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DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
2

















Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:___________________

Roll No: ____________ Group:___________________












DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
3






Certified that Miss. / Mr._______________________________


Of class ____________ has carried out the necessary practical

work as prescribed by the Board of Intermediate Education /

University of Karachi for the year _____________________







__________________________________ ______________________________
Head of the department Incharge



Date:__________________ Date:______________







DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
4

S.
No

Date


P.
No

Initial

1

To determine the volume of a given solid
cylinder and capacity of a hollow tube by
using a Vernier calipers.

01


2

To determine the volume of a given small
sphere and area of cross section of a wire by
using a micrometer screw gauge.

05


3

To determine the radius of curvature of a
given spherical mirror and the thickness of a
glass piece by using a spherometer.

09


4

To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By
using three bobs of simple pendulum having
different diameters.

13


5

To determine the value of g [ acceleration
due to gravity ] using a simple pendulum by
plotting a graph between L and T
2


19


6

To determine the resultant of two vectors by
using parallelogram / rectangular component
method.

23


7

To determine the refractive index of the
material of a glass prism by critical angle
method.

30

8

To determine the velocity of sound in air by
resonance tube.
36


9

To determine the focal length of a convex
lens using two optical pins by no parallax
method.

40


10

To determine the frequency of A.C supply by
Meld’s method using a vibrograph.

46


11

To determine the refractive index of water by
concave mirror.

50


12

To determine the refractive index of the
material of a glass slab by the method of real
and apparent depth.

54


13

To determine the focal length of a bi – convex
lens by using a spherometer.

60


14

To determine the volume of five solid
spheres [ Having different diameters ] by
using a micrometer screw gauge.

65


15

To determine the volume of five small
spheres by using a micrometer screw gauge.

70


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
5

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given solid cylinder and capacity of
a hollow tube by using a Vernier calipers.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Solid cylinder and a Hollow tube

WORKING FORMULA :

1.
Where

V

= Volume of the solid cylinder.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the solid cylinder.
L

= Length of the solid cylinder.

2.
Where

V

= Internal volume of the hollow tube.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Internal radius of the hollow tube.
h

= Depth of the hollow tube.


OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
20
1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
10
1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.
V = t r
2
L
V = t r
2
h

DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
6

FOR LENGTH OF SOLID CYLINDER

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean
Length
cm
1.

2.

3.



FOR EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF SOLID CYLINDER

S.
NO
M . S . R


cm
V . S . R


divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C

cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR

cm
Mean
External
Diameter
cm
1.

2.

3.


FOR DEPTH OF THE HOLLOW TUBE

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean
Depth
cm
1.

2.

3.



FOR INTERNAL DIAMETER OF THE HOLLOW TUBE

S.
NO
M . S . R


cm
V . S . R


divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C

cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR

cm
Mean
Internal
Diameter
cm
1.

2.

3.



DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
7

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SOLID CYLINDER

Length of the solid cylinder = L = ____________________ cm.

External diameter of solid cylinder = d = _______________ cm.

External radius of the solid cylinder = r = d / 2 = ________ cm.

Volume of solid cylinder V = t r
2
L

= [ 3.142 ] [ _____ ]
2
[ _____ ]

= [ 3.142 ] [ _____ ] [ _____ ]

V = ____________ cm
3

FOR CAPACITY OF HOLLOW TUBE

Depth of the hollow tube = h = ______________________ cm.

Internal diameter of the hollow tube = d = _____________ cm

Internal radius of the hollow tube = r = d / 2 = _________ cm.

Internal volume of the hollow tube = V = t r
2
h

V = [ 3.142 ] [ ________ ]
2
[ ______ ]

V = [ 3.142 ] [ ________ ] [ ______ ]

V = ____________ cm
3












DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
8


RESULT:

The volume of the given solid cylinder is calculated to be ___________ cm
3

The capacity of the given hollow tube is calculated to be ____________cm
3






Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Constant of the vernier calipers should be determined carefully.
2. The experimental object should not be pressed too hard between the
fixed and movable jaw.
3. Upper jaws are to be used to determine the internal diameter.
4. Reading should be taken at different places to avoid the error due to
non uniformity in its shape.
5. Depth gauge is to be used for finding the depth of the given hollow
cylinder.
6. Zero error should be determined carefully and applied with proper sign.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non linearity of main scale and vernier scale.
2. Non uniformity in shape of the given cylinders.











DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
9

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given small sphere and area of
cross section of a wire by using a micrometer screw gauge.

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Small metallic sphere and a Piece of wire

WORKING FORMULA :


1.
Where

V

= Volume of small metallic sphere.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the small metallic sphere.

2.
Where

A

= Area of cross section of the given wire.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the given wire.

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =
rotation of Number
scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =
3
5 . 1
= 0 . 5 m . m
2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

3. Least count =
scale circular on divisions of number Total
screw the of Pitch


4. Least count =
50
5 0.

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm


3
r π
3
4
V =

A = t r
2


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
10


IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =
rotation of Number
scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =
3
3
= 1 m . m
2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

3. Least count =
scale circular on divisions of number Total
screw the of Pitch


4. Least count =
100
1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm


FOR ZERO ERROR

S.
NO
M.S.R

m .m
C.S.R

div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C
m . m
Zero Error
Z = FP + MSR
m . m
Mean
Zero Error
m . m
1.

2.

3.


FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

S.
NO
M.S.R

m .m
C.S.R

div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C
m . m
Diameter
D = FP + MSR

m . m
Corrected
Diameter
] Z [ T D ± ÷ =
m . m
Mean

D
m .m
1.

2.

3.










DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
11

FOR DIAMETER OF WIRE

S.
NO
M.S.R

m .m
C.S.R

div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C
m . m
Diameter
D = FP + MSR

m . m
Corrected
Diameter
] Z [ T D ± ÷ =
m . m
Mean

D
m .m
1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SMALL SPHERE

Radius of the small sphere = r = ______ m . m = ________cm.

Volume of the small sphere =
3
r π
3
4
V =


V =

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]
3

=

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]

V = __________________ cm
3

FOR AREA OF CROSS SECTION

Radius of the wire = r = __________ m . m = __________cm.

Area of cross section of the given wire = A = t r
2


= [ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]
2


= [ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]

Area of cross section of the given wire = A = ________________ cm
2


RESULT:

The volume of the given small metallic sphere is calculated to be _____ cm
3

The area of cross section of the given wire is calculated to be ________cm
2


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
12





Teacher’s signature



PRECAUTIONS:

1. The screw is to be rotated in one direction.
2. It should be rotated from the screw head, till the click sound is heard.
3. Reading should be taken from five different places of the sphere and
the wire.
4. Reading of the wire is to be determined twice at the same place in
perpendicular direction.
5. The zero error should be measured accurately.
6. When the circular scale reading exceeds 30/60div, the main scale is
noted very carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Back lash error.
2. Screw may be loose in nut.
3. Non uniformly of the surface of the sphere.
4. Instrumental error.




















DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
13

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical mirror
and the thickness of a glass piece by using a spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer., Spherical mirror , Smooth glass plate and a
Piece of glass

WORKING FORMULA :



1.
Where

R

= Radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror.
a = Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.
h

= Height of spherical surface

2.

Where

R

= Radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror.
f = Focal length of the spherical mirror.


OBSERVATIONS:
5. Pitch of the screw =
rotation of Number
scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =
3
3
= 1 m . m
6. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

7. Least count =
scale circular on divisions of number Total
screw the of Pitch


8. Least count =
100
1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm





2
h

6h
2
a
R + =


2
R
f =


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
14

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


READING ON PIECE OF GLASS [ C ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


CALCULATIONS:









Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

a
1
= _________ cm , a
2
= __________ cm , a
3
= ___________ cm


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
15


3
3
a
2
a
1
a
a
+ +
=


3

....... ..........
+ +
=
3

= ________ cm

h = [ B – A ]

h = ___________ – ___________ = _____________ cm





















RESULT:

The radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be
_____________ cm
The focal length of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be
_____________cm
The thickness of the given glass piece is calculated to be ____________cm

Teacher’s signature
RADIUS OF CURVATURE
R

2
h

6h
2
a
R + =

2


6
2
] [
R +
×
=

2



R

+ =


R

= +

R = ______________ cm



FOCAL LENGTH


2
R
f =


f =
2
] [


f = ______________ cm

THICKNESS

T = [ C – A ]

T = ______ – _________

T = ______________ cm




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
16

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The constant of the of the instrument should be determined before
starting the experiment.
2. The circular scale should be rotated with the help of the head of the
screw only.
3. A circle should be marked with chalk on the smooth corner of the table
and all the readings on smooth surface should be taken within the
marked circle.
4. Reading on the smooth surface should be noted when the three legs
and the tip of the screw are just touching the surface.
5. A thin piece of paper may be used for checking the level.
6. Screw should be rotated in one direction only to avoid backlash error.
7. Reading on the spherical surface should be taken near its center only
to obtain accurate (h) high spherical surface.
8. There should be no lateral movement of the circular scale.
9. Once the circular scale reading exceeds 60 main scale should be
noted very carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Non uniformity of the plane surface.
2. Presence of back-lash error in the instrument.
3. The circular scale screw and the nut of the instrument may not all be
co-axial.
4. Thickness of the paper used.
5. Any lateral movement of the circular scale.
6. Distortion in the shape of spherical mirror and uneven polish.














DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
17

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By using three bobs of
simple pendulum having different diameters.

[ i ] Time period is independent of mass of bob.
[ ii ] Time period is independent of amplitude.
[ iii ] Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , Three metallic bobs of different
diameters and masses , Thin string and meter scale.

OBSERVATIONS:
[ LAW OF MASS ]

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

S.
NO
Radius
of
bob
Length
of
string
Length
of
pendulum
Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t /
10
cm cm cm sec sec Mean sec
1. 0.9 99.1 100

2. 0.9 99.1 100

3. 0.9 99.1 100


[ LAW AMPLITUDE ]

Diameter of the bob 1.8 cm Radius of the bob 0.9 cm
Length of he string 99.1 cm Length of the pendulum 100 cm

S.
NO
Amplitude Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t /
10
cm sec sec Mean sec
1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
18


[ LAW LENGTH ]

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.
NO
Length of
string
including
hook
l
Length
of
pendulum

L = [ l + r ]
Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t / 10


T
2

cm cm
sec sec Mean sec
Sec
2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120




























DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
19


GRAPH BETWEEN
MASS & TIME

Along X – axis
One small division = _____ grams

Along Y – axis
One small division = _____ seconds




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
20


GRAPH BETWEEN
AMPLITUDE & TIME

Along X – axis
One small division = ______ cm.

Along Y – axis
One small division = ______ seconds




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
21


GRAPH BETWEEN
LENGTH & SQUARE OF TIME

Along X – axis
One small division = _________ cm

Along Y – axis
One small division = ___ ( seconds )
2





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
22

RESULT:

1. Time period is independent of mass of bob.

2. Time period is independent of amplitude.

3. Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

Hence the laws of simple pendulum are verified






Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

1. Least count of stopwatch should be noted and graduation a stopwatch
should be studied carefully before starting the experiment.
2. The support should be rigid.
3. Least count of stopwatch should be small.
4. Bob should be spherical and smooth.
5. The length should be rechecked with meter scale after hanging the
bob.
6. The bob should be as near to the ground\wall as possible but not
touching it.
7. There should not be any knot or twists in the thread.
8. The amplitude of vibration should be small.
9. First four or five oscillation should not be counted as motion is non
linear.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non linearity of the meter scale.
2. String used is not elastic.
3. She support of pendulum is not rigid.
4. Inaccuracy of stopwatch.
5. Pressure of air draughts.
6. Inaccuracy in taking the reading.
7. Center of gravity may not coincide with the center of bob.





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
23

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To determine the value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a
simple pendulum by plotting a graph between L and T
2


APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , metallic bob , Thin string and
meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

Slope
1

2
π 4 g gravity to due on Accelerati × =

L
2
T
Slope =

Where

g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec
2
]
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
T

= Time period [ Time taken to complete one oscillation ]
L

= Effective Length of the pendulum.

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.
NO
Length of
string
including
hook
l
Length
of
pendulum

L = [ l + r ]
Time
For 10
oscillations
Time
Period
T = t / 10


T
2

cm cm sec sec Mean sec
Sec
2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
24


GRAPH BETWEEN
LENGTH & SQUARE OF TIME

Along X – axis
One small division = _________ cm

Along Y – axis
One small division = ___ ( seconds )
2





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
25

CALCULATIONS:

FROM GRAPH

L
2
T
Slope =


Slope = _______ = ______ sec
2
/ cm

Slope
1

2
π 4 g × =



g = 4 [ 3.142 ]
2
× ________


g = 4 × 9.872 × ________

g = ________ cm / sec
2



Actual value = 980 cm / sec
2
.

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
980
980
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a simple pendulum by
plotting a graph between L and T
2
is calculated to be _________ cm / sec
2
.




Teacher’s signature




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
26

PRECAUTION:

1. Least count of slope watch should be noted and graduation on
stopwatch should be studied carefully before starting the experiment.
2. The support should be rigid.
3. Least count of stopwatch should be small.
4. Bob should be spherical and smooth.
5. The length should be rechecked with meter scale after hanging thebob.
6. The bob should be as near to the ground/ wall as possible but not
touching it.
7. There should not be any knots or twists in the thread.
8. The amplitude of vibration should be small (not exceeding 1/10
th
the
length of pendulum).
9. First four of five oscillations should not be counted as motion is non
linear.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non-linearity of the meter scale.
2. String used is not inelastic.
3. The support of pendulum is not rigid.
4. Inaccuracy of stopwatch.
5. Presence of air draughts.
6. Inaccuracy in taking the reading.
7. Center of gravity may not coincide with center of bob.



















DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
27

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram /
rectangular component method.

APPARATUS: Gravesand apparatus , Slotted weights with hangers ,
Mirror strip , Thread , Drawing paper , Drawing pins , and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :
PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

Cosθ
2
F
1
F 2
2
2
F
2
1
F F + + =


Where
F

= Resultant of two forces F
1
and F
2

u = Angle between F
1
and F
2


RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD


2
Y
F
2
X
F F + =

Where
F
X
= F
1X
+ F
2X
F
Y
= F
1Y
+ F
2Y

F
1X
=

F
1
Cos u
1
F
1Y
=

F
1
Sin u
1

F
2X
=

F
2
Cos u
2
F
2Y
=

F
2
Sin u
2


OBSERVATIONS IN TABULAR FORM:

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.
NO
Forces in
equilibrium
( in gm . wt )
Length of
arrows
( in cm )
Resultant F
( in gm . wt )
F – F
in
gm .wt


F
1


F
2


F
3


OA

OB

OC
Analytic
al value
of
F
Value by
graphic
method
F

1. 50 50 50 5 5 5






2. 70 70 90 7 7 9






3. 50 70 110 5 7 11







DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
28

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.
NO
Forces in
equilibrium
( in gm . wt )
Rectangular Components
in
( in gm . wt )


F
1


F
2


F
3


F
1X


F
2X


F
1Y


F
2Y


F
X =
F
1X +
F
2X


F
X =
F
1Y +
F
2Y


1.

50

50

50


2.

70

70

90


3.

50

70

110



FOR CALCULATIONS:

PARALLELOGRAM RECTANGULAR COMPONENT
METHOD METHOD
















DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
29


















































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E
Q
U
A
L

&

D
I
F
F
E
R
E
N
T

W
E
I
G
H
T
S



DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
30


















































O
B
S
E
R
V
A
T
I
O
N
S

T
A
K
E
N

A
T

E
Q
U
A
L

&

D
I
F
F
E
R
E
N
T

W
E
I
G
H
T
S



DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
31


PARALLELOGRAM METHOD














































1.
θ Cos
2
F
1
F 2
2
2
F
2
1
F F + + =

] [ Cos ] [ 2
2
] [
2
] [ × + +

2 × × × + +


+ +


F =

wt - gm F =



2.
θ Cos
2
F
1
F 2
2
2
F
2
1
F F + + =

] [ Cos ] [ 2
2
] [
2
] [ × + +

2 × × × + +

+ +


F =

wt - gm F =



3.
θ Cos
2
F
1
F 2
2
2
F
2
1
F F + + =

] [ Cos ] [ 2
2
] [
2
] [ × + +

2 × × × + +

+ +


F =

wt - gm F =




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
32


RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD











































F
1X
=

F
1
Cos u
1
F
2X
=

F
2
Cos u
2


F
1 X
=

[ ] × Cos [ ] F
2 X
=

[ ] × Cos [ ]

F
1X
=

[ ] × [ ] F
2X
=

[ ] × [ ]

F
1 X
=

________ F
2 X
=

________

F
1Y
=

F
1
Sin u
1
F
2Y
=

F
2
Sin u
2


F
1 Y
=

[ ] × Sin [ ] F
2 Y
=

[ ] × Sin [ ]

F
1Y
=

[ ] × [ ] F
2Y
=

[ ] × [ ]

F
1 Y
=

________ F
2 Y
=

________

F
X
= F
1X
+ F
2X
F
Y
= F
1Y
+ F
2Y


F
X
= ……..+ …….. F
Y
= …..… + …..….

F
X
= __________ F
Y
= ___________


2
Y
F
2
X
F F + =



2
] [
2
] [ +


+



F =

wt - gm F =




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
33


RESULT: The resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram / rectangular
component method are found to be

Parallelogram method Rectangular component method

1. ____________ gm . wt 1. ________ gm . wt

2. ____________ gm . wt 2. _________ gm . wt

3. ____________ gm . wt 3. _________ gm . wt








Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

1. Apparatus should be vertical.
2. Pulleys should be lubricated to reduce friction.
3. Equilibrium position should be checked by puling the threads.
4. Thin mirror strip is to be used.
5. The thread and hangers should not touch paper.
6. The selected scale should neither be too large or too small.
7. The threads should be fine and the knot very small.
8. The points should be marked by sharp pointed pencil without parallax
error.
9. The central point is to be marked carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Friction in the pulleys.
2. Inaccuracy of the weights.
3. Knot may not be fine.
4. Inaccuracy in measurement of length and angles.
5. The apparatus may not be exactly vertical.
6. Lines may not be exactly parallel to the threads due to parallax error.




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
34

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass prism
by critical angle method using a prism.


APPARATUS: Glass prism , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,
Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :
c
θ Sin
1
Index Refractive =


c
θ Sin
1
μ =

Where
µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]
u
C
= Critical angle

RAY DIAGRAM:








OBSERVATIONS IN TABULAR FORM:

FOR PRISM [ A ] FOR PRISM [ B ]
S.
NO
Critical
Angle
u
C

deg
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

Mean
µ

S.
NO
Critical
Angle
u
C

deg
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

Mean
µ

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.






DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
35


















































O
B
S
E
R
V
A
T
I
O
N
S

T
A
K
E
N

F
O
R

P
R
I
S
M


[


A

]


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
36


















































O
B
S
E
R
V
A
T
I
O
N
S

T
A
K
E
N

F
O
R

P
R
I
S
M

[


B

]



DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
37


CALCULATIONS:

FOR PRISM [ A ]






























FOR PRISM [ B ]














1.
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

u
C
= ______ degrees.

Sin
1
=


1
=
µ = ___________

2.
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

u
C
= ______ degrees.

Sin
1
=


1
=
µ = ___________



3.
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

u
C
= ______ degrees.

Sin
1
=


1
=
µ = ___________

[ MEAN µ PRISM A ]




3
+ +


3



Mean µ = ___________


1.
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

u
C
= ______ degrees.

Sin
1
=


1
=
µ = ___________

2.
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

u
C
= ______ degrees.

Sin
1
=


1
=
µ = ___________




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
38



















Mean Refractive Index of A & B =
2

....... ..........
+
= ______

Actual value = 1.5

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=


100
1.5
1.5
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %



RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass prism by critical angle method
using a prism is calculated to be ____________________







Teacher’s signature

3.
c
θ Sin
1
μ =

u
C
= ______ degrees.

Sin
1
=


1
=
µ = ___________

[ MEAN µ PRISM B ]




3
+ +


3



Mean µ = ___________



DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
39



PRECAUTION:

1. prism should be cleaned before starting then experiment.
2. boundary of the prism should be drawn accurately with a sharp find
pencil.
3. angle of prism should be towards the observer.
4. the first pin should be fixed just touching the boundary, sharp pins
should be used and fixed vertically.
5. second pin should be fixed when the image is about to become dim
and third pin should be at a distance more than 5 pins.
6. geometrical constructions should be correctly drawn by using a sharp
pencil and the angel should be measured carefully.
7. while making the pins in the fool of the pin is to be observed.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. impurities in the material of prism.
2. pins may not be erect and tip may not be sharp.
3. inaccuracy of the protector.
4. thickness of the lines drawn.





















DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
40

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the velocity of sound in air by resonance tube.
( I ) At room temperature
( ii ) At 0 °C
( III ) Find room temperature when V
O
= 33200 cm / sec

APPARATUS: Resonance tube , Tuning forks of known frequencies ,
Rubber pad , centigrade thermometer and a meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :


Where
l = First resonating length
D = Diameter of the tube

Where
V
t
= Velocity of sound at room temperature.
f = Frequency of tuning fork.
L = Corrected resonating length


Where
V
0
= Velocity of sound at 0 °C
t

= Room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of thermometer = 1° C
Room temperature ___________ ° C

S. NO Frequency
of
tuning fork

First resonating length [ l ]




Hertz
1.
Cm
2.
Cm
3.
Cm
Mean
Cm
1. 512

2. 480

3. 384




V
t
= 4 f L
V
0
= Mean V
t
– 61 t

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
41


CALCULATIONS:

FOR CORRECTED LENGTH OF 512 HZ



L = _____ + 0 . 3 × 3.5

L = _____ + 1.05 = _______ cm

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C



V
t
= 4 × 512 × _______

V
t
= ___________ cm / sec

FOR CORRECTED LENGTH OF 480 HZ




L = _____ + 0 . 3 × 3.5

L = _____ + 1.05 = _______ cm

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C



V
t
= 4 × 480 × _______

V
t
= _____________ cm / sec

FOR CORRECTED LENGTH OF 384 HZ





L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]
V
t
= 4 f L
L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]
V
t
= 4 f L
L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
42

L = _____ + 0 . 3 × 3.5

L = _____ + 1.05 = _______ cm

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C



V
t
= 4 × 384 × _______

V
t
= ____________ cm / sec


3
....... .......... ....... .......... ...... ..........

t
V Mean
+ +
=

Mean V
t
= ______________ cm / sec

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT O °C



V
0
= _______ -- 61 × _______

V
0
= ______________ cm / sec


Actual value = 33200 cm / sec

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
133200
33200
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %






V
0
= Mean V
t
– 61 t

V
t
= 4 f L

DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
43

RESULT:

1. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at room temperature is
calculated to be _________________cm / sec.

2. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at 0 °C temperature is
calculated to be _________________cm / sec

3. The room temperature [ when V
O
= 33200 cm / sec ] is calculated
to be _________________ °C

4. Percentage of error = ________________ %




Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

1. The apparatus should be vertical.
2. The timing fork is to be held by its stem only.
3. Tuning fork should be struck gently on the rubber pad.
4. The vibrating prongs should not touch the tube or any other hard
object.
5. Tuning fork is to be held near the end of the tube horizontally such that
its prong are vibrating parallel to the tube.
6. There should be no water leakage.
7. Lower meniscus of water is to be noted without parallax error.
8. Resonance position should be checked when the water level becomes
stationary.
9. Reading should be noted when the loudest source is heard without
beats.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. The resonance tube may not be exactly vertical.
2. Any leakage of water from the tube or reservation of water.
3. Change in room temperature.
4. The frequency marked on the tuning forks may not be accurate.
5. Presence of water in the resonance tube.
6. Inaccuracy of the given thermometer





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
44

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a convex lens using two optical
pins by no parallax method.

APPARATUS: Convex lens with adjustable stand , Two optical pins with
adjustable stands and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :
q p
q p
f Length Focal
+
×
= =

Where
f = Focal length of the given convex lens
p = Object distance from the optical centre of the lens to the object pin.
q = Image distance from the optical centre of the lens to the image pin.

RAY DIAGRAM: [ POSITION OF OBJECT ]

When the object is placed beyond 2F

When the object is placed at 2F



DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
45

When the object is placed between F and 2F


OBSERVATIONS:
IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 10 cm
S.
NO
Position
of
object
pin
on scale
[ A ]
cm
Position
of
lens
pin
on scale
[ B ]
cm
Position
Of
image
pin
on scale
[ C ]
cm
Object
Distance


p = [ B – A ]
cm
Image
Distance


q = [ C – B ]
cm
1. 26 50 24
2. 28 50 22
3. 30 50 20
4. 32 50 18
5. 34 50 16

IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 18 cm
S.
NO
Position
of
object
pin
on scale
[ A ]
cm
Position
of
lens
pin
on scale
[ B ]
cm
Position
Of
image
pin
on scale
[ C ]
cm
Object
Distance


p = [ B – A ]
cm
Image
Distance


q = [ C – B ]
cm
1. 10 50 40
2. 12 50 38
3. 14 50 36
4. 16 50 34
5. 18 50 32

DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
46


GRAPH BETWEEN
p & q
Along X – axis
One small division = ______ cm

Along Y – axis
One small division = ______ cm

Take two un plotted points on graph and
calculate focal length of the given convex lens




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
47

CALCULATIONS:
















































1.
q p
q p
f
+
×
=





+
×
= f



=

f = ___________ cm

2.
q p
q p
f
+
×
=





+
×
= f



=

f = ___________ cm

3.
q p
q p
f
+
×
=





+
×
= f



=

f = ___________ cm

4.
q p
q p
f
+
×
=





+
×
= f



=

f = ___________ cm

5.
q p
q p
f
+
×
=





+
×
= f



=

f = ___________ cm

[ MEAN FOCAL LENGTH ]


5
+ + + + +



=

f = ___________ cm



1. [ FROM GRAPH ]

q p
q p
f
+
×
=





+
×
= f



=

f = ___________ cm

2. [ FROM GRAPH ]

q p
q p
f
+
×
=





+
×
= f



=

f = ___________ cm





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
48

[ MEAN FOCAL LENGTH GRAPH ]

2
+
cm



2

= =


Mean focal length = ______ cm

Actual value = 10 cm

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
10
10
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %


RESULT:

The focal length of the given convex lens using two optical pins by no parallax
method is calculated to be _________________cm








Teacher’s signature














DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
49


PRECAUTION:

1. The lens should be clean, dry thin and small aperture.
2. The object and image pin should be at the same height and in the
same level as the centre of the lens.
3. The tips of the needles should be sharp bright and straight.
4. Tip to tip parallax is to be removed.
5. All distances are to be noted from the centre of the lens.
6. The object distance is to be changed in steps of at least one fifth of
the focal length of the lens used.
7. Distances are to be measured parallax to the principle axis of the
lens.
8. Tips of the pins should be on the principle axis of the lens.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Error due to Thickness of lens.
2. Non-sharpness of the tips of the pins.
3. Inaccuracy in measurement of distance due to index error.
4. Inaccuracy of meter scale.
5. Spherical aberration and chromatic aberration and chromatic
aberration.

























DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
50

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To determine the frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method
using a Vibrograph.

APPARATUS: A.C. main supply , Vibrograph with step down voltage
transformer , String , Pan , Adjustable pulley , Two upright pins , Weights
and meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

μ
g M

2L
1
string of Frequency
×
=
or

μ
g M

2L
1

s
F
×
=



2
s
F Mean
supply main C . A of Frequency =

Where

F
S
= Frequency of string.
L

= Distance between two consecutive nodes. [ Length of single loop ]
M

= Total mass suspended.
g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec
2
]
µ = Linear density of the string.

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of pan suspended m
1
=

______________ gm.

Mass per unit length of the string ( Linear density ) = _______ gm / cm.

S.
NO
Mass
placed
in pan
m
2

gm
Total mass

M = m
1
+ m
2

gm
Number
Of
Loops
N
Length
of
N loops
L
cm
Length
of
One loops
L = l / N
cm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
51

CALCULATIONS:
















































1.

μ
g M

2L
1

s
F
×
=




980

2
1

×
×
=



......... ..........

1
× =

F
S
= _________ Hertz

2.

μ
g M

2L
1

s
F
×
=




980

2
1

×
×
=



......... ..........

1
× =

F
S
= _________ Hertz

3.

μ
g M

2L
1

s
F
×
=




980

2
1

×
×
=



......... ..........

1
× =

F
S
= _________ Hertz

4.

μ
g M

2L
1

s
F
×
=




980

2
1

×
×
=



......... ..........

1
× =

F
S
= _________ Hertz

5.

μ
g M

2L
1

s
F
×
=




980

2
1

×
×
=



......... ..........

1
× =

F
S
= _________ Hertz

MEAN FREQUENCY OF
STRING


5
+ + + + +




=

F
S
= _________ Hertz


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
52

FREQENCY OF AC. MAIN SUPPLY


2
s
F Mean
F
C A.
=




2

F
C A.
=


[ F
AC
] = _________ Hertz



Actual value = 50 Hertz

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
50
50
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %




RESULT: The frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method using a
Vibrograph is calculated to be ________________ Hertz







Teacher’s signature











DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
53

PRECAUTION:

1. The string should be of uniform area of cross-section. It should have no
knots.
2. The string should be stretched horizontally.
3. The string, the vibrator or and the pulley should be in the same straight
line.
4. Pan should be suspended freely and must be stationary when readings
are taken.
5. The weights should be gently transferred to or from the pan.
6. The wave, set up should be well defined, stationary and of large
amplitude.
7. Pulley should be well oiled to reduce friction.
8. While taking the length of N loops the end loops must be omitted as
initial and final node is not clear.
9. Pins should be placed at exact position of nodes.
10. The rank awuls be kept parallel to the unread.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non uniformity of linear density of string.
2. Friction at pulley.
3. Large least count of weights.
4. Given linear density and weight.
5. Personal error in measuring the length.























DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
54

EXPERIMENT NO .11

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by
concave mirror.

APPARATUS: Concave mirror , Vertical stand with clamp , Optical pins
and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

2
h
1
h
μ
water with mirror concave from object of Height
water without mirror concave from object of Height
= =

OR

2
R
1
R

water with curvature of Radius
water without curvature of Radius
μ = =

Where

µ = Refractive index of water.
R
1
= Radius of curvature without water.
R
2
= Radius of curvature with water.

RAY DIAGRAM:



















DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
55

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR MIRROR NO. 1

S.
NO
Radius of
curvature
R
1

cm
Radius of
curvature
R
2

cm

2
R

1
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.


FOR MIRROR NO. 2

S.
NO
Radius of
curvature
R
1

cm
Radius of
curvature
R
2

cm

2
R

1
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.


CALCULATIONS:
FOR MIRROR NO. 1












1.

2
R

1
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

2.

2
R

1
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
56














FOR MIRROR NO. 2



























[ MEAN REFRACTIVE INDEX OF LIQUID ]

2


+
= µ



2

= =



Actual value = 1.333
3.

2
R

1
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF
LIQUID

3

μ
+ +
=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________



1.

2
R

1
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

2.

2
R

1
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

3.

2
R

1
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF
LIQUID

3

μ
+ +
=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
57


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
333 . 1
333 . 1
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=


100
333 . 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by concave mirror. is

calculated to be __________

Percentage of error = ________________ %



Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:

1. Before starting the experiment, mirror should be cleaned property.
2. All the distances should be measured parallel to principal axis.
3. All the distances should be measured from the pole mirror of the mirror
pole.
4. Parallax should be removed central portion of the mirror as there can
be some separation at the edges due to spherical aberration.
5. Eyes should be kept at least 25cm above the needle.
6. Just enough water should be poured to get a clear image.
7. Mirror of small aperture and large radius of curvature should be used.
SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Impurities present in the water.
2. Spherical aberration of the concave mirror.
3. Thickness of the needle.
4. Mirror may not be well polished.
5. Tip of the needle may not be sharp.
6. Error in the measurement of distances as the distances are
measured from the pole of the mirror instead of surface.


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
58

EXPERIMENT NO .12

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass slab
by the method of real and apparent depth.


APPARATUS: Glass slab , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,
Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.


WORKING FORMULA :

depth Apparent
depth Real
Index Refractive =


d
A
d
R
μ =

Where

µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]
R
d
= Real Depth
A
d
= Apparent Depth

RAY DIAGRAM:






DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
59


















































O
B
S
E
R
V
A
T
I
O
N
S

T
A
K
E
N

F
O
R

G
L
A
S
S

S
L
A
B


[


A

]


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
60


















































O
B
S
E
R
V
A
T
I
O
N
S

T
A
K
E
N

F
O
R

G
L
A
S
S

S
L
A
B


[


B

]



DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
61

OBSERVATIONS IN TABULAR FORM:

FOR LENGTH WISE

S.
NO
Real Depth
R d
cm
Apparent Depth
A d
cm
d
A
d
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.


FOR BREADTH WISE

S.
NO
Real Depth
R d
cm
Apparent Depth
A d
cm
d
A
d
R
μ =

Mean
µ


1.


2.


3.


CALCULATIONS:
FOR LENGTH WISE














1.
d
A
d
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

2.
d
A
d
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
62















FOR BREADTH WISE



























[ MEAN REFRACTIVE INDEX OF GLASS ]

2


+
= µ



2

= =


Actual value = 1.333
3.
d
A
d
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF
LIQUID

3

μ
+ +
=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________



1.
d
A
d
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

2.
d
A
d
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

3.
d
A
d
R
μ =




μ =



µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF
GLASS

3

μ
+ +
=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
63


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
333 . 1
333 . 1
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=


100
333 . 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass slab by the method of real and
apparent depth is calculated to be _____________

Percentage of error = ________________ %



Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:

1. The white sheet of paper should be firmly fixed on the drawing board.
2. The glass with clear and clean faces should be used.
3. The glass slab of greater thickness should be used.
4. The object pin O should touch the face KL of glass slab.
5. The pins should be vertical and the distance between the first two pins
and the last two pins should be about 5cm to 8cm.
6. The arrow head should be put on the refracted and emergent rays to
indicate their directions.
7. Glass slab should not be disturbed from its online while reading is
taken.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. The exact point where the image of object pin is formed may not be
located.
2. The faces of the glass slab may not be clean.
3. Error in measuring distances.
4. The object pin O may not be perfectly on the boundary line of the glass
slab.
5. Human error.


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
64

EXPERIMENT NO .13

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a bi – convex lens by using a
spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer. , Smooth glass plate and a Bi – convex lens


WORKING FORMULA :












R

= Radius of curvature of the given by – convex lens.
a = Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.
h

= Height of spherical surface
f = Focal length of the given by – convex lens.
µ = Refractive index of the given glass.


OBSERVATIONS:

1. Pitch of the screw =
rotation of Number
scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =
3
3
= 1 m . m
2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

3. Least count =
scale circular on divisions of number Total
screw the of Pitch


4. Least count =
100
1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm



2
1
h

1
6h
2
a

1
R + =

]
2
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
[
) 1 - μ (
1
f
+
×
× =

2
2
h

2
6h
2
a

2
R + =


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
65

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.


READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ C ]

S.
NO
M . S . R

cm
V . S . R

divisions
Fractional Part
FP = VSR × L
C
cm
Total Reading
T = FP + MSR
cm
Mean

cm
1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:








Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

a
1
= _______ cm , a
2
= _______ cm , a
3
= _______ cm


3
3
a
2
a
1
a
a
+ +
= =_________________ cm

DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
66


FOR RADIUS OF CURVATURE R
1
& R
2

























FOR FOCAL LENGTH OF THE GIVEN BI – CONVEX LENS














h
1
= [ B – A ]

= [ – ]

h
1
= ______________ cm

2
1
h

1
6h
2
a

1
R + =


2


6
2
] [

1
R +
×
=

2




1
R

+ =


R
1
= +

R
1
= ______________ cm





μ =



µ = _________

h
2
= [ C – A ]

= [ – ]

h
2
= ______________ cm

2
1
h

1
6h
2
a

2
R + =


2


6
2
] [

2
R +
×
=

2




2
R

+ =


R
2
= +

R
2
= ______________ cm





μ =



µ = _________

]
2
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
[
) 1 - μ (
1
f
+
×
× =


]


[
) 1 - 5 . 1 (
1
f
+
×
× =


]


[
5 . 0
1
f × =


f = 2 × _______________

f = ______________ cm




DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
67


Actual value = 20 cm

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
20
20
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=


100
20

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The focal length of the given bi – convex lens is calculated to be ________cm
Percentage of error = ________________ %






Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The constant of the of the instrument should be determined before
starting the experiment.
2. The circular scale should be rotated with the help of the head of the
screw only.
3. A circle should be marked with chalk on the smooth corner of the table
and all the readings on smooth surface should be taken within the
marked circle.
4. Reading on the smooth surface should be noted when the three legs
and the tip of the screw are just touching the surface.
5. A thin piece of paper may be used for checking the level.
6. Screw should be rotated in one direction only to avoid backlash error.
7. Reading on the spherical surface should be taken near its center only
to obtain accurate (h) high spherical surface.
8. There should be no lateral movement of the circular scale.
9. Once the circular scale reading exceeds 60 main scale should be
noted very carefully.


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
68



SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Non uniformity of the plane surface.
2. Presence of back-lash error in the instrument.
3. The circular scale screw and the nut of the instrument may not all
be co-axial.
4. Thickness of the paper used.
5. Any lateral movement of the circular scale.
6. Distortion in the shape of spherical mirror and uneven polish.







































DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
69

EXPERIMENT NO .14

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five solid spheres [ Having different
diameters ] by using a Vernier calipers. Plot graphs between

[ a ] Diameter and volume
[ b ] Mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is given ]
[ c ] Also find the density of the material of the given spheres.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Five solid spheres

WORKING FORMULA :


V

= Volume of solid sphere.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the solid sphere.


OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
20
1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.
Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.
Least count or Vernier constant =
b
a

=
10
1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.









3
r π
3
4
V =


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
70


FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE


Mass
of
bobs
g m
Size
of
bobs

M.S.R
c m
V.S.R
div
Fractional
Part
VSR × L
C
m m
Diameter
FP + MSR
m m

Sphere
1


Sphere
2


Sphere
3


CALCULATIONS:
FOR VOLUME OF SPHERE



























1.
3
r π
3
4
V =

V =

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]
3

V =

3
4

× 3.142 ×


3
V

=

V = ___________ cm
3




2.
3
r π
3
4
V =

V =

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]
3

V =

3
4

× 3.142 ×


3
V

=

V = ___________ cm
3




3.
3
r π
3
4
V =

V =

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]
3

V =

3
4

× 3.142 ×


3
V

=

V = ___________ cm
3




1.

V
m
d =

d =





d = ___________ gm / cm
3





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
71











RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be
Sphere 1 : _____________ cm
3
Sphere 2 : _____________ cm
3


Sphere 3 : _____________ cm
3

2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.
1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.
2. The density of the material of the given spheres is found to be
___________ gm / cm.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Constant of the vernier calipers should be determined carefully.
2. The experimental object should not be pressed too hard between the
fixed and movable jaw.
3. Upper jaws are to be used to determine the internal diameter.
4. Reading should be taken at different places to avoid the error due to
non uniformity in its shape.
5. Depth gauge is to be used for finding the depth of the given hollow
cylinder.
6. Zero error should be determined carefully and applied with proper sign.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non linearity of main scale and vernier scale.
2. Non uniformity in shape of the given cylinders.


2.

V
m
d =

d =





d = ___________ gm / cm
3







3.

V
m
d =

d =





d = ___________ gm / cm
3







DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
72


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLUME & DIAMETER

Along X – axis
One small division = ______ cm

Along Y – axis
One small division = ______ cm
3





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
73


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLUME & MASS

Along X – axis
One small division = ______ grams

Along Y – axis
One small division = ______ cm
3





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
74

EXPERIMENT NO .15

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five small spheres by using a
micrometer screw gauge.

[ 1 ] Plot a graph between diameter and volume
[ 2 ] Plot a graph between mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is
given ]

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Five small metallic sphere.

WORKING FORMULA :




V

= Volume of small metallic sphere.
t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]
r = Radius of the small metallic sphere.
A

= Area of cross section of the given wire.


OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =
rotation of Number
scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =
3
5 . 1
= 0 . 5 m . m
2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

3. Least count =
scale circular on divisions of number Total
screw the of Pitch


Least count =
50
5 0.

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =
rotation of Number
scale main on moved Distance


3
r π
3
4
V =


DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
75

Pitch of the screw =
3
3
= 1 m . m

2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

3. Least count =
scale circular on divisions of number Total
screw the of Pitch


Least count =
100
1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm


FOR ZERO ERROR


S.
NO
Main
Scale
Reading
m.m
Circular
Scale
Reading
div
Fractional Part
FP = CSR × L
C

m.m
Zero Error
Z = FP + MSR

m.m
Main
Zero
Error
m.m
1.

2.

3.


FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

Mass
of
bobs
g m
Size
of
bobs

M.S.R
c m
C.S.R
div
Fractional
Part
CSR × L
C
m m
Diameter
FP + MSR
m m
Corrected
Diameter
] Z [ T ± ÷

m m

Sphere
1


Sphere
2


Sphere
3









DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
76


CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SPHERE & DENSITY OF THE MATERIAL OF
THE GIVEN SPHERE







































1.
3
r π
3
4
V =

V =

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]
3

V =

3
4

× 3.142 ×


3
V

=

V = ___________ cm
3




2.
3
r π
3
4
V =

V =

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]
3

V =

3
4

× 3.142 ×


3
V

=

V = ___________ cm
3




3.
3
r π
3
4
V =

V =

3
4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]
3

V =

3
4

× 3.142 ×


3
V

=

V = ___________ cm
3




1.

V
m
d =

d =





d = ___________ gm / cm
3




2.

V
m
d =

d =





d = ___________ gm / cm
3






3.

V
m
d =

d =





d = ___________ gm / cm
3







DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
77


RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be
Sphere 1 : _____________ cm
3
Sphere 2 : _____________ cm
3


Sphere 3 : _____________ cm
3


2. The density of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be
Sphere 1 : _________ gm / cm
3
Sphere 2 : ________ gm / cm
3


Sphere 3 : _________ gm / cm
3

1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.
2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.




Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTIONS:

1. The screw is to be rotated in one direction.
2. It should be rotated from the screw head, till the click sound is heard.
3. Reading should be taken from five different places of the sphere and
the wire.
4. Reading of the wire is to be determined twice at the same place in
perpendicular direction.
5. The zero error should be measured accurately.
6. When the circular scale reading exceeds 30/60div, the main scale is
noted very carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Back lash error.
2. Screw may be loose in nut.
3. Non uniformly of the surface of the sphere.
4. Instrumental error.





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
78


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLUME & DIAMETER

Along X – axis
One small division = ______ cm

Along Y – axis
One small division = ______ cm
3





DATED : __________________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
79


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLUME & MASS

Along X – axis
One small division = ______ grams

Along Y – axis
One small division = ______ cm
3