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# ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:__________

Roll No: ________ Group:_______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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PHASE 1
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To determine Unknown resistance by
meter bridge. [ EX . 1 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To verify the Newton’s law of cooling
[ EX . 11 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
To determine resistance of a Voltmeter
by graphic method. [ EX . 3 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3
PHASE 2
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To determine unknown resistance by
Post Office Box. [ EX . 2]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To show the relation between Potential
difference and the current [ EX . 5 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
To determine the coefficient of linear
expansion [ EX . 11 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3
PHASE 3
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
Compare e. m . f of two cells by direct
method. [ EX . 4 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To study the relation between current
and capacitance [ EX . 16 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
To determine the specific heat of a solid
by the method mixture [ EX . 12 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3
PHASE 4
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To determine unknown resistance of
by direct method [ EX . 7 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2. To prove that the photo current is · to
the intensity of light [ EX . 8 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
pressure coefficient of air using constant
volume air thermometer [ EX . 15 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3
PHASE 5
S.
NO.

EXPERIMENTS
1
ST

WEEK
2
ND

WEEK
3
RD

WEEK
1.
To determine resistance of galvanometer
by half deflection method. [ EX . 6 ]
1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6
2.
To determine the specific heat of liquid
by electrical method. [ EX . 13 ]
4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9
3.
Specific heat of liquid by electrical
method and [ Value of J ] [ EX . 09 & 14 ]
7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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S.
No

Date

P.
No

Initial

1
To determine the unknown resistance of the given
coil with the help of meter bridge.

01

2
To determine the unknown resistance and the
specific resistance of the material of the given wire
using Post Office Box.

03

3
To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by
graphic method.

05

4
To compare the e. m . f of two cells using
Potentiometer by direct method.

07

5
To show the relation between Potential difference
applied at the ends of a heated tungsten filament
lamp and the current passing through it

09

6
To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half
deflection method.

11

7
To prove that the photo current is directly
proportional to the intensity of light falling on
photocell.

13

8
To determine the unknown resistance of the given
coil by direct method.

15

9
To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [
Value of J ]
To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical
method.

17

10
To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a
graph between time and temperature. Also calculate
the cooling constants for different time intervals

19

11
To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of
the material of a given rod by Pullinger’s apparatus

21

12
To determine the specific heat of a given solid by
the method mixture

23

13
To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by
the method mixture

25

14
To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical
method.

27

15
To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas
using Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph
between temperature and pressure

30

16
To study the relation between current and
capacitance when different capacitors are connected
used in an A.C. circuit.

32

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
5

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil with the
help of meter bridge. Also find the specific resistance of the material of the
given wire.

APPARATUS: Meter bridge, Galvanometer , Known resistance box ,
Unknown resistance , Cell with cell box , One way key, Connecting wires.
WORKING FORMULA:
R
L
X
L
R X × = ,
L
X
2
r π
ρ =
Where
X = Unknown resistance of the given coil
R = Known resistance from the resistance box
L
X
= Length of bridge wire from null point to one end of the bridge.
L
R
= Length of bridge wire from null point to other end of the bridge.
µ

= Specific resistance
r = Radius of the wire.
L

= Length of the wire.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

When X is in 1
st
gap and R is in second gap

S. NO. R

O
L
X

cm
L
R
= [ 100 – L
X
]

cm
R
L
X
L
R X × =

O
Mean
X
1

O
1.

2.

3.

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ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

When R is in 1
st
gap and X is in second gap

S. NO. R

O
L
R

cm
L
X
= [ 100 – L
R
]

cm
R
L
X
L
R X × =

O
Mean
X
2

O
1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:
R
L
X
L
R X × = ,
L
X
2
r π
ρ =

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil by interchanging gaps is
found to be _________ O .
2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ________ O ÷ cm.
3. Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
7

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance and the specific resistance
of the material of the given wire using Post Office Box.

APPARATUS: Post Office Box , Galvanometer , Wire of unknown
resistance , Cell with cell box , Connecting wires.
WORKING FORMULA:
P
Q
R X × =
,
L
X
2
r π
ρ =
Where
X = Unknown resistance of the given coil
P & Q = Resistances of ratio arms
R = Resistance of the third arm.
µ

= Specific resistance
r = Radius of the wire.
L

= Length of the wire.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Length of wire = 200 cm Radius of wire = 0.027 cm

S.
NO.
P

O
Q

O
Q /
P
R

O
P
Q
R X × =
O
Direction
Of
deflection
Inference

1.

10

10

1

0

X > 0

10

10

1

·

X < ·

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ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
8

CALCULATIONS:
P
Q
R X × =
,
L
X
2
r π
ρ =

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil is found to be ______ O
2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ______________ O ÷ cm.
3. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

2.

10

10

1

X >

10

10

1

X <

3.

100

10

0.1

X >

100

10

0.1

X =

100

10

0.1

X <

4.

1000

10

0.01

X >

1000

10

0.01

X =

1000

10

0.01

X <

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
9

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by graphic method.

APPARATUS: Low resistance Voltmeter, Resistance box ,One way key ,
Battery or Cells with cell box , Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

V ] - E [
VR
X =
Where
X = Resistance of the given voltmeter.
R = Resistance of resistance box connected in series with the voltmeter.
V = Voltage drop across the voltmeter.
E = E. m. f of the battery

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Voltmeter 0 . 1 Volts

S.
NO.
E m f
of the
Battery
E
Volts
Resistance

R

O
Voltmeter
V
Volts

V
1

Volts
– 1

V ] - E [
VR
X =

O
Mean
X

O
1. 3.0

2.8 0.357

2. 3.0

2.7 0.370

3. 3.0

2.6 0.385

4. 3.0

2.5 0.400

5. 3.0

2.4 0.416

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
10

CALCULATIONS:
V ] - E [
VR
X =

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter is found to be
_____________ O
2. The unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter from graph is found to be
_____________ O
3. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
11

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To compare the e. m . f of two cells using Potentiometer by direct
method.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer, Galvanometer , Dry cell, Daniel cell, Two
way key , One way key , Jockey , Rheostat , Battery, and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=
Where
X = E. m. f of dry cell.
R = E. m. f of Daniel cell.
E
1
= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E
1

is in circuit
E
2
= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E
2

is in circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:
E. m. f of dry cell = 1. 5 Volts
S.
NO.
L
1

[ Dry cell ]
cm
L
2

[ Daniel cell ]
cm

2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
= Mean
2
E
1
E

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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CALCULATIONS:
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The ratio of e . m . f of Dry and Daniel cells by direct method using
Potentiometer is found to be _______________________________
2. The e . m . f of Daniel cell is found to be _____________________
3. Percentage of error = ___________ %

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
13

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To show the relation between Potential difference applied at the
ends of a heated tungsten filament lamp and the current passing through it

APPARATUS: Tungsten filament lamp, Voltmeter , Ammeter , Rheostat ,
Battery, One way key and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
I
V
R =
Where
R = Resistance of tungsten filament lamp.
R = Voltage applied across the tungsten filament lamp.
I = Current flowing through tungsten filament lamp.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Ammeter 0.1 Amps
Least count of Voltmeter 0.1 Volts
S.NO.
Voltmeter
V
Volt
Ammeter
I
Amp
I
V
R =

Ohms [ O ]
1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

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ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
14

CALCULATIONS:
I
V
R =

RESULT:

1. The graph between V and I indicates that the potential difference
across the tungsten filament and the current through it are not directly
proportional. The graph between V and I is not a straight line but it is a
curve.
2. The graph between V and I shows that the ratio of potential difference
across the tungsten filament and the current through it increases as the
current increases so tungsten filament is non – Ohmic . Hence Ohms
law is not valid.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
15

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half deflection
method.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer , High Resistance box , Low resistance box ,
Dry Cell , One way keys and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=
Where
Rg = Resistance of galvanometer.
R = High resistance connected in series with the galvanometer.
S = Shunt resistance connected in parallel with galvanometer to reduce
deflection of galvanometer to half of its previous value

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:
S.NO. High
Resistance
R
O
Full
Deflection

divisions
Half
Deflection

divisions
Shunt
Resistance
S
O
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=

O
Mean
R g

O
1. 30 15
2. 28 14
3. 26 13
4. 24 12
5. 22 11
6. 20 10

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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CALCULATIONS:
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of galvanometer by half deflection
method is found to be ____________Ohms.

2. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
17

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To prove that the photo current is directly proportional to the
intensity of light falling on photocell.

APPARATUS: Photo voltaic cell, Micro ammeter , Electric lamp , Meter
scale , A – C Main supply and connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

For inverse square law of radiation
Intensity of light E ·
2
d
1

From the experiment
Photo electric current I ·
2
d
1

Hence Intensity of light E · Photo electric current I

E · I

Where

d = Distance between the source of light and photocell

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
18

OBSERVATIONS: Power of the bulb ___________ Watts
Least count of Micro – ammeter ___________ µ Amps
S.NO. Distance
d
Current
I
1

Current
I
2

2
2
I
1
I +

Distance
d
2

2
d
1

cm
µ A µ A µ A
cm
2
cm

2

1. 100

2. 90

3. 80

4. 70

5. 60

Power of the bulb ___________ Watts
Least count of Micro – ammeter ___________ µ Amps
S.NO. Distance
d
Current
I
1

Current
I
2

2
2
I
1
I +

Distance
d
2

2
d
1

cm
µ A µ A µ A
cm
2
cm

2

1. 100

2. 90

3. 80

4. 70

5. 60

RESULT:
The graph between current I and
2
d
1
is a straight line which confirm that the
photoelectric current is directly proportional to the intensity of light .

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
19

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil by direct
method.

APPARATUS: Unknown low resistance , Resistance box , Rheostat or
resistance box , Galvanometer , One way key , Dry cell , and Connecting
wires.
WORKING FORMULA:
2
θ
1
θ R
X
×
=
Where
X = Unknown resistance.
R = Value of standard low resistance.
u
1
= Deflection of galvanometer across X
u
2
= Deflection of galvanometer across R

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
20

OBSERVATIONS:
S.
NO
Known
resistance
R
Deflection
for X
u
1

Deflection
for R

u
2

2
θ
1
θ R
X
×
=
Mean
X
Ohms Degrees Degrees Ohms Ohms
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CALCULATIONS:
2
θ
1
θ R
X
×
=
100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:
1. The value of given low resistance is found to be ___________ Ohms.

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
21

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ]

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,
Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical
balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=

Where
V = The voltage applied across the resistor.
I = Current passed through the resistor.
t = Time for which the current is passed.
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
S
c
= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
T
I
= Initial Temperature of water .
T
F
= Final temperature of water.

OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gms.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] ________________ gms.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
22

Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gms.
Initial Temperature of water = T
I
= _______°C
Final temperature of water = T
F
= ________°C
Rise in temperature A t = ( T
F
– T
I
) ____________°C
Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal / gms °C
Specific heat of water = S
b
= 1 Cal / gms °C
The voltage applied across the resistor = V = __________ Volts
Current passed through the resistor = I = __________ Amp
Time for which the current is passed = t = _____ min × 60 = _____Sec

S.
NO
Time ( t )

Voltage ( V )

Current ( I ) Temperature ( T )
minutes Volts Amp °C
1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

6. 12

7. 14

8. 16

9. 18

10. 20

CALCULATIONS:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated
to be ___________________ Joules / Cal .

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
23

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a graph between
time and temperature. Also calculate the cooling constants for different time
intervals
APPARATUS: Calorimeter with stirrer , Half degree thermometer, Stop
watch , Clamp stand , Hot water .
WORKING FORMULA:
R
T
2
]
2
T
1
T [
Δt
]
2
T
1
T [
K
÷
+
÷
=
Where
T
1
= Initial Temperature
T
2
= Final temperature
T
R
= Room Temperature
At = Time Interval
OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Thermometer 0 . 5 °C Room Temperature__________ °C

Least count of Stop watch 0 . 01 Seconds

S.NO. Time
min
Temperature
°C
1. 0

2. 2

3. 4

4. 6

5. 8

6. 10

7. 12

8. 14

9. 16

10. 18

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
24

CALCULATIONS:

For [ 3
rd
, 6
th
,

9
th
] Intervals from observations &
For 5
th
Intervals from graph
R
T
2
]
2
T
1
T [
Δt
]
2
T
1
T [
K
÷
+
÷
=
RESULT:

1. The graph between time ( t ) and temperature ( T ) is a smooth curve.

2. The cooling constants from observations for [ 3
rd
, 6
th
,

9
th
] time
intervals are found to be ____ , _____ , and _______ / 2 minutes

3. The cooling constants from graph for 5
th
time intervals is found to be
_______ / 2 minutes

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
25

EXPERIMENT NO . 11

OBJECT: To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of the material of
a given rod by pullinger’s apparatus.

APPARATUS: Pullinger’s apparatus with given rod thermometer meter
scale, boiler with heating arrangement.

WORKING FORMULA:

]
1
T
2
T [
0
L
]
1
R -
2
R [
α
÷
=
Where
AL = Change in length.
R
1
R
2
L
0
= Original length of the rod.
AT = Change in Temperature.
T
1
= Initial Temperature of the rod.
T
2
= Final temperature of the rod.

OBSERVATIONS:
Pitch of the screw = 0 . 5 m . m.
Least count for spherometer = 0 . 01 m . m.
Original length of rod L
0
= 50 cm
Initial temperature of the rod [ At room temperature ] = _______________°C
Final temperature of the rod [ At constant steam temperature ] = 100 °C

1

S.
NO
M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part
F. P = C.R.S × L.C
T = FP + M.S.R
MEAN
R
1
mm div mm mm mm
1.

2.

3.

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26

2

S.
NO
M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part
F. P = C.R.S × L.C
T = FP + M.S.R
MEAN
R
2
mm div mm mm mm
1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:
]
1
T
2
T [
0
L
]
1
R -
2
R [
α
÷
=

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the given rod is
calculated to be ___________________ °C
– 1

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
27

EXPERIMENT NO . 12

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given solid by the method
mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree
thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,
Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:

)
F
T
B
T (
b
m
)
c
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [

b
S
÷
÷ +
=
Where
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
m
b
= Mass of Bob.
S
c
= Specific heat of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
S
b
= Specific heat of Bob.
T
C
= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .
T
F
= Final temperature of mixture.
T
B
= Maximum temperature of metallic bob or temperature of steam

OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gms.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] ________________ gms.
Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gms.
Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal gms °C
Specific heat of Water = S
w
= 1 Cal gms °C
Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T
C
= _______°C
Final temperature of mixture = T
F
= _______°C
Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T
B
= _________°C

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28

CALCULATIONS:

)
F
T
B
T (
b
m
)
c
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [

b
S
÷
÷ +
=

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given solid by the method mixture is found to be
______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
29

EXPERIMENT NO . 13

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by the method
mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree
thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,
Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:

)
c
T
F
T (
w
m
)
c
T
F
T (
c
S
c
m - )
F
T
B
T (
b
S
b
m

w
S
÷
÷ ÷
=
Where
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
m
b
= Mass of Bob.
S
c
= Specific heat of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
S
b
= Specific heat of Bob.
T
C
= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .
T
F
= Final temperature of mixture.
T
B
= Maximum temperature of metallic bob

OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gms.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] ________________ gms.
Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gms.
Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal gms °C
Specific heat of material of bob = S
b
= 0.08 Cal gms °C
Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T
C
= _______°C
Final temperature of mixture = T
F
= _______°C
Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T
B
= ___________°C

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
30

CALCULATIONS:

)
c
T
F
T (
w
m
)
c
T
F
T (
c
S
c
m - )
F
T
B
T (
b
S
b
m

w
S
÷
÷ ÷
=

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given liquid by the method mixture is found to be
______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.
Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
31

EXPERIMENT NO . 14

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical method.

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,
Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical
balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=

Where
V = The voltage applied across the resistor.
I = Current passed through the resistor.
t = Time for which the current is passed.
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
S
c
= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
T
I
= Initial Temperature of water .
T
F
= Final temperature of water.

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OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gm.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =___________ gm.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] _______________ gm.
Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gm.
Initial Temperature of water = T
I
= _______°C

Final temperature of water = T
F
= ________°C

Rise in temperature A t = ( T
F
– T
I
) ____________°C

Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal / gm
°C
Specific heat of water = S
b
= 1 Cal / gm °C

The voltage applied across the resistor = V = ________ Volts

Current passed through the resistor = I = _________ Amp

Time for which current is passed = t =_____ min × 60 = ___Sec

S.
NO
Time
( t )
Voltage
( V )
Current
( I )
Temperature
( T )
minutes Volts Amp °C
1. 0.

2. 2.

3. 4.

4. 6.

5. 8.

6. 10.

7. 12.

8. 14.

9. 16.

10. 20.

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ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
33

CALCULATIONS:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated
to be ___________________ Cal / gm°C
- 1

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
34

EXPERIMENT NO . 15

OBJECT: To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas using
Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph between temperature and pressure

APPARATUS: Charle’s law apparatus, Heating arrangement, Thermometer
Beaker.
WORKING FORMULA:
] 0 100 [
0
P
]
0
P
100
P [
γ
÷
÷
=
Where
¸ = Pressure coefficient of the given gas at constant volume.
P
100
= Pressure of a gas at 100 °C
P
0
= Pressure of a gas at 0 °C
T
1
= Initial Temperature
T
2
= Final temperature
AT = Change of temperature.
100
]
0
R 100 [
]
0
P
R
P [

R
T ×
÷
÷
=
Where
T
R
= Room temperature
P
R
= Pressure of a gas at room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Thermometer 1 °C Room Temperature __________ °C
Atmospheric pressure = P
A
= 76 cm of Hg

S.
NO
Temperature
°C
A
Cm of
Hg
B
Cm of
Hg
H = B – A
Cm of
Hg
P = H + 76
Cm of
Hg
1. At Room Temp

2. 100 °C

3. 90 °C

4. 80 °C

5. 70 °C

6. 60 °C

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
35

CALCULATIONS:

] 0 100 [
0
P
]
0
P
100
P [
γ
÷
÷
= , 100
]
0
R 100 [
]
0
P
R
P [

R
T ×
÷
÷
=

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

RESULT:

1. The pressure coefficient of air using constant volume air thermometer
is found to be ________________ / °C

2. The room temperature is found to be ________________ °C

3. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
36

EXPERIMENT NO . 16

OBJECT: To study the relation between current and capacitance when
different capacitors are connected used in an A.C. circuit.

APPARATUS: Six capacitors each of 10 µ F capacitance , A.C. Ammeter ,
A.C. Voltmeter , Step down transformer , Inter connected one way key and
Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
C f π 2
1

C
X = ,
I
V

C
X =
Where
X
C
= Capacitive resistance
f = Frequency of A.C. main supply.
C = Capacitance used in the circuit
X
C
= Capacitive resistance
V = Voltage
I = Current flowing in the circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
37

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Ammeter = 5 m Amps
Least count of Voltmeter = 1 Volts
Frequency of A.C. main supply = 50 Hz
Applied R.M.S. voltage = 7 volts
S.NO. Capacitance
C
Current
I
M A
Current
I
Amp
I
V

C
X =
O
C f π 2
1

C
X =
O
1. 10 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

2. 15 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

3. 20 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

4. 25 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

5. 30 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

6. 35× 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

CALCULATIONS:
C f π 2
1

C
X = ,
I
V

C
X =
RESULT:

1. The graph between capacitance C and current I is a straight line.
Which shows that C · I .
2. The graph between capacitive reactance X
C
and current I is a smooth
curve. Which shows that X
C
·
I
1

3. The graph between capacitance C and capacitive reactance X
C
is a
smooth curve. Which shows that C ·
C
X
1

Teacher’s signature