258), equ
This spreadsheet is part of the additional materials of the book "Digital photography for science: Close-up photography, macropho
Table 1 (below): DoF and effective aperture (E) based on nominal aperture and magnification.
Green: optimal settings, resolution is limited by CoC (C ≥ Airy ). The best compromise between DoF and diffraction is the cell at
Yellow: use if higher-than-optimal DoF is required of if the image will be printed at a small absolute size. Resolution is slightly li
Red: avoid, resolution is visibly reduced by diffraction (2C < Airy ).
Nom. aperture→
1
1.2
1.4
2
2.8
4
Magnification↓
DoF
E
DoF
E
DoF
E
DoF
E
DoF
E
DoF
E
0.1
4.2
1.1
5
1.3
5.9
1.5
8.4
2.2
12
3.1
17
4.4
0.2
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.7
2.3
2.4
3.2
3.4
4.6
4.8
0.3
0.55 1.3 0.66 1.6 0.77 1.8
1.1
2.6
1.5
3.6
2.2
5.2
0.4
0.33 1.4
0.4
1.7 0.47
2
0.67 2.8 0.93 3.9
1.3
5.6
0.5
0.23 1.5 0.27 1.8 0.32 2.1 0.46
3
0.64 4.2 0.91
6
0.75
0.12 1.8 0.14 2.1 0.17 2.5 0.24 3.5 0.33 4.9 0.47
7
1
0.076 2 0.091 2.4 0.11 2.8 0.15
4
0.21 5.6
0.3
8
1.5
0.042 2.5 0.051
3
0.059 3.5 0.084 5
0.12
7
0.17 10
2
0.029 3 0.034 3.6 0.04 4.2 0.057 6
0.08 8.4 0.11 12
2.5
0.021 3.5 0.026 4.2 0.03 4.9 0.043 7
0.06 9.8 0.085 14
3
0.017 4
0.02 4.8 0.024 5.6 0.034 8 0.047 11 0.068 16
4
0.012 5 0.014
6
0.017 7 0.024 10 0.033 14 0.048 20
5
0.0091 6 0.011 7.2 0.013 8.4 0.018 12 0.026 17 0.036 24
7.5
0.0057 8.5 0.0069 10 0.008 12 0.011 17 0.016 24 0.023 34
10
0.0042 11 0.005 13 0.0059 15 0.0084 22 0.012 31 0.017 44
15
0.0027 16 0.0032 19 0.0038 22 0.0054 32 0.0076 45 0.011 64
20
0.002 21 0.0024 25 0.0028 29 0.004 42 0.0056 59 0.008 84
30
0.0013 31 0.0016 37 0.0018 43 0.0026 62 0.0037 87 0.0052 120
40
0.001 41 0.0012 49 0.0014 57 0.0019 82 0.0027 110 0.0039 160
Table 2 (below): Diameter of Airy disk (in mm) for green-yellow light (550 nm) based on nominal aperture and magnification.
Light pink for Airy > CoC, dark pink for Airy > 1.5CoC, red for Airy > 2CoC.
Nom. aperture→
1
1.2
1.4
2
2.8
4
Magnification↓
Airy
Airy
Airy
Airy
Airy
Airy
0.1
0.00147579 0.001770946 0.0020661 0.00295158 0.00413221 0.00590315
0.2
0.00160995 0.001931941 0.00225393 0.0032199 0.00450786 0.0064398
0.3
0.00174411 0.002092937 0.00244176 0.00348823 0.00488352 0.00697646
0.4
0.00187828 0.002253932 0.00262959 0.00375655 0.00525917 0.00751311
0.5
0.00201244 0.002414927 0.00281741 0.00402488 0.00563483 0.00804976
0.75
0.00234785 0.002817415 0.00328698 0.00469569 0.00657397 0.00939138
1
0.00268325 0.003219902 0.00375655 0.0053665 0.00751311 0.01073301
1.5
0.00335407 0.004024878 0.00469569 0.00670813 0.00939138 0.01341626
2
0.00402488 0.004829854 0.00563483 0.00804976 0.01126966 0.01609951
2.5
0.00469569 0.005634829 0.00657397 0.00939138 0.01314793 0.01878276
3
0.0053665 0.006439805 0.00751311 0.01073301 0.01502621 0.02146602
4
0.00670813 0.008049756 0.00939138 0.01341626 0.01878276 0.02683252
5
0.00804976 0.009659707 0.01126966 0.01609951 0.02253932 0.03219902
7.5
0.01140382 0.013684585 0.01596535 0.02280764 0.0319307 0.04561528
10
0.01475789 0.017709463 0.02066104 0.02951577 0.04132208 0.05903154
15
0.02146602 0.025759219 0.03005242 0.04293203 0.06010484 0.08586406
20
0.02817415 0.033808975 0.0394438 0.05634829 0.07888761 0.11269658
30
0.04159041 0.049908487 0.05822657 0.08318081 0.11645314 0.16636162

8 0.9 0.064 14 3 0.4 0.0094 0.0045 0.011 0.15 0.65 5.4 2 2.022 3.1 12.056 0.0032 0.18 3.008 7.75 1.011 0.0021 0.0044 15 0.698 3.046 10 0.0021 0.0 0.2 0.006 12 0.0047 0.043 0.45 4.0 1 0. com Nom.09 7.5 0.0094 1 0.5 0.0047 0.032 7.24 2.005 10 0.0017 0.0024 0.008 64 20 0.4 0.8 0.004 0.5 0.057 2.042 0.0034 0.0043 8.4 1.3 0.011 0.058 0.016 0.203 1.019 0. in mm) is Nom.026 8.025 14 0.009 31 0.975 5.0035 0.0015 21 0.021 4 0.0 0.023 0.503 2.0 0.027 24 7.0014 82 0.8 0.012 24 0.011 1.1 3.248 4.09 1.425 1.006 22 0.044 3.008 0.683 6.03 0.5 0.002 110 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.5 0.6 1.023 0.035 11 0.1 0.0 0.003 42 0.8 0.001 31 0.059 15 0. aperture→ 1 1.008 0.8 0.825 1.015 0.3 0.725 2.0094 0.11 0.2 0.345 3.5 0.15401866 0.0067 0.4 0.0027 0.2 9 3.11 30 0.02 4.0049 0.03 0.0 0.002 0.0056 0.006 45 0.0054 0.008 0.7 1.0053 0. Rounding may slightly affect the color-coding.11001333 0.05500667 0.0064 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.0039 120 40 0.3 1.0041 0.004 0.4 3.0007 41 0.0066 0.75 0.0056 0.0 0.125 3.0016 0.128 10 2 0.1 0.068 2.032 7.0023 0. but rounded to two significant digits.1 3.021 0.105 2.017 34 10 0.0 0.0 0.0024 0.0042 59 0.013 2 0.0 0.4 0.002 62 0.0038 0.2 0.0075 0.0054 0.004 13 0.0028 0.113 4.077 0.016 3.066007999 0.008 17 0.0 0.0094 0.75 0.7 0.032 0.034 0.0038 0.002 25 0.0 0.06 8.01 8.5 6.013 7.2 1.014 0.0023 0.825 2.0059 0.158 5.5 0.02 17 0.4 0.066 0.4 0.22 Table 4 (below): Slice thickness for focus stacking at the given magnification and nominal aperture.8 4 Magnification↓ Airy Airy Airy Airy Airy Airy 0.0 0.3 2.083 0.8 0.0075 0.0021 29 0.0028 0.2 1.013 44 15 0.051 16 4 0.5 0.0014 43 0.018 10 0.0032 11 0. aperture→ 1 1.007 6.013 0.2 1.05 0.225 8.5 0.006 84 30 0.018 0.0056 0.578 1.011 6.036 20 5 0.12 0.15 1.013 4.353 2.026 3.027 5 0.0 0.015 4.038 3.018 5.07700933 0.4 0.011 0.009 5.495 1.75 4.0048 0.083 12 2.032 2.0026 0.063 5.039 0.023 4.6 1.03 4.0011 57 0.413 1.0012 49 0.028 0.004 0.0015 0.055 0.001 37 0.0 0.4 3.3 0.06 0.8 0.045 9.0019 0.353 7.40 0.026 0.019 3 0.016 0.173 1.248 1.48 4.05 1.0064 0.003 0.9 0.5 0.016 2.3 4.0 0.008 0.021 0.128 2.8 0.4 2 2.0033 0.22002666 Table 3 (below): Same data as Table 2.0 0.6 0.6 0.041 0.6 0.5 0.17 40 0.014 12 0.0 1.9 0.0029 160 .0067 0.0018 0.0 0.8 4 Magnification↓ ST E ST E ST E ST E ST E ST E 0.2 1.0023 0.002 16 0.4 2.5 0.2 0.015 0.083 2.002 19 0.2 0.079 0.0066 0.0041 32 0.013 0.6 0.086 20 0.0047 0.0075 0.0019 0. Slice thickness (ST.0097 0.0028 87 0.5 0.0032 0.043 6.0029 22 0.007 0.

4 80 0.47225235 0.4 6.31 33 0.ly published by Lefkowitz (1979.0118063 0.1770946 0.5 17 1.13 55 0. set by user C = C is 0.3 8.6 DoF E 23 6.0150262 0.0442737 0.0368947 0.034 for a 12 Mpixel APS-C sensor C is 0.1 0.2 6.1287961 0.06010484 0.0295158 0. Non-rounded values of DoF are displayed You may change the values of N (nomina N→ M↓ 0. 5.0258263 0.023 62 0.0737894 0.7 44 0.0912306 0.3 1.014 340 0.0516526 0.008 E 8.044 460 0.046 0.2361262 0.23 39 0.16 17 0.46 48 0.1180631 0.042 990 0.4 64 1. equation used in this sheet is an equivalent form.15 96 0.032 48 0.5 2 2.18 270 0.13 190 0.0375 for a 10 Mpixel APS-C sensor C is 0.1717281 0.2361262 0.059 350 0.042932 0.021466 0.3 48 3.011 450 16 DoF E 67 18 18 19 8.10733008 0.0300524 0.03 180 0.0324673 0.021 900 32 DoF E 130 35 36 38 18 42 11 45 7.0885473 0.61 0.93 55 0.8 9.25759219 0.17172813 0.0268325 0.95 0.19 44 0.0191853 0.0826442 0.38 160 0.0112697 0.68 110 0.7 3.0737894 0.046 120 0.0442737 0. a small absolute size.0160995 0.015 90 0.4 2.43 11 0.27 64 0.4 0.3 22 3.3 0.07513106 0.0225393 0.33089299 d on nominal aperture and magnification.032199 0.009767 0.9 28 1.2329063 8 Airy 0.0177095 0.0187828 0. for science: Close-up photography.8 1. p.095 22 0.2508841 0.3099156 0.1033052 0.0590315 0.1 4.37 88 0.051 34 0.5 3 4 5 7.46 28 0.3327232 Input values.3 19 0.0375655 0.47 77 0.4 0.6198312 0.050 for a 10 Mpixel full-frame sens C is 0.064398 0.022 230 0.042932 0.006 230 8 DoF 33 9.032199 0.011 120 0.04722524 0.6 10 11 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 40 48 68 88 130 170 250 330 11 DoF E 46 12 13 13 6 14 3.6 24 1.1577752 0.26 110 0.0751311 0.0450786 0.66 9.032 340 0.053665 0. se between DoF and diffraction is the cell at the bottom of each green column.36492227 0.5 10 15 20 30 40 .34 56 0.0885473 0. 258).020661 0.14 0.0128796 0. Resolution is slightly limited by diffraction (C < Airy < 2C ).24 14 0.9 7.2253932 0.053665 0.067 28 0.0383705 0.0257592 0.007 170 0.84 22 0.8 56 2.0413221 0.6 39 1.0300524 0.8 0.0221368 0.17 0.21466016 0.0162337 0.8 21 5.15026211 0.021 500 0.63 66 0.0139529 0.1475789 0.9149889 32 Airy 0.0131479 0.0516526 0.1287961 0.086 510 0.4507863 0.0279058 0.4722524 0.063 94 0.05151844 0.0590315 0.073 0.34 0.0187828 0.2 0.06439805 0.0638614 0.0858641 0.016 660 22 DoF E 92 24 25 26 12 29 7.8 0.029 680 0.68691251 0.4574945 16 Airy 0.1 66 0.08586406 0.05581164 0.125442 0.0105183 0.12 20 0.0375655 0.75 1 1.024 for a 10 Mpixel Four Thirds sen Pin = Pout = Leave both values at 1 if actual values not P = λ = Use 550 nm (not mm!) for medium green Notes: If you change C in order to model the eff you should change the magnification acco The result is that DoF is not affected by s at the same absolute size.067 180 0.031 1300 11 Airy 0.043 260 0.91 96 0.23 0.0354189 0.01 0.0150262 0.6 Airy 0.092 240 0.022 0.29 190 0.3 31 5 33 2.90157267 1.3434563 0.064 670 0.1202097 0. macrophotography and photomacrography" by Enrico Savazzi.064398 0.1073301 0.7 1.13 350 0.1623367 0.19 80 0. 5.0375655 0.6654465 22 Airy 0.2 32 0.1824611 0.1180631 0.092 140 0.1 7.5 0.2 130 0.0236126 0.0262959 0.54 130 0.095 0.0082644 0.033 0.016 0.0090157 0.3246735 0.68 40 0.7 15 2.

5 27 13.25 6.75 13 13.0. in mm) is 75% of the DoF.069 0.033 0.76021331 ing may slightly affect the color-coding.18 0.2 24.089 0.75 8.035 120 0.022 0.6 21 1.13 0.0098 0.3080373 0.05 0.052 0.353 0.26 0.195 0.008 450 0.18 14 0.173 24 0.026 0.075 66 0.071 22 0.17 0.233 33 0.35 12 1.098 55 0.027 0.038 0.36 0.67 0.086 0.005 170 0.044 0.405 0.4 1.044 0.043 0.34 0.074 0.88 minal aperture.016 0.074 0.975 22 0.011 90 0.2 32 Airy 0.012 660 22 Airy 0.46 0.014 0.024 48 0.017 130 0.825 9.013 0.098 0.048 0.51 40 0.11 0.026 0.052 0.285 0.6050733 0.016 0.278 0.006 330 0.016 500 0.495 9.011 340 0.255 20 0.18 0.052 0.089 0.8 2.041 0.16 0.015 0.024 340 0.012 170 0.018 0.713 14 0.019 0.13 0.12 17 0.064 0.23 0.1 0.075 0.023 0.975 8.013 0.3 3.03 0.255 56 0.032 0.11 0.3 10 4.135 0.47 0.683 0.275 0.17 0.098 0.03 0.32 0.143 44 0.7 24 0.009 0.7 6.63 22 0.05 28 0.5 14 6.024 0.059 0.023 E 35 38 42 45 48 56 64 80 96 110 130 160 190 270 350 510 670 990 1300 .054 0.021 0.004 230 0.5 12 50.019 0.038 0.47 0.24 0.8 6.75 9 5.425 7.69 0.056 0.071 40 0.25 5.218 0.698 0.31 0.775 15 3.325 7.012 0.323 11 0.035 68 0.475 3.9 1.85 1.064 0.09 20 0.028 0.047 0. compared to Table 2.15 0.086 0.12 0.3 1.8 22 32 ST 69 18.95 1.035 0.038 0.064 0.045 0.054 0.011 0.25 0.203 64 0.473 0.143 80 0. Slice thickness (ST.425 28 0.23 0.44 0.21 0.105 32 0.021 0.51 0.31 0.015 0. 5.017 62 0.6 8 11 16 ST E ST E ST E ST E 17.008 250 0.059 0.064 0.038 34 0.62 0.173 39 0.75 1.8 0.043 0.4400533 0.016 E 24 26 29 31 33 39 44 55 66 77 88 110 130 190 240 350 460 680 900 ST 97.91 1.03 0.05 180 0.8 34.038 0.113 96 0.025 88 0.022 0.12 0.33 0.24 0.875 17 2.075 0.032 260 0.044 0.065 0.475 2.06 0.047 94 0.15 0.5 19 2.037 0.032 0.458 16 0.008 120 0.345 48 0.017 230 0.0083 0.069 140 0.2101467 1.345 28 0.128 28 0.025 11 2.032 0.8801067 1.8 1.25 18 4.019 0.975 19 1.45 0.055 48 0.011 0.6 9. 5.023 180 0.13 0.16 0.15 0.61 0.032 0.5 8.091 0.083 0.6 8 11 16 Airy Airy Airy Airy 0.9 32 0.12 0.026 0.

059111111 3.2 0.1 1.141866667 2.2736 1.005016 13 0.002394 25 0.118222222 1. you should change the magnification accordingly.0 0.8 0.3325 1.28 2.3192 2.007566222 45 0.011704 31 0.0 0.003783111 22 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.057 6.2 0. mm Pout = exit pupil diameter.0 0.011484444 17 0.097777778 2.8 0.4 0.025536 17 0.001995 21 0.047288889 11 0.050 for a 10 Mpixel full-frame sensor C is 0.236444444 3.029792 4.5 0.0 0. The result is that DoF is not affected by sensor size if the final pictures are observed at the same absolute size.0 0.5 0.0 0.023644444 5.005742222 8. to keep the same field of view.0 0.016 1.192 3.7 0. You may change the values of N (nominal aperture) in the row below.18 1.002793 29 0.0399 4. mm C = largest allowed CoC (circle of confusion).0011685 49 0.006890667 10 0.0798 8.5 0.368 1.0 0.9 0.8 0. f/ratio M = magnification N = nominal aperture.005852 15 0.001308889 31 0.536888889 3.14 1.059584 9.165511111 2. mm DoF = depth of field.548888889 1.008039111 12 0.050666667 3.001832444 43 0.010944 7.0 0.665 2.001570667 37 0.6 0.331022222 4.00418 11 0.00836 22 0. These changes are automatica 1 1.042222222 2.01425 6.5 0.4655 2.36 2.8 DoF E DoF E DoF E DoF E DoF E 4. mm λ = wavelength.025536 4.152 4.0027265 115 .596 1.2 0.0 0.4 0.3 5.6 0.704 3. and/or M (magnification) in the leftmost column.4 2 2.6 0.003664889 87 0.04256 7. nm Airy  2.Input values.0 0.6384 4.016078222 24 0.0 0.00136325 57 0.852 1.118222222 7.9 0.456 3.003242667 19 0. set by user 0.00399 42 0.2 1. If you change C in order to model the effects of different sensor sizes.002702222 16 0.0 0.01824 12 0.005404444 32 0.43932 E D = (2CE )/(M ^2) E = N (M /P +1) P = Pf / Pr 550 nm (note: not mm!) Use 550 nm (not mm!) for medium green light.8 0. This table is used to store intermediate results used in other tables.6 0.084444444 5.399 1.0285 3.2 1.024 for a 10 Mpixel Four Thirds sensor 1 mm 1 mm Leave both values at 1 if actual values not available.016625 7.658666667 1.020266667 4.0375 for a 10 Mpixel APS-C sensor C is 0.768444444 1.1 5.5 0.03325 14 0.8 1.1 0.6 0.2 11.1 0.5 0.033777778 8.02128 3. Non-rounded values of DoF are displayed below.0019475 82 0.0 0.4 0.4 0. mm E = effective aperture.7 2.02375 10 0.012768 8. 1 Airy = size of Airy disk.2 0.931 3.9 0.8 0.011875 5.4 3.2128 5.019 mm C is 0.016888889 4.3 0.034 for a 12 Mpixel APS-C sensor C is 0.6 1.076 2.8 0.005586 59 0. f/ratio P = pupil ratio Pin = entrance pupil diameter.0912 2.228 1.1064 2.5 0.4 1.00912 6.0342 3.5 8.002617778 62 0.00097375 41 0.