ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

1


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

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Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:__________

Roll No: ________ Group:_______________________














ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

3
PHASE 1
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To determine the volume of a given solid
cylinder and capacity of a hollow tube by
using a Vernier calipers. [ EX . 1 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To determine the volume of a small
sphere and area of cross section of a
wire by using a screw gauge. [ EX . 2 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
To determine radius of curvature of a
given spherical mirror and the thickness
of a glass piece by using a spherometer.
[ EX . 3 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3
PHASE 2
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To verify the laws of simple pendulum.
By using three bobs of simple pendulum
having different diameters. [ EX . 4 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To determine the resultant of two vectors
by using parallelogram / rectangular
component method. [ EX . 5 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
To determine the refractive index of the
material of a glass prism by critical angle
method. [ EX . 6 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3
PHASE 3
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To determine the velocity of sound in air
by resonance tube. [ EX . 7 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To determine the focal length of a
convex lens using two optical pins by no
parallax method. [ EX . 8 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
To determine the frequency of A.C
supply by Meld’s method using a
vibrograph. [ EX . 9 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3
PHASE 4
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To determine the refractive index of
water by concave mirror. [ EX . 10 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To determine the value of g using a
simple pendulum by plotting a graph
between L and T
2
[ EX . 11 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
To determine the refractive index of the
material of a glass slab by the method of
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

4
real and apparent depth. [ EX . 12 ]



S.
No

Date


P.
No

Initial

1
To determine the volume of a given solid cylinder
and capacity of a hollow tube by using a Vernier
calipers.

1


2
To determine the volume of a given small sphere and
area of cross section of a wire by using a micrometer
screw gauge.

3


3
To determine the radius of curvature of a given
spherical mirror and the thickness of a glass piece
by using a spherometer.

5


4
To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By using
three bobs of simple pendulum having different
diameters.

7


5
To determine the resultant of two vectors by using
parallelogram / rectangular component method.

9


6
To determine the refractive index of the material of a
glass prism by critical angle method.

11


7
To determine the velocity of sound in air by
resonance tube.

13

8
To determine the focal length of a convex lens using
two optical pins by no parallax method.
15


9
To determine the frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s
method using a vibrograph.

17


10
To determine the refractive index of water by
concave mirror.

19


11
To determine the value of g [ acceleration due to
gravity ] using a simple pendulum by plotting a
graph between L and T
2


21


12
To determine the refractive index of the material of a
glass slab by the method of real and apparent depth.

23


13
To determine the focal length of a bi – convex lens
by using a spherometer.

25


14
To determine the volume of five solid spheres [
Having different diameters ] by using a micrometer
screw gauge.

27


15
To determine the volume of five small spheres by
using a micrometer screw gauge.

29




ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

5
EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given solid cylinder and capacity of
a hollow tube by using a Vernier calipers.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Solid cylinder and a Hollow tube

WORKING FORMULA :
















OBSERVATIONS:
IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
20
1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
10
1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.
FOR LENGTH OF SOLID CYLINDER
S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean
Length
cm
1.

2.

3.



2.

V = Internal volume of hollow tube.
t = Ratio of the circumference of
a circle to its diameter [ It is a
mathematical constant
whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Internal radius of hollow tube.
h

= Depth of the hollow tube.

V = t r
2
h
1.


V

= Volume of the solid cylinder.
t = Ratio of the circumference of
a circle to its diameter [ It is
a mathematical constant
whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the solid cylinder.
L

= Length of the solid cylinder.

V = t r
2
L

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

6
FOR EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF SOLID CYLINDE
S.
NO
M . S . R


cm
V . S . R


divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C

cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR

cm
Mean
External
Diameter
cm
1.

2.

3.


FOR DEPTH OF THE HOLLOW TUBE
S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean
Depth
cm
1.

2.

3.


FOR INTERNAL DIAMETER OF THE HOLLOW TUBE
S.
NO
M . S . R


cm
V . S . R


divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C

cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR

cm
Mean
Internal
Diameter
cm
1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SOLID CYLINDER

Volume of solid cylinder V = t r
2
L

FOR CAPACITY OF HOLLOW TUBE

Internal volume of the hollow tube = V = t r
2
h
RESULT:

The volume of the given solid cylinder is calculated to be ___________ cm
3

The capacity of the given hollow tube is calculated to be ____________cm
3




ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

7
EXPERIMENT NO . 2
OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given small sphere and area of
cross section of a wire by using a micrometer screw gauge.

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Small metallic sphere and a Piece of wire

WORKING FORMULA :
















OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = 0.5 m.m = 0 . 05 cm

Least count =

0 . 01 m.m = 0 . 001 cm

IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = = 1 m.m = 0 . 1 cm

Least count =

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm






2.

A

= Area of cross section of the
given wire.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a
circle to its diameter [ It is a
mathematical constant whose
value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the given wire.

1.


V = Volume of small metallic
sphere.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a
circle to its diameter [ It is a
mathematical constant whose
value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the small metallic
sphere.


3
r π
3
4
V =
A = t r
2


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

8
FOR ZERO ERROR
S.
NO
M.S.R

m .m
C.S.R

div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C
m . m
Zero Error
Z = FP + MSR
m . m
Mean
Zero Error
m . m
1.

2.

3.


FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE
S.
NO
M.S.R

m .m
C.S.R

div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C
m . m
Diameter
D = FP + MSR

m . m
Corrected
Diameter
] Z [ T D ± ÷ =
m . m
Mean

D
m .m
1.

2.

3.


FOR DIAMETER OF WIRE
S.
NO
M.S.R

m .m
C.S.R

div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C
m . m
Diameter
D = FP + MSR

m . m
Corrected
Diameter
] Z [ T D ± ÷ =
m . m
Mean

D
m .m
1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SMALL SPHERE

Volume of the small sphere =
3
r π
3
4
V =

FOR AREA OF CROSS SECTION
Area of cross section of the given wire = A = t r
2


RESULT:
The volume of the given small metallic sphere is calculated to be _____ cm
3

The area of cross section of the given wire is calculated to be ________cm
2


Teacher’s signature


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

9
EXPERIMENT NO . 3


OBJECT: To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical mirror
and the thickness of a glass piece by using a spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer., Spherical mirror , Smooth glass plate and a
Piece of glass

WORKING FORMULA :













OBSERVATIONS:

Least count =

0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.



2.



R = Radius of curvature of the
given spherical mirror.
f = Focal length of the spherical
mirror.

1.



R

= Radius of curvature of the
given spherical mirror.
a = Mean distance between the
legs of spherometer.
h = Height of spherical surface


2
h

6h
2
a
R + =


2
R
f =


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

10
READING ON PIECE OF GLASS [ C ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


CALCULATIONS:






Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

HEIGHT OF SPHERICAL SURFACE h = [ B – A ]
RADIUS OF CURVATURE
2
h

6h
2
a
R + =
FOCAL LENGTH

2
R
f =



RESULT:

The radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be
_____________ cm
The focal length of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be
_____________cm
The thickness of the given glass piece is calculated to be ____________cm



Teacher’s signature



ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

11
EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By using three bobs of
simple pendulum having different diameters.

[ i ] Time period is independent of mass of bob.
[ ii ] Time period is independent of amplitude.
[ iii ] Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , Three metallic bobs of different
diameters and masses , Thin string and meter scale.

OBSERVATIONS:

[ LAW OF MASS ]

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

S.
NO
Radius
of
bob
Length
of
string
Length
of
pendulum
Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t /
10
cm cm cm sec sec Mean sec
1. 0.9 99.1 100

2. 0.9 99.1 100

3. 0.9 99.1 100


[ LAW AMPLITUDE ]

Diameter of the bob 1.8 cm Radius of the bob 0.9 cm
Length of he string 99.1 cm Length of the pendulum 100 cm

S.
NO
Amplitude Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t /
10
cm sec sec Mean sec
1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10




ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

12
[ LAW LENGTH ]

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.
NO
Length of
string
including
hook
l
Length
of
pendulum

L = [ l + r ]
Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t / 10


T
2

cm cm
sec sec Mean sec
Sec
2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120


RESULT:

1. Time period is independent of mass of bob.

2. Time period is independent of amplitude.

3. Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

Hence the laws of simple pendulum are verified






Teacher’s signature















ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

13
EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To determine the value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a
simple pendulum by plotting a graph between L and T
2


APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , metallic bob , Thin string and
meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

Slope
1

2
π 4 g gravity to due on Accelerati × =

L
2
T
Slope =

Where

g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec
2
]
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
T

= Time period [ Time taken to complete one oscillation ]
L

= Effective Length of the pendulum.

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.
NO
Length of
string
including
hook
l
Length
of
pendulum

L = [ l + r ]
Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t / 10


T
2

cm cm sec sec Mean sec
Sec
2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120






ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

14
CULATIONS:

L
2
T
Slope =


Slope
1

2
π 4 g × =


Actual value = 980 cm / sec
2
.

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
RESULT:

The value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a simple pendulum by
plotting a graph between L and T
2
is calculated to be _________ cm / sec
2
.







Teacher’s signature

















ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

15
EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram /
rectangular component method.

APPARATUS: Gravesand apparatus , Slotted weights with hangers ,
Mirror strip , Thread , Drawing paper , Drawing pins , and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

Cosθ
2
F
1
F 2
2
2
F
2
1
F F + + =

Where
F

= Resultant of two forces F
1
and F
2

u = Angle between F
1
and F
2


RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD


2
Y
F
2
X
F F + =

Where
F
X
= F
1X
+ F
2X
F
Y
= F
1Y
+ F
2Y

F
1X
=

F
1
Cos u
1
F
1Y
=

F
1
Sin u
1

F
2X
=

F
2
Cos u
2
F
2Y
=

F
2
Sin u
2


OBSERVATIONS:

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.
NO
Forces in
equilibrium
( in gm . wt )
Length of
arrows
( in cm )
Resultant F

( in gm . wt )
F – F
in
gm .wt


F
1


F
2


F
3


OA

OB

OC
Analytic
al value
of
F
Value by
graphic
method
F

1. 50 50 50 5 5 5






2. 70 70 90 7 7 9






3. 50 70 110 5 7 11







ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

16

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.
NO
Forces in
equilibrium
( in gm . wt )
Rectangular Components
in
( in gm . wt )


F
1


F
2


F
3


F
1X


F
2X


F
1Y


F
2Y


F
X =
F
1X +
F
2X


F
X =
F
1Y +
F
2Y


1.

50

50

50


2.

70

70

90


3.

50

70

110


CALCULATIONS:
PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

Cosθ
2
F
1
F 2
2
2
F
2
1
F F + + =


RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD


2
Y
F
2
X
F F + =


F
X
= F
1X
+ F
2X
F
Y
= F
1Y
+ F
2Y

F
1X
=

F
1
Cos u
1
F
1Y
=

F
1
Sin u
1

F
2X
=

F
2
Cos u
2
F
2Y
=

F
2
Sin u
2


RESULT: The resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram / rectangular
component method are found to be

Parallelogram method Rectangular component method

1. ____________ gm . wt 1. ________ gm . wt

2. ____________ gm . wt 2. _________ gm . wt

3. ____________ gm . wt 3. _________ gm . wt



Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

17
EXPERIMENT NO . 7


OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass prism
by critical angle method using a prism.


APPARATUS: Glass prism , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,
Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :
c
θ Sin
1
Index Refractive =


c
θ Sin
1
μ =

Where

µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]
u
C
= Critical angle


RAY DIAGRAM:







OBSERVATIONS:


FOR PRISM [ A ]

S.
NO
Critical Angle
u
C

degrees
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

Mean
µ

1.

2.

3.



ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

18

FOR PRISM [ B ]

S.
NO
Critical Angle
u
C

degrees
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

Mean
µ

1.

2.

3.



CALCULATIONS:
c
θ Sin
1
μ =


Actual value = 1.5

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=



RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass prism by critical angle method
using a prism is calculated to be ____________________









Teacher’s signature









ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

19
EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the velocity of sound in air by resonance tube.
( I ) At room temperature
( ii ) At 0 °C
( III ) Find room temperature when V
O
= 33200 cm / sec

APPARATUS: Resonance tube , Tuning forks of known frequencies ,
Rubber pad , centigrade thermometer and a meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :


Where
l = First resonating length
D = Diameter of the tube

Where
V
t
= Velocity of sound at room temperature.
f = Frequency of tuning fork.
L = Corrected resonating length


Where
V
0
= Velocity of sound at 0 °C
t

= Room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of thermometer = 1° C Room temperature ____ ° C

S. NO Frequency
of
tuning fork

First resonating length [ l ]




Hertz
1.
Cm
2.
Cm
3.
Cm
Mean
Cm
1. 512

2. 480

3. 384





V
t
= 4 f L
V
0
= Mean V
t
– 61 t

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

20
CALCULATIONS:
FOR CORRECTED LENGTH



FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C



FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT O °C



Actual value = 33200 cm / sec

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at room temperature is
calculated to be _________________cm / sec.

2. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at 0 °C temperature is
calculated to be _________________cm / sec

3. The room temperature [ when V
O
= 33200 cm / sec ] is calculated
to be _________________ °C

4. Percentage of error = ________________ %










Teacher’s signature




L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]
V
0
= Mean V
t
– 61 t

V
t
= 4 f L

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

21
EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a convex lens using two optical
pins by no parallax method.

APPARATUS: Convex lens with adjustable stand , Two optical pins with
adjustable stands and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :
q p
q p
f Length Focal
+
×
= =
Where
f = Focal length of the given convex lens
p = Object distance from the optical centre of the lens to the object pin.
q = Image distance from the optical centre of the lens to the image pin.

RAY DIAGRAM:


OBSERVATIONS:

IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 10 cm
S.
NO
Position
of
object
pin
on scale
[ A ]
cm
Position
of
lens
pin
on scale
[ B ]
cm
Position
Of
image
pin
on scale
[ C ]
cm
Object
Distance


p = [ B – A ]
cm
Image
Distance


q = [ C – B ]
cm
1. 26 50 24
2. 28 50 22
3. 30 50 20
4. 32 50 18
5. 34 50 16

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

22

IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 18 cm
S.
NO
Position
of
object
pin
on scale
[ A ]
cm
Position
of
lens
pin
on scale
[ B ]
cm
Position
Of
image
pin
on scale
[ C ]
cm
Object
Distance


p = [ B – A ]
cm
Image
Distance


q = [ C – B ]
cm
1. 10 50 40
2. 12 50 38
3. 14 50 36
4. 16 50 34
5. 18 50 32


Mean focal length = ______ cm

Actual value = 10 cm

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
RESULT:

The focal length of the given convex lens using two optical pins by no parallax
method is calculated to be _________________cm








Teacher’s signature











ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

23
EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To determine the frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method
using a Vibrograph.

APPARATUS: A.C. main supply , Vibrograph with step down voltage
transformer , String , Pan , Adjustable pulley , Two upright pins , Weights
and meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

μ
g M

2L
1

S
F string of Frequency
×
= =



2
s
F Mean
supply main C . A of Frequency =

Where
F
S
= Frequency of string.
L

= Distance between two consecutive nodes. [ Length of single loop ]
M

= Total mass suspended.
g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec
2
]
µ = Linear density of the string.

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of pan suspended m
1
=

______________ gm.

Mass per unit length of the string ( Linear density ) = _______ gm / cm.

S.
NO
Mass
placed
in pan
m
2

gm
Total mass

M = m
1
+ m
2

gm
Number
Of
Loops
N
Length
of
N loops
L
cm
Length
of
One loops
L = l / N
cm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.





ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

24
CALCULATIONS:


μ
g M

2L
1

S
F string of Frequency
×
= =


FREQUENCY OF AC. MAIN SUPPLY


2
s
F Mean
F
C A.
=


Actual value = 50 Hertz

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=


RESULT: The frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method using a
Vibrograph is calculated to be ________________ Hertz







Teacher’s signature




















ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

25
EXPERIMENT NO .11

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by
concave mirror.

APPARATUS: Concave mirror , Vertical stand with clamp , Optical pins
and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :
water with curvature of Radius
water without curvature of Radius
Index Refractive =



2
R

1
R
μ =

Where
µ = Refractive index of water.
R
1
= Radius of curvature without water.
R
2
= Radius of curvature with water.


RAY DIAGRAM:





















ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

26
OBSERVATIONS:
FOR MIRROR NO. 1
S.
NO
Radius of
curvature
R
1

cm
Radius of
curvature
R
2

cm

2
R

1
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.


FOR MIRROR NO. 2
S.
NO
Radius of
curvature
R
1

cm
Radius of
curvature
R
2

cm

2
R

1
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.

CALCULATIONS:

2
R

1
R
μ =

Actual value = 1.333

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
RESULT:

The refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by concave mirror. is

calculated to be __________

Percentage of error = ________________ %


Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

27
EXPERIMENT NO .12

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass slab
by the method of real and apparent depth.


APPARATUS: Glass slab , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,
Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.


WORKING FORMULA :

depth Apparent
depth Real
Index Refractive =


d
A
d
R
μ =

Where
µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]
R
d
= Real Depth
A
d
= Apparent Depth

RAY DIAGRAM:







ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

28
OBSERVATIONS:
FOR LENGTH WISE
S.
NO
Real Depth
R d
cm
Apparent Depth
A d
cm
d
A
d
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.


FOR BREADTH WISE
S.
NO
Real Depth
R d
cm
Apparent Depth
A d
cm
d
A
d
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.

CALCULATIONS:
d
A
d
R
μ =

Actual value = 1.333

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass slab by the method of real and
apparent depth is calculated to be _____________

Percentage of error = ________________ %



Teacher’s signature


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

29
EXPERIMENT NO .13

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a bi – convex lens by using a
spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer. , Smooth glass plate and a Bi – convex lens



WORKING FORMULA :














OBSERVATIONS:

Pitch of the screw =
rotation of Number
scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw = = 1 m . m
Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.
Least count =
100
1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.







2.



R = Radius of curvature of the
given spherical mirror.
f = Focal length of the given by –
convex lens.

1.



R

= Radius of curvature of the
given spherical mirror.
a = Mean distance between the
legs of spherometer.
h = Height of spherical surface


2
h

6h
2
a
R + =

]
2
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
[
) 1 - μ (
1
f
+
×
× =


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

30
READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ C ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:









Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

Actual value = 20 cm

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The focal length of the given bi – convex lens is calculated to be ________cm
Percentage of error = ________________ %


Teacher’s signature

2
h

6h
2
a
R + =

]
2
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
[
) 1 - μ (
1
f
+
×
× =


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

31
EXPERIMENT NO .14

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five solid spheres [ Having different
diameters ] by using a Vernier calipers. Plot graphs between

[ a ] Diameter and volume
[ b ] Mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is given ]
[ c ] Also find the density of the material of the given spheres.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Five solid spheres

WORKING FORMULA :


V

= Volume of solid sphere.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the solid sphere.


OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
20
1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
10
1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.









3
r π
3
4
V =


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

32

FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

Mass
of
bobs
g m
Size
of
bobs

M.S.R
c m
V.S.R
div
Fractional
Part
VSR × L
C
m m
Diameter
FP + MSR
m m

Sphere
1


Sphere
2


Sphere
3

CALCULATIONS:
FOR VOLUME OF SPHERE
3
r π
3
4
V =

FOR DENSITY OF THE MATERIAL OF SPHERE

V
m
d =

RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be
Sphere 1 : _____________ cm
3
Sphere 2 : _____________ cm
3


Sphere 3 : _____________ cm
3

2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.
1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.
2. The density of the material of the given spheres is found to be
___________ gm / cm.



Teacher’s signature






ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

33
EXPERIMENT NO .15

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five small spheres by using a
micrometer screw gauge.

[ 1 ] Plot a graph between diameter and volume
[ 2 ] Plot a graph between mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is
given ]

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Five small metallic sphere.

WORKING FORMULA :


V

= Volume of small metallic sphere.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the small metallic sphere.
A

= Area of cross section of the given wire.


OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = 0.5 m.m = 0 . 05 cm

Least count =

0 . 01 m.m = 0 . 001 cm

IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = = 1 m.m = 0 . 1 cm

Least count =

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm





3
r π
3
4
V =


ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

34
FOR ZERO ERROR

S.
NO
Main
Scale
Reading
m.m
Circular
Scale
Reading
div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C

m.m
Zero Error
Z = FP + MSR

m.m
Main
Zero
Error
m.m
1.

2.

3.


FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE
Mass
of
bobs
g m
Size
of
bobs

M.S.R
c m
C.S.R
div
Fractional
Part
CSR × L
C
m m
Diameter
FP + MSR
m m
Corrected
Diameter
] Z [ T ± ÷

m m

Sphere
1


Sphere
2


Sphere
3

CALCULATIONS:
3
r π
3
4
V =

RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be
Sphere 1 : _____________ cm
3
Sphere 2 : _____________ cm
3


Sphere 3 : _____________ cm
3

2. The density of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be
Sphere 1 : _________ gm / cm
3
Sphere 2 : ________ gm / cm
3


Sphere 3 : _________ gm / cm
3

1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.
2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.

Teacher’s signature