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1

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

2

Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:__________

Roll No: ________ Group:_______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

3

PHASE 1

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To determine the volume of a given solid

cylinder and capacity of a hollow tube by

using a Vernier calipers. [ EX . 1 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To determine the volume of a small

sphere and area of cross section of a

wire by using a screw gauge. [ EX . 2 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

To determine radius of curvature of a

given spherical mirror and the thickness

of a glass piece by using a spherometer.

[ EX . 3 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

PHASE 2

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To verify the laws of simple pendulum.

By using three bobs of simple pendulum

having different diameters. [ EX . 4 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To determine the resultant of two vectors

by using parallelogram / rectangular

component method. [ EX . 5 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

To determine the refractive index of the

material of a glass prism by critical angle

method. [ EX . 6 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

PHASE 3

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To determine the velocity of sound in air

by resonance tube. [ EX . 7 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To determine the focal length of a

convex lens using two optical pins by no

parallax method. [ EX . 8 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

To determine the frequency of A.C

supply by Meld’s method using a

vibrograph. [ EX . 9 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

PHASE 4

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To determine the refractive index of

water by concave mirror. [ EX . 10 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To determine the value of g using a

simple pendulum by plotting a graph

between L and T

2

[ EX . 11 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

To determine the refractive index of the

material of a glass slab by the method of

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

4

real and apparent depth. [ EX . 12 ]

S.

No

Date

P.

No

Initial

1

To determine the volume of a given solid cylinder

and capacity of a hollow tube by using a Vernier

calipers.

1

2

To determine the volume of a given small sphere and

area of cross section of a wire by using a micrometer

screw gauge.

3

3

To determine the radius of curvature of a given

spherical mirror and the thickness of a glass piece

by using a spherometer.

5

4

To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By using

three bobs of simple pendulum having different

diameters.

7

5

To determine the resultant of two vectors by using

parallelogram / rectangular component method.

9

6

To determine the refractive index of the material of a

glass prism by critical angle method.

11

7

To determine the velocity of sound in air by

resonance tube.

13

8

To determine the focal length of a convex lens using

two optical pins by no parallax method.

15

9

To determine the frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s

method using a vibrograph.

17

10

To determine the refractive index of water by

concave mirror.

19

11

To determine the value of g [ acceleration due to

gravity ] using a simple pendulum by plotting a

graph between L and T

2

21

12

To determine the refractive index of the material of a

glass slab by the method of real and apparent depth.

23

13

To determine the focal length of a bi – convex lens

by using a spherometer.

25

14

To determine the volume of five solid spheres [

Having different diameters ] by using a micrometer

screw gauge.

27

15

To determine the volume of five small spheres by

using a micrometer screw gauge.

29

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

5

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given solid cylinder and capacity of

a hollow tube by using a Vernier calipers.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Solid cylinder and a Hollow tube

WORKING FORMULA :

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

20

1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

10

1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.

FOR LENGTH OF SOLID CYLINDER

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

Length

cm

1.

2.

3.

2.

V = Internal volume of hollow tube.

t = Ratio of the circumference of

a circle to its diameter [ It is a

mathematical constant

whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Internal radius of hollow tube.

h

= Depth of the hollow tube.

V = t r

2

h

1.

V

= Volume of the solid cylinder.

t = Ratio of the circumference of

a circle to its diameter [ It is

a mathematical constant

whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the solid cylinder.

L

= Length of the solid cylinder.

V = t r

2

L

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

6

FOR EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF SOLID CYLINDE

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

External

Diameter

cm

1.

2.

3.

FOR DEPTH OF THE HOLLOW TUBE

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

Depth

cm

1.

2.

3.

FOR INTERNAL DIAMETER OF THE HOLLOW TUBE

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

Internal

Diameter

cm

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SOLID CYLINDER

Volume of solid cylinder V = t r

2

L

FOR CAPACITY OF HOLLOW TUBE

Internal volume of the hollow tube = V = t r

2

h

RESULT:

The volume of the given solid cylinder is calculated to be ___________ cm

3

The capacity of the given hollow tube is calculated to be ____________cm

3

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

7

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given small sphere and area of

cross section of a wire by using a micrometer screw gauge.

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Small metallic sphere and a Piece of wire

WORKING FORMULA :

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = 0.5 m.m = 0 . 05 cm

Least count =

0 . 01 m.m = 0 . 001 cm

IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = = 1 m.m = 0 . 1 cm

Least count =

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

2.

A

= Area of cross section of the

given wire.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a

circle to its diameter [ It is a

mathematical constant whose

value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the given wire.

1.

V = Volume of small metallic

sphere.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a

circle to its diameter [ It is a

mathematical constant whose

value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the small metallic

sphere.

3

r π

3

4

V =

A = t r

2

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

8

FOR ZERO ERROR

S.

NO

M.S.R

m .m

C.S.R

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m . m

Zero Error

Z = FP + MSR

m . m

Mean

Zero Error

m . m

1.

2.

3.

FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

S.

NO

M.S.R

m .m

C.S.R

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m . m

Diameter

D = FP + MSR

m . m

Corrected

Diameter

] Z [ T D ± ÷ =

m . m

Mean

D

m .m

1.

2.

3.

FOR DIAMETER OF WIRE

S.

NO

M.S.R

m .m

C.S.R

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m . m

Diameter

D = FP + MSR

m . m

Corrected

Diameter

] Z [ T D ± ÷ =

m . m

Mean

D

m .m

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SMALL SPHERE

Volume of the small sphere =

3

r π

3

4

V =

FOR AREA OF CROSS SECTION

Area of cross section of the given wire = A = t r

2

RESULT:

The volume of the given small metallic sphere is calculated to be _____ cm

3

The area of cross section of the given wire is calculated to be ________cm

2

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

9

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical mirror

and the thickness of a glass piece by using a spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer., Spherical mirror , Smooth glass plate and a

Piece of glass

WORKING FORMULA :

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count =

0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

2.

R = Radius of curvature of the

given spherical mirror.

f = Focal length of the spherical

mirror.

1.

R

= Radius of curvature of the

given spherical mirror.

a = Mean distance between the

legs of spherometer.

h = Height of spherical surface

2

h

6h

2

a

R + =

2

R

f =

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

10

READING ON PIECE OF GLASS [ C ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

HEIGHT OF SPHERICAL SURFACE h = [ B – A ]

RADIUS OF CURVATURE

2

h

6h

2

a

R + =

FOCAL LENGTH

2

R

f =

RESULT:

The radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be

_____________ cm

The focal length of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be

_____________cm

The thickness of the given glass piece is calculated to be ____________cm

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

11

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By using three bobs of

simple pendulum having different diameters.

[ i ] Time period is independent of mass of bob.

[ ii ] Time period is independent of amplitude.

[ iii ] Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , Three metallic bobs of different

diameters and masses , Thin string and meter scale.

OBSERVATIONS:

[ LAW OF MASS ]

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

S.

NO

Radius

of

bob

Length

of

string

Length

of

pendulum

Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t /

10

cm cm cm sec sec Mean sec

1. 0.9 99.1 100

2. 0.9 99.1 100

3. 0.9 99.1 100

[ LAW AMPLITUDE ]

Diameter of the bob 1.8 cm Radius of the bob 0.9 cm

Length of he string 99.1 cm Length of the pendulum 100 cm

S.

NO

Amplitude Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t /

10

cm sec sec Mean sec

1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

12

[ LAW LENGTH ]

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.

NO

Length of

string

including

hook

l

Length

of

pendulum

L = [ l + r ]

Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t / 10

T

2

cm cm

sec sec Mean sec

Sec

2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120

RESULT:

1. Time period is independent of mass of bob.

2. Time period is independent of amplitude.

3. Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

Hence the laws of simple pendulum are verified

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

13

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To determine the value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a

simple pendulum by plotting a graph between L and T

2

APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , metallic bob , Thin string and

meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

Slope

1

2

π 4 g gravity to due on Accelerati × =

L

2

T

Slope =

Where

g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec

2

]

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

T

= Time period [ Time taken to complete one oscillation ]

L

= Effective Length of the pendulum.

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.

NO

Length of

string

including

hook

l

Length

of

pendulum

L = [ l + r ]

Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t / 10

T

2

cm cm sec sec Mean sec

Sec

2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

14

CULATIONS:

L

2

T

Slope =

Slope

1

2

π 4 g × =

Actual value = 980 cm / sec

2

.

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

The value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a simple pendulum by

plotting a graph between L and T

2

is calculated to be _________ cm / sec

2

.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

15

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram /

rectangular component method.

APPARATUS: Gravesand apparatus , Slotted weights with hangers ,

Mirror strip , Thread , Drawing paper , Drawing pins , and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

Cosθ

2

F

1

F 2

2

2

F

2

1

F F + + =

Where

F

= Resultant of two forces F

1

and F

2

u = Angle between F

1

and F

2

RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD

2

Y

F

2

X

F F + =

Where

F

X

= F

1X

+ F

2X

F

Y

= F

1Y

+ F

2Y

F

1X

=

F

1

Cos u

1

F

1Y

=

F

1

Sin u

1

F

2X

=

F

2

Cos u

2

F

2Y

=

F

2

Sin u

2

OBSERVATIONS:

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.

NO

Forces in

equilibrium

( in gm . wt )

Length of

arrows

( in cm )

Resultant F

( in gm . wt )

F – F

in

gm .wt

F

1

F

2

F

3

OA

OB

OC

Analytic

al value

of

F

Value by

graphic

method

F

1. 50 50 50 5 5 5

2. 70 70 90 7 7 9

3. 50 70 110 5 7 11

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

16

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.

NO

Forces in

equilibrium

( in gm . wt )

Rectangular Components

in

( in gm . wt )

F

1

F

2

F

3

F

1X

F

2X

F

1Y

F

2Y

F

X =

F

1X +

F

2X

F

X =

F

1Y +

F

2Y

1.

50

50

50

2.

70

70

90

3.

50

70

110

CALCULATIONS:

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

Cosθ

2

F

1

F 2

2

2

F

2

1

F F + + =

RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD

2

Y

F

2

X

F F + =

F

X

= F

1X

+ F

2X

F

Y

= F

1Y

+ F

2Y

F

1X

=

F

1

Cos u

1

F

1Y

=

F

1

Sin u

1

F

2X

=

F

2

Cos u

2

F

2Y

=

F

2

Sin u

2

RESULT: The resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram / rectangular

component method are found to be

Parallelogram method Rectangular component method

1. ____________ gm . wt 1. ________ gm . wt

2. ____________ gm . wt 2. _________ gm . wt

3. ____________ gm . wt 3. _________ gm . wt

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

17

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass prism

by critical angle method using a prism.

APPARATUS: Glass prism , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,

Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :

c

θ Sin

1

Index Refractive =

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

Where

µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]

u

C

= Critical angle

RAY DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR PRISM [ A ]

S.

NO

Critical Angle

u

C

degrees

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

18

FOR PRISM [ B ]

S.

NO

Critical Angle

u

C

degrees

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

Actual value = 1.5

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass prism by critical angle method

using a prism is calculated to be ____________________

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

19

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the velocity of sound in air by resonance tube.

( I ) At room temperature

( ii ) At 0 °C

( III ) Find room temperature when V

O

= 33200 cm / sec

APPARATUS: Resonance tube , Tuning forks of known frequencies ,

Rubber pad , centigrade thermometer and a meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

Where

l = First resonating length

D = Diameter of the tube

Where

V

t

= Velocity of sound at room temperature.

f = Frequency of tuning fork.

L = Corrected resonating length

Where

V

0

= Velocity of sound at 0 °C

t

= Room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of thermometer = 1° C Room temperature ____ ° C

S. NO Frequency

of

tuning fork

First resonating length [ l ]

Hertz

1.

Cm

2.

Cm

3.

Cm

Mean

Cm

1. 512

2. 480

3. 384

V

t

= 4 f L

V

0

= Mean V

t

– 61 t

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

20

CALCULATIONS:

FOR CORRECTED LENGTH

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT O °C

Actual value = 33200 cm / sec

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at room temperature is

calculated to be _________________cm / sec.

2. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at 0 °C temperature is

calculated to be _________________cm / sec

3. The room temperature [ when V

O

= 33200 cm / sec ] is calculated

to be _________________ °C

4. Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

V

0

= Mean V

t

– 61 t

V

t

= 4 f L

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

21

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a convex lens using two optical

pins by no parallax method.

APPARATUS: Convex lens with adjustable stand , Two optical pins with

adjustable stands and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

q p

q p

f Length Focal

+

×

= =

Where

f = Focal length of the given convex lens

p = Object distance from the optical centre of the lens to the object pin.

q = Image distance from the optical centre of the lens to the image pin.

RAY DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 10 cm

S.

NO

Position

of

object

pin

on scale

[ A ]

cm

Position

of

lens

pin

on scale

[ B ]

cm

Position

Of

image

pin

on scale

[ C ]

cm

Object

Distance

p = [ B – A ]

cm

Image

Distance

q = [ C – B ]

cm

1. 26 50 24

2. 28 50 22

3. 30 50 20

4. 32 50 18

5. 34 50 16

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

22

IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 18 cm

S.

NO

Position

of

object

pin

on scale

[ A ]

cm

Position

of

lens

pin

on scale

[ B ]

cm

Position

Of

image

pin

on scale

[ C ]

cm

Object

Distance

p = [ B – A ]

cm

Image

Distance

q = [ C – B ]

cm

1. 10 50 40

2. 12 50 38

3. 14 50 36

4. 16 50 34

5. 18 50 32

Mean focal length = ______ cm

Actual value = 10 cm

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

The focal length of the given convex lens using two optical pins by no parallax

method is calculated to be _________________cm

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

23

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To determine the frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method

using a Vibrograph.

APPARATUS: A.C. main supply , Vibrograph with step down voltage

transformer , String , Pan , Adjustable pulley , Two upright pins , Weights

and meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

μ

g M

2L

1

S

F string of Frequency

×

= =

2

s

F Mean

supply main C . A of Frequency =

Where

F

S

= Frequency of string.

L

= Distance between two consecutive nodes. [ Length of single loop ]

M

= Total mass suspended.

g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec

2

]

µ = Linear density of the string.

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of pan suspended m

1

=

______________ gm.

Mass per unit length of the string ( Linear density ) = _______ gm / cm.

S.

NO

Mass

placed

in pan

m

2

gm

Total mass

M = m

1

+ m

2

gm

Number

Of

Loops

N

Length

of

N loops

L

cm

Length

of

One loops

L = l / N

cm

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

24

CALCULATIONS:

μ

g M

2L

1

S

F string of Frequency

×

= =

FREQUENCY OF AC. MAIN SUPPLY

2

s

F Mean

F

C A.

=

Actual value = 50 Hertz

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT: The frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method using a

Vibrograph is calculated to be ________________ Hertz

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

25

EXPERIMENT NO .11

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by

concave mirror.

APPARATUS: Concave mirror , Vertical stand with clamp , Optical pins

and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

water with curvature of Radius

water without curvature of Radius

Index Refractive =

2

R

1

R

μ =

Where

µ = Refractive index of water.

R

1

= Radius of curvature without water.

R

2

= Radius of curvature with water.

RAY DIAGRAM:

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

26

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR MIRROR NO. 1

S.

NO

Radius of

curvature

R

1

cm

Radius of

curvature

R

2

cm

2

R

1

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

FOR MIRROR NO. 2

S.

NO

Radius of

curvature

R

1

cm

Radius of

curvature

R

2

cm

2

R

1

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

2

R

1

R

μ =

Actual value = 1.333

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

The refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by concave mirror. is

calculated to be __________

Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

27

EXPERIMENT NO .12

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass slab

by the method of real and apparent depth.

APPARATUS: Glass slab , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,

Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :

depth Apparent

depth Real

Index Refractive =

d

A

d

R

μ =

Where

µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]

R

d

= Real Depth

A

d

= Apparent Depth

RAY DIAGRAM:

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

28

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR LENGTH WISE

S.

NO

Real Depth

R d

cm

Apparent Depth

A d

cm

d

A

d

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

FOR BREADTH WISE

S.

NO

Real Depth

R d

cm

Apparent Depth

A d

cm

d

A

d

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

d

A

d

R

μ =

Actual value = 1.333

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass slab by the method of real and

apparent depth is calculated to be _____________

Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

29

EXPERIMENT NO .13

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a bi – convex lens by using a

spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer. , Smooth glass plate and a Bi – convex lens

WORKING FORMULA :

OBSERVATIONS:

Pitch of the screw =

rotation of Number

scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw = = 1 m . m

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

Least count =

100

1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

2.

R = Radius of curvature of the

given spherical mirror.

f = Focal length of the given by –

convex lens.

1.

R

= Radius of curvature of the

given spherical mirror.

a = Mean distance between the

legs of spherometer.

h = Height of spherical surface

2

h

6h

2

a

R + =

]

2

R

1

R

2

R

1

R

[

) 1 - μ (

1

f

+

×

× =

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

30

READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ C ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

Actual value = 20 cm

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The focal length of the given bi – convex lens is calculated to be ________cm

Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

2

h

6h

2

a

R + =

]

2

R

1

R

2

R

1

R

[

) 1 - μ (

1

f

+

×

× =

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

31

EXPERIMENT NO .14

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five solid spheres [ Having different

diameters ] by using a Vernier calipers. Plot graphs between

[ a ] Diameter and volume

[ b ] Mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is given ]

[ c ] Also find the density of the material of the given spheres.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Five solid spheres

WORKING FORMULA :

V

= Volume of solid sphere.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the solid sphere.

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

20

1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

10

1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.

3

r π

3

4

V =

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

32

FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

Mass

of

bobs

g m

Size

of

bobs

M.S.R

c m

V.S.R

div

Fractional

Part

VSR × L

C

m m

Diameter

FP + MSR

m m

Sphere

1

Sphere

2

Sphere

3

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SPHERE

3

r π

3

4

V =

FOR DENSITY OF THE MATERIAL OF SPHERE

V

m

d =

RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be

Sphere 1 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 2 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 3 : _____________ cm

3

2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.

1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.

2. The density of the material of the given spheres is found to be

___________ gm / cm.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

33

EXPERIMENT NO .15

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five small spheres by using a

micrometer screw gauge.

[ 1 ] Plot a graph between diameter and volume

[ 2 ] Plot a graph between mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is

given ]

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Five small metallic sphere.

WORKING FORMULA :

V

= Volume of small metallic sphere.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the small metallic sphere.

A

= Area of cross section of the given wire.

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = 0.5 m.m = 0 . 05 cm

Least count =

0 . 01 m.m = 0 . 001 cm

IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

Pitch of the screw = = 1 m.m = 0 . 1 cm

Least count =

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

3

r π

3

4

V =

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

34

FOR ZERO ERROR

S.

NO

Main

Scale

Reading

m.m

Circular

Scale

Reading

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m.m

Zero Error

Z = FP + MSR

m.m

Main

Zero

Error

m.m

1.

2.

3.

FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

Mass

of

bobs

g m

Size

of

bobs

M.S.R

c m

C.S.R

div

Fractional

Part

CSR × L

C

m m

Diameter

FP + MSR

m m

Corrected

Diameter

] Z [ T ± ÷

m m

Sphere

1

Sphere

2

Sphere

3

CALCULATIONS:

3

r π

3

4

V =

RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be

Sphere 1 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 2 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 3 : _____________ cm

3

2. The density of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be

Sphere 1 : _________ gm / cm

3

Sphere 2 : ________ gm / cm

3

Sphere 3 : _________ gm / cm

3

1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.

2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.

Teacher’s signature

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