherwise .Batch of 2012-2014 .Semester I. mechanical. or transmitted in any form or by any means . stored in a retrieved system. .electronic.without prior permission in writing from IBS Hyderabad.

Related Glossary Terms Drag related terms here Index Find Term Chapter 12 . then.Stress Management .Shakespeare.Hedonistic paradox If all the days in a year were playing holidays. to play would be as difficult as to work.

Kinesthetic learning Kinesthetic learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity. Related Glossary Terms Drag related terms here Index Find Term Chapter 1 .Prologue . rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration. It is also referred to as tactile learning. People with a kinesthetic learning style are also commonly known as do-ers.

includes the experience of the self. Related Glossary Terms Drag related terms here Index Find Term .Self Awareness Self Awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to reconcile oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. though similar to sentience in concept. and has been argued as implicit to the hard problem of consciousness. Self Awareness.

Related Glossary Terms Drag related terms here Index Find Term . and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. Weaknesses/Limitations. Opportunities. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective.SWOT SWOT analysis (alternately SLOT analysis) is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths.

Various Aspects of Body Language . usually in the middle of the distance between the two thumbs.Twiddling Thumb twiddling is an activity that is done with the hands of an individual whereby the fingers are interlocked and the thumbs circle around a common focal point. Related Glossary Terms Drag related terms here Index Find Term Chapter 4 .