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TENSES (VERBS

)
POSITIVE TENSES
SIMPLE PRESEN T SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PAST PRESENT CONTINUOU CONTINUOU PERFECT S S PAST PERFECT FUTURE SIMPLE

S I YOU HE

work work workS

worke d worke d worke d worke d worke d worke d worke d worke d

am working are working is working is working is working are working are working are working

was have working worked were working was working was working was working were working were working were working have worked has worke d has worke d has worke d have worked have worked have worked

had worked had worked had worked had worked had worked had worked had worked had worked

will work will work will work will work will work will work will work will work

SHE

workS work S work work work

IT WE YOU THEY

NEGATIVE TENSES S I YOU HE
SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PAST PRESENT CONTINUOU CONTINUOU PERFECT S S PAST PERFECT FUTURE SIMPLE

do not work do not work does not work does not work does not work

did not work did not work did not work did not work did not work

am not working are not working is not working is not working is not working

was not working were not working was not working was not working was not working

have not worked have not worked has not worked has not worked has not worked

had not worked had not worked had not worked had not worked had not worked

will not work will not work will not work will not work will not work

SHE

IT

WE YOU

do not work do not work

did not work did not work

are not working are not working

were not working were not working were not working

have not worked have not worked have not worked

had not worked had not worked had not worked

will not work will not work will not work

THE do not did not are not Y work work working CONTRACTIONS ( ' NOT )

am not = ´m not / is not = isn´t / are not = aren´t do not = don't does not = doesn't did not = didn't was not = wasn´t / were not = weren´t / has not = hasn´t / have not = haven´t / had not = hadn´t / will not = won´t
+ S, +ES, +IES ( SIMPLE PRESENT )

ENDING

RULE

EXAMPLE run = runs; format = formats, etc. studies, etc. supplies, etc.

consonant / vowel add -s to the verb consonant + y

change -y to -i study and add -es to the supply verb add -s to the verb add -es to the verb add -es to the verb add -es to the verb add -ed

vowel + y “ss” “x”, “z” “ch”, “sh”

play = plays; convey = conveys, etc. press = presses; possess = possesses,etc. fax = faxes; buzz= buzzes, etc. match = matches; push = pushes, etc. to the verb clean = cleaned, etc. cried, etc.

+ ED : REGULAR VERBS

( SIMPLE PAST, PRESENT PERFECT, etc... )

consonant consonant + y vowel + y “e” one syllable verb

change “y” to “i” and cry add -ed to the verb add -ed add -d to the verb to the verb

obey = obeyed, etc. arrive = arrived, etc. stop stopped , etc. but format formatted, etc.

double the consonant and add -ed to the verb add -ing

+ ING RULE ( PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, PAST PROGRESSIVE, etc...)

consonant “e” “ie” 1 syllable verb (one vowel + one consonant)

to the verb clean = cleaning, etc. arrive = arriving, etc. die = dying, etc. stop stopping, etc. but format formatting, etc.

omit “e” and add -ing change “ie” to “y” and add -ing double the consonant and add -ing to the verb

1 syllable verb (vowel + “y” or “w”)

add -ing to the verb add -ing to the verb

play = playing, snow = snowing, cry = crying, etc.

“y”

SENTENCES AND QUESTIONS
( only one) VERB TO BE S

S ( only one) VERB TO BE - Wh WORDS ( only one) VERB TO BE

P

.

P

?

Verb to Be Simple Present (am, is, are) Simple Past (was, were)

S

P*

?

S (only one) AUXILIAR Y VERB - Wh WORDS (only one) AUXILIAR Y VERB

(1o +) V (1o +) V (1o +) V

P*

.

S

P*

?

Verbs All tenses

S

P*

?

P * = The predicate is optional.

WORD ORDER S: personal pronouns / nouns ( They / The students and the teachers ) V: verb / auxiliary verb + verb / auxiliary verb + verbs ( play / are + playing / have + been playing ) P: noun + manner + place + frequency 2 + time + purpouse soccer enthusiastically in the mall every Sunday before dawn to keep in shape.

NOUNS (see Flow Chart on NOUNS)
COUNTABLE NOUNS noun ( plural ) adjective + noun ( plural ) adverb + adjective + noun ( plural ) article / word(*) + noun ( singular / plural )

article / word(*) article / word(*)

+ adjective + noun ( singular / plural ) + adverb + adjective + noun ( singular / plural )

(*) = you must place an article or a word before a singular countable noun.

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS noun adjective + noun adverb + adjective + noun word + noun word + adjective + noun word + adverb + adjective + noun
PLURAL NOUNS
ENDING RULE EXAMPLE

consonant vowel vowel + y consonant + y end in “-ch”, “x”, “s” or “slike sounds”, “o”

add -s to the verb add -s to the verb add -s to the verb

computers, programs, CDs, etc. bananas, menus, machines etc. toys, days, surveys, etc. studies, etc. supplies, etc.

change -y to -ies study supply add -es

witch = witches, box = boxes, gas = gases bus = buses, kiss = kisses, Jones = Joneses, etc. potato = potatoes, hero = heroes, etc. but: memo = memos, stereo = stereos, etc. knife = knives, scarf = scarves, etc. but dwarf =dwarfs, roof=roofs, proof=proofs, etc.

add -es

“-f” or “-fe”

change -f or -fe to -ves