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CHAPTER 1: - A cell is the smallest unit of life

- Characteristics of life: motility, responsiveness, reproduction, heredity, development, metabolism, cells

- Metabolism : the ability to acquire, store, transfer and use energy

- Scientific Method: Observation Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Repeat tests/Gather data Conclusion Analyze/Report Results - Hypothesis: A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation..

- Mutation: 1. The act or process of being altered or changed. 2. An alteration or change, as in nature, form, or quality. 3. Genetics a. A change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type.

- DNA : deoxribonuceic acid

-Evolution- change in a line of descent over time. (moths deter birds with scary wing design)

Covalent bonds may be polar or nonpolar .Types of Bonds: Ion-atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons Ionic: An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. and cannot be broken into any smaller substance. . Human intervention in animal or plant reproduction to ensure that certain desirable traits are represented in successive generations. n. Covalent: Atoms share a pair of electrons to fill the outermost shell Hydrogen Bond: Molecule joined to hydrogen by polar covalent bonds .-artificial selection.natural selection : The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.Ion: an ion is formed when an atom gains or loses an electron . CHAPTER 2 -Element: The most basic form of matter that occupies space.Atomic Number: number of protons . .Hydrophilic (polar) substances will dissolve easily in water *they attract water Hydrophobi c (non-polar) substances will not dissolve easily in water *they repel water -Acids – – Donate H+ when dissolved in water Acidic solutions have pH < 7 -Bases .Compound : 2 or more different elements bonded together in an expected ratio(H20) . has mass.

having the general formula C n H 2n.Enzymes-special proteins that act as a catalyst to speed up reactions CHAPTER 3 .Types of reactions:  **Condensation= 2 molecules covalently combine to form a larger molecule by the addition of heat *subunits = polymer  A + B →→→ AB↑ (water)  **Hydrolysis (cleavage)= a large molecule splits into by the addition of water  AB →→→ A + B *polymers = subunits .Most common elements in the body: Carbon – – – Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen .fatty acids: Any of a large group of monobasic acids.  Saturated fat-has single bonds only  Monounsaturated -carbon chain has 1 or more double bonds  Polyunsaturated fat-carbon chain has at least 3 double bonds .– – Accept H+ when dissolved in water Basic solutions have pH > 7 -Acidosis-blood pH decreases -Alkalosis-blood pH increases . especially those found in animal and vegetable fats and oils.Most important it Oxygen .

amylose How plants store excess carbohydrates: In the form of large spiral-shaped. hydrophobic molecules called starch. sucrose Polysaccarides: cellulose. Types of carbs: Monosaccharides: gluctose and fructose Disaccharides: lactose.Carbohydrates-*the most abundant of all biological molecules Simplest carbohydrate is a monosaccharide Difference between glucose and fructose: They have the same formula but different structures. It would be the arrangement of atoms that's different. .