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LESSON 2.11 Understanding elasticity.

Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to return to original shape @ size @ length after an applied external force (compressive force or stretching force) is removed. Why a solid is elastic?

At distance X1 : is the equilibrium position where the resultance force is zero. At distance X < X1 : the solid is compressed where force of repulsion > force of attraction. At distance X1 < X<X2 : the solid is stretched where force of attraction > force of repulsion until the force of attraction reaches a maximum value at X2. At distance X > X2 : the force of attraction will decrease and the molecular layer will begin to slip and solid will permanently change its shape. The point where the solid loses its elastic characteristics is call as the elastic limit. After this limit, the solid will not return to its original shape. Restoring Force

-The property of elasticity is caused by the existence of two forces between molecules or atoms in the solid material. -The two forces are force of repulsion and force of attraction between molecules. -When a compressive force is applied to the solid, force of repulsion between the molecules pushes the molecules back to their equilibrium positions. -When a stretching force is applied to the solid force of attraction between the molecules pulls the molecules back to their equilibrium positions. -In the absence of an applied external force on the solid, the force of attraction is balanced by the force of repulsion or the resultant force is zero.

Figure(a): The spring is unstretched , i.e at natural length and exerts zero force on the trolley. Figure(b): As the spring is stretched to the right, it exerts a force to the left on the trolley. This is called a restoring force. Hooke’s Law Hooke’s Law states that the extension of an elastic substance is directly proportional to the stretching force acting on it provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded.

Graph of force between molecules , F against the distance between molecules, x.

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Energy is lost from the system in overcoming this friction.So damping process should be happen as quickly as possible. Factors affecting the rate of extension or stiffness of a spring Type of spring material: A spring made from a hard material extending shorter than a spring made from a soft material. Diameter of the wire of the spring: A spring coil made from a thicker wire is harder (the rate of extension is low) compared a spring made from a thinner wire. k: The spring which has a larger value of k is the spring which more stiff (the rate of extension is low) 79 The unit of k is Nm-1 Spring constant. The spring constant. The original length of the spring: Stretch of a longer spring is more easily than stretch of a shorter spring. x . k F = kx. This effect is called damping. AB: The graph takes the form a curve that is the stretching force is not vary directly with extension of the spring and Hooke’s law is no applicable. In an ammeter or in a car’s suspension needs to stop the oscillations as quickly as possible . F against Spring extension.@ F x F=kx F = the acting force or the effort (N) X = extension (m) k = the spring constant (N/m @ Nm¯¹) Spring constant. A: Elastic limit OA: The graph is a straight line passing through the origin. P: stiff spring Q: soft spring Graph of Stretching Force. k = Gradient of the graph A larger value of k or gradient indicates a stiffer (harder) spring. k=F x Why does the oscillation of a spring stops? If you leave a mass on a spring oscillating it eventually slows down and stops. For example a steel spring extending shorter than a copper spring. Thus the stretching force is directly proportional to the extension of the spring and Hooke’s law is obeyed. Air resistance slows the object down. Diameter of spring coil: A spring coil of a larger diameter is easier to stretch (the rate of extension is high) compared to a spring coil of smaller diameter.

Spring Systems There are two ways to arrange a spring. The ropes used by rock climbers have elastic properties that can save lives during climbing accidents. (c) The load required to extend the spring to 20 cm. (2) Electric meter: Electric meters such as ammeter. that is. This is due to the elasticity of the springs. (4) Vehicles spring support: It enables the passengers in a vehicle to be seated in a comfortable position when the vehicle goes on a bumpy road because springs shock absorbers are mounted on the wheels of vehicles to absorb impacts and damp vibrations resulting from movement on the bumpy road or uneven road surface. The ropes are made of a continuous-drawn nylon fibre core and a protective textile covering. The springs are used to stop the pointer at a specific point on the scale or to return the pointer to the zero mark on the scale after a measurement has been taken (3) Weighing apparatus: A weighing apparatus such as spring balance. a spring is either extended or compressed and it obeys the Hooke ‘law and it caused the apparatus has a linear scale.e: W In parallel arrangement the load is shared equally among the springs. Solution Example 2 Spring A extends by 2 cm when it hung with a 10 g weight. Spring B extends by 4 cm when it hung with a 10g weight. Use of Elasticity in Everyday Life: (1) Cushion / mattress: The spring in a cushion or mattress undergo many cycles of compression during use and each time the cushion is able to return to its original shape. This reduces the stopping force acting on a falling climber. (a) Series arrangement (b) Parallel arrangement Series Parallel In series arrangement. the length of the spring is extended to 7 cm. 80 . A bow bends or elastic twine of the bow is stretched to store the elastic potential energy used to propel the arrow. i. (5) In sports: The elastic strings of tennis or a badminton racket enable them to rebound the ball or shuttle. same load is applied to each spring. With a load of mass 20 g. Find the total stretch in each of the spring systems shown in the following figure. i.Spring arrangement: Stretch of a spring in series is easier than stretch of a spring in parallel. voltmeter and galvanometer have spiral springs.e: W 2 Example 1 The original length of a spring is 5 cm. Determine (a) The extension of the spring with a load 40 g (b) The length of the spring with a load 60 g.

What is the elastic potential energy stored in the spring? Solution Solution Example 4 Figure shows a graph of force. Elastic Potential Energy ( Ee) Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in an elastic matter when it is extended or compressed. Ee = ½ F x the vs.4 m? Solution 81 . x for a spring.Example 3 The original length of a spring is 12 cm. F against extension. With a load of 20 g. Thus. the length of the spring is extended to 15 cm. x F = Force x = extension k = spring constant = ½ kx2 = Area under graph F What is the potential energy stored when the spring is extended by 0.

Example 5 Figure shows a ball of mass 10 g pushed against one end of a spring on a smooth surface. The original length of the spring is 14 cm and its spring constant is 200 N m-1. x . Solution 2 3 The spring constant. k increases when A the spring length increases B the diameter of the sprig increases C the diameter of the spring wire increases 4 The figure shows two springs with a different original length. F = kx where k is the spring constant. TUTORIAL 2. of a spring is given by the equation.11 1 Property of elasticity is caused by the existence of A the force of repulsion between molecules B the force of attraction between molecules C the force of repulsion and attraction between molecules The relationship between stretching force. F. (b) The maximum velocity reached by the ball after the compressive force on the spring is removed. with the extension. x Which one of the following graph is true? 82 . A piece of wood slowly moved towards the wall with a force F so that the springs are compressed together with a distance. What is the unit of K? A N m-1 B N m-2 -1 C kg m D kg m-2 Determine (a) The elastic potential energy stored in the spring.

00 cm . What is the reading on the pin when 20 g of the load in Figure (b) is removed? A 83 5.What is the value of P? A 4 kg B 6 kg C 8 kg D 9 kg 8 E 12 kg Figure shows (a) the pointer reading of a spring without load. 5 The figure shows a force.extension graph for a spring. Find the weight of a load when hung from the same spring. Which section of the graph Hooke’s law is obeyed? A AO B AB C At point B D After point B 6 A spring extends by 4 cm when it hung with a load of 8N.00 cm B 10. A 9N B 10 N C 12 N D 14 N E 16 N 7 What is the value of M? A 100g B 180g C 200 g D 240g 9 E 300g Figure (a) and (b) show the two positions of a pin when a spring is loaded with two different weights. Figure (b) and (c) show the pointer reading of the spring when it is loaded with a different load. produces an extension of 5 cm. The figure shows a spring of length 18 cm compressed to a length of 10 cm by a load of P and compressed to a length of 8 cm by a load of 10 kg.

P. What is the length of P? A 55 cm B 100 cm C 70 cm D 105 cm cm What is the length of AB? A 16 cm B 21 cm C 23 cm D 24 cm E 125 E 26 cm 12 Figure (a) shows a spring of length 10 cm compressed to a length of 8 cm by a load of 20 N. Spring L extends 3 cm when it is hung with a 100 g] 13 Figure (a) shows two springs A and B having an original length of 10 cm each are loaded with the mass of 100 g and 200 g respectively. [Spring K extends 2 cm when it is hung with a 200 g. Figure (b) shows four springs P are arranged in a system and it hung with a 1.5 kg weight.75 cm E 10 The figure shows a load M supported by the arrangements of springs. 14 Figure (a) shows a spring P extends by 5 cm when it hung with a 0. Figure (b) shows five identical springs are compressed by a load of 60 N to a length of L. 84 . All the springs are identical.00 cm D 18.C 15. Figure (b) shows the springs A and B are arranged in series and it is loaded with the mass of 300g.00 cm 20. P Q R What is the value of L? A 5 cm B 7 cm C 9 cm D 13 cm E 15 cm Which comparison is correct about the extension of P.0 kg load. Q and R? A P<Q<R B Q< R< P C R< Q < P D Q< P< R 11 The figure shows two springs K and L having and original length 5 cm each are connected in series to a 400 g weight. Q and R.

G. Figure (b) shows the graph F against x for the spring.0 cm C 15.5 J B 15. 19 Figure (a) shows a metal sphere of weight of F N is placed atop a spring and it is found the extension of the spring is x cm.0 cm 15 Figure (a) shows a spring J extends to a certain value when it hung with a 40 g weight. H.1 kg. L and M are identical springs? A 60g B 80g C 120g D 160g E 200 g 16 Figure (a) and Figure (b) shows six identical springs E. When the extension of the spring is 20 cm. the metal sphere is released. If the compression of the spring is 0. F.0 J C 3 000 J D 6000 J E 12 000 J 18 The figure shows a spring having an original length of 20 cm. K.0 cm D 20. What is the total extension of the spring system? A 5. what is the potential energy stored in the spring? A 7. L and M are arranged in parallel extends to same value as spring J when it hung with a weight P.0 cm E 25. and J whose original length is 12 cm each.0 cm B 10. I. The steel ball moves up at a height h when it is released. The Figure (b) shows three springs K.17 A spring is compressed with a force of 300 N. When the spring is compressed by a steel ball of mass 0.05 m. the length of the spring becomes 14 cm. What is the velocity of the metal sphere? A D 1 ms –1 4 ms-1 B E 2 ms-1 6ms-1 C 3ms-1 What is the value of L? A 26 cm B 28 cm D 32 cm E 34 cm C 30 cm 85 . What is the value of h? A 6 cm B 4 cm C 3 cm D 2 cm E 1 cm What is the value of P if the spring J.

....... 20 The figure shows a graph extension .........F for two springs A and B.....I...... State the physical quantity which can be represented by the area below the graph line.. .... x against Force ............... 86 Figure(a) Figure(b) (a) State the S............. of a spring and weight of load W............. The spring A and B having an original length of 10 cm each..... .... The relationship of e with W is shown in the graph in Figure(b).. Explain why? ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… (e) State two factors why the extension of the spring A is different from the extension of the spring B? ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… (f) Create an arrangement of the spring A and B to get the extension of the spring system is 10 cm when a load of 10 N is hung............. ……………………………………………… … (b) State the law involved................... (a) Based on the graph .......... .... (c) State the relationship between x and W. .. . (b) (d) .......... ................ Name the law that relates x and W............. unit for weight.... x and the force...... state the relationship between the extension........ ......... x. .......... ……………………………………………… … (c) What is the physical quantity is represented by the gradient of the graph? ……………………………………………… … (d) Which of the spring is the most suitable to measure the big force.... F............ 21 Figure(a) shows the arrangement of apparatus in an experiment to determine the relationship between the extension e of a spring T with weight W............. The relationship between x and W is shown in the graph in Figure (b)...........20 Figure (a) shows the arrangement of apparatus to investigate the relationship between the extension...............

(b) The spring stores energy when it is extended. (i) Name this law (ii) 22 Figure (a) shows an archer shoots a target Figure (b) the archer shoots the same target but at different distance. is added to the arrangement in Figure(a). describe an experimental framework to test your hypothesis.Figure(a) Figure(b) (a) A law states that. Based on the observations: State one suitable inference that can be made. The experiment is the repeated. In your description . Mark with a cross (x) the elastic limit of the spring on the graph in Figure (b). (c) Another spring. The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the force applied if the elastic limit of the spring is not exceeded. state clearly the following: (i) Aim of the experiment (ii) Variables in the experiment (iii) List of apparatus and materials (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus (v) The procedure of the experiment which include the (a) 87 Figure(c) Sketch the graph of W against e for this experiment on the graph in Figure (b). identical to spring T . Calculate the energy stored in the spring when it is extend by 4 cm. . (b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an investigation. ticker timer and other apparatus . Observe the conditions of each bow and the distance of the target from the archer. (c) With the use of apparatus such as trolley. ……………………………………. This new arrangement is shown in Figure(c).

method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. (vi) Way you would tabulate the data (vii) Way you would analysis the data 88 .

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