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# Meaning of Elasticity

LESSON 2.11 Understanding elasticity.

Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to return to original shape @ size @ length after an applied external force (compressive force or stretching force) is removed. Why a solid is elastic?

At distance X1 : is the equilibrium position where the resultance force is zero. At distance X < X1 : the solid is compressed where force of repulsion > force of attraction. At distance X1 < X<X2 : the solid is stretched where force of attraction > force of repulsion until the force of attraction reaches a maximum value at X2. At distance X > X2 : the force of attraction will decrease and the molecular layer will begin to slip and solid will permanently change its shape. The point where the solid loses its elastic characteristics is call as the elastic limit. After this limit, the solid will not return to its original shape. Restoring Force

-The property of elasticity is caused by the existence of two forces between molecules or atoms in the solid material. -The two forces are force of repulsion and force of attraction between molecules. -When a compressive force is applied to the solid, force of repulsion between the molecules pushes the molecules back to their equilibrium positions. -When a stretching force is applied to the solid force of attraction between the molecules pulls the molecules back to their equilibrium positions. -In the absence of an applied external force on the solid, the force of attraction is balanced by the force of repulsion or the resultant force is zero.

Figure(a): The spring is unstretched , i.e at natural length and exerts zero force on the trolley. Figure(b): As the spring is stretched to the right, it exerts a force to the left on the trolley. This is called a restoring force. Hooke’s Law Hooke’s Law states that the extension of an elastic substance is directly proportional to the stretching force acting on it provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded.

Graph of force between molecules , F against the distance between molecules, x.

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Energy is lost from the system in overcoming this friction.So damping process should be happen as quickly as possible. Factors affecting the rate of extension or stiffness of a spring Type of spring material: A spring made from a hard material extending shorter than a spring made from a soft material. Diameter of the wire of the spring: A spring coil made from a thicker wire is harder (the rate of extension is low) compared a spring made from a thinner wire. k: The spring which has a larger value of k is the spring which more stiff (the rate of extension is low) 79 The unit of k is Nm-1 Spring constant. The spring constant. The original length of the spring: Stretch of a longer spring is more easily than stretch of a shorter spring. x . k F = kx. This effect is called damping. AB: The graph takes the form a curve that is the stretching force is not vary directly with extension of the spring and Hooke’s law is no applicable. In an ammeter or in a car’s suspension needs to stop the oscillations as quickly as possible . F against Spring extension.@ F  x F=kx F = the acting force or the effort (N) X = extension (m) k = the spring constant (N/m @ Nm¯¹) Spring constant. A: Elastic limit OA: The graph is a straight line passing through the origin. P: stiff spring Q: soft spring Graph of Stretching Force. k = Gradient of the graph A larger value of k or gradient indicates a stiffer (harder) spring. k=F x Why does the oscillation of a spring stops? If you leave a mass on a spring oscillating it eventually slows down and stops. For example a steel spring extending shorter than a copper spring. Thus the stretching force is directly proportional to the extension of the spring and Hooke’s law is obeyed. Air resistance slows the object down. Diameter of spring coil: A spring coil of a larger diameter is easier to stretch (the rate of extension is high) compared to a spring coil of smaller diameter.

What is the elastic potential energy stored in the spring? Solution Solution Example 4 Figure shows a graph of force. Elastic Potential Energy ( Ee) Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in an elastic matter when it is extended or compressed. Ee = ½ F x the vs.4 m? Solution 81 . x for a spring.Example 3 The original length of a spring is 12 cm. F against extension. With a load of 20 g. Thus. the length of the spring is extended to 15 cm. x F = Force x = extension k = spring constant = ½ kx2 = Area under graph F What is the potential energy stored when the spring is extended by 0.

Example 5 Figure shows a ball of mass 10 g pushed against one end of a spring on a smooth surface. The original length of the spring is 14 cm and its spring constant is 200 N m-1. x . Solution 2 3 The spring constant. k increases when A the spring length increases B the diameter of the sprig increases C the diameter of the spring wire increases 4 The figure shows two springs with a different original length. F = kx where k is the spring constant. TUTORIAL 2. of a spring is given by the equation.11 1 Property of elasticity is caused by the existence of A the force of repulsion between molecules B the force of attraction between molecules C the force of repulsion and attraction between molecules The relationship between stretching force. F. (b) The maximum velocity reached by the ball after the compressive force on the spring is removed. with the extension. x Which one of the following graph is true? 82 . A piece of wood slowly moved towards the wall with a force F so that the springs are compressed together with a distance. What is the unit of K? A N m-1 B N m-2 -1 C kg m D kg m-2 Determine (a) The elastic potential energy stored in the spring.