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DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
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DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
2
















Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:___________________

Roll No: ____________ Group:___________________














DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
3







Certified that Miss. / Mr._______________________________


Of class ____________ has carried out the necessary practical

work as prescribed by the Board of Intermediate Education /

University of Karachi for the year _____________________







__________________________________ ______________________________
Head of the department Incharge



Date:__________________ Date:______________






DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
4

S.
No

Date


P.
No

Initial

1
To determine the unknown resistance of the given
coil with the help of meter bridge.

01


2
To determine the unknown resistance and the
specific resistance of the material of the given wire
using Post Office Box.

06


3
To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by
graphic method.

10


4
To compare the e. m . f of two cells using
Potentiometer by direct method.

14


5
To show the relation between Potential difference
applied at the ends of a heated tungsten filament
lamp and the current passing through it

17


6
To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half
deflection method.

21


7
To prove that the photo current is directly
proportional to the intensity of light falling on
photocell.

24


8
To determine the unknown resistance of the given
coil by direct method.

29


9
To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [
Value of J ]
To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical
method.

32


10
To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a
graph between time and temperature. Also calculate
the cooling constants for different time intervals

36


11
To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of
the material of a given rod by Pullinger’s apparatus

40


12
To determine the specific heat of a given solid by
the method mixture

44


13
To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by
the method mixture

47



14
To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical
method.

50


15
To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas
using Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph
between temperature and pressure


54


16
To study the relation between current and
capacitance when different capacitors are connected
used in an A.C. circuit.

58



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
5

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil with the
help of meter bridge. Also find the specific resistance of the material of the
given wire.

APPARATUS: Meter bridge, Galvanometer , Known resistance box ,
Unknown resistance , Cell with cell box , One way key, Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
1.
R
L
X
L
R X × =
Where
X = Unknown resistance of the given coil
R = Known resistance from the resistance box
L
X
= Length of bridge wire from null point to one end of the bridge.
L
R
= Length of bridge wire from null point to other end of the bridge.
2.
L
X
2
r π
ρ =
Where
µ

= Specific resistance
r = Radius of the wire.
L

= Length of the wire.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:






DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
6

OBSERVATIONS:

When X is in 1
st
gap and R is in second gap

S. NO. R


O
L
X



cm
L
R
= [ 100 – L
X
]


cm
R
L
X
L
R X × =

O
Mean
X
1

O
1.

2.

3.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:




When R is in 1
st
gap and X is in second gap

S. NO. R


O
L
R



cm
L
X
= [ 100 – L
R
]


cm
R
L
X
L
R X × =

O
Mean
X
2

O
1.

2.

3.







DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
7

CALCULATIONS:

When X is in 1
st
gap and R is in second gap





















When R is in 1
st
gap and X is in second gap
























3

1
X
1
X
1
X + +

3
+ +
Mean X
1
= _________ Ohms



1.
R
L
X
L
R X × =



1
X × =

X
1
= ___________ Ohms


2.
R
L
X
L
R X × =



1
X × =

X
1
= ___________ Ohms


3.
R
L
X
L
R X × =



1
X × =

X
1
= ___________ Ohms


3

2
X
2
X
2
X + +

3
+ +
Mean X
2
= _________ Ohms



1.
R
L
X
L
R X × =



2
X × =

X
2
= ___________ Ohms


2.
R
L
X
L
R X × =



2
X × =

X
2
= ___________ Ohms


3.
R
L
X
L
R X × =



2
X × =

X
2
= ___________ Ohms



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
8

[ MEAN UNKNOWN RESISTANCE ]

2
+
Ohms



2

= =

L
X
2
r π
ρ =
200

2
] 0.027 [ 3.142
ρ
× ×
=

200
0.000729 3.142
ρ
× ×
=
µ = _____________________ Ohms – Cm.

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Actual Value = 1. 14 × 10
– 4
Ohms – cm.

100
4 -
10 1.14

4 -
10 1.14
Error Of Percentage ×
×
÷ ×
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %


RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil by interchanging gaps is
found to be _________ O .
2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ________ O ÷ cm.
3. Percentage of error _________ %.





Teacher’s signature



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
9

PRECAUTION:

1. There should be no loose connection and of the wire should be free
from rust and insulation.
2. The circuit should be checked by taping the jockey at the left hand and
then at the right hand and to get the opposite deflection.
3. All the plug of the resistance box should be firmly kept in their
respective gap.
4. The jockey should be taped on the wire instead of sliding to noted the
null deflection.
5. The jockey should be held vertically.
6. The resistance from the resistance box should be adjusted to get the
null deflection between 40-60 cm . To minimizes the error due to non
uniformity of the wire.
7. Resistance should be determined by interchanging gaps to avoid error
due to end resistance.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Extra resistance due to loose connection, rusted wire, rusted screws,
constant passage of current and loose plugs.
2. Inaccuracy of resistance from resistance box.
3. Inaccuracy of galvanometer due to its non linear scale.
4. Fluctuations in current from the cell.
5. Non uniform thickness of the meter bridge wire.
















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
10

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance and the specific resistance
of the material of the given wire using Post Office Box.

APPARATUS: Post Office Box , Galvanometer , Wire of unknown
resistance , Cell with cell box , Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
1.
P
Q
R X × =
Where
X = Unknown resistance of the given coil
P & Q = Resistances of ratio arms
R = Resistance of the third arm.
2.
L
X
2
r π
ρ =
Where
µ

= Specific resistance
r = Radius of the wire.
L

= Length of the wire.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
11

OBSERVATIONS:

Length of wire = 200 cm Radius of wire = 0.027 cm

S.
NO.
P

O
Q

O
Q /
P
R

O
P
Q
R X × =
O
Direction
Of
deflection
Inference


1.

10

10

1

0

X > 0

10

10

1

·

X < ·

CALCULATIONS:












2.

10

10

1

X >

10

10

1

X <



3.

100

10

0.1

X >

100

10

0.1

X =

100

10

0.1

X <



4.

1000

10

0.01

X >

1000

10

0.01

X =

1000

10

0.01

X <
1.
P
Q
R
1
X × =


100
10

1
X × =

= ___________ Ohms
2.
P
Q
R
2
X × =


1000
10

2
X × =

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
12


[ MEAN UNKNOWN RESISTANCE ]

2
+
Ohms



2

= =

L
X
2
r π
ρ =
200

2
] 0.027 [ 3.142
ρ
× ×
=

200
0.000729 3.142
ρ
× ×
=
µ = _____________________ Ohms – Cm.


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

Actual Value = 1. 14 × 10
– 4
Ohms – cm.

100
4 -
10 1.14

4 -
10 1.14
Error Of Percentage ×
×
÷ ×
=

Percentage of error = ________________ %


RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil is found to be ______ O
2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ______________ O ÷ cm.
3. Percentage of error _________________ %.






Teacher’s signature

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
13

PRECAUTION:

1. Circuit connection should be neat light and free from insulation
material.
2. The end of the connecting wires should be cleaned with sand
paper.
3. The plug of the P.O Box not in use should be tight in their gaps.
4. The battery keys should be pressed before galvanometer, key
released before cell key to avoid self induction.
5. The radius of wire of unknown resistance should be determined
carefully.
6. Length of wire should be determined carefully property stretching it
between two ends.
7. Wire should be free of kinks and should be uniform area of cross
section.
8. Pointer of galvanometer should be at zero position before starting
the experiment.
9. Null point should be determined carefully.


SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Resistance from P.O Box might not be same as written on it.
2. Wire may not be uniform area of cross section.
3. Inaccuracy of galvanometer due to its non linear scale.



















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
14

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by graphic method.

APPARATUS: Low resistance Voltmeter, Resistance box ,One way key ,
Battery or Cells with cell box , Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

V ] - E [
VR
X =
Where
X = Resistance of the given voltmeter.
R = Resistance of resistance box connected in series with the voltmeter.
V = Voltage drop across the voltmeter.
E = E. m. f of the battery


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Voltmeter 0 . 1 Volts

S.
NO.
E m f
of the
Battery
E
Volts
Resistance

R

O
Voltmeter
Reading
V
Volts

V
1


Volts
– 1

V ] - E [
VR
X =

O
Mean
X


O
1. 3.0

2.8 0.357

2. 3.0

2.7 0.370

3. 3.0

2.6 0.385

4. 3.0

2.5 0.400

5. 3.0

2.4 0.416







DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
15


GRAPH BETWEEN
RESISTANCE & 1 / V

Along X – axis
One small division = _____ Ohms

Along Y – axis
One small division = _____ Volts
–1




5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

































0


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
16

CALCULATIONS:


































Actual Value = _______________ Ohms.

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100

Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
Percentage of error = ________________ %




1.
V ] - E [
VR
X =


2.8 - 3.0
2.8
X
×
=

= ___________ Ohms

2.
V ] - E [
VR
X =


2.7 - 3.0
2.7
X
×
=

= ___________ Ohms



3.
V ] - E [
VR
X =


2.6 - 3.0
2.6
X
×
=
= ___________ Ohms



[ MEAN X

]

5
+ + + + +



=


= ___________ Ohms

5.
V ] - E [
VR
X =


2.4 - 3.0
2.4
X
×
=

= ___________ Ohms



4.
V ] - E [
VR
X =


2.5 - 3.0
2.5
X
×
=

= ___________ Ohms




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
17


RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter is found to be
_____________ O
2. The unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter from graph is found to be
_____________ O
3. Percentage of error _________________ %.




Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

1. Connections should be neat, clean and light.
2. Ends of the wire should be free from insulations.
3. All the plugs of the resistance box, not in use should be tight in their
gaps.
4. Current should be passed only when the reading are been taken.
5. Positive terminal of voltmeter should be connected to the position of
the cell or battery.
6. Low resistance voltmeter should be used.
7. E m f of the battery should be connected to the position of the cell
or battery.
8. Voltmeter should be of small least count.
9. The points of the voltmeter should be at zero position before
starting experiment.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Plugs of resistance box, not in use may not be tight in their gaps.
2. Least count of voltmeter being large.
3. The e m f of the battery may not be constant or fluctuation in the flow of
current.
4. Ends of the wire may not be clean





DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
18

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To compare the e. m . f of two cells using Potentiometer by direct
method.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer, Galvanometer , Dry cell, Daniel cell, Two
way key , One way key , Jockey , Rheostat , Battery, and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=
Where
X = E. m. f of dry cell.
R = E. m. f of Daniel cell.
E
1
= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E
1

is in circuit
E
2
= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E
2

is in circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:







OBSERVATIONS:
E. m. f of dry cell = 1. 5 Volts
S.
NO.
L
1

[ Dry cell ]
cm
L
2

[ Daniel cell ]
cm

2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
= Mean
2
E
1
E

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CALCULATIONS:

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
19


















































1.
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=




=

= ___________

2.
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=




=

= ___________



3.
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=




=

= ___________



4.
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=




=

= ___________


5.
2
L
1
L

2
E
1
E
=




=

= ___________



[ MEAN
2
E
1
E
]
5
+ + + +



=

= ___________



2
L
1
L

1
E

2
E =

5 . 1

2
E =

E
2
= _____________ Volts



PERCENTAGE OF ERROR

Actual Value = 1. 08 Volts

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
×
÷


100
08 . 1
08 1.
×
÷
=


Percentage of error = ______
%

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
20

RESULT:

1. The ratio of e . m . f of Dry and Daniel cells by direct method using
Potentiometer is found to be _______________________________
2. The e . m . f of Daniel cell is found to be _____________________
3. Percentage of error = ___________ %




Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:
1. Connections should be neat tight and free from insulating material.
2. Jockey should not be slided on the wire but it should be stepped
gently.
3. Jockey should be held vertically.
4. The positive terminals of battery, dry and denial cells should be
connected one end of the potentiometer wire.
5. Preferably readings for null point of L
1
should be taken on the last
two wires (to minimize error due to non-uniformity of wire).
6. A set of readings for L
1
and L
2
should be taken without changing the
position of the Rheostat.
7. Difference between two consecutive readings of L
1
should be at
least 10 cms.
8. Current should be passed only when the readings are being taken.
9. The E.M.F. of the battery should be greater than E.M.F. of the
individual cells.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Non-uniformity of thickness the potentiometer wires.
2. Extra resistance due to loose connections rusted wires, rusted screws,
and constant passage of current.
3. Inaccuracy of galvanometer.
4. Fluctuations from the cells or battery.
5. Personnel error in noting the readings.
6. Resistance of wire of potentiometer may change due to heating effect
of the passage of current.


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
21

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To show the relation between Potential difference applied at the
ends of a heated tungsten filament lamp and the current passing through it

APPARATUS: Tungsten filament lamp, Voltmeter , Ammeter , Rheostat ,
Battery, One way key and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
I
V
R =
Where
R = Resistance of tungsten filament lamp.
R = Voltage applied across the tungsten filament lamp.
I = Current flowing through tungsten filament lamp.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Ammeter 0.1 Amps
Least count of Voltmeter 0.1 Volts
S.NO.
Voltmeter
Reading
V
Volt
Ammeter
Reading
I
Amp
I
V
R =

Ohms [ O ]
1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
22


GRAPH BETWEEN
VOLTAGE & CURRENT

Along X – axis
One small division = _____ Volts
Along Y – axis
One small division = _____ Amperes



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
23


CALCULATIONS:

































RESULT:

1. The graph between V and I indicates that the potential difference
across the tungsten filament and the current through it are not directly
proportional. The graph between V and I is not a straight line but it is a
curve.
2. The graph between V and I shows that the ratio of potential difference
across the tungsten filament and the current through it increases as the
current increases so tungsten filament is non – Ohmic . Hence Ohms
law is not valid.



1.
I
V
R =




=

= _________Ohms

2.
I
V
R =




=

= _________Ohms




3.
I
V
R =




=

= _________Ohms




4.
I
V
R =




=

= _________Ohms



5.
I
V
R =




=

= _________Ohms






DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
24

Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:

1. The connection should be neat, tight and free from insulating at the
ends.
2. The Rheostat should be adjusted such that the ammeter reading
increases in step of 0.1 amp.
3. The graduation of ammeter and voltmeter should be carefully noted
before starting the experiment.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Current should not be passed constantly, sources of error’s inaccuracy
of voltmeter and ammeter due to their non liner scale and non-
sensitively.
2. Extra resistance due to loose connections, constant passage of
current, rusted wires etc.
3. Personnel error.































DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
25


EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half deflection
method.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer , High Resistance box , Low resistance box ,
Dry Cell , One way keys and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=
Where
Rg = Resistance of galvanometer.
R = High resistance connected in series with the galvanometer.
S = Shunt resistance connected in parallel with galvanometer to reduce
deflection of galvanometer to half of its previous value

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:
S.NO. High
Resistance
R
O
Full
Deflection

divisions
Half
Deflection

divisions
Shunt
Resistance
S
O
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=


O
Mean
R g

O
1. 30 15
2. 28 14
3. 26 13
4. 24 12
5. 22 11


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
26


CALCULATIONS:

































PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = ______ Volts

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100


Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
100


Error Of Percentage × =

1.
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=






÷
×
=




=

= ___________ Ohms

2.
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=






÷
×
=




=

= ___________ Ohms



3.
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=






÷
×
=




=

= ___________ Ohms



4.
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=






÷
×
=




=

= ___________ Ohms


5.
S R
S

R
Rg
÷
×
=






÷
×
=




=

= ___________ Ohms



[ MEAN R
g
]

5
+ + + +
5


= ___________ Ohms



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
27

Percentage of error = ___________
RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of galvanometer by half deflection
method is found to be ____________Ohms.

2. Percentage of error _________________ %.






Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Connection should be neat, tight and free from insulating material.
2. All plugs in resistance box not in use should be tight in their gaps.
3. Infinity keys from both resistance boxes should be out of their gaps
when the readings are not being taken.
4. For the safety of galvanometer, high resistance must be checked in the
circuit before starting the experiment.
5. Deflection should be such even numbers that half of it can be read
accurately. When R
S
is zero, deflection must be zero.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Inaccurate values of resistances from the resistance box [ ie the values
may not be the same as written on it. ]
2. Fluctuations in current from the cell.
3. Insensitivity. Inaccuracy of galvanometer.
4. Resistance of the connecting wires.















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
28

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To prove that the photo current is directly proportional to the
intensity of light falling on photocell.

APPARATUS: Photo voltaic cell, Micro ammeter , Electric lamp , Meter
scale , A – C Main supply and connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

For inverse square law of radiation
Intensity of light E ·
2
d
1

From the experiment
Photo electric current I ·
2
d
1


Hence Intensity of light E · Photo electric current I

E · I

Where

d = Distance between the source of light and photocell


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:






DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
29

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Micro – ammeter ___________ µ Amps

POWER OF THE BULB = 60 WATTS

S.NO. Distance
d
Current
I
1


Current
I
2


2
2
I
1
I +

Distance
d
2

2
d
1

cm µ A µ A µ A
cm
2
cm

2

1. 100

10000
1.00 × 10

4

2. 90

8100
1.23 × 10

4

3. 80

6400
1.50 × 10

4

4. 70

4900
2.0 × 10

4

5. 60

3600
2.77 × 10

4



POWER OF THE BULB = 40 WATTS

S.NO. Distance
d
Current
I
1


Current
I
2


2
2
I
1
I +

Distance
d
2

2
d
1

cm µ A µ A µ A
cm
2
cm

2

1. 100

10000
1.00 × 10

4

2. 90

8100
1.23 × 10

4

3. 80

6400
1.50 × 10

4

4. 70

4900
2.0 × 10

4

5. 60

3600
2.77 × 10

4




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
30


GRAPH BETWEEN
CURRENT AND
2
d
1

Along X – axis
One small division = ______ cm
– 2


Along Y – axis
One small division = ____ Amperes


0
× 10
– 4








DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
31

CALCULATIONS:















































1.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2

2.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2


3.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2

4.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2


5.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2

1.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2


2.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2

2.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2


4.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2

5.


2
] [
1
=



1
=

= __________cm
– 2



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
32

RESULT:
The graph between current I and
2
d
1
is a straight line which confirm that the
photoelectric current is directly proportional to the intensity of light .








Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Connections must be tight and free from insulating material at the end.
2. The height of lamp and height of photocell should be same.
3. Distance should be measured carefully.
4. Zero error of micro ammeter should be noted.
5. Least count of micro ammeter should be noted.
6. Window of photocell should be opened after the lamp is switched on.
7. Personal movement should minimum so that light is not blocked.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Large least count of micro ammeter.
2. Height of lamp or photocell may not be same.
3. Presence of light in the surroundings.
4. Change in the illumination of light in the surrounding.
















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
33

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil by direct
method.

APPARATUS: Unknown low resistance , Resistance box , Rheostat or
resistance box , Galvanometer , One way key , Dry cell , and Connecting
wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

2
θ
1
θ R
X
×
=
Where
X = Unknown resistance.
R = Value of standard low resistance.
u
1
= Deflection of galvanometer across X
u
2
= Deflection of galvanometer across R

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:






DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
34

OBSERVATIONS:
S.
NO
Known
resistance
R
Deflection
for X
u
1

Deflection
for R

u
2


2
θ
1
θ R
X
×
=
Mean
X
Ohms Degrees Degrees Ohms Ohms
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


CALCULATIONS:

2
θ
1
θ R
X
×
=





























PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :
1.


X
×
=



=


= _________Ohms

2.


X
×
=



=


= _________Ohms




3.


X
×
=



=


= _________Ohms



4.


X
×
=



=


= _________Ohms




5.


X
×
=



=


= _________Ohms


[ MEAN R
g
]

5
+ + + +
5


= ___________ Ohms




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
35


Actual Value = ______ Volts

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100


Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
100


Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %


RESULT:

1. The value of given low resistance is found to be ___________ Ohms.

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.






Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:

1. Connection should be neat, tight and free from insulating material.
2. All plugs in resistance box not in use should be tight in their gaps.
3. For the safety of galvanometer, high resistance must be checked in the
circuit before starting the experiment.
4. Resistance of galvanometer should be high.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Inaccurate values of resistances from the resistance box [ ie the values
may not be the same as written on it. ]
2. Fluctuations in current from the cell.
3. Insensitivity. Inaccuracy of galvanometer.
4. Resistance of the connecting wires.





DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
36

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ]

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,
Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical
balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=



Where
V = The voltage applied across the resistor.
I = Current passed through the resistor.
t = Time for which the current is passed.
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
S
c
= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
T
I
= Initial Temperature of water .
T
F
= Final temperature of water.















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
37

OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gms.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] ________________ gms.
Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gms.
Initial Temperature of water = T
I
= _______°C
Final temperature of water = T
F
= ________°C
Rise in temperature A t = ( T
F
– T
I
) ____________°C
Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal / gms °C
Specific heat of water = S
b
= 1 Cal / gms °C
The voltage applied across the resistor = V = __________ Volts
Current passed through the resistor = I = __________ Amp
Time for which the current is passed = t = _____ min × 60 = _____Sec

S.
NO
Time ( t )

Voltage ( V )

Current ( I ) Temperature ( T )
minutes Volts Amp °C
1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

6. 12

7. 14

8. 16

9. 18

10. 20


CALCULATIONS:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=





] [ ] [


÷
+ × ×
× ×
=





DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
38


] [



×
+
=








×
=



J = _____________ Joules / Cal


PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = 4.2 Joules / Cal


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
.2 4
2 . 4
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
.2 4

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %


RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated
to be ___________________ Joules / Cal .

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.






Teacher’s signature




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
39

PRECAUTION:

1. Neat and tight connections should be ensured by rubbing the wire ends
with stand paper.
2. The heating coil should be completely immersed in water.
3. Current should be passed through the heating coil only when it is
immersed in water, otherwise it may melt down.
4. Turns of the heating coil should not touch each other.
5. Stir the water gently thought the experiment.
6. The bulb of the thermometer should be completely immersed in water
and should not touch the walls, base of calorimeter and the heater.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Extra resistance due to loose connection, insulation at the ends.
2. Improper lagging of calorimeter.
3. Inaccuracy of ammeter and voltmeter due to non-linear scale and non
sensitivity.
4. Personal error.






























DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
40

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a graph between
time and temperature. Also calculate the cooling constants for different time
intervals

APPARATUS: Calorimeter with stirrer , Half degree thermometer, Stop
watch , Clamp stand , Hot water .

WORKING FORMULA:
R
T
2
]
2
T
1
T [
Δt
]
2
T
1
T [
K
÷
+
÷
=
Where
T
1
= Initial Temperature
T
2
= Final temperature
T
R
= Room Temperature
At = Time Interval
OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Thermometer 0 . 5 °
C Room Temperature__________ °C

Least count of Stop watch 0 . 01 Seconds






S.NO. Time
min
Temperature
°C
S.NO. Time
min
Temperature
°C
1. 0

6. 10

2. 2

7. 12

3. 4

8. 14

4. 6

9. 16

5. 8

10. 18


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
41


GRAPH BETWEEN
TIME & TEMPERATURE

Along X – axis
One small division = 0 . 20 Minutes

Along Y – axis
One small division = 1 ° C


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
42

CALCULATIONS:

For [ 3
rd
, 6
th
,

9
th
] Intervals from observations &
For 5
th
Intervals from graph

R
T
2
]
2
T
1
T [
Δt
]
2
T
1
T [
K
÷
+
÷
=





































1.

2
] [
2
] [

÷
+
÷
=



K

÷
=




K =

K = _________ / 2 minutes
2.

2
] [
2
] [

÷
+
÷
=



K

÷
=




K =

K = _________ / 2 minutes


3.

2
] [
2
] [

÷
+
÷
=



K

÷
=




K =

K = _________ / 2 minutes
FROM GRAPH

1.

2
] [
2
] [

÷
+
÷
=



K

÷
=



K =
K = _________ / 2 minutes



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
43

RESULT:

1. The graph between time ( t ) and temperature ( T ) is a smooth curve.

2. The cooling constants from observations for [ 3
rd
, 6
th
,

9
th
] time
intervals are found to be ____ , _____ , and _______ / 2 minutes

3. The cooling constants from graph for 5
th
time intervals is found to be
_______ / 2 minutes




Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

1. Least count of thermometer and stop watch should be determined
accurately.
2. The graduations of the thermometer should be studied carefully before
starting the experiment.
3. Initially room temperature should be recorded by hanging the
thermometer freely in air starting the experiment.
4. The eyes should be kept at the same height as the thermometer
readings.
5. The bulb of the thermometer should not be touched with hands while
noting the readings.
6. When starting the experiment the difference between the hot body and
that of surroundings should not be more than 40°C.
7. Temperature should be recorded accurately after every one min time
interval (without stopping the stop watch).

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Change in temperature and surroundings.
2. Non sensitivity. Inaccuracy of thermometer.
3. Rate of stirring is not constant.
4. Least count of thermometer being large






DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
44

EXPERIMENT NO . 11

OBJECT: To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of the material of
a given rod by pullinger’s apparatus.

APPARATUS: Pullinger’s apparatus with given rod thermometer meter
scale, boiler with heating arrangement.

WORKING FORMULA:

]
1
T
2
T [
0
L
]
1
R -
2
R [
α
÷
=
Where
AL = Change in length.
R
1
= Initial reading of spherometer.
R
2
= Final reading of spherometer.
L
0
= Original length of the rod.
AT = Change in Temperature.
T
1
= Initial Temperature of the rod.
T
2
= Final temperature of the rod.

OBSERVATIONS:
Pitch of the screw = 0 . 5 m . m.
Least count for spherometer = 0 . 01 m . m.
Original length of rod L
0
= 50 cm
Initial temperature of the rod [ At room temperature ] = _______________°C
Final temperature of the rod [ At constant steam temperature ] = 100 °C

Initial reading of spherometer R
1

S.
NO
M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part
F. P = C.R.S × L.C
Total reading
T = FP + M.S.R
MEAN
R
1
mm div mm mm mm
1.

2.

3.


Final reading of spherometer R
2

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
45


S.
NO
M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part
F. P = C.R.S × L.C
Total reading
T = FP + M.S.R
MEAN
R
2
mm div mm mm mm
1.

2.

3.


CALCULATIONS:
AL = R
2
- R
1
AL = __________--___________ = ________ mm or ________ cm


AT = T
2
- T
1


AT = 100 -- = ________°C

]
1
T
2
T [
0
L
]
1
R -
2
R [
α
÷
=

] 100 [ 50
] [

÷
÷
= α

50


×
= α

o = _________ × 10
– 5

°C
– 1

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR BRASS :

Actual Value = o = 1. 7 × 10
– 5
°C
– 1

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
5 -
10 × .7 1

5 -
10 × .7 1
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=
100
5 -
10 × .7 1

Error Of Percentage × =

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
46


Percentage of error = ___________ %

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR COPPER :

Actual Value = o = 1. 9 × 10
– 5
°C
– 1

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
5 -
10 × .9 1

5 -
10 × .9 1
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
5 -
10 × .9 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %


RESULT:

1. The coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the given rod is
calculated to be ___________________ °C
– 1


2. The Percentage of error _________ %.







Teacher’s signature









DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
47

PRECAUTION:

1. The steam jacket should be completely insulated from the
surroundings.
2. The fixed end of the apparatus should remain fixed throughout the
experiment.
3. The constant of the spherometer / micrometer should be determined
before starting the experiment.
4. The initial reading should be taken when the bid of steam jacket just
touches the rod.
5. The bulbs of the thermometers should be just touching the rod.
6. The initial spherometer reading should be noted carefully and it should
be checked thrice.
7. The initial temperature should be noted accurately.
8. A gap should be produced between the bid and the rod before passing
the steam.
9. The final spherometer reading should be noted while the gas burner is
on and steam is being passed.
10. The final spherometer reading should be checked thrice.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Some portion of the rod is out side the jacket
2. Rate of flow of steam may not be uniform.
3. The ends of the rod and the fixed screw may not be in one line.
















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
48

EXPERIMENT NO . 12

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given solid by the method
mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree
thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,
Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:


)
F
T
B
T (
b
m
)
c
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [

b
S
÷
÷ +
=

Where
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
m
b
= Mass of Bob.
S
c
= Specific heat of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
S
b
= Specific heat of Bob.
T
C
= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .
T
F
= Final temperature of mixture.
T
B
= Maximum temperature of metallic bob or temperature of steam

OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gms.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] ________________ gms.
Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gms.
Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal gms °C
Specific heat of Water = S
w
= 1 Cal gms °C
Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T
C
= _______°C
Final temperature of mixture = T
F
= _______°C
Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T
B
= _________°C


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
49

CALCULATIONS:


)
F
T
B
T (
b
m
)
c
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [

b
S
÷
÷ +
=


] [
] [ ] [


÷
÷
+ × ×
=







] [



×
=
+





×
=

S
b
= _____________ Joules / Cal

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR BRASS :

Actual Value = C = 0 . 08 Cal gms °C


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
08 . 0
08 . 0
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
08 . 0

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR COPPER :

Actual Value = C = 0 . 09 Cal gms °C

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
09 . 0
09 . 0
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
50


100
09 . 0

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %



RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given solid by the method mixture is found to be
______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.



Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:

1. Weighing should be accurate.
2. The quantity of water taken in calorimeter should be just sufficient it
immerse soil bobs completely and not more.
3. Initial temperature of water and calorimeter should be noted just before
dipping the bobs in water.
4. Mixture should be stirred instantaneously and the final temperature
becomes just constant.
5. Bulb of thermometer should be completely immersed in water and
should not touch the walls and the base of calorimeter.
6. The calorimeter should be kept out of constant at least 5 min.
7. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the
colorimeter.
8. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the
colorimeter.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Impurities in material of calorimeter.
2. Impurities in material of metallic bob.
3. In accuracy, insensitivity of thermometer.
4. Heat losses by modes of transmission.



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
51

EXPERIMENT NO . 13

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by the method
mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree
thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,
Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:


)
c
T
F
T (
w
m
)
c
T
F
T (
c
S
c
m - )
F
T
B
T (
b
S
b
m

w
S
÷
÷ ÷
=


Where
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
m
b
= Mass of Bob.
S
c
= Specific heat of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
S
b
= Specific heat of Bob.
T
C
= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .
T
F
= Final temperature of mixture.
T
B
= Maximum temperature of metallic bob

OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gms.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] ________________ gms.
Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gms.
Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal gms °C
Specific heat of material of bob = S
b
= 0.08 Cal gms °C
Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T
C
= _______°C
Final temperature of mixture = T
F
= _______°C
Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T
B
= ___________°C


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
52

CALCULATIONS:


)
c
T
F
T (
w
m
)
c
T
F
T (
c
S
c
m - )
F
T
B
T (
b
S
b
m

w
S
÷
÷ ÷
=


) (
) ( ) (

w
S
÷
÷ × ÷ ÷ ×
=

S
W
= _____________ Cal gms °C

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR WATER :

Actual Value = C = 1 Cal gms °C


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
0 . 1
0 . 1
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100
0 . 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given liquid by the method mixture is found to be
______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.
Teacher’s signature


PRECAUTION:

1. Weighing should be accurate.
2. The quantity of water taken in calorimeter should be just sufficient it
immerse soil bobs completely and not more.
3. Initial temperature of water and calorimeter should be noted just before
dipping the bobs in water.

DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
53

4. Mixture should be stirred instantaneously and the final temperature
becomes just constant.
5. Bulb of thermometer should be completely immersed in water and
should not touch the walls and the base of calorimeter.
6. The calorimeter should be kept out of constant at least 5 min.
7. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the
colorimeter.
8. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the
colorimeter.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Impurities in material of calorimeter.
2. Impurities in material of metallic bob.
3. In accuracy, insensitivity of thermometer.
4. Heat losses by modes of transmission.


































DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
54


EXPERIMENT NO . 14

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical method.

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,
Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical
balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=




Where
V = The voltage applied across the resistor.
I = Current passed through the resistor.
t = Time for which the current is passed.
m
c
= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.
m
w
= Mass of Water.
S
c
= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.
S
w
= Specific heat of Water.
T
I
= Initial Temperature of water .
T
F
= Final temperature of water.













DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
55

OBSERVATIONS:
Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m
c
= ________________ gm.
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =___________ gm.
Mass of water = m
w
= [ M – m
c
] _______________ gm.
Mass of bob = m
b
= ________________ gm.
Initial Temperature of water = T
I
= _______°C

Final temperature of water = T
F
= ________°C

Rise in temperature A t = ( T
F
– T
I
) ____________°C

Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S
c
= 0.09 Cal / gm
°C
Specific heat of water = S
b
= 1 Cal / gm °C

The voltage applied across the resistor = V = ________ Volts

Current passed through the resistor = I = _________ Amp

Time for which current is passed = t =_____ min × 60 = ___Sec

S.
NO
Time
( t )
Voltage
( V )
Current
( I )
Temperature
( T )
minutes Volts Amp °C
1. 0.

2. 2.

3. 4.

4. 6.

5. 8.

6. 10.

7. 12.

8. 14.

9. 16.

10. 20.




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
56

CALCULATIONS:

)
I
T
F
T ( ]
w
S
w
m
c
S
c
m [
t I V
J
÷
+
× ×
=





] [ ]
w
S

[

4.2
÷
× + ×
× ×
=


] [



×
+
=







×
=


S
w
= _____________ Cal / gm°C
- 1



PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = 1 Cal / gm°C
- 1


100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=


100

×
÷
=


Percentage of error = ______ %

RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated
to be ___________________ Cal / gm°C
- 1


2. The Percentage of error _________ %.




Teacher’s signature


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
57

PRECAUTION:

1. Neat and tight connections should be ensured by rubbing the wire ends
with stand paper.
2. The heating coil should be completely immersed in water.
3. Current should be passed through the heating coil only when it is
immersed in water, otherwise it may melt down.
4. Turns of the heating coil should not touch each other.
5. Stir the water gently thought the experiment.
6. The bulb of the thermometer should be completely immersed in water
and should not touch the walls, base of calorimeter and the heater.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Extra resistance due to loose connection, insulation at the ends.
2. Improper lagging of calorimeter.
3. Inaccuracy of ammeter and voltmeter due to non-linear scale and non
sensitivity.
4. Personal error.






























DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
58

EXPERIMENT NO . 15

OBJECT: To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas using
Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph between temperature and pressure

APPARATUS: Charle’s law apparatus, Heating arrangement, Thermometer
Beaker.
WORKING FORMULA:

] 0 100 [
0
P
]
0
P
100
P [
γ
÷
÷
=
Where
¸ = Pressure coefficient of the given gas at constant volume.
P
100
= Pressure of a gas at 100 °C
P
0
= Pressure of a gas at 0 °C
T
1
= Initial Temperature
T
2
= Final temperature
AT = Change of temperature.
100
]
0
R 100 [
]
0
P
R
P [

R
T ×
÷
÷
=
Where
T
R
= Room temperature
P
R
= Pressure of a gas at room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Thermometer 1 °C Room Temperature __________ °C
Atmospheric pressure = P
A
= 76 cm of Hg

S.
NO
Temperature
°C
A
Cm of
Hg
B
Cm of
Hg
H = B – A
Cm of
Hg
P = H + 76
Cm of
Hg
1. At Room Temp


2. 100 °C

3. 90 °C

4. 80 °C

5. 70 °C

6. 60 °C



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
59



GRAPH BETWEEN
PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE

Along X – axis
One small division = 1
atmosphere
Along Y – axis
One small division = 1 ° C




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
60

CALCULATIONS:











PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = 3.66 × 10
– 3
Joules / Cal

100
Value Actual
Value Calculated Value Actual
Error Of Percentage ×
÷
=

100

3 -
10 66 3.

3 -
10 66 3.
×
×
÷ ×
=


100

3 -
10 66 3.

×
×
=


Percentage of error = __________________ %

RESULT:

1. The pressure coefficient of air using constant volume air thermometer
is found to be ________________ / °C

2. The room temperature is found to be ________________ °C

3. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

1.

] 0 100 [
0
P
]
0
P
100
P [
γ
÷
÷
=


] 0 100 [
] [
γ
÷
÷
=


100

γ
×
=





γ

=
¸ = _________ / °C

2.
100
]
0
R 100 [
]
0
P
R
P [

R
T ×
÷
÷
=


100
] 100 [
] [

R
T ×
÷
÷
=

100




R
T × =

T
R
= _________ °C


DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
61

PRECAUTION:

1. Charles’s apparatus should be held vertically.
2. The bulb of the Hg thermometer should be completely immersed in
water. It should remain well inside water but should not touch the ends
of beaker
3. The bulb of Hg thermometer should be touching the bulb of air
thermometer.
4. The level of Hg in the closed tube should be adjust such that it much
below the bend of the tube.
5. Care should be taken that mercury should not cross the bend and enter
the bulb of air thermometer.
6. Their upper meniscus of Hg should be noted while taking the
observation.
7. Reading must be taken at room temperature and at boiling point of
water.
8. Reading at the boiling point of water should be taken while the burner
is on.
9. The level of Hg in a closed tube should be kept constant through out
the experiment to keep the volume same.
10. The level of the mercury should be adjusted slowly.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. The atmospheric pressure might be different from 76cm of Hg.
2. The expansion of the bulb of the Charles’s law apparatus and
thermometer.
3. Inaccuracy of meter scale.
4. Impurities in the experimental gas in air





















DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
62

EXPERIMENT NO . 16

OBJECT: To study the relation between current and capacitance when
different capacitors are connected used in an A.C. circuit.

APPARATUS: Six capacitors each of 10 µ F capacitance , A.C. Ammeter ,
A.C. Voltmeter , Step down transformer , Inter connected one way key and
Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:
C f π 2
1

C
X =
Where
X
C
= Capacitive resistance
f = Frequency of A.C. main supply.
C = Capacitance used in the circuit

I
V

C
X =
Where
X
C
= Capacitive resistance
V = Voltage
I = Current flowing in the circuit


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
63

OBSERVATIONS:
Least count of Ammeter = 5 m Amps
Least count of Voltmeter = 1 Volts
Frequency of A.C. main supply = 50 Hz
Applied R.M.S. voltage = 7 volts
S.NO. Capacitance
C
Farad
Current
I
M A
Current
I
Amp
I
V

C
X =
O
C f π 2
1

C
X =
O
1. 10 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

2. 15 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

3. 20 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

4. 25 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

5. 30 × 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6

6. 35× 10
– 6
× 10
– 3
× 10
6


CALCULATIONS:























1.
C f π 2
1

C
X =

50 .142 3 2
1

× × ×
=





=

= ___________ Ohms
2.
C f π 2
1

C
X =

50 .142 3 2
1

× × ×
=





=

= ___________ Ohms



3.
C f π 2
1

C
X =

50 .142 3 2
1

× × ×
=





=

= ___________ Ohms



4.
C f π 2
1

C
X =

50 .142 3 2
1

× × ×
=





=

= ___________ Ohms



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
64





































RESULT:

1. The graph between capacitance C and current I is a straight line.
Which shows that C · I .
2. The graph between capacitive reactance X
C
and current I is a smooth
curve. Which shows that X
C
·
I
1

3. The graph between capacitance C and capacitive reactance X
C
is a
smooth curve. Which shows that C ·
C
X
1

5.
C f π 2
1

C
X =

50 .142 3 2
1

× × ×
=





=

= ___________ Ohms



6.
C f π 2
1

C
X =

50 .142 3 2
1

× × ×
=





=

= ___________ Ohms



1.
I
V

C
X =





=

= ___________ Ohms



2.
I
V

C
X =





=

= ___________ Ohms



3.
I
V

C
X =





=

= ___________ Ohms



4.
I
V

C
X =





=

= ___________ Ohms



5.
I
V

C
X =





=

= ___________ Ohms



6.
I
V

C
X =





=

= ___________ Ohms




DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
65

Teacher’s signature
PRECAUTION:

1. Circuit connections should be neat, tight and free from insulating
material.
2. No bare should be with hands.
3. Voltage should be kept content through the experiment.
4. Main supply should be switched off while making the circuit.
5. Calibration of voltmeter and ammeter should be carefully before
starting the experiment.
6. Current should be passed only when the readings are being taken to
avoid heating effects.
7. A.C. millimeter and voltmeter should be used.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Fluctuation from the mains.
2. Inaccuracy of ammeter and voltmeter as they are based on heating
effect.
3. Least count of volt meter, and ammeter being large.
Constant passage of current.
























DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
66


GRAPH BETWEEN
CURRENT & CAPACITANCE

Along X – axis
One small division = ____ µ Farad

Along Y – axis
One small division = ______ Amp



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
67


GRAPH BETWEEN
CURRENT & CAPACITIVE
REACTANCE
Along X – axis
One small division = _____ Ohms

Along Y – axis
One small division = _____ Amp



DAETD : ______________________
ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
68


GRAPH BETWEEN
CAPACITANCE & CAPACITIVE
REACTANCE
Along X – axis
One small division = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms

Along Y – axis
One small division = _______ µ F