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You are on page 1of 68

**ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062
**

1

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

2

Name:_________________________________________

Class: _____________ Section:___________________

Roll No: ____________ Group:___________________

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

3

Certified that Miss. / Mr._______________________________

Of class ____________ has carried out the necessary practical

work as prescribed by the Board of Intermediate Education /

University of Karachi for the year _____________________

__________________________________ ______________________________

Head of the department Incharge

Date:__________________ Date:______________

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

4

S.

No

Date

P.

No

Initial

1

To determine the unknown resistance of the given

coil with the help of meter bridge.

01

2

To determine the unknown resistance and the

specific resistance of the material of the given wire

using Post Office Box.

06

3

To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by

graphic method.

10

4

To compare the e. m . f of two cells using

Potentiometer by direct method.

14

5

To show the relation between Potential difference

applied at the ends of a heated tungsten filament

lamp and the current passing through it

17

6

To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half

deflection method.

21

7

To prove that the photo current is directly

proportional to the intensity of light falling on

photocell.

24

8

To determine the unknown resistance of the given

coil by direct method.

29

9

To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [

Value of J ]

To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical

method.

32

10

To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a

graph between time and temperature. Also calculate

the cooling constants for different time intervals

36

11

To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of

the material of a given rod by Pullinger’s apparatus

40

12

To determine the specific heat of a given solid by

the method mixture

44

13

To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by

the method mixture

47

14

To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical

method.

50

15

To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas

using Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph

between temperature and pressure

54

16

To study the relation between current and

capacitance when different capacitors are connected

used in an A.C. circuit.

58

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

5

EXPERIMENT NO . 1

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil with the

help of meter bridge. Also find the specific resistance of the material of the

given wire.

APPARATUS: Meter bridge, Galvanometer , Known resistance box ,

Unknown resistance , Cell with cell box , One way key, Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

1.

R

L

X

L

R X × =

Where

X = Unknown resistance of the given coil

R = Known resistance from the resistance box

L

X

= Length of bridge wire from null point to one end of the bridge.

L

R

= Length of bridge wire from null point to other end of the bridge.

2.

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

Where

µ

= Specific resistance

r = Radius of the wire.

L

= Length of the wire.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

6

OBSERVATIONS:

When X is in 1

st

gap and R is in second gap

S. NO. R

O

L

X

cm

L

R

= [ 100 – L

X

]

cm

R

L

X

L

R X × =

O

Mean

X

1

O

1.

2.

3.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

When R is in 1

st

gap and X is in second gap

S. NO. R

O

L

R

cm

L

X

= [ 100 – L

R

]

cm

R

L

X

L

R X × =

O

Mean

X

2

O

1.

2.

3.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

7

CALCULATIONS:

When X is in 1

st

gap and R is in second gap

When R is in 1

st

gap and X is in second gap

3

1

X

1

X

1

X + +

3

+ +

Mean X

1

= _________ Ohms

1.

R

L

X

L

R X × =

1

X × =

X

1

= ___________ Ohms

2.

R

L

X

L

R X × =

1

X × =

X

1

= ___________ Ohms

3.

R

L

X

L

R X × =

1

X × =

X

1

= ___________ Ohms

3

2

X

2

X

2

X + +

3

+ +

Mean X

2

= _________ Ohms

1.

R

L

X

L

R X × =

2

X × =

X

2

= ___________ Ohms

2.

R

L

X

L

R X × =

2

X × =

X

2

= ___________ Ohms

3.

R

L

X

L

R X × =

2

X × =

X

2

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

8

[ MEAN UNKNOWN RESISTANCE ]

2

+

Ohms

2

= =

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

200

2

] 0.027 [ 3.142

ρ

× ×

=

200

0.000729 3.142

ρ

× ×

=

µ = _____________________ Ohms – Cm.

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Actual Value = 1. 14 × 10

– 4

Ohms – cm.

100

4 -

10 1.14

4 -

10 1.14

Error Of Percentage ×

×

÷ ×

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil by interchanging gaps is

found to be _________ O .

2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ________ O ÷ cm.

3. Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

9

PRECAUTION:

1. There should be no loose connection and of the wire should be free

from rust and insulation.

2. The circuit should be checked by taping the jockey at the left hand and

then at the right hand and to get the opposite deflection.

3. All the plug of the resistance box should be firmly kept in their

respective gap.

4. The jockey should be taped on the wire instead of sliding to noted the

null deflection.

5. The jockey should be held vertically.

6. The resistance from the resistance box should be adjusted to get the

null deflection between 40-60 cm . To minimizes the error due to non

uniformity of the wire.

7. Resistance should be determined by interchanging gaps to avoid error

due to end resistance.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Extra resistance due to loose connection, rusted wire, rusted screws,

constant passage of current and loose plugs.

2. Inaccuracy of resistance from resistance box.

3. Inaccuracy of galvanometer due to its non linear scale.

4. Fluctuations in current from the cell.

5. Non uniform thickness of the meter bridge wire.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

10

EXPERIMENT NO . 2

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance and the specific resistance

of the material of the given wire using Post Office Box.

APPARATUS: Post Office Box , Galvanometer , Wire of unknown

resistance , Cell with cell box , Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

1.

P

Q

R X × =

Where

X = Unknown resistance of the given coil

P & Q = Resistances of ratio arms

R = Resistance of the third arm.

2.

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

Where

µ

= Specific resistance

r = Radius of the wire.

L

= Length of the wire.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

11

OBSERVATIONS:

Length of wire = 200 cm Radius of wire = 0.027 cm

S.

NO.

P

O

Q

O

Q /

P

R

O

P

Q

R X × =

O

Direction

Of

deflection

Inference

1.

10

10

1

0

X > 0

10

10

1

·

X < ·

CALCULATIONS:

2.

10

10

1

X >

10

10

1

X <

3.

100

10

0.1

X >

100

10

0.1

X =

100

10

0.1

X <

4.

1000

10

0.01

X >

1000

10

0.01

X =

1000

10

0.01

X <

1.

P

Q

R

1

X × =

100

10

1

X × =

= ___________ Ohms

2.

P

Q

R

2

X × =

1000

10

2

X × =

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

12

[ MEAN UNKNOWN RESISTANCE ]

2

+

Ohms

2

= =

L

X

2

r π

ρ =

200

2

] 0.027 [ 3.142

ρ

× ×

=

200

0.000729 3.142

ρ

× ×

=

µ = _____________________ Ohms – Cm.

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Actual Value = 1. 14 × 10

– 4

Ohms – cm.

100

4 -

10 1.14

4 -

10 1.14

Error Of Percentage ×

×

÷ ×

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given coil is found to be ______ O

2. The specific resistance of the given wire is ______________ O ÷ cm.

3. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

13

PRECAUTION:

1. Circuit connection should be neat light and free from insulation

material.

2. The end of the connecting wires should be cleaned with sand

paper.

3. The plug of the P.O Box not in use should be tight in their gaps.

4. The battery keys should be pressed before galvanometer, key

released before cell key to avoid self induction.

5. The radius of wire of unknown resistance should be determined

carefully.

6. Length of wire should be determined carefully property stretching it

between two ends.

7. Wire should be free of kinks and should be uniform area of cross

section.

8. Pointer of galvanometer should be at zero position before starting

the experiment.

9. Null point should be determined carefully.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Resistance from P.O Box might not be same as written on it.

2. Wire may not be uniform area of cross section.

3. Inaccuracy of galvanometer due to its non linear scale.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

14

EXPERIMENT NO . 3

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of a Voltmeter by graphic method.

APPARATUS: Low resistance Voltmeter, Resistance box ,One way key ,

Battery or Cells with cell box , Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

V ] - E [

VR

X =

Where

X = Resistance of the given voltmeter.

R = Resistance of resistance box connected in series with the voltmeter.

V = Voltage drop across the voltmeter.

E = E. m. f of the battery

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Voltmeter 0 . 1 Volts

S.

NO.

E m f

of the

Battery

E

Volts

Resistance

R

O

Voltmeter

Reading

V

Volts

V

1

Volts

– 1

V ] - E [

VR

X =

O

Mean

X

O

1. 3.0

2.8 0.357

2. 3.0

2.7 0.370

3. 3.0

2.6 0.385

4. 3.0

2.5 0.400

5. 3.0

2.4 0.416

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

15

GRAPH BETWEEN

RESISTANCE & 1 / V

Along X – axis

One small division = _____ Ohms

Along Y – axis

One small division = _____ Volts

–1

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

0

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

16

CALCULATIONS:

Actual Value = _______________ Ohms.

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ________________ %

1.

V ] - E [

VR

X =

2.8 - 3.0

2.8

X

×

=

= ___________ Ohms

2.

V ] - E [

VR

X =

2.7 - 3.0

2.7

X

×

=

= ___________ Ohms

3.

V ] - E [

VR

X =

2.6 - 3.0

2.6

X

×

=

= ___________ Ohms

[ MEAN X

]

5

+ + + + +

=

= ___________ Ohms

5.

V ] - E [

VR

X =

2.4 - 3.0

2.4

X

×

=

= ___________ Ohms

4.

V ] - E [

VR

X =

2.5 - 3.0

2.5

X

×

=

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

17

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter is found to be

_____________ O

2. The unknown resistance of a given Voltmeter from graph is found to be

_____________ O

3. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Connections should be neat, clean and light.

2. Ends of the wire should be free from insulations.

3. All the plugs of the resistance box, not in use should be tight in their

gaps.

4. Current should be passed only when the reading are been taken.

5. Positive terminal of voltmeter should be connected to the position of

the cell or battery.

6. Low resistance voltmeter should be used.

7. E m f of the battery should be connected to the position of the cell

or battery.

8. Voltmeter should be of small least count.

9. The points of the voltmeter should be at zero position before

starting experiment.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Plugs of resistance box, not in use may not be tight in their gaps.

2. Least count of voltmeter being large.

3. The e m f of the battery may not be constant or fluctuation in the flow of

current.

4. Ends of the wire may not be clean

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

18

EXPERIMENT NO . 4

OBJECT: To compare the e. m . f of two cells using Potentiometer by direct

method.

APPARATUS: Potentiometer, Galvanometer , Dry cell, Daniel cell, Two

way key , One way key , Jockey , Rheostat , Battery, and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

Where

X = E. m. f of dry cell.

R = E. m. f of Daniel cell.

E

1

= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E

1

is in circuit

E

2

= Length of potentiometer wire from point A to the null point . When E

2

is in circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

E. m. f of dry cell = 1. 5 Volts

S.

NO.

L

1

[ Dry cell ]

cm

L

2

[ Daniel cell ]

cm

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

= Mean

2

E

1

E

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CALCULATIONS:

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

19

1.

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

=

= ___________

2.

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

=

= ___________

3.

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

=

= ___________

4.

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

=

= ___________

5.

2

L

1

L

2

E

1

E

=

=

= ___________

[ MEAN

2

E

1

E

]

5

+ + + +

=

= ___________

2

L

1

L

1

E

2

E =

5 . 1

2

E =

E

2

= _____________ Volts

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR

Actual Value = 1. 08 Volts

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

×

÷

100

08 . 1

08 1.

×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ______

%

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

20

RESULT:

1. The ratio of e . m . f of Dry and Daniel cells by direct method using

Potentiometer is found to be _______________________________

2. The e . m . f of Daniel cell is found to be _____________________

3. Percentage of error = ___________ %

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Connections should be neat tight and free from insulating material.

2. Jockey should not be slided on the wire but it should be stepped

gently.

3. Jockey should be held vertically.

4. The positive terminals of battery, dry and denial cells should be

connected one end of the potentiometer wire.

5. Preferably readings for null point of L

1

should be taken on the last

two wires (to minimize error due to non-uniformity of wire).

6. A set of readings for L

1

and L

2

should be taken without changing the

position of the Rheostat.

7. Difference between two consecutive readings of L

1

should be at

least 10 cms.

8. Current should be passed only when the readings are being taken.

9. The E.M.F. of the battery should be greater than E.M.F. of the

individual cells.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Non-uniformity of thickness the potentiometer wires.

2. Extra resistance due to loose connections rusted wires, rusted screws,

and constant passage of current.

3. Inaccuracy of galvanometer.

4. Fluctuations from the cells or battery.

5. Personnel error in noting the readings.

6. Resistance of wire of potentiometer may change due to heating effect

of the passage of current.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

21

EXPERIMENT NO . 5

OBJECT: To show the relation between Potential difference applied at the

ends of a heated tungsten filament lamp and the current passing through it

APPARATUS: Tungsten filament lamp, Voltmeter , Ammeter , Rheostat ,

Battery, One way key and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

I

V

R =

Where

R = Resistance of tungsten filament lamp.

R = Voltage applied across the tungsten filament lamp.

I = Current flowing through tungsten filament lamp.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Ammeter 0.1 Amps

Least count of Voltmeter 0.1 Volts

S.NO.

Voltmeter

Reading

V

Volt

Ammeter

Reading

I

Amp

I

V

R =

Ohms [ O ]

1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

22

GRAPH BETWEEN

VOLTAGE & CURRENT

Along X – axis

One small division = _____ Volts

Along Y – axis

One small division = _____ Amperes

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

23

CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

1. The graph between V and I indicates that the potential difference

across the tungsten filament and the current through it are not directly

proportional. The graph between V and I is not a straight line but it is a

curve.

2. The graph between V and I shows that the ratio of potential difference

across the tungsten filament and the current through it increases as the

current increases so tungsten filament is non – Ohmic . Hence Ohms

law is not valid.

1.

I

V

R =

=

= _________Ohms

2.

I

V

R =

=

= _________Ohms

3.

I

V

R =

=

= _________Ohms

4.

I

V

R =

=

= _________Ohms

5.

I

V

R =

=

= _________Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

24

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. The connection should be neat, tight and free from insulating at the

ends.

2. The Rheostat should be adjusted such that the ammeter reading

increases in step of 0.1 amp.

3. The graduation of ammeter and voltmeter should be carefully noted

before starting the experiment.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Current should not be passed constantly, sources of error’s inaccuracy

of voltmeter and ammeter due to their non liner scale and non-

sensitively.

2. Extra resistance due to loose connections, constant passage of

current, rusted wires etc.

3. Personnel error.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

25

EXPERIMENT NO . 6

OBJECT: To determine the resistance of galvanometer by half deflection

method.

APPARATUS: Galvanometer , High Resistance box , Low resistance box ,

Dry Cell , One way keys and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

Where

Rg = Resistance of galvanometer.

R = High resistance connected in series with the galvanometer.

S = Shunt resistance connected in parallel with galvanometer to reduce

deflection of galvanometer to half of its previous value

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATIONS:

S.NO. High

Resistance

R

O

Full

Deflection

divisions

Half

Deflection

divisions

Shunt

Resistance

S

O

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

O

Mean

R g

O

1. 30 15

2. 28 14

3. 26 13

4. 24 12

5. 22 11

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

26

CALCULATIONS:

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = ______ Volts

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

Error Of Percentage × =

1.

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

÷

×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

2.

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

÷

×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

3.

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

÷

×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

4.

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

÷

×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

5.

S R

S

R

Rg

÷

×

=

÷

×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

[ MEAN R

g

]

5

+ + + +

5

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

27

Percentage of error = ___________

RESULT:

1. The mean unknown resistance of galvanometer by half deflection

method is found to be ____________Ohms.

2. Percentage of error _________________ %.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Connection should be neat, tight and free from insulating material.

2. All plugs in resistance box not in use should be tight in their gaps.

3. Infinity keys from both resistance boxes should be out of their gaps

when the readings are not being taken.

4. For the safety of galvanometer, high resistance must be checked in the

circuit before starting the experiment.

5. Deflection should be such even numbers that half of it can be read

accurately. When R

S

is zero, deflection must be zero.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Inaccurate values of resistances from the resistance box [ ie the values

may not be the same as written on it. ]

2. Fluctuations in current from the cell.

3. Insensitivity. Inaccuracy of galvanometer.

4. Resistance of the connecting wires.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

28

EXPERIMENT NO . 7

OBJECT: To prove that the photo current is directly proportional to the

intensity of light falling on photocell.

APPARATUS: Photo voltaic cell, Micro ammeter , Electric lamp , Meter

scale , A – C Main supply and connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

For inverse square law of radiation

Intensity of light E ·

2

d

1

From the experiment

Photo electric current I ·

2

d

1

Hence Intensity of light E · Photo electric current I

E · I

Where

d = Distance between the source of light and photocell

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

29

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Micro – ammeter ___________ µ Amps

POWER OF THE BULB = 60 WATTS

S.NO. Distance

d

Current

I

1

Current

I

2

2

2

I

1

I +

Distance

d

2

2

d

1

cm µ A µ A µ A

cm

2

cm

–

2

1. 100

10000

1.00 × 10

–

4

2. 90

8100

1.23 × 10

–

4

3. 80

6400

1.50 × 10

–

4

4. 70

4900

2.0 × 10

–

4

5. 60

3600

2.77 × 10

–

4

POWER OF THE BULB = 40 WATTS

S.NO. Distance

d

Current

I

1

Current

I

2

2

2

I

1

I +

Distance

d

2

2

d

1

cm µ A µ A µ A

cm

2

cm

–

2

1. 100

10000

1.00 × 10

–

4

2. 90

8100

1.23 × 10

–

4

3. 80

6400

1.50 × 10

–

4

4. 70

4900

2.0 × 10

–

4

5. 60

3600

2.77 × 10

–

4

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

30

GRAPH BETWEEN

CURRENT AND

2

d

1

Along X – axis

One small division = ______ cm

– 2

Along Y – axis

One small division = ____ Amperes

0

× 10

– 4

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

31

CALCULATIONS:

1.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

2.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

3.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

4.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

5.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

1.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

2.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

2.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

4.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

5.

2

] [

1

=

1

=

= __________cm

– 2

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

32

RESULT:

The graph between current I and

2

d

1

is a straight line which confirm that the

photoelectric current is directly proportional to the intensity of light .

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Connections must be tight and free from insulating material at the end.

2. The height of lamp and height of photocell should be same.

3. Distance should be measured carefully.

4. Zero error of micro ammeter should be noted.

5. Least count of micro ammeter should be noted.

6. Window of photocell should be opened after the lamp is switched on.

7. Personal movement should minimum so that light is not blocked.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Large least count of micro ammeter.

2. Height of lamp or photocell may not be same.

3. Presence of light in the surroundings.

4. Change in the illumination of light in the surrounding.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

33

EXPERIMENT NO . 8

OBJECT: To determine the unknown resistance of the given coil by direct

method.

APPARATUS: Unknown low resistance , Resistance box , Rheostat or

resistance box , Galvanometer , One way key , Dry cell , and Connecting

wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

2

θ

1

θ R

X

×

=

Where

X = Unknown resistance.

R = Value of standard low resistance.

u

1

= Deflection of galvanometer across X

u

2

= Deflection of galvanometer across R

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

34

OBSERVATIONS:

S.

NO

Known

resistance

R

Deflection

for X

u

1

Deflection

for R

u

2

2

θ

1

θ R

X

×

=

Mean

X

Ohms Degrees Degrees Ohms Ohms

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CALCULATIONS:

2

θ

1

θ R

X

×

=

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

1.

X

×

=

=

= _________Ohms

2.

X

×

=

=

= _________Ohms

3.

X

×

=

=

= _________Ohms

4.

X

×

=

=

= _________Ohms

5.

X

×

=

=

= _________Ohms

[ MEAN R

g

]

5

+ + + +

5

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

35

Actual Value = ______ Volts

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

RESULT:

1. The value of given low resistance is found to be ___________ Ohms.

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Connection should be neat, tight and free from insulating material.

2. All plugs in resistance box not in use should be tight in their gaps.

3. For the safety of galvanometer, high resistance must be checked in the

circuit before starting the experiment.

4. Resistance of galvanometer should be high.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Inaccurate values of resistances from the resistance box [ ie the values

may not be the same as written on it. ]

2. Fluctuations in current from the cell.

3. Insensitivity. Inaccuracy of galvanometer.

4. Resistance of the connecting wires.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

36

EXPERIMENT NO . 9

OBJECT: To determine the mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ]

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,

Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical

balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

Where

V = The voltage applied across the resistor.

I = Current passed through the resistor.

t = Time for which the current is passed.

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

S

c

= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

T

I

= Initial Temperature of water .

T

F

= Final temperature of water.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

37

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gms.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] ________________ gms.

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gms.

Initial Temperature of water = T

I

= _______°C

Final temperature of water = T

F

= ________°C

Rise in temperature A t = ( T

F

– T

I

) ____________°C

Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal / gms °C

Specific heat of water = S

b

= 1 Cal / gms °C

The voltage applied across the resistor = V = __________ Volts

Current passed through the resistor = I = __________ Amp

Time for which the current is passed = t = _____ min × 60 = _____Sec

S.

NO

Time ( t )

Voltage ( V )

Current ( I ) Temperature ( T )

minutes Volts Amp °C

1. 2

2. 4

3. 6

4. 8

5. 10

6. 12

7. 14

8. 16

9. 18

10. 20

CALCULATIONS:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

] [ ] [

÷

+ × ×

× ×

=

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

38

] [

×

+

=

×

=

J = _____________ Joules / Cal

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = 4.2 Joules / Cal

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

.2 4

2 . 4

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

.2 4

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated

to be ___________________ Joules / Cal .

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

39

PRECAUTION:

1. Neat and tight connections should be ensured by rubbing the wire ends

with stand paper.

2. The heating coil should be completely immersed in water.

3. Current should be passed through the heating coil only when it is

immersed in water, otherwise it may melt down.

4. Turns of the heating coil should not touch each other.

5. Stir the water gently thought the experiment.

6. The bulb of the thermometer should be completely immersed in water

and should not touch the walls, base of calorimeter and the heater.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Extra resistance due to loose connection, insulation at the ends.

2. Improper lagging of calorimeter.

3. Inaccuracy of ammeter and voltmeter due to non-linear scale and non

sensitivity.

4. Personal error.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

40

EXPERIMENT NO . 10

OBJECT: To verify the Newton’s law of cooling by plotting a graph between

time and temperature. Also calculate the cooling constants for different time

intervals

APPARATUS: Calorimeter with stirrer , Half degree thermometer, Stop

watch , Clamp stand , Hot water .

WORKING FORMULA:

R

T

2

]

2

T

1

T [

Δt

]

2

T

1

T [

K

÷

+

÷

=

Where

T

1

= Initial Temperature

T

2

= Final temperature

T

R

= Room Temperature

At = Time Interval

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Thermometer 0 . 5 °

C Room Temperature__________ °C

Least count of Stop watch 0 . 01 Seconds

S.NO. Time

min

Temperature

°C

S.NO. Time

min

Temperature

°C

1. 0

6. 10

2. 2

7. 12

3. 4

8. 14

4. 6

9. 16

5. 8

10. 18

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

41

GRAPH BETWEEN

TIME & TEMPERATURE

Along X – axis

One small division = 0 . 20 Minutes

Along Y – axis

One small division = 1 ° C

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

42

CALCULATIONS:

For [ 3

rd

, 6

th

,

9

th

] Intervals from observations &

For 5

th

Intervals from graph

R

T

2

]

2

T

1

T [

Δt

]

2

T

1

T [

K

÷

+

÷

=

1.

2

] [

2

] [

÷

+

÷

=

K

÷

=

K =

K = _________ / 2 minutes

2.

2

] [

2

] [

÷

+

÷

=

K

÷

=

K =

K = _________ / 2 minutes

3.

2

] [

2

] [

÷

+

÷

=

K

÷

=

K =

K = _________ / 2 minutes

FROM GRAPH

1.

2

] [

2

] [

÷

+

÷

=

K

÷

=

K =

K = _________ / 2 minutes

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

43

RESULT:

1. The graph between time ( t ) and temperature ( T ) is a smooth curve.

2. The cooling constants from observations for [ 3

rd

, 6

th

,

9

th

] time

intervals are found to be ____ , _____ , and _______ / 2 minutes

3. The cooling constants from graph for 5

th

time intervals is found to be

_______ / 2 minutes

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Least count of thermometer and stop watch should be determined

accurately.

2. The graduations of the thermometer should be studied carefully before

starting the experiment.

3. Initially room temperature should be recorded by hanging the

thermometer freely in air starting the experiment.

4. The eyes should be kept at the same height as the thermometer

readings.

5. The bulb of the thermometer should not be touched with hands while

noting the readings.

6. When starting the experiment the difference between the hot body and

that of surroundings should not be more than 40°C.

7. Temperature should be recorded accurately after every one min time

interval (without stopping the stop watch).

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Change in temperature and surroundings.

2. Non sensitivity. Inaccuracy of thermometer.

3. Rate of stirring is not constant.

4. Least count of thermometer being large

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

44

EXPERIMENT NO . 11

OBJECT: To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of the material of

a given rod by pullinger’s apparatus.

APPARATUS: Pullinger’s apparatus with given rod thermometer meter

scale, boiler with heating arrangement.

WORKING FORMULA:

]

1

T

2

T [

0

L

]

1

R -

2

R [

α

÷

=

Where

AL = Change in length.

R

1

= Initial reading of spherometer.

R

2

= Final reading of spherometer.

L

0

= Original length of the rod.

AT = Change in Temperature.

T

1

= Initial Temperature of the rod.

T

2

= Final temperature of the rod.

OBSERVATIONS:

Pitch of the screw = 0 . 5 m . m.

Least count for spherometer = 0 . 01 m . m.

Original length of rod L

0

= 50 cm

Initial temperature of the rod [ At room temperature ] = _______________°C

Final temperature of the rod [ At constant steam temperature ] = 100 °C

Initial reading of spherometer R

1

S.

NO

M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part

F. P = C.R.S × L.C

Total reading

T = FP + M.S.R

MEAN

R

1

mm div mm mm mm

1.

2.

3.

Final reading of spherometer R

2

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

45

S.

NO

M.S.R

C.S.R

Fractional part

F. P = C.R.S × L.C

Total reading

T = FP + M.S.R

MEAN

R

2

mm div mm mm mm

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATIONS:

AL = R

2

- R

1

AL = __________--___________ = ________ mm or ________ cm

AT = T

2

- T

1

AT = 100 -- = ________°C

]

1

T

2

T [

0

L

]

1

R -

2

R [

α

÷

=

] 100 [ 50

] [

÷

÷

= α

50

×

= α

o = _________ × 10

– 5

°C

– 1

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR BRASS :

Actual Value = o = 1. 7 × 10

– 5

°C

– 1

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

5 -

10 × .7 1

5 -

10 × .7 1

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

5 -

10 × .7 1

Error Of Percentage × =

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

46

Percentage of error = ___________ %

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR COPPER :

Actual Value = o = 1. 9 × 10

– 5

°C

– 1

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

5 -

10 × .9 1

5 -

10 × .9 1

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

5 -

10 × .9 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

RESULT:

1. The coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the given rod is

calculated to be ___________________ °C

– 1

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

47

PRECAUTION:

1. The steam jacket should be completely insulated from the

surroundings.

2. The fixed end of the apparatus should remain fixed throughout the

experiment.

3. The constant of the spherometer / micrometer should be determined

before starting the experiment.

4. The initial reading should be taken when the bid of steam jacket just

touches the rod.

5. The bulbs of the thermometers should be just touching the rod.

6. The initial spherometer reading should be noted carefully and it should

be checked thrice.

7. The initial temperature should be noted accurately.

8. A gap should be produced between the bid and the rod before passing

the steam.

9. The final spherometer reading should be noted while the gas burner is

on and steam is being passed.

10. The final spherometer reading should be checked thrice.

SOURCES OF ERROR :

1. Some portion of the rod is out side the jacket

2. Rate of flow of steam may not be uniform.

3. The ends of the rod and the fixed screw may not be in one line.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

48

EXPERIMENT NO . 12

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given solid by the method

mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree

thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,

Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:

)

F

T

B

T (

b

m

)

c

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

b

S

÷

÷ +

=

Where

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

m

b

= Mass of Bob.

S

c

= Specific heat of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

S

b

= Specific heat of Bob.

T

C

= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .

T

F

= Final temperature of mixture.

T

B

= Maximum temperature of metallic bob or temperature of steam

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gms.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] ________________ gms.

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gms.

Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal gms °C

Specific heat of Water = S

w

= 1 Cal gms °C

Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T

C

= _______°C

Final temperature of mixture = T

F

= _______°C

Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T

B

= _________°C

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

49

CALCULATIONS:

)

F

T

B

T (

b

m

)

c

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

b

S

÷

÷ +

=

] [

] [ ] [

÷

÷

+ × ×

=

] [

×

=

+

×

=

S

b

= _____________ Joules / Cal

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR BRASS :

Actual Value = C = 0 . 08 Cal gms °C

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

08 . 0

08 . 0

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

08 . 0

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR COPPER :

Actual Value = C = 0 . 09 Cal gms °C

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

09 . 0

09 . 0

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

50

100

09 . 0

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given solid by the method mixture is found to be

______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Weighing should be accurate.

2. The quantity of water taken in calorimeter should be just sufficient it

immerse soil bobs completely and not more.

3. Initial temperature of water and calorimeter should be noted just before

dipping the bobs in water.

4. Mixture should be stirred instantaneously and the final temperature

becomes just constant.

5. Bulb of thermometer should be completely immersed in water and

should not touch the walls and the base of calorimeter.

6. The calorimeter should be kept out of constant at least 5 min.

7. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the

colorimeter.

8. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the

colorimeter.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Impurities in material of calorimeter.

2. Impurities in material of metallic bob.

3. In accuracy, insensitivity of thermometer.

4. Heat losses by modes of transmission.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

51

EXPERIMENT NO . 13

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of a given liquid by the method

mixture

APPARATUS: A calorimeter with stirrer , Solid bobs , Two half degree

thermometer , A glass beaker with water , Tripod stand , Bunsen burner ,

Physical balance and Vertical stand .

WORKING FORMULA:

)

c

T

F

T (

w

m

)

c

T

F

T (

c

S

c

m - )

F

T

B

T (

b

S

b

m

w

S

÷

÷ ÷

=

Where

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

m

b

= Mass of Bob.

S

c

= Specific heat of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

S

b

= Specific heat of Bob.

T

C

= Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water .

T

F

= Final temperature of mixture.

T

B

= Maximum temperature of metallic bob

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gms.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =________________ gms.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] ________________ gms.

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gms.

Specific heat of material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal gms °C

Specific heat of material of bob = S

b

= 0.08 Cal gms °C

Initial Temperature of calorimeter + water = T

C

= _______°C

Final temperature of mixture = T

F

= _______°C

Maximum temperature of metallic bob = T

B

= ___________°C

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

52

CALCULATIONS:

)

c

T

F

T (

w

m

)

c

T

F

T (

c

S

c

m - )

F

T

B

T (

b

S

b

m

w

S

÷

÷ ÷

=

) (

) ( ) (

w

S

÷

÷ × ÷ ÷ ×

=

S

W

= _____________ Cal gms °C

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR FOR WATER :

Actual Value = C = 1 Cal gms °C

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

0 . 1

0 . 1

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

0 . 1

Error Of Percentage × =

Percentage of error = ___________ %

RESULT:

1. The specific heat of a given liquid by the method mixture is found to be

______________________ Cal / gms °C

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Weighing should be accurate.

2. The quantity of water taken in calorimeter should be just sufficient it

immerse soil bobs completely and not more.

3. Initial temperature of water and calorimeter should be noted just before

dipping the bobs in water.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

53

4. Mixture should be stirred instantaneously and the final temperature

becomes just constant.

5. Bulb of thermometer should be completely immersed in water and

should not touch the walls and the base of calorimeter.

6. The calorimeter should be kept out of constant at least 5 min.

7. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the

colorimeter.

8. To avoid heat loss solid bob should be quickly dropped into the

colorimeter.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Impurities in material of calorimeter.

2. Impurities in material of metallic bob.

3. In accuracy, insensitivity of thermometer.

4. Heat losses by modes of transmission.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

54

EXPERIMENT NO . 14

OBJECT: To determine the specific heat of liquid by electrical method.

APPARATUS: Joule’s calorimeter with stirrer , Power supply , Ammeter ,

Voltmeter , Rheostat , One way key , degree , Thermometer , Physical

balance , Stop watch and Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

Where

V = The voltage applied across the resistor.

I = Current passed through the resistor.

t = Time for which the current is passed.

m

c

= Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer.

m

w

= Mass of Water.

S

c

= Specific heat of the material of calorimeter.

S

w

= Specific heat of Water.

T

I

= Initial Temperature of water .

T

F

= Final temperature of water.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

55

OBSERVATIONS:

Mass of calorimeter + Stirrer = m

c

= ________________ gm.

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water = M =___________ gm.

Mass of water = m

w

= [ M – m

c

] _______________ gm.

Mass of bob = m

b

= ________________ gm.

Initial Temperature of water = T

I

= _______°C

Final temperature of water = T

F

= ________°C

Rise in temperature A t = ( T

F

– T

I

) ____________°C

Specific heat of the material of calorimeter = S

c

= 0.09 Cal / gm

°C

Specific heat of water = S

b

= 1 Cal / gm °C

The voltage applied across the resistor = V = ________ Volts

Current passed through the resistor = I = _________ Amp

Time for which current is passed = t =_____ min × 60 = ___Sec

S.

NO

Time

( t )

Voltage

( V )

Current

( I )

Temperature

( T )

minutes Volts Amp °C

1. 0.

2. 2.

3. 4.

4. 6.

5. 8.

6. 10.

7. 12.

8. 14.

9. 16.

10. 20.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

56

CALCULATIONS:

)

I

T

F

T ( ]

w

S

w

m

c

S

c

m [

t I V

J

÷

+

× ×

=

] [ ]

w

S

[

4.2

÷

× + ×

× ×

=

] [

×

+

=

×

=

S

w

= _____________ Cal / gm°C

- 1

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = 1 Cal / gm°C

- 1

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

×

÷

=

Percentage of error = ______ %

RESULT:

1. The value of mechanical equivalent of heat [ Value of J ] is calculated

to be ___________________ Cal / gm°C

- 1

2. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

57

PRECAUTION:

1. Neat and tight connections should be ensured by rubbing the wire ends

with stand paper.

2. The heating coil should be completely immersed in water.

3. Current should be passed through the heating coil only when it is

immersed in water, otherwise it may melt down.

4. Turns of the heating coil should not touch each other.

5. Stir the water gently thought the experiment.

6. The bulb of the thermometer should be completely immersed in water

and should not touch the walls, base of calorimeter and the heater.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Extra resistance due to loose connection, insulation at the ends.

2. Improper lagging of calorimeter.

3. Inaccuracy of ammeter and voltmeter due to non-linear scale and non

sensitivity.

4. Personal error.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

58

EXPERIMENT NO . 15

OBJECT: To determine the pressure coefficient of a given gas using

Charles law apparatus by plotting a graph between temperature and pressure

APPARATUS: Charle’s law apparatus, Heating arrangement, Thermometer

Beaker.

WORKING FORMULA:

] 0 100 [

0

P

]

0

P

100

P [

γ

÷

÷

=

Where

¸ = Pressure coefficient of the given gas at constant volume.

P

100

= Pressure of a gas at 100 °C

P

0

= Pressure of a gas at 0 °C

T

1

= Initial Temperature

T

2

= Final temperature

AT = Change of temperature.

100

]

0

R 100 [

]

0

P

R

P [

R

T ×

÷

÷

=

Where

T

R

= Room temperature

P

R

= Pressure of a gas at room temperature

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Thermometer 1 °C Room Temperature __________ °C

Atmospheric pressure = P

A

= 76 cm of Hg

S.

NO

Temperature

°C

A

Cm of

Hg

B

Cm of

Hg

H = B – A

Cm of

Hg

P = H + 76

Cm of

Hg

1. At Room Temp

2. 100 °C

3. 90 °C

4. 80 °C

5. 70 °C

6. 60 °C

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

59

GRAPH BETWEEN

PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE

Along X – axis

One small division = 1

atmosphere

Along Y – axis

One small division = 1 ° C

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

60

CALCULATIONS:

PERCENTAGE OF ERROR :

Actual Value = 3.66 × 10

– 3

Joules / Cal

100

Value Actual

Value Calculated Value Actual

Error Of Percentage ×

÷

=

100

3 -

10 66 3.

3 -

10 66 3.

×

×

÷ ×

=

100

3 -

10 66 3.

×

×

=

Percentage of error = __________________ %

RESULT:

1. The pressure coefficient of air using constant volume air thermometer

is found to be ________________ / °C

2. The room temperature is found to be ________________ °C

3. The Percentage of error _________ %.

Teacher’s signature

1.

] 0 100 [

0

P

]

0

P

100

P [

γ

÷

÷

=

] 0 100 [

] [

γ

÷

÷

=

100

γ

×

=

γ

=

¸ = _________ / °C

2.

100

]

0

R 100 [

]

0

P

R

P [

R

T ×

÷

÷

=

100

] 100 [

] [

R

T ×

÷

÷

=

100

R

T × =

T

R

= _________ °C

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

61

PRECAUTION:

1. Charles’s apparatus should be held vertically.

2. The bulb of the Hg thermometer should be completely immersed in

water. It should remain well inside water but should not touch the ends

of beaker

3. The bulb of Hg thermometer should be touching the bulb of air

thermometer.

4. The level of Hg in the closed tube should be adjust such that it much

below the bend of the tube.

5. Care should be taken that mercury should not cross the bend and enter

the bulb of air thermometer.

6. Their upper meniscus of Hg should be noted while taking the

observation.

7. Reading must be taken at room temperature and at boiling point of

water.

8. Reading at the boiling point of water should be taken while the burner

is on.

9. The level of Hg in a closed tube should be kept constant through out

the experiment to keep the volume same.

10. The level of the mercury should be adjusted slowly.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. The atmospheric pressure might be different from 76cm of Hg.

2. The expansion of the bulb of the Charles’s law apparatus and

thermometer.

3. Inaccuracy of meter scale.

4. Impurities in the experimental gas in air

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

62

EXPERIMENT NO . 16

OBJECT: To study the relation between current and capacitance when

different capacitors are connected used in an A.C. circuit.

APPARATUS: Six capacitors each of 10 µ F capacitance , A.C. Ammeter ,

A.C. Voltmeter , Step down transformer , Inter connected one way key and

Connecting wires.

WORKING FORMULA:

C f π 2

1

C

X =

Where

X

C

= Capacitive resistance

f = Frequency of A.C. main supply.

C = Capacitance used in the circuit

I

V

C

X =

Where

X

C

= Capacitive resistance

V = Voltage

I = Current flowing in the circuit

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

63

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Ammeter = 5 m Amps

Least count of Voltmeter = 1 Volts

Frequency of A.C. main supply = 50 Hz

Applied R.M.S. voltage = 7 volts

S.NO. Capacitance

C

Farad

Current

I

M A

Current

I

Amp

I

V

C

X =

O

C f π 2

1

C

X =

O

1. 10 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

2. 15 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

3. 20 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

4. 25 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

5. 30 × 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

6. 35× 10

– 6

× 10

– 3

× 10

6

CALCULATIONS:

1.

C f π 2

1

C

X =

50 .142 3 2

1

× × ×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

2.

C f π 2

1

C

X =

50 .142 3 2

1

× × ×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

3.

C f π 2

1

C

X =

50 .142 3 2

1

× × ×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

4.

C f π 2

1

C

X =

50 .142 3 2

1

× × ×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

64

RESULT:

1. The graph between capacitance C and current I is a straight line.

Which shows that C · I .

2. The graph between capacitive reactance X

C

and current I is a smooth

curve. Which shows that X

C

·

I

1

3. The graph between capacitance C and capacitive reactance X

C

is a

smooth curve. Which shows that C ·

C

X

1

5.

C f π 2

1

C

X =

50 .142 3 2

1

× × ×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

6.

C f π 2

1

C

X =

50 .142 3 2

1

× × ×

=

=

= ___________ Ohms

1.

I

V

C

X =

=

= ___________ Ohms

2.

I

V

C

X =

=

= ___________ Ohms

3.

I

V

C

X =

=

= ___________ Ohms

4.

I

V

C

X =

=

= ___________ Ohms

5.

I

V

C

X =

=

= ___________ Ohms

6.

I

V

C

X =

=

= ___________ Ohms

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

65

Teacher’s signature

PRECAUTION:

1. Circuit connections should be neat, tight and free from insulating

material.

2. No bare should be with hands.

3. Voltage should be kept content through the experiment.

4. Main supply should be switched off while making the circuit.

5. Calibration of voltmeter and ammeter should be carefully before

starting the experiment.

6. Current should be passed only when the readings are being taken to

avoid heating effects.

7. A.C. millimeter and voltmeter should be used.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Fluctuation from the mains.

2. Inaccuracy of ammeter and voltmeter as they are based on heating

effect.

3. Least count of volt meter, and ammeter being large.

Constant passage of current.

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

66

GRAPH BETWEEN

CURRENT & CAPACITANCE

Along X – axis

One small division = ____ µ Farad

Along Y – axis

One small division = ______ Amp

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

67

GRAPH BETWEEN

CURRENT & CAPACITIVE

REACTANCE

Along X – axis

One small division = _____ Ohms

Along Y – axis

One small division = _____ Amp

DAETD : ______________________

ASIFJAH ZEHRAVI CELL 0300 – 2568922 & 0341 – 6623062

68

GRAPH BETWEEN

CAPACITANCE & CAPACITIVE

REACTANCE

Along X – axis

One small division = ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ Ohms

Along Y – axis

One small division = _______ µ F

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