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**ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
**

1

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

2

Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:___________________

Roll No: ____________ Group:___________________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

3

Certified that Miss. / Mr._______________________________

Of class ____________ has carried out the necessary practical

work as prescribed by the Board of Intermediate Education /

University of Karachi for the year _____________________

__________________________________ ______________________________

Head of the department Incharge

Date:__________________ Date:______________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

4

S.

No

Date

P.

No

Initial

1

To determine the volume of a given solid

cylinder and capacity of a hollow tube by

using a Vernier calipers.

01

2

To determine the volume of a given small

sphere and area of cross section of a wire by

using a micrometer screw gauge.

05

3

To determine the radius of curvature of a

given spherical mirror and the thickness of a

glass piece by using a spherometer.

09

4

To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By

using three bobs of simple pendulum having

different diameters.

13

5

To determine the value of g [ acceleration

due to gravity ] using a simple pendulum by

plotting a graph between L and T

2

19

6

To determine the resultant of two vectors by

using parallelogram / rectangular component

method.

23

7

To determine the refractive index of the

material of a glass prism by critical angle

method.

30

8

To determine the velocity of sound in air by

resonance tube.

36

9

To determine the focal length of a convex

lens using two optical pins by no parallax

method.

40

10

To determine the frequency of A.C supply by

Meld’s method using a vibrograph.

46

11

To determine the refractive index of water by

concave mirror.

50

12

To determine the refractive index of the

material of a glass slab by the method of real

and apparent depth.

54

13

To determine the focal length of a bi – convex

lens by using a spherometer.

60

14

To determine the volume of five solid

spheres [ Having different diameters ] by

using a micrometer screw gauge.

65

15

To determine the volume of five small

spheres by using a micrometer screw gauge.

70

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

5

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given solid cylinder and capacity of

a hollow tube by using a Vernier calipers.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Solid cylinder and a Hollow tube

WORKING FORMULA :

1.

Where

V

= Volume of the solid cylinder.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the solid cylinder.

L

= Length of the solid cylinder.

2.

Where

V

= Internal volume of the hollow tube.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Internal radius of the hollow tube.

h

= Depth of the hollow tube.

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

20

1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

10

1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.

V = t r

2

L

V = t r

2

h

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

6

FOR LENGTH OF SOLID CYLINDER

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

Length

cm

1.

2.

3.

FOR EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF SOLID CYLINDER

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

External

Diameter

cm

1.

2.

3.

FOR DEPTH OF THE HOLLOW TUBE

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

Depth

cm

1.

2.

3.

FOR INTERNAL DIAMETER OF THE HOLLOW TUBE

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

Internal

Diameter

cm

1.

2.

3.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

7

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SOLID CYLINDER

Length of the solid cylinder = L = ____________________ cm.

External diameter of solid cylinder = d = _______________ cm.

External radius of the solid cylinder = r = d / 2 = ________ cm.

Volume of solid cylinder V = t r

2

L

= [ 3.142 ] [ _____ ]

2

[ _____ ]

= [ 3.142 ] [ _____ ] [ _____ ]

V = ____________ cm

3

FOR CAPACITY OF HOLLOW TUBE

Depth of the hollow tube = h = ______________________ cm.

Internal diameter of the hollow tube = d = _____________ cm

Internal radius of the hollow tube = r = d / 2 = _________ cm.

Internal volume of the hollow tube = V = t r

2

h

V = [ 3.142 ] [ ________ ]

2

[ ______ ]

V = [ 3.142 ] [ ________ ] [ ______ ]

V = ____________ cm

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

8

RESULT:

The volume of the given solid cylinder is calculated to be ___________ cm

3

The capacity of the given hollow tube is calculated to be ____________cm

3

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Constant of the vernier calipers should be determined carefully.

2. The experimental object should not be pressed too hard between the

fixed and movable jaw.

3. Upper jaws are to be used to determine the internal diameter.

4. Reading should be taken at different places to avoid the error due to

non uniformity in its shape.

5. Depth gauge is to be used for finding the depth of the given hollow

cylinder.

6. Zero error should be determined carefully and applied with proper sign.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non linearity of main scale and vernier scale.

2. Non uniformity in shape of the given cylinders.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

9

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To determine the volume of a given small sphere and area of

cross section of a wire by using a micrometer screw gauge.

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Small metallic sphere and a Piece of wire

WORKING FORMULA :

1.

Where

V

= Volume of small metallic sphere.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the small metallic sphere.

2.

Where

A

= Area of cross section of the given wire.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the given wire.

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =

rotation of Number

scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =

3

5 . 1

= 0 . 5 m . m

2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

3. Least count =

scale circular on divisions of number Total

screw the of Pitch

4. Least count =

50

5 0.

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

3

r π

3

4

V =

A = t r

2

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

10

IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =

rotation of Number

scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =

3

3

= 1 m . m

2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

3. Least count =

scale circular on divisions of number Total

screw the of Pitch

4. Least count =

100

1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

FOR ZERO ERROR

S.

NO

M.S.R

m .m

C.S.R

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m . m

Zero Error

Z = FP + MSR

m . m

Mean

Zero Error

m . m

1.

2.

3.

FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

S.

NO

M.S.R

m .m

C.S.R

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m . m

Diameter

D = FP + MSR

m . m

Corrected

Diameter

] Z [ T D ± ÷ =

m . m

Mean

D

m .m

1.

2.

3.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

11

FOR DIAMETER OF WIRE

S.

NO

M.S.R

m .m

C.S.R

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m . m

Diameter

D = FP + MSR

m . m

Corrected

Diameter

] Z [ T D ± ÷ =

m . m

Mean

D

m .m

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SMALL SPHERE

Radius of the small sphere = r = ______ m . m = ________cm.

Volume of the small sphere =

3

r π

3

4

V =

V =

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]

3

=

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]

V = __________________ cm

3

FOR AREA OF CROSS SECTION

Radius of the wire = r = __________ m . m = __________cm.

Area of cross section of the given wire = A = t r

2

= [ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]

2

= [ 3.142 ] [ ______ ]

Area of cross section of the given wire = A = ________________ cm

2

RESULT:

The volume of the given small metallic sphere is calculated to be _____ cm

3

The area of cross section of the given wire is calculated to be ________cm

2

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

12

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The screw is to be rotated in one direction.

2. It should be rotated from the screw head, till the click sound is heard.

3. Reading should be taken from five different places of the sphere and

the wire.

4. Reading of the wire is to be determined twice at the same place in

perpendicular direction.

5. The zero error should be measured accurately.

6. When the circular scale reading exceeds 30/60div, the main scale is

noted very carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Back lash error.

2. Screw may be loose in nut.

3. Non uniformly of the surface of the sphere.

4. Instrumental error.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

13

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical mirror

and the thickness of a glass piece by using a spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer., Spherical mirror , Smooth glass plate and a

Piece of glass

WORKING FORMULA :

1.

Where

R

= Radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror.

a = Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

h

= Height of spherical surface

2.

Where

R

= Radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror.

f = Focal length of the spherical mirror.

OBSERVATIONS:

5. Pitch of the screw =

rotation of Number

scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =

3

3

= 1 m . m

6. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

7. Least count =

scale circular on divisions of number Total

screw the of Pitch

8. Least count =

100

1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

2

h

6h

2

a

R + =

2

R

f =

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

14

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

READING ON PIECE OF GLASS [ C ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

a

1

= _________ cm , a

2

= __________ cm , a

3

= ___________ cm

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

15

3

3

a

2

a

1

a

a

+ +

=

3

....... ..........

+ +

=

3

= ________ cm

h = [ B – A ]

h = ___________ – ___________ = _____________ cm

RESULT:

The radius of curvature of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be

_____________ cm

The focal length of the given spherical mirror is calculated to be

_____________cm

The thickness of the given glass piece is calculated to be ____________cm

Teacher’s signature

RADIUS OF CURVATURE

R

2

h

6h

2

a

R + =

2

6

2

] [

R +

×

=

2

R

+ =

R

= +

R = ______________ cm

FOCAL LENGTH

2

R

f =

f =

2

] [

f = ______________ cm

THICKNESS

T = [ C – A ]

T = ______ – _________

T = ______________ cm

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

16

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The constant of the of the instrument should be determined before

starting the experiment.

2. The circular scale should be rotated with the help of the head of the

screw only.

3. A circle should be marked with chalk on the smooth corner of the table

and all the readings on smooth surface should be taken within the

marked circle.

4. Reading on the smooth surface should be noted when the three legs

and the tip of the screw are just touching the surface.

5. A thin piece of paper may be used for checking the level.

6. Screw should be rotated in one direction only to avoid backlash error.

7. Reading on the spherical surface should be taken near its center only

to obtain accurate (h) high spherical surface.

8. There should be no lateral movement of the circular scale.

9. Once the circular scale reading exceeds 60 main scale should be

noted very carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Non uniformity of the plane surface.

2. Presence of back-lash error in the instrument.

3. The circular scale screw and the nut of the instrument may not all be

co-axial.

4. Thickness of the paper used.

5. Any lateral movement of the circular scale.

6. Distortion in the shape of spherical mirror and uneven polish.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

17

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To verify the laws of simple pendulum. By using three bobs of

simple pendulum having different diameters.

[ i ] Time period is independent of mass of bob.

[ ii ] Time period is independent of amplitude.

[ iii ] Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , Three metallic bobs of different

diameters and masses , Thin string and meter scale.

OBSERVATIONS:

[ LAW OF MASS ]

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

S.

NO

Radius

of

bob

Length

of

string

Length

of

pendulum

Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t /

10

cm cm cm sec sec Mean sec

1. 0.9 99.1 100

2. 0.9 99.1 100

3. 0.9 99.1 100

[ LAW AMPLITUDE ]

Diameter of the bob 1.8 cm Radius of the bob 0.9 cm

Length of he string 99.1 cm Length of the pendulum 100 cm

S.

NO

Amplitude Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t /

10

cm sec sec Mean sec

1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

18

[ LAW LENGTH ]

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.

NO

Length of

string

including

hook

l

Length

of

pendulum

L = [ l + r ]

Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t / 10

T

2

cm cm

sec sec Mean sec

Sec

2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

19

GRAPH BETWEEN

MASS & TIME

Along X – axis

One small division = _____ grams

Along Y – axis

One small division = _____ seconds

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

20

GRAPH BETWEEN

AMPLITUDE & TIME

Along X – axis

One small division = ______ cm.

Along Y – axis

One small division = ______ seconds

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

21

GRAPH BETWEEN

LENGTH & SQUARE OF TIME

Along X – axis

One small division = _________ cm

Along Y – axis

One small division = ___ ( seconds )

2

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

22

RESULT:

1. Time period is independent of mass of bob.

2. Time period is independent of amplitude.

3. Time period is directly proportional to the square root of it’s length

Hence the laws of simple pendulum are verified

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Least count of stopwatch should be noted and graduation a stopwatch

should be studied carefully before starting the experiment.

2. The support should be rigid.

3. Least count of stopwatch should be small.

4. Bob should be spherical and smooth.

5. The length should be rechecked with meter scale after hanging the

bob.

6. The bob should be as near to the ground\wall as possible but not

touching it.

7. There should not be any knot or twists in the thread.

8. The amplitude of vibration should be small.

9. First four or five oscillation should not be counted as motion is non

linear.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non linearity of the meter scale.

2. String used is not elastic.

3. She support of pendulum is not rigid.

4. Inaccuracy of stopwatch.

5. Pressure of air draughts.

6. Inaccuracy in taking the reading.

7. Center of gravity may not coincide with the center of bob.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

23

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To determine the value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a

simple pendulum by plotting a graph between L and T

2

APPARATUS: Stop watch , fixed support , metallic bob , Thin string and

meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

Slope

1

2

π 4 g gravity to due on Accelerati × =

L

2

T

Slope =

Where

g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec

2

]

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

T

= Time period [ Time taken to complete one oscillation ]

L

= Effective Length of the pendulum.

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of stop watch = 0 . 01 sec

Radius of the bob r = 0.9 cm

S.

NO

Length of

string

including

hook

l

Length

of

pendulum

L = [ l + r ]

Time

For 10

oscillations

Time

Period

T = t / 10

T

2

cm cm sec sec Mean sec

Sec

2

1. 79.1 80

2. 89.1 90

3. 99.1 100

4. 109.1 110

5. 119.1 120

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

24

GRAPH BETWEEN

LENGTH & SQUARE OF TIME

Along X – axis

One small division = _________ cm

Along Y – axis

One small division = ___ ( seconds )

2

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

25

CALCULATIONS:

FROM GRAPH

L

2

T

Slope =

Slope = _______ = ______ sec

2

/ cm

Slope

1

2

π 4 g × =

g = 4 [ 3.142 ]

2

× ________

g = 4 × 9.872 × ________

g = ________ cm / sec

2

Actual value = 980 cm / sec

2

.

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

980

980

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The value of g [ acceleration due to gravity ] using a simple pendulum by

plotting a graph between L and T

2

is calculated to be _________ cm / sec

2

.

Teacher’s signature

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

26

PRECAUTION:

1. Least count of slope watch should be noted and graduation on

stopwatch should be studied carefully before starting the experiment.

2. The support should be rigid.

3. Least count of stopwatch should be small.

4. Bob should be spherical and smooth.

5. The length should be rechecked with meter scale after hanging thebob.

6. The bob should be as near to the ground/ wall as possible but not

touching it.

7. There should not be any knots or twists in the thread.

8. The amplitude of vibration should be small (not exceeding 1/10

th

the

length of pendulum).

9. First four of five oscillations should not be counted as motion is non

linear.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non-linearity of the meter scale.

2. String used is not inelastic.

3. The support of pendulum is not rigid.

4. Inaccuracy of stopwatch.

5. Presence of air draughts.

6. Inaccuracy in taking the reading.

7. Center of gravity may not coincide with center of bob.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

27

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram /

rectangular component method.

APPARATUS: Gravesand apparatus , Slotted weights with hangers ,

Mirror strip , Thread , Drawing paper , Drawing pins , and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

Cosθ

2

F

1

F 2

2

2

F

2

1

F F + + =

Where

F

= Resultant of two forces F

1

and F

2

u = Angle between F

1

and F

2

RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD

2

Y

F

2

X

F F + =

Where

F

X

= F

1X

+ F

2X

F

Y

= F

1Y

+ F

2Y

F

1X

=

F

1

Cos u

1

F

1Y

=

F

1

Sin u

1

F

2X

=

F

2

Cos u

2

F

2Y

=

F

2

Sin u

2

OBSERVATIONS IN TABULAR FORM:

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.

NO

Forces in

equilibrium

( in gm . wt )

Length of

arrows

( in cm )

Resultant F

( in gm . wt )

F – F

in

gm .wt

F

1

F

2

F

3

OA

OB

OC

Analytic

al value

of

F

Value by

graphic

method

F

1. 50 50 50 5 5 5

2. 70 70 90 7 7 9

3. 50 70 110 5 7 11

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

28

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

S.

NO

Forces in

equilibrium

( in gm . wt )

Rectangular Components

in

( in gm . wt )

F

1

F

2

F

3

F

1X

F

2X

F

1Y

F

2Y

F

X =

F

1X +

F

2X

F

X =

F

1Y +

F

2Y

1.

50

50

50

2.

70

70

90

3.

50

70

110

FOR CALCULATIONS:

PARALLELOGRAM RECTANGULAR COMPONENT

METHOD METHOD

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

29

O

B

S

E

R

V

A

T

I

O

N

S

T

A

K

E

N

A

T

E

Q

U

A

L

&

D

I

F

F

E

R

E

N

T

W

E

I

G

H

T

S

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

30

O

B

S

E

R

V

A

T

I

O

N

S

T

A

K

E

N

A

T

E

Q

U

A

L

&

D

I

F

F

E

R

E

N

T

W

E

I

G

H

T

S

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

31

PARALLELOGRAM METHOD

1.

θ Cos

2

F

1

F 2

2

2

F

2

1

F F + + =

] [ Cos ] [ 2

2

] [

2

] [ × + +

2 × × × + +

+ +

F =

wt - gm F =

2.

θ Cos

2

F

1

F 2

2

2

F

2

1

F F + + =

] [ Cos ] [ 2

2

] [

2

] [ × + +

2 × × × + +

+ +

F =

wt - gm F =

3.

θ Cos

2

F

1

F 2

2

2

F

2

1

F F + + =

] [ Cos ] [ 2

2

] [

2

] [ × + +

2 × × × + +

+ +

F =

wt - gm F =

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

32

RECTANGULAR COMPONENT METHOD

F

1X

=

F

1

Cos u

1

F

2X

=

F

2

Cos u

2

F

1 X

=

[ ] × Cos [ ] F

2 X

=

[ ] × Cos [ ]

F

1X

=

[ ] × [ ] F

2X

=

[ ] × [ ]

F

1 X

=

________ F

2 X

=

________

F

1Y

=

F

1

Sin u

1

F

2Y

=

F

2

Sin u

2

F

1 Y

=

[ ] × Sin [ ] F

2 Y

=

[ ] × Sin [ ]

F

1Y

=

[ ] × [ ] F

2Y

=

[ ] × [ ]

F

1 Y

=

________ F

2 Y

=

________

F

X

= F

1X

+ F

2X

F

Y

= F

1Y

+ F

2Y

F

X

= ……..+ …….. F

Y

= …..… + …..….

F

X

= __________ F

Y

= ___________

2

Y

F

2

X

F F + =

2

] [

2

] [ +

+

F =

wt - gm F =

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

33

RESULT: The resultant of two vectors by using parallelogram / rectangular

component method are found to be

Parallelogram method Rectangular component method

1. ____________ gm . wt 1. ________ gm . wt

2. ____________ gm . wt 2. _________ gm . wt

3. ____________ gm . wt 3. _________ gm . wt

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Apparatus should be vertical.

2. Pulleys should be lubricated to reduce friction.

3. Equilibrium position should be checked by puling the threads.

4. Thin mirror strip is to be used.

5. The thread and hangers should not touch paper.

6. The selected scale should neither be too large or too small.

7. The threads should be fine and the knot very small.

8. The points should be marked by sharp pointed pencil without parallax

error.

9. The central point is to be marked carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Friction in the pulleys.

2. Inaccuracy of the weights.

3. Knot may not be fine.

4. Inaccuracy in measurement of length and angles.

5. The apparatus may not be exactly vertical.

6. Lines may not be exactly parallel to the threads due to parallax error.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

34

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass prism

by critical angle method using a prism.

APPARATUS: Glass prism , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,

Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :

c

θ Sin

1

Index Refractive =

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

Where

µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]

u

C

= Critical angle

RAY DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS IN TABULAR FORM:

FOR PRISM [ A ] FOR PRISM [ B ]

S.

NO

Critical

Angle

u

C

deg

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

Mean

µ

S.

NO

Critical

Angle

u

C

deg

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

35

O

B

S

E

R

V

A

T

I

O

N

S

T

A

K

E

N

F

O

R

P

R

I

S

M

[

A

]

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

36

O

B

S

E

R

V

A

T

I

O

N

S

T

A

K

E

N

F

O

R

P

R

I

S

M

[

B

]

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

37

CALCULATIONS:

FOR PRISM [ A ]

FOR PRISM [ B ]

1.

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

u

C

= ______ degrees.

Sin

1

=

1

=

µ = ___________

2.

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

u

C

= ______ degrees.

Sin

1

=

1

=

µ = ___________

3.

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

u

C

= ______ degrees.

Sin

1

=

1

=

µ = ___________

[ MEAN µ PRISM A ]

3

+ +

3

Mean µ = ___________

1.

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

u

C

= ______ degrees.

Sin

1

=

1

=

µ = ___________

2.

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

u

C

= ______ degrees.

Sin

1

=

1

=

µ = ___________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

38

Mean Refractive Index of A & B =

2

....... ..........

+

= ______

Actual value = 1.5

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

1.5

1.5

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass prism by critical angle method

using a prism is calculated to be ____________________

Teacher’s signature

3.

c

θ Sin

1

μ =

u

C

= ______ degrees.

Sin

1

=

1

=

µ = ___________

[ MEAN µ PRISM B ]

3

+ +

3

Mean µ = ___________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

39

PRECAUTION:

1. prism should be cleaned before starting then experiment.

2. boundary of the prism should be drawn accurately with a sharp find

pencil.

3. angle of prism should be towards the observer.

4. the first pin should be fixed just touching the boundary, sharp pins

should be used and fixed vertically.

5. second pin should be fixed when the image is about to become dim

and third pin should be at a distance more than 5 pins.

6. geometrical constructions should be correctly drawn by using a sharp

pencil and the angel should be measured carefully.

7. while making the pins in the fool of the pin is to be observed.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. impurities in the material of prism.

2. pins may not be erect and tip may not be sharp.

3. inaccuracy of the protector.

4. thickness of the lines drawn.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

40

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the velocity of sound in air by resonance tube.

( I ) At room temperature

( ii ) At 0 °C

( III ) Find room temperature when V

O

= 33200 cm / sec

APPARATUS: Resonance tube , Tuning forks of known frequencies ,

Rubber pad , centigrade thermometer and a meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

Where

l = First resonating length

D = Diameter of the tube

Where

V

t

= Velocity of sound at room temperature.

f = Frequency of tuning fork.

L = Corrected resonating length

Where

V

0

= Velocity of sound at 0 °C

t

= Room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of thermometer = 1° C

Room temperature ___________ ° C

S. NO Frequency

of

tuning fork

First resonating length [ l ]

Hertz

1.

Cm

2.

Cm

3.

Cm

Mean

Cm

1. 512

2. 480

3. 384

V

t

= 4 f L

V

0

= Mean V

t

– 61 t

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

41

CALCULATIONS:

FOR CORRECTED LENGTH OF 512 HZ

L = _____ + 0 . 3 × 3.5

L = _____ + 1.05 = _______ cm

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C

V

t

= 4 × 512 × _______

V

t

= ___________ cm / sec

FOR CORRECTED LENGTH OF 480 HZ

L = _____ + 0 . 3 × 3.5

L = _____ + 1.05 = _______ cm

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C

V

t

= 4 × 480 × _______

V

t

= _____________ cm / sec

FOR CORRECTED LENGTH OF 384 HZ

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

V

t

= 4 f L

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

V

t

= 4 f L

L = [ mean l + 0 . 3 D ]

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

42

L = _____ + 0 . 3 × 3.5

L = _____ + 1.05 = _______ cm

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT t °C

V

t

= 4 × 384 × _______

V

t

= ____________ cm / sec

3

....... .......... ....... .......... ...... ..........

t

V Mean

+ +

=

Mean V

t

= ______________ cm / sec

FOR VELOCITY OF SOUND AT O °C

V

0

= _______ -- 61 × _______

V

0

= ______________ cm / sec

Actual value = 33200 cm / sec

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

133200

33200

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

V

0

= Mean V

t

– 61 t

V

t

= 4 f L

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

43

RESULT:

1. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at room temperature is

calculated to be _________________cm / sec.

2. The velocity of sound in air by resonance tube at 0 °C temperature is

calculated to be _________________cm / sec

3. The room temperature [ when V

O

= 33200 cm / sec ] is calculated

to be _________________ °C

4. Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. The apparatus should be vertical.

2. The timing fork is to be held by its stem only.

3. Tuning fork should be struck gently on the rubber pad.

4. The vibrating prongs should not touch the tube or any other hard

object.

5. Tuning fork is to be held near the end of the tube horizontally such that

its prong are vibrating parallel to the tube.

6. There should be no water leakage.

7. Lower meniscus of water is to be noted without parallax error.

8. Resonance position should be checked when the water level becomes

stationary.

9. Reading should be noted when the loudest source is heard without

beats.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. The resonance tube may not be exactly vertical.

2. Any leakage of water from the tube or reservation of water.

3. Change in room temperature.

4. The frequency marked on the tuning forks may not be accurate.

5. Presence of water in the resonance tube.

6. Inaccuracy of the given thermometer

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

44

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a convex lens using two optical

pins by no parallax method.

APPARATUS: Convex lens with adjustable stand , Two optical pins with

adjustable stands and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

q p

q p

f Length Focal

+

×

= =

Where

f = Focal length of the given convex lens

p = Object distance from the optical centre of the lens to the object pin.

q = Image distance from the optical centre of the lens to the image pin.

RAY DIAGRAM: [ POSITION OF OBJECT ]

When the object is placed beyond 2F

When the object is placed at 2F

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

45

When the object is placed between F and 2F

OBSERVATIONS:

IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 10 cm

S.

NO

Position

of

object

pin

on scale

[ A ]

cm

Position

of

lens

pin

on scale

[ B ]

cm

Position

Of

image

pin

on scale

[ C ]

cm

Object

Distance

p = [ B – A ]

cm

Image

Distance

q = [ C – B ]

cm

1. 26 50 24

2. 28 50 22

3. 30 50 20

4. 32 50 18

5. 34 50 16

IF ROUGH FOCAL LENGTH = 18 cm

S.

NO

Position

of

object

pin

on scale

[ A ]

cm

Position

of

lens

pin

on scale

[ B ]

cm

Position

Of

image

pin

on scale

[ C ]

cm

Object

Distance

p = [ B – A ]

cm

Image

Distance

q = [ C – B ]

cm

1. 10 50 40

2. 12 50 38

3. 14 50 36

4. 16 50 34

5. 18 50 32

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

46

GRAPH BETWEEN

p & q

Along X – axis

One small division = ______ cm

Along Y – axis

One small division = ______ cm

Take two un plotted points on graph and

calculate focal length of the given convex lens

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

47

CALCULATIONS:

1.

q p

q p

f

+

×

=

+

×

= f

=

f = ___________ cm

2.

q p

q p

f

+

×

=

+

×

= f

=

f = ___________ cm

3.

q p

q p

f

+

×

=

+

×

= f

=

f = ___________ cm

4.

q p

q p

f

+

×

=

+

×

= f

=

f = ___________ cm

5.

q p

q p

f

+

×

=

+

×

= f

=

f = ___________ cm

[ MEAN FOCAL LENGTH ]

5

+ + + + +

=

f = ___________ cm

1. [ FROM GRAPH ]

q p

q p

f

+

×

=

+

×

= f

=

f = ___________ cm

2. [ FROM GRAPH ]

q p

q p

f

+

×

=

+

×

= f

=

f = ___________ cm

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

48

[ MEAN FOCAL LENGTH GRAPH ]

2

+

cm

2

= =

Mean focal length = ______ cm

Actual value = 10 cm

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

10

10

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The focal length of the given convex lens using two optical pins by no parallax

method is calculated to be _________________cm

Teacher’s signature

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

49

PRECAUTION:

1. The lens should be clean, dry thin and small aperture.

2. The object and image pin should be at the same height and in the

same level as the centre of the lens.

3. The tips of the needles should be sharp bright and straight.

4. Tip to tip parallax is to be removed.

5. All distances are to be noted from the centre of the lens.

6. The object distance is to be changed in steps of at least one fifth of

the focal length of the lens used.

7. Distances are to be measured parallax to the principle axis of the

lens.

8. Tips of the pins should be on the principle axis of the lens.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Error due to Thickness of lens.

2. Non-sharpness of the tips of the pins.

3. Inaccuracy in measurement of distance due to index error.

4. Inaccuracy of meter scale.

5. Spherical aberration and chromatic aberration and chromatic

aberration.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

50

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To determine the frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method

using a Vibrograph.

APPARATUS: A.C. main supply , Vibrograph with step down voltage

transformer , String , Pan , Adjustable pulley , Two upright pins , Weights

and meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

μ

g M

2L

1

string of Frequency

×

=

or

μ

g M

2L

1

s

F

×

=

2

s

F Mean

supply main C . A of Frequency =

Where

F

S

= Frequency of string.

L

= Distance between two consecutive nodes. [ Length of single loop ]

M

= Total mass suspended.

g

= Acceleration due to gravity [ g = 980 cm / sec

2

]

µ = Linear density of the string.

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of pan suspended m

1

=

______________ gm.

Mass per unit length of the string ( Linear density ) = _______ gm / cm.

S.

NO

Mass

placed

in pan

m

2

gm

Total mass

M = m

1

+ m

2

gm

Number

Of

Loops

N

Length

of

N loops

L

cm

Length

of

One loops

L = l / N

cm

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

51

CALCULATIONS:

1.

μ

g M

2L

1

s

F

×

=

980

2

1

×

×

=

......... ..........

1

× =

F

S

= _________ Hertz

2.

μ

g M

2L

1

s

F

×

=

980

2

1

×

×

=

......... ..........

1

× =

F

S

= _________ Hertz

3.

μ

g M

2L

1

s

F

×

=

980

2

1

×

×

=

......... ..........

1

× =

F

S

= _________ Hertz

4.

μ

g M

2L

1

s

F

×

=

980

2

1

×

×

=

......... ..........

1

× =

F

S

= _________ Hertz

5.

μ

g M

2L

1

s

F

×

=

980

2

1

×

×

=

......... ..........

1

× =

F

S

= _________ Hertz

MEAN FREQUENCY OF

STRING

5

+ + + + +

=

F

S

= _________ Hertz

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

52

FREQENCY OF AC. MAIN SUPPLY

2

s

F Mean

F

C A.

=

2

F

C A.

=

[ F

AC

] = _________ Hertz

Actual value = 50 Hertz

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

50

50

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT: The frequency of A.C supply by Meld’s method using a

Vibrograph is calculated to be ________________ Hertz

Teacher’s signature

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

53

PRECAUTION:

1. The string should be of uniform area of cross-section. It should have no

knots.

2. The string should be stretched horizontally.

3. The string, the vibrator or and the pulley should be in the same straight

line.

4. Pan should be suspended freely and must be stationary when readings

are taken.

5. The weights should be gently transferred to or from the pan.

6. The wave, set up should be well defined, stationary and of large

amplitude.

7. Pulley should be well oiled to reduce friction.

8. While taking the length of N loops the end loops must be omitted as

initial and final node is not clear.

9. Pins should be placed at exact position of nodes.

10. The rank awuls be kept parallel to the unread.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non uniformity of linear density of string.

2. Friction at pulley.

3. Large least count of weights.

4. Given linear density and weight.

5. Personal error in measuring the length.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

54

EXPERIMENT NO .11

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by

concave mirror.

APPARATUS: Concave mirror , Vertical stand with clamp , Optical pins

and a Meter scale.

WORKING FORMULA :

2

h

1

h

μ

water with mirror concave from object of Height

water without mirror concave from object of Height

= =

OR

2

R

1

R

water with curvature of Radius

water without curvature of Radius

μ = =

Where

µ = Refractive index of water.

R

1

= Radius of curvature without water.

R

2

= Radius of curvature with water.

RAY DIAGRAM:

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

55

OBSERVATIONS:

FOR MIRROR NO. 1

S.

NO

Radius of

curvature

R

1

cm

Radius of

curvature

R

2

cm

2

R

1

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

FOR MIRROR NO. 2

S.

NO

Radius of

curvature

R

1

cm

Radius of

curvature

R

2

cm

2

R

1

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR MIRROR NO. 1

1.

2

R

1

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

2.

2

R

1

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

56

FOR MIRROR NO. 2

[ MEAN REFRACTIVE INDEX OF LIQUID ]

2

+

= µ

2

= =

Actual value = 1.333

3.

2

R

1

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF

LIQUID

3

μ

+ +

=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________

1.

2

R

1

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

2.

2

R

1

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

3.

2

R

1

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF

LIQUID

3

μ

+ +

=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

57

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

333 . 1

333 . 1

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

333 . 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The refractive index of the given liquid [ water ] by concave mirror. is

calculated to be __________

Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Before starting the experiment, mirror should be cleaned property.

2. All the distances should be measured parallel to principal axis.

3. All the distances should be measured from the pole mirror of the mirror

pole.

4. Parallax should be removed central portion of the mirror as there can

be some separation at the edges due to spherical aberration.

5. Eyes should be kept at least 25cm above the needle.

6. Just enough water should be poured to get a clear image.

7. Mirror of small aperture and large radius of curvature should be used.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Impurities present in the water.

2. Spherical aberration of the concave mirror.

3. Thickness of the needle.

4. Mirror may not be well polished.

5. Tip of the needle may not be sharp.

6. Error in the measurement of distances as the distances are

measured from the pole of the mirror instead of surface.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

58

EXPERIMENT NO .12

OBJECT: To determine the refractive index of the material of a glass slab

by the method of real and apparent depth.

APPARATUS: Glass slab , Drawing board , Sheet of white paper ,

Drawing pins , Common pins and Geometry box.

WORKING FORMULA :

depth Apparent

depth Real

Index Refractive =

d

A

d

R

μ =

Where

µ = Refractive Index of the material of given glass slab

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 1. 5 ]

R

d

= Real Depth

A

d

= Apparent Depth

RAY DIAGRAM:

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

59

O

B

S

E

R

V

A

T

I

O

N

S

T

A

K

E

N

F

O

R

G

L

A

S

S

S

L

A

B

[

A

]

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

60

O

B

S

E

R

V

A

T

I

O

N

S

T

A

K

E

N

F

O

R

G

L

A

S

S

S

L

A

B

[

B

]

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

61

OBSERVATIONS IN TABULAR FORM:

FOR LENGTH WISE

S.

NO

Real Depth

R d

cm

Apparent Depth

A d

cm

d

A

d

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

FOR BREADTH WISE

S.

NO

Real Depth

R d

cm

Apparent Depth

A d

cm

d

A

d

R

μ =

Mean

µ

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

FOR LENGTH WISE

1.

d

A

d

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

2.

d

A

d

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

62

FOR BREADTH WISE

[ MEAN REFRACTIVE INDEX OF GLASS ]

2

+

= µ

2

= =

Actual value = 1.333

3.

d

A

d

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF

LIQUID

3

μ

+ +

=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________

1.

d

A

d

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

2.

d

A

d

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

3.

d

A

d

R

μ =

μ =

µ = _________

MEAN REFRACTIVE OF

GLASS

3

μ

+ +

=

3

μ =

Mean µ = ___________

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

63

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

333 . 1

333 . 1

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

333 . 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The refractive index of the material of a glass slab by the method of real and

apparent depth is calculated to be _____________

Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. The white sheet of paper should be firmly fixed on the drawing board.

2. The glass with clear and clean faces should be used.

3. The glass slab of greater thickness should be used.

4. The object pin O should touch the face KL of glass slab.

5. The pins should be vertical and the distance between the first two pins

and the last two pins should be about 5cm to 8cm.

6. The arrow head should be put on the refracted and emergent rays to

indicate their directions.

7. Glass slab should not be disturbed from its online while reading is

taken.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. The exact point where the image of object pin is formed may not be

located.

2. The faces of the glass slab may not be clean.

3. Error in measuring distances.

4. The object pin O may not be perfectly on the boundary line of the glass

slab.

5. Human error.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

64

EXPERIMENT NO .13

OBJECT: To determine the focal length of a bi – convex lens by using a

spherometer.

APPARATUS: Spherometer. , Smooth glass plate and a Bi – convex lens

WORKING FORMULA :

R

= Radius of curvature of the given by – convex lens.

a = Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

h

= Height of spherical surface

f = Focal length of the given by – convex lens.

µ = Refractive index of the given glass.

OBSERVATIONS:

1. Pitch of the screw =

rotation of Number

scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =

3

3

= 1 m . m

2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

3. Least count =

scale circular on divisions of number Total

screw the of Pitch

4. Least count =

100

1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

2

1

h

1

6h

2

a

1

R + =

]

2

R

1

R

2

R

1

R

[

) 1 - μ (

1

f

+

×

× =

2

2

h

2

6h

2

a

2

R + =

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

65

READING ON SMOOTH SURFACE OR ZERO ERROR [ A ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ B ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

READING ON SPHERICAL SURFACE [ C ]

S.

NO

M . S . R

cm

V . S . R

divisions

Fractional Part

FP = VSR × L

C

cm

Total Reading

T = FP + MSR

cm

Mean

cm

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

Mean distance between the legs of spherometer.

a

1

= _______ cm , a

2

= _______ cm , a

3

= _______ cm

3

3

a

2

a

1

a

a

+ +

= =_________________ cm

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

66

FOR RADIUS OF CURVATURE R

1

& R

2

FOR FOCAL LENGTH OF THE GIVEN BI – CONVEX LENS

h

1

= [ B – A ]

= [ – ]

h

1

= ______________ cm

2

1

h

1

6h

2

a

1

R + =

2

6

2

] [

1

R +

×

=

2

1

R

+ =

R

1

= +

R

1

= ______________ cm

μ =

µ = _________

h

2

= [ C – A ]

= [ – ]

h

2

= ______________ cm

2

1

h

1

6h

2

a

2

R + =

2

6

2

] [

2

R +

×

=

2

2

R

+ =

R

2

= +

R

2

= ______________ cm

μ =

µ = _________

]

2

R

1

R

2

R

1

R

[

) 1 - μ (

1

f

+

×

× =

]

[

) 1 - 5 . 1 (

1

f

+

×

× =

]

[

5 . 0

1

f × =

f = 2 × _______________

f = ______________ cm

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

67

Actual value = 20 cm

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

20

20

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

20

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

The focal length of the given bi – convex lens is calculated to be ________cm

Percentage of error = ________________ %

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The constant of the of the instrument should be determined before

starting the experiment.

2. The circular scale should be rotated with the help of the head of the

screw only.

3. A circle should be marked with chalk on the smooth corner of the table

and all the readings on smooth surface should be taken within the

marked circle.

4. Reading on the smooth surface should be noted when the three legs

and the tip of the screw are just touching the surface.

5. A thin piece of paper may be used for checking the level.

6. Screw should be rotated in one direction only to avoid backlash error.

7. Reading on the spherical surface should be taken near its center only

to obtain accurate (h) high spherical surface.

8. There should be no lateral movement of the circular scale.

9. Once the circular scale reading exceeds 60 main scale should be

noted very carefully.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

68

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Non uniformity of the plane surface.

2. Presence of back-lash error in the instrument.

3. The circular scale screw and the nut of the instrument may not all

be co-axial.

4. Thickness of the paper used.

5. Any lateral movement of the circular scale.

6. Distortion in the shape of spherical mirror and uneven polish.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

69

EXPERIMENT NO .14

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five solid spheres [ Having different

diameters ] by using a Vernier calipers. Plot graphs between

[ a ] Diameter and volume

[ b ] Mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is given ]

[ c ] Also find the density of the material of the given spheres.

APPARATUS: Vernier calipers, Five solid spheres

WORKING FORMULA :

V

= Volume of solid sphere.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the solid sphere.

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 20 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 20 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

20

1 . 0

= 0.005 cm.

IN CASE OF 10 DIVISIONS ON VERNIER SCALE

Smallest division division on main scale = a = 0.1 cm.

Total number of divisions on vernier scale = b = 10 divisions.

Least count or Vernier constant =

b

a

=

10

1 . 0

= 0.01 cm.

3

r π

3

4

V =

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

70

FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

Mass

of

bobs

g m

Size

of

bobs

M.S.R

c m

V.S.R

div

Fractional

Part

VSR × L

C

m m

Diameter

FP + MSR

m m

Sphere

1

Sphere

2

Sphere

3

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SPHERE

1.

3

r π

3

4

V =

V =

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]

3

V =

3

4

× 3.142 ×

3

V

=

V = ___________ cm

3

2.

3

r π

3

4

V =

V =

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]

3

V =

3

4

× 3.142 ×

3

V

=

V = ___________ cm

3

3.

3

r π

3

4

V =

V =

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]

3

V =

3

4

× 3.142 ×

3

V

=

V = ___________ cm

3

1.

V

m

d =

d =

d = ___________ gm / cm

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

71

RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be

Sphere 1 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 2 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 3 : _____________ cm

3

2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.

1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.

2. The density of the material of the given spheres is found to be

___________ gm / cm.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Constant of the vernier calipers should be determined carefully.

2. The experimental object should not be pressed too hard between the

fixed and movable jaw.

3. Upper jaws are to be used to determine the internal diameter.

4. Reading should be taken at different places to avoid the error due to

non uniformity in its shape.

5. Depth gauge is to be used for finding the depth of the given hollow

cylinder.

6. Zero error should be determined carefully and applied with proper sign.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Non linearity of main scale and vernier scale.

2. Non uniformity in shape of the given cylinders.

2.

V

m

d =

d =

d = ___________ gm / cm

3

3.

V

m

d =

d =

d = ___________ gm / cm

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

72

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLUME & DIAMETER

Along X – axis

One small division = ______ cm

Along Y – axis

One small division = ______ cm

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

73

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLUME & MASS

Along X – axis

One small division = ______ grams

Along Y – axis

One small division = ______ cm

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

74

EXPERIMENT NO .15

OBJECT: To determine the volume of five small spheres by using a

micrometer screw gauge.

[ 1 ] Plot a graph between diameter and volume

[ 2 ] Plot a graph between mass and volume [ If mass of each sphere is

given ]

APPARATUS: Screw gauge , Five small metallic sphere.

WORKING FORMULA :

V

= Volume of small metallic sphere.

t = Ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter

[ It is a mathematical constant whose value is 3.142 ]

r = Radius of the small metallic sphere.

A

= Area of cross section of the given wire.

OBSERVATIONS:

IN CASE OF 50 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =

rotation of Number

scale main on moved Distance

Pitch of the screw =

3

5 . 1

= 0 . 5 m . m

2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 50 divisions.

3. Least count =

scale circular on divisions of number Total

screw the of Pitch

Least count =

50

5 0.

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

IN CASE OF 100 DIVISIONS ON CIRCULAR SCALE

1. Pitch of the screw =

rotation of Number

scale main on moved Distance

3

r π

3

4

V =

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

75

Pitch of the screw =

3

3

= 1 m . m

2. Total number of divisions on circular scale = 100 divisions.

3. Least count =

scale circular on divisions of number Total

screw the of Pitch

Least count =

100

1

= 0 . 01 m . m = 0 . 001 cm

FOR ZERO ERROR

S.

NO

Main

Scale

Reading

m.m

Circular

Scale

Reading

div

Fractional Part

FP = CSR × L

C

m.m

Zero Error

Z = FP + MSR

m.m

Main

Zero

Error

m.m

1.

2.

3.

FOR DIAMETER OF SPHERE

Mass

of

bobs

g m

Size

of

bobs

M.S.R

c m

C.S.R

div

Fractional

Part

CSR × L

C

m m

Diameter

FP + MSR

m m

Corrected

Diameter

] Z [ T ± ÷

m m

Sphere

1

Sphere

2

Sphere

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

76

CALCULATIONS:

FOR VOLUME OF SPHERE & DENSITY OF THE MATERIAL OF

THE GIVEN SPHERE

1.

3

r π

3

4

V =

V =

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]

3

V =

3

4

× 3.142 ×

3

V

=

V = ___________ cm

3

2.

3

r π

3

4

V =

V =

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]

3

V =

3

4

× 3.142 ×

3

V

=

V = ___________ cm

3

3.

3

r π

3

4

V =

V =

3

4

[ 3.142 ] [ ____ ]

3

V =

3

4

× 3.142 ×

3

V

=

V = ___________ cm

3

1.

V

m

d =

d =

d = ___________ gm / cm

3

2.

V

m

d =

d =

d = ___________ gm / cm

3

3.

V

m

d =

d =

d = ___________ gm / cm

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

77

RESULT:

1. The volume of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be

Sphere 1 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 2 : _____________ cm

3

Sphere 3 : _____________ cm

3

2. The density of the given small metallic spheres are calculated to be

Sphere 1 : _________ gm / cm

3

Sphere 2 : ________ gm / cm

3

Sphere 3 : _________ gm / cm

3

1. The graph between mass and volume is a straight line.

2. The graph between diameter and volume is a smooth curve.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The screw is to be rotated in one direction.

2. It should be rotated from the screw head, till the click sound is heard.

3. Reading should be taken from five different places of the sphere and

the wire.

4. Reading of the wire is to be determined twice at the same place in

perpendicular direction.

5. The zero error should be measured accurately.

6. When the circular scale reading exceeds 30/60div, the main scale is

noted very carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Back lash error.

2. Screw may be loose in nut.

3. Non uniformly of the surface of the sphere.

4. Instrumental error.

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

78

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLUME & DIAMETER

Along X – axis

One small division = ______ cm

Along Y – axis

One small division = ______ cm

3

DATED : __________________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

79

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLUME & MASS

Along X – axis

One small division = ______ grams

Along Y – axis

One small division = ______ cm

3

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