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An Introduction to High Energy Physics

John Campbell, HEP
Argonne National Laboratory Useful references: Particle Physics Booklet (available free!) D. Perkins, Intro. to High Energy Physics (Addison-Wesley) P.C.W. Davies, The Forces of Nature (Cambridge U. Press) F. Close, The Cosmic Onion (Heinemann) R. Feynman, QED (Penguin)
An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.1/24

Particle Physics Booklet
Latest listings and properties of all known particles and searches for hypothetical ones. New edition June 2002. One copy is available for free either: On the web at http://pdg.lbl.gov/pdgmail Via email from pdgrequest@lbl.gov By postal mail: Particle Data Group, MS 50R6008 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA 94720-8166 USA
           

An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.2/24

3/24 . We discover new laws of Nature with exquisite mathematical beauty. we want to describe the Elementary Particles and their interactions .What is High Energy Physics? High Energy physics explores objects that are not only very energetic but are also very small. “Particle Physics”. We probe the fundamental structures of matter and energy and the interplay between them.hence the alternative name.         An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. much of the relevant mathematics had been considered purely esoteric until their use here). (Actually. Ultimately.

  0 1 Js. # $" "% '( 3 ! 6 7 8 & ) “Energetic” means that SPECIAL RELATIVITY is important.Small and Energetic These tell us what theories we should use for our physics. where particles tend to behave more like waves. “Small” means that QUANTUM MECHANICS is important. according to de Broglie’s formula: ¤ ¨  ¢¡ £ ¥£ ¦   ©     §  ¥£    © § !   is Planck’s constant and small. % ( 6 An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. and we should use Einstein’s equation: 4 53 7 2 7 6 9 © 8 is the vacuum speed of light and large. @ m/s.4/24 # & '( .

for example: “ . yields an average W-boson mass of 80.4 GeV . . . ” Why is a mass being reported in units of energy? £   ¦§ ' '(   ¤ ¥" ' '( £ © £ © Similary. .5/24 .What do we mean? Perusing the Particle Physics Booklet one finds. . why is the “radius” of the proton often ? approximated by ¡    # Why is a length represented by an inverse energy? £ ) ¢ ¦ ) ¨© ¢ ¢ ¡ An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.

the dimensions of our three important quantities in High Energy Physics are:   ¢ ¡ ¡ £ ¤   ©   ¤ © ¢ § ¨§ ¦ £ £ 6 © ¢ ¥ © ) ¦ 7   ©   ¤ ¨ © ¢ §  § £ ¥£ ¦ &  ¥£   ©  ©7 © 7   ©   2 ¤ ¢ § § ¦ £ ¡© © & £  © ¢ ¥ However.Units The traditional set of units that we are most familiar with is . In terms of these.6/24 ¡ 2 ¤ . now we realize that we can invert these : relationships so that the set   ¤   ¢ £  ¡ ¡  ¡ 6 © ) 7 ) ¦   ©  ©  ¢ 2 © © 6   2 ©  © © 6 ©    £ 2 © © ) ¦ ) 7 ) ¦ An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.

we decide to set . )  ¢(   ¢(  # # 6 a proton radius of £ is really 3 8 ¦ 3 ¡ ¢ ¡  )    £  ¤ ¥1 0 ¨@ © £ " "% '( % '( ¤ )  © ¤ § & ¤ # ¢ '( ) ¦ © © ¤ 4 An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. with the understanding that since they have different dimensions we can always reinstate them in formulae uniquely using dimensional analysis.Translations At this point. So the new dimensions are: © 6 © ' ¦ ©  ©  ©   ¤ ¨ ¢   2 § ) 2 ¥£ ¦   © © 6 ©  © 7     2 )  ¡©  ©   © 6 ¦  2   ©  ©   ¤ ¡ 2 ¦ § ¦ £ ) 2 © £  £   ©  ) ¦ © ) ¦ So a mass of  & GeV really means ¦ GeV/ 8 6 ' " 7 and.7/24 # ¤ '( ¦§ ) ¢ ¦ : .

When they are close together they may interact in such a way that a new particle is produced with almost zero momentum. However. This suggests a strategy for searching for new heavy types of matter: 7 ' 2 6 4 9 © © ! 7 1. Accelerate them so that they each obtain large momenta and energies 2 ! 4 9 £ ©   ! §¨ ©  © ¢ ¤ ¦ ¥ 7 ¡ ¢ £ 3. where we have now set . so . energy must be conserved so that the mass of the new particle is: 7 4 ¦ 2 ¦ 4 4 9 © ©   ! §¨ ©  7 © An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. Set the particles on a collision course and wait! 4.High Energy Accelerators .Theory Let’s go back to Einstein’s equation. . Start with two fairly light particles of mass 7 .8/24   . 4 £   2.

with 2 '    ¥ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ £ © An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. Our near neighbours at Fermilab accelerate protons and anti-protons in their Tevatron collider.Accelerators in Practice In practice. this ideal scenario is hard to accomplish – for example.the top quark with mass '   ¢ £ © £ ¢ The Tevatron is the highest energy collider in the world at present . many new particles may be produced (not just one). particle yet found .until the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . switches on in 2005. ¡ ¤     ' 4 ¡ ¢  ¤ £ ¡ £ 2 ¢ ¡ ¦ ¥ ¢ ¦ ( ( £ ( © ¢ ¡ ¢ Physicists there discovered the heaviest elementary GeV.9/24 £ ¢ § ¦ .

the top quark is not seen directly. but is observed via its multi-stage decay: ¤ ¥3     8 3 8 § ¨3 ¦ £ ¦ §   ¢¡  © ¥ 9  § §    3 8 § ¢¡ ¡  ¡ £  3 8 ¦ ¥ ¦ § ©  © ¥ 9 £ §   ¢ ¥ ¢  Part of the challenge of experimental high energy physics is figuring out exactly where all the particles came from! An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.The Uncertainty Principle The higher the energy that a particle has. Many of the particles that we produce in a high energy collision are unstable and do not live for very long For instance.10/24    8 . the shorter the distance that it travels and the shorter it lives.

The The particle known as the was a successful prediction of the theory that is now universally embraced by high-energy physicists. ¡   ) ¡ ¢ § ) £ §  § )  § ¤ ¥  ¦ ) ) ! § §   § ¤   ¤ ¥  ¦ )   ¤   ) An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.11/24   ) .

12/24 '( ¦ 7 ¥ '( 0 ¥ 0 ¦ # ' .The Electromagnetic Spectrum ¡ ¢  high energy = short wavelength Wavelength (m) > – – – – – < ( ' # 1 ( ' '( ) # 1 '( ¦ 2 © Region Radio Microwave Infrared Visible Ultraviolet X-Rays Gamma Rays Tevatron LHC £ © ¤ Energy (eV) < – – – – – > '( '( ¥ ( ( ) ¥ ) '( ¦ ( ( ' ) ¤ ) ¦ ¦ ¤  '( '( ¦ ¦ # ) ¤ ¦ £ ) % ¤  '( '( % £ ) ¦¦ ) 0 '( '( '( '( ) ¦¦ ) '( ¦ @ ) '( ) ¦ £ '( ¦ ¦ '( '( ( ¦ ¤ ) # ¤ An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.

13/24   ¦ ¦     ) ¥ m. Size of an atom X-Ray diffraction (   nm ¦§ m. An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. ¦ '(   ¦ ¦ '(   ©  # ¤ © ) Size of the nucleus of Uranium-238 Nuclear physics    © Size of the proton High-energy physics '( ¦   ©  nuclear sub-structure quarks Size of a quark ????.Particle Probes To resolve an object. ) 1 m. . we must “look” at it with particles which have a wavelength less than the objects size.

!      ¡ § ¡  § ¢ ¤ ¡ ) £ What characteristics do they share? Mass? Electric charge? Something else we don’t know about?         § An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. First we need to know: Which particles are truly elementary? Stable: . it is possible to group the elementary particles that we know about into families with similar properties. .14/24 . . . . Unstable: .Particle Properties Just as with atoms. . . .

The Periodic Table of HEP Matter (fermions) leptons quarks ¤ Radiation bosons % ( (   charge  9¦ '¤ ' ( % '   )   ¡ ¢ ¡ interactions ¦ ¦ ¥ )  6 £ ¤ ¤ )  strong electromagnetic weak gravitational # # # § ¤ X X X X X X X X X ¨ X X X X ¨ ¨ § ¨ ¥ X X X X plus the fermions’ anti-particles.15/24 ¨ § ( . An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. with opposite charge.

neutron. because the strong colour interaction confines them into hadrons.( e. proton.16/24  © ( 9 ) ' . . mesons . (charge = (charge = ) ¤ '¤ ) ¢ 9¦ % % 9 § ¡ § '¤ '¤ © ¡ ¢ % %  £ 9 baryons . pion.g. kaon.( )        §  ¤ e.g. ) or ( ¢ ¡                 ¤ (charge = (charge = '¤ © ( 9 ) ' ) ¦ % ¦ % % 9 ¡ ¤ '¤  '¤ © ¢ ¢ ¦ % % % ¡  An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.Hadrons and confinement We don’t see quarks and gluons directly. .

§     e. We are used to the conservation of electric charge and must augment this with a few more laws – such as conservation of “strangeness” under the strong force.g.17/24 £ § § .Conservation Laws By writing out the quark content of baryons and mesons it is easy to decide what types of reactions are allowed. ¡ ( ) ( ) ( )+ § ( ) § ¢ £ ¡  ¢ ) 9 ¡ £ ! ¡ ¡  ¡ £ ¡  § ¡  ) ! An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.

-m. ¦ 7 '( ) # ' weak ¦ '( ) @ gravity '( 1 7 0 )   © ¦ 0 ¦ ¦ ©   – gravitons Quantum Gravity ¥ '( ) '( gluons QCD photon QED 3 8 3 ¡ ¢ £¤ %3 8 ¡ ¢ ' ¡ £ QED = Quantum Electrodynamics QCD = Quantum Chromodynamics An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. say GeV ( fm).18/24 ¥ ¡ ¤ & ¦ ¢ ¡ 8 ) . ) 0 @ . 2 ' (      strong strength lifetime(s) boson theory symmetry '( e.Forces of Nature Let’s compare the forces at energies (and distances) typical for HEP.

The particles interact by exchanging field quanta. An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. . with the result that these fields are quantized. These quanta are the bosons that we have been talking about . Quantum Field Theory has a simple representation that we can use .. ¡ ¤ § ¥       We describe the interactions of these particles by a Quantum Field Theory (complicated math). magnetic and gravitational fields. Fortunately. In HEP.Quantum Field Theory Particles interact with each other through fields. we are familiar with electric.19/24     .Feynman diagrams. and . we know that quantum mechanics is important. Classically.

Feynman Diagrams Simple. pretty pictures # # # ¡ ¢   # to represent all that complicated math.  ¡ ¢     ¥ # # ¤£  ¨ ©§ ¦ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¤        An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.20/24  " #!  $ % & '! ( ) .

Jets How do hadrons form at a collider? Somehow all the quarks and gluons must rearrange themselves to become hadrons.21/24 § ) § . The result is jets of hadrons that look very much like the paths of individual quarks. £ ¡         ¡ ¡ ¢ ¤ ¤ ¢ § ¢ £ ¡ ¢ An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.

Renormalization According to the uncertainty principle. This is the flip-side of confinement. the vacuum may fluctuate .22/24 . where the interactions become stronger at lower energies (longer distances).which causes all the field strengths and interactions to be renormalized.   ¡         ¢ This causes the strong interactions to become weaker at higher energies. ¡   An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. called asymptotic freedom.

The Higgs Boson The Higgs Boson is the missing link in our “periodic table”. or Standard Model. or something else. our theory predicts that the masses of the W-boson and Z-boson are zero.       This mechanism must happen one way or another with a “traditional” Higgs. This is not the case! The procedure by which the Higgs forces these to be massive is called Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. without the Higgs particle. However. We haven’t found the Higgs yet . multiple Higgs particles. the goal of the LHC).23/24   . We’ll know soon (maybe Tevatron.despite a recent false alarm at CERN. An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p.

g. leading to even more unification . these theories may be embedded in an even more speculative framework. At this point we are closer to maths than physics! An Introduction to High Energy Physics – John Campbell – p. or GUTs. These are called Grand Unified Theories.Super-theories Just as we realized that we could describe the weak and electro-magnetic theories within one embracing electroweak theory.24/24       . attempts have been made to unify this theory with that of the strong interactions. introducing yet more undiscovered particles (e. squarks.supergravity. called superstrings. partners of the regular quarks). These theories “naturally” incorporate gravity. Other theorists try to link fermions and bosons through supersymmetry. Ultimately.