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**ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
**

1

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

2

Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:__________

Roll No: ________ Group:_______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

3

PHASE 1

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To determine Unknown resistance by

meter bridge. [ EX . 1 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To verify the Newton’s law of cooling

[ EX . 11 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

To determine resistance of a Voltmeter

by graphic method. [ EX . 3 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

PHASE 2

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To determine unknown resistance by

Post Office Box. [ EX . 2]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To show the relation between Potential

difference and the current [ EX . 5 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

To determine the coefficient of linear

expansion [ EX . 11 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

PHASE 3

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

Compare e. m . f of two cells by direct

method. [ EX . 4 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To study the relation between current

and capacitance [ EX . 16 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

To determine the specific heat of a solid

by the method mixture [ EX . 12 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

PHASE 4

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To determine unknown resistance of

by direct method [ EX . 7 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2. To prove that the photo current is · to

the intensity of light [ EX . 8 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

pressure coefficient of air using constant

volume air thermometer [ EX . 15 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

PHASE 5

S.

NO.

EXPERIMENTS

1

ST

WEEK

2

ND

WEEK

3

RD

WEEK

1.

To determine resistance of galvanometer

by half deflection method. [ EX . 6 ]

1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6

2.

To determine the specific heat of liquid

by electrical method. [ EX . 13 ]

4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3 7, 8, 9

3.

Specific heat of liquid by electrical

method and [ Value of J ] [ EX . 09 & 14 ]

7, 8, 9 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

4

S.

No

Date

P.

No

Initial

1

To determine the unknown resistance of the given

coil with the help of meter bridge.

01

2

To determine the unknown resistance and the

specific resistance of the material of the given wire

using Post Office Box.

03

3

To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by

graphic method.

05

4

To compare the e. m . f of two cells using

Potentiometer by direct method.

07

5

To show the relation between Potential difference

applied at the ends of a heated tungsten filament

lamp and the current passing through it

09

6

To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half

deflection method.

11

7

To prove that the photo current is directly

proportional to the intensity of light falling on

photocell.

13

8

To determine the unknown resistance of the given

coil by direct method.

15

9

To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [

Value of J ]

To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical

method.

17

10

To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a

graph between time and temperature. Also calculate

the cooling constants for different time intervals

19

11

To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of

the material of a given rod by Pullinger’s apparatus

21

12

To determine the specific heat of a given solid by

the method mixture

23

13

To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by

the method mixture

25

14

To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical

method.

27

15

To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas

using Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph

between temperature and pressure

30

16

To study the relation between current and

capacitance when different capacitors are connected

used in an A.C. circuit.

32

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

5

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil with the

help of meter bridge. Also find the specific resistance of the material of the

given wire.

APPARATUS: Meter bridge, Galvanometer , Known resistance box ,

Unknown resistance , Cell with cell box , One way key, Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

R

L

X

L

R X × = ,

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

Where

X = Unknown resistance of the given coil

R = Known resistance from the resistance box

L

X

= Length of bridge wire from null point to one end of the bridge.

L

R

= Length of bridge wire from null point to other end of the bridge.

µ

= Specific resistance

r = Radius of the wire.

L

= Length of the wire.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

When X is in 1

st

gap and R is in second gap

S. NO. R

O

L

X

cm

L

R

= [ 100 – L

X

]

cm

R

L

X

L

R X × =

O

Mean

X

1

O

1.

2.

3.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

6

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

When R is in 1

st

gap and X is in second gap

S. NO. R

O

L

R

cm

L

X

= [ 100 – L

R

]

cm

R

L

X

L

R X × =

O

Mean

X

2

O

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

R

L

X

L

R X × = ,

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil by interchanging gaps is

found to be _________ O .

2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ________ O ÷ cm.

3. Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

7

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance and the specific resistance

of the material of the given wire using Post Office Box.

APPARATUS: Post Office Box , Galvanometer , Wire of unknown

resistance , Cell with cell box , Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

P

Q

R X × =

,

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

Where

X = Unknown resistance of the given coil

P & Q = Resistances of ratio arms

R = Resistance of the third arm.

µ

= Specific resistance

r = Radius of the wire.

L

= Length of the wire.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Length of wire = 200 cm Radius of wire = 0.027 cm

S.

NO.

P

O

Q

O

Q /

P

R

O

P

Q

R X × =

O

Direction

Of

deflection

Inference

1.

10

10

1

0

X > 0

10

10

1

·

X < ·

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

8

CALCULATIONS:

P

Q

R X × =

,

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil is found to be ______ O

2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ______________ O ÷ cm.

3. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

2.

10

10

1

X >

10

10

1

X <

3.

100

10

0.1

X >

100

10

0.1

X =

100

10

0.1

X <

4.

1000

10

0.01

X >

1000

10

0.01

X =

1000

10

0.01

X <

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

9

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by graphic method.

APPARATUS: Low resistance Voltmeter, Resistance box ,One way key ,

Battery or Cells with cell box , Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

V ] - E [

VR

X =

Where

X = Resistance of the given voltmeter.

R = Resistance of resistance box connected in series with the voltmeter.

V = Voltage drop across the voltmeter.

E = E. m. f of the battery

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Voltmeter 0 . 1 Volts

S.

NO.

E m f

of the

Battery

E

Volts

Resistance

R

O

Voltmeter

Reading

V

Volts

V

1

Volts

– 1

V ] - E [

VR

X =

O

Mean

X

O

1. 3.0

2.8 0.357

2. 3.0

2.7 0.370

3. 3.0

2.6 0.385

4. 3.0

2.5 0.400

5. 3.0

2.4 0.416

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

10

CALCULATIONS:

V ] - E [

VR

X =

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter is found to be

_____________ O

2. The unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter from graph is found to be

_____________ O

3. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

11

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To compare the e. m . f of two cells using Potentiometer by direct

method.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer, Galvanometer , Dry cell, Daniel cell, Two

way key , One way key , Jockey , Rheostat , Battery, and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

Where

X = E. m. f of dry cell.

R = E. m. f of Daniel cell.

E

1

= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E

1

is in circuit

E

2

= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E

2

is in circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

E. m. f of dry cell = 1. 5 Volts

S.

NO.

L

1

[ Dry cell ]

cm

L

2

[ Daniel cell ]

cm

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

= Mean

2

E

1

E

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

12

CALCULATIONS:

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The ratio of e . m . f of Dry and Daniel cells by direct method using

Potentiometer is found to be _______________________________

2. The e . m . f of Daniel cell is found to be _____________________

3. Percentage of error = ___________ %

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

13

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To show the relation between Potential difference applied at the

ends of a heated tungsten filament lamp and the current passing through it

APPARATUS: Tungsten filament lamp, Voltmeter , Ammeter , Rheostat ,

Battery, One way key and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

I

V

R =

Where

R = Resistance of tungsten filament lamp.

R = Voltage applied across the tungsten filament lamp.

I = Current flowing through tungsten filament lamp.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Ammeter 0.1 Amps

Least count of Voltmeter 0.1 Volts

S.NO.

Voltmeter

Reading

V

Volt

Ammeter

Reading

I

Amp

I

V

R =

Ohms [ O ]

1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

14

CALCULATIONS:

I

V

R =

RESULT:

1. The graph between V and I indicates that the potential difference

across the tungsten filament and the current through it are not directly

proportional. The graph between V and I is not a straight line but it is a

curve.

2. The graph between V and I shows that the ratio of potential difference

across the tungsten filament and the current through it increases as the

current increases so tungsten filament is non – Ohmic . Hence Ohms

law is not valid.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

15

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half deflection

method.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer , High Resistance box , Low resistance box ,

Dry Cell , One way keys and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

Where

Rg = Resistance of galvanometer.

R = High resistance connected in series with the galvanometer.

S = Shunt resistance connected in parallel with galvanometer to reduce

deflection of galvanometer to half of its previous value

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

S.NO. High

Resistance

R

O

Full

Deflection

divisions

Half

Deflection

divisions

Shunt

Resistance

S

O

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

O

Mean

R g

O

1. 30 15

2. 28 14

3. 26 13

4. 24 12

5. 22 11

6. 20 10

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

16

CALCULATIONS:

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of galvanometer by half deflection

method is found to be ____________Ohms.

2. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

17

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To prove that the photo current is directly proportional to the

intensity of light falling on photocell.

APPARATUS: Photo voltaic cell, Micro ammeter , Electric lamp , Meter

scale , A – C Main supply and connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

For inverse square law of radiation

Intensity of light E ·

2

d

1

From the experiment

Photo electric current I ·

2

d

1

Hence Intensity of light E · Photo electric current I

E · I

Where

d = Distance between the source of light and photocell

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

18

OBSERVATIONS: Power of the bulb ___________ Watts

Least count of Micro – ammeter ___________ µ Amps

S.NO. Distance

d

Current

I

1

Current

I

2

2

2

I

1

I +

Distance

d

2

2

d

1

cm

µ A µ A µ A

cm

2

cm

–

2

1. 100

2. 90

3. 80

4. 70

5. 60

Power of the bulb ___________ Watts

Least count of Micro – ammeter ___________ µ Amps

S.NO. Distance

d

Current

I

1

Current

I

2

2

2

I

1

I +

Distance

d

2

2

d

1

cm

µ A µ A µ A

cm

2

cm

–

2

1. 100

2. 90

3. 80

4. 70

5. 60

RESULT:

The graph between current I and

2

d

1

is a straight line which confirm that the

photoelectric current is directly proportional to the intensity of light .

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

19

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil by direct

method.

APPARATUS: Unknown low resistance , Resistance box , Rheostat or

resistance box , Galvanometer , One way key , Dry cell , and Connecting

wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

2

θ

1

θ R

X

×

=

Where

X = Unknown resistance.

R = Value of standard low resistance.

u

1

= Deflection of galvanometer across X

u

2

= Deflection of galvanometer across R

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

20

OBSERVATIONS:

S.

NO

Known

resistance

R

Deflection

for X

u

1

Deflection

for R

u

2

2

θ

1

θ R

X

×

=

Mean

X

Ohms Degrees Degrees Ohms Ohms

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CALCULATIONS:

2

θ

1

θ R

X

×

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The value of given low resistance is found to be ___________ Ohms.

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

21

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ]

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,

Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical

balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

Where

V = The voltage applied across the resistor.

I = Current passed through the resistor.

t = Time for which the current is passed.

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

S

c

= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

T

I

= Initial Temperature of water .

T

F

= Final temperature of water.

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gms.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] ________________ gms.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

22

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gms.

Initial Temperature of water = T

I

= _______°C

Final temperature of water = T

F

= ________°C

Rise in temperature A t = ( T

F

– T

I

) ____________°C

Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal / gms °C

Specific heat of water = S

b

= 1 Cal / gms °C

The voltage applied across the resistor = V = __________ Volts

Current passed through the resistor = I = __________ Amp

Time for which the current is passed = t = _____ min × 60 = _____Sec

S.

NO

Time ( t )

Voltage ( V )

Current ( I ) Temperature ( T )

minutes Volts Amp °C

1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

6. 12

7. 14

8. 16

9. 18

10. 20

CALCULATIONS:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated

to be ___________________ Joules / Cal .

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

23

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a graph between

time and temperature. Also calculate the cooling constants for different time

intervals

APPARATUS: Calorimeter with stirrer , Half degree thermometer, Stop

watch , Clamp stand , Hot water .

WORKING FORMULA:

R

T

2

]

2

T

1

T [

Δt

]

2

T

1

T [

K

÷

+

÷

=

Where

T

1

= Initial Temperature

T

2

= Final temperature

T

R

= Room Temperature

At = Time Interval

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Thermometer 0 . 5 °C Room Temperature__________ °C

Least count of Stop watch 0 . 01 Seconds

S.NO. Time

min

Temperature

°C

1. 0

2. 2

3. 4

4. 6

5. 8

6. 10

7. 12

8. 14

9. 16

10. 18

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

24

CALCULATIONS:

For [ 3

rd

, 6

th

,

9

th

] Intervals from observations &

For 5

th

Intervals from graph

R

T

2

]

2

T

1

T [

Δt

]

2

T

1

T [

K

÷

+

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The graph between time ( t ) and temperature ( T ) is a smooth curve.

2. The cooling constants from observations for [ 3

rd

, 6

th

,

9

th

] time

intervals are found to be ____ , _____ , and _______ / 2 minutes

3. The cooling constants from graph for 5

th

time intervals is found to be

_______ / 2 minutes

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

25

EXPERIMENT NO . 11

OBJECT: To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of the material of

a given rod by pullinger’s apparatus.

APPARATUS: Pullinger’s apparatus with given rod thermometer meter

scale, boiler with heating arrangement.

WORKING FORMULA:

]

1

T

2

T [

0

L

]

1

R -

2

R [

α

÷

=

Where

AL = Change in length.

R

1

= Initial reading of spherometer.

R

2

= Final reading of spherometer.

L

0

= Original length of the rod.

AT = Change in Temperature.

T

1

= Initial Temperature of the rod.

T

2

= Final temperature of the rod.

OBSERVATIONS:

Pitch of the screw = 0 . 5 m . m.

Least count for spherometer = 0 . 01 m . m.

Original length of rod L

0

= 50 cm

Initial temperature of the rod [ At room temperature ] = _______________°C

Final temperature of the rod [ At constant steam temperature ] = 100 °C

Initial reading of Spherometer R

1

S.

NO

M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part

F. P = C.R.S × L.C

Total reading

T = FP + M.S.R

MEAN

R

1

mm div mm mm mm

1.

2.

3.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

26

Final reading of Spherometer R

2

S.

NO

M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part

F. P = C.R.S × L.C

Total reading

T = FP + M.S.R

MEAN

R

2

mm div mm mm mm

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

]

1

T

2

T [

0

L

]

1

R -

2

R [

α

÷

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the given rod is

calculated to be ___________________ °C

– 1

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

27

EXPERIMENT NO . 12

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given solid by the method

mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree

thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,

Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:

)

F

T

B

T (

b

m

)

c

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

b

S

÷

÷ +

=

Where

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

m

b

= Mass of Bob.

S

c

= Specific heat of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

S

b

= Specific heat of Bob.

T

C

= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .

T

F

= Final temperature of mixture.

T

B

= Maximum temperature of metallic bob or temperature of steam

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gms.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] ________________ gms.

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gms.

Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal gms °C

Specific heat of Water = S

w

= 1 Cal gms °C

Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T

C

= _______°C

Final temperature of mixture = T

F

= _______°C

Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T

B

= _________°C

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

28

CALCULATIONS:

)

F

T

B

T (

b

m

)

c

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

b

S

÷

÷ +

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given solid by the method mixture is found to be

______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

29

EXPERIMENT NO . 13

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by the method

mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree

thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,

Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:

)

c

T

F

T (

w

m

)

c

T

F

T (

c

S

c

m - )

F

T

B

T (

b

S

b

m

w

S

÷

÷ ÷

=

Where

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

m

b

= Mass of Bob.

S

c

= Specific heat of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

S

b

= Specific heat of Bob.

T

C

= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .

T

F

= Final temperature of mixture.

T

B

= Maximum temperature of metallic bob

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gms.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] ________________ gms.

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gms.

Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal gms °C

Specific heat of material of bob = S

b

= 0.08 Cal gms °C

Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T

C

= _______°C

Final temperature of mixture = T

F

= _______°C

Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T

B

= ___________°C

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

30

CALCULATIONS:

)

c

T

F

T (

w

m

)

c

T

F

T (

c

S

c

m - )

F

T

B

T (

b

S

b

m

w

S

÷

÷ ÷

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given liquid by the method mixture is found to be

______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

31

EXPERIMENT NO . 14

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical method.

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,

Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical

balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

Where

V = The voltage applied across the resistor.

I = Current passed through the resistor.

t = Time for which the current is passed.

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

S

c

= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

T

I

= Initial Temperature of water .

T

F

= Final temperature of water.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

32

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gm.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =___________ gm.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] _______________ gm.

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gm.

Initial Temperature of water = T

I

= _______°C

Final temperature of water = T

F

= ________°C

Rise in temperature A t = ( T

F

– T

I

) ____________°C

Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal / gm

°C

Specific heat of water = S

b

= 1 Cal / gm °C

The voltage applied across the resistor = V = ________ Volts

Current passed through the resistor = I = _________ Amp

Time for which current is passed = t =_____ min × 60 = ___Sec

S.

NO

Time

( t )

Voltage

( V )

Current

( I )

Temperature

( T )

minutes Volts Amp °C

1. 0.

2. 2.

3. 4.

4. 6.

5. 8.

6. 10.

7. 12.

8. 14.

9. 16.

10. 20.

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

33

CALCULATIONS:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated

to be ___________________ Cal / gm°C

- 1

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

34

EXPERIMENT NO . 15

OBJECT: To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas using

Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph between temperature and pressure

APPARATUS: Charle’s law apparatus, Heating arrangement, Thermometer

Beaker.

WORKING FORMULA:

] 0 100 [

0

P

]

0

P

100

P [

γ

÷

÷

=

Where

¸ = Pressure coefficient of the given gas at constant volume.

P

100

= Pressure of a gas at 100 °C

P

0

= Pressure of a gas at 0 °C

T

1

= Initial Temperature

T

2

= Final temperature

AT = Change of temperature.

100

]

0

R 100 [

]

0

P

R

P [

R

T ×

÷

÷

=

Where

T

R

= Room temperature

P

R

= Pressure of a gas at room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Thermometer 1 °C Room Temperature __________ °C

Atmospheric pressure = P

A

= 76 cm of Hg

S.

NO

Temperature

°C

A

Cm of

Hg

B

Cm of

Hg

H = B – A

Cm of

Hg

P = H + 76

Cm of

Hg

1. At Room Temp

2. 100 °C

3. 90 °C

4. 80 °C

5. 70 °C

6. 60 °C

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

35

CALCULATIONS:

] 0 100 [

0

P

]

0

P

100

P [

γ

÷

÷

= , 100

]

0

R 100 [

]

0

P

R

P [

R

T ×

÷

÷

=

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

RESULT:

1. The pressure coefficient of air using constant volume air thermometer

is found to be ________________ / °C

2. The room temperature is found to be ________________ °C

3. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

36

EXPERIMENT NO . 16

OBJECT: To study the relation between current and capacitance when

different capacitors are connected used in an A.C. circuit.

APPARATUS: Six capacitors each of 10 µ F capacitance , A.C. Ammeter ,

A.C. Voltmeter , Step down transformer , Inter connected one way key and

Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

C f π 2

1

C

X = ,

I

V

C

X =

Where

X

C

= Capacitive resistance

f = Frequency of A.C. main supply.

C = Capacitance used in the circuit

X

C

= Capacitive resistance

V = Voltage

I = Current flowing in the circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

37

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Ammeter = 5 m Amps

Least count of Voltmeter = 1 Volts

Frequency of A.C. main supply = 50 Hz

Applied R.M.S. voltage = 7 volts

S.NO. Capacitance

C

Farad

Current

I

M A

Current

I

Amp

I

V

C

X =

O

C f π 2

1

C

X =

O

1. 10 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

2. 15 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

3. 20 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

4. 25 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

5. 30 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

6. 35× 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

CALCULATIONS:

C f π 2

1

C

X = ,

I

V

C

X =

RESULT:

1. The graph between capacitance C and current I is a straight line.

Which shows that C · I .

2. The graph between capacitive reactance X

C

and current I is a smooth

curve. Which shows that X

C

·

I

1

3. The graph between capacitance C and capacitive reactance X

C

is a

smooth curve. Which shows that C ·

C

X

1

Teacher’s signature

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