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Science review.

A. Vocabulary summary. ECOSYSTEMS AND WHAT CHANGES THEM: Adaption: When an animal changes to be better in its habitat. Camouflage: An animal that changes its colour to the same as its habitat. Mimicry: When an animal makes itself look like something else. Endangered: When a living thing has almost died out. Extinct: When a living thing has died out; they are all dead. Food web: More than one food chain put together. IF AN ORGANISM DOES NOT ADAPT, OR BECOMES EXTINCT/ ENDANGERED WITHIN AN ECOSYSTEM, THAT ECOSYSTEM WILL BECOME UNBALANCED. AN UNBALANCED ECOSYSTEM HAS TOO LARGE A POPULATION OF SOME ORGANISMS AND TOO FEW OF OTHERS.

ROCKS: Sedimentary Rock: rocks made when small pieces of rock are pushed and squeezed together (pressure) to make new rocks of many layers. Igneous Rock: rock made when rocks melt and then become hard again. Fire made. Metamorphic rock: rocks made through heating AND squeezing (pressure) Minerals: What rocks are made from. Weathering: when wind and rain change the shape of a rock. SOIL: Topsoil: the top layer of soil. It is dark with lots of humus and minerals. Plants grow here. Subsoil: Under the top soil. Lighter in colour and has less minerals and no humus. Solid rock: one big piece of rock. Humus: used to be living things (made of dead/ rotting plants and animals) Silt: Very small pieces of rock.

FOSSILS: Fossil: the imprint or remains of something that lived a long time ago. Mould: an empty space in a rock where something used to be. Cast: a fossil made inside a mould. Amber: hardened tree sap (liquid from a tree) with something that used to live inside it. Ice: Ice with something that used to live long ago frozen inside it. FOSSILS, ICE AND AMBER ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEY CAN TELL US WHAT IT WAS LIKE LONG AGO. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES: Fossil Fuels: Fuel made from the remains of plants and animals from long ago (coal, oil, gas) Natural Resource: something found on the Earth that we can use to make our lives better. Water: liquid that covers ¾ of the Earth’s surface. We need fresh water to live. Renewable Resource: a resource we can use again or replace easily (water, soil, animals). Non-Renewable Resource: resources we cannot use again or replace easily (fossil fuels and minerals). WATER AND THE WATER CYCLE: Fresh water: water that we find in rivers and lakes. It has no salt and we need it to live. Liquid fresh water makes only 1% of all Earth’s water. Total fresh water is 3%. Salt water: found in oceans, contains salt. It makes up 97% of all Earth’s water. Frozen water: water that has become cold and turned into ice. Condense: when water vapour gets cold and turns back into small drops of liquid water. Evaporate: when water gets hot and turns into a gas (water vapour).

Rain: small drops of water come together in clouds. When they get too heavy they fall to the Earth again as rain. CHANGES TO THE LAND: Weathering: how rocks change and break because of water (rain, river, ocean), wind, temperature (hot or cold) and chemicals. It is slow and takes a long time. WEATHERED ROCKS BECOME SMALLER ROCKS, SAND AND SILT. Erosion: how weathered rocks and soil are moved from place to place. Rivers, gravity and wind can all cause erosion. Man-made: something made by people; not animals, water, rocks, minerals or plants) Caves: a hole made inside limestone rock by weathering from chemicals in rain. Fast change to the land: volcano, earthquake, flood, tornado, hurricane, tsunami Slow change to the land: weathering and erosion Mining: when people dig big holes in the ground to find minerals. Building: when people make houses, roads, bridges or dams. Natural Disaster: something bad that happens but that people did not make happen. Volcano: Earthquake: when the Earth’s surface moves very quickly. Hurricane: a very big and strong storm that moves from the ocean to the land. Tornado: a small strong wind storm that happens on wide flat plains of land. Flood: when there is a lot of water where there normally is none.

Work: Adaptation & Change: What will happen to an organism if it does not adapt?

Name 2 endangered animals: ___________________________ Name 2 extinct animals: ___________________________

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Write a list of some things that can change an ecosystem and what can happen to the ecosystem after these things happen: AFFECT: ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ RESULT: ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Now use your lists to complete the diagram. Pay attention to which way the arrows go: into the ecosystem for things that affect it and out of the ecosystem for the result.

ECOSYSTEM

ROCKS AND SOIL: How is an igneous rock made: _____________________________________ Name 1 igneous rock: ____________________________________________ How are sedimentary rocks made: __________________________________ Name 1 Sedimentary rock: ________________________________________ How are Metamorphic rocks made: _________________________________ Name 1 Metamorphic rock: _______________________________________ What are minerals? ______________________________________________

Now draw and label the layers of soil. Show all of the following: top soil, subsoil, solid rock, plants and roots.

FOSSILS: What is a fossil? _____________________________________________________________________ Why are fossils important? _____________________________________________________________________ What 3 ways are fossils made? _____________________________________________________________________ If we find a fish fossil on a mountain what does it tell us about the Earth? _____________________________________________________________________

RESOURCES: What are renewable resources? ________________________________________ Give an example of renewable resource: __________________________________ What are non-renewable resources? _____________________________________ Give an example of non-renewable resource: _______________________________ What are fossil fuels? Give examples: ___________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

WATER AND THE WATER CYCLE. What does condense mean? ___________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ What does evaporate mean? __________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Draw the water cycle in the space provided. Show and label the 3 most important parts.

CHANGES TO THE LAND. What are some things that change the land slowly: ___________________________ What are some things that change the land quickly: __________________________ What is erosion? ______________________________________________________ What is weathering? ___________________________________________________ What is a hurricane? ___________________________________________________ What is a tornado? _____________________________________________________ What is a flood? ______________________________________________________ What are some things that can cause erosion? _______________________________