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1. Abbreviations 2. Acronyms and Initialisms 3. Address Guidelines 4. Ampersand 5. APGAR Score 6. Cancer Classification 7. Capitalization Guidelines 8. Decimal Usage 9. Diabetes Mellitus Terms 10. Drug Prescription Abbreviations 11. Drug Terminology 12. Eponym Usage
13. Format For Letters 14. Fraction Usage 15. Geographic Names & Proper Names 16. Genus & Species Names 17. Genetic Terminology 18. Globulins and Immunoglobulins 19. Guidelines with Ages 20. Guidelines with Blood Counts 21. Guidelines with Blood Pressure 22. Guidelines with Dates 23. Guidelines with Proper names
24. Guidelines for Transcribing Numbers 25. Obstetrics Terminology 26. MT Grammar Guidelines-In Brief 27. Plurals 28. SI unit of Measurement 29. Suture Material Guidelines 30. Transcribing Percentages 31. Transcribing Suture Sizes 32. Virgule
ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS An abbreviation is a shortened, contracted, or brief form of words or phrase. Physicians mostly use abbreviations while dictating in order to speed up communication. Sometimes, abbreviations can instead lead to confusion in the report or the transcriber can misinterpret them. Some most common examples are COPD, TIA, TAH-BSO, CBC, etc. When to use Abbreviations? By rule, one must not use abbreviated forms even if dictated in admission or discharge diagnosis, preoperative or postoperative diagnosis, impressions, assessment, or titles of procedure of operative procedure, as these are very crucial points of information in a report and should be expressively communicated. However, in the remaining narrative portion of the report abbreviations can be used. However, all other abbreviations should be transcribed in full. Generally, one must not abbreviate the terms dictated in full except for unit of measurement, for example, milligrams as ml, centimeter as cm. deciliter as dl, which are accepted in the abbreviated form only. In case of abbreviations having multiple meanings as in the case of PE which could pleural effusion. pulmonary embolism, pulmonary edema, physical examination, and so on or if the abbre viation is not clearly understandable in cases such as GTT, GGT, GPT, GOT, GT where it becomes increasingly difficult to understand, then it is the transcriptionist’s duty to figure out the correct one by going through the remaining part of the report. If still unsuccessful, it is better to keep a note rather than end up making a grave mistake.
Usage of periods in Abbreviations: ·Abbreviations for degrees or professional credentials (for example: MA, BA) and professional credentials (for example: CMT, RNP), and also courtesy titles like Mr, Mrs, Dr are used without periods. ·Most abbreviations used in medical reports are transcribed without periods, including brief forms, acronyms, and units of measure. For example, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas e), lab data, cm, WBC. ·In case of junior and senior (Jr, Sr), a period is used only when they come in the end of the sentence, not otherwise. ·Latin abbreviations used in English communication, like etc. (et cetera), e.g. (exempli gratia), i.e. (idest) al ways take periods and are placed in between commas in a sentence. Appropriate references should be made use of for the appropriate placement of periods. ·Periods are a must when using lowercased drug-related Latin abbreviations like p.o., b.i.d., t.i.d., q.i.d., q.4-6h, etc. If 2 or 3 Latin abbreviations are used together, it is obligatory to put a space between them. For example: The patient was advised to take ranitidine p.o. b.i.d. p.r.n. for his acidity. ·If the sentence is ending with an abbreviation that has a period, there is no need to add another period. For example: The patient is taking ranitidine p.o. p.r.n. (correct) The patient is taking ranitidine p.o. p.r.n .. (incorrect) Abbreviating in Plurals:
segs. For example: EKGs. which are not written in all capitals but in a mixed pattern like pH. just 's' is added. lymphs.·To form a plural of a capitalized abbreviation. apostrophe 's' is used to make a plural. ACRONYMS AND INITIALISM ACRONYMS AND INITIALISM . Abbreviations with Numerals: A numeral associated with a unit of measure or any associated abbreviation should not be separated. labs. exams. PhO. There are certain abbreviations. ·In case of short forms for some laboratory terms and some other brief forms also. WBCs. So always make sure through appropriate references as to which is the correct abbreviated form. For example: wbc's. PVCs. only a lowercased 's' is added. ·In case of lowercased abbreviations. For example. They should always be present in the same line and to do that a non-breaking space should be used.
the term acronym is commonly used to describe all abbreviations made from initial letters.·In general usage. ·All letters of acronyms are always capitalized but the words or phrases from which they are generated are to be capitalized only if they are proper nouns. Initialism originally referred to abbreviations formed from initials. meaning that such acronyms have now become the original word and are therefore transcribed as lower cased words and not in abbreviated form. For example: Laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) Folfox ·Periods are not used in between letters of acronyms. OPEC from Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries will be capitalized when spelled out because it is a proper noun. However. . MRI from magnetic resonance imaging. regardless of pronunciation. CBC from complete blood count. most of the commonly used medical acronyms are now used as words in their own sense. For example: AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ·Acronyms are abbreviations formed by taking the initial letter of each word from a series of words or phrase. without reference to pronunciation. ·With widespread usage. Many writers and speakers do not observe any difference between acronyms and initialisms. For example: MRI from magnetic resonance imaging is not capitalized when spelled out.
acronyms should not be used in diagnosis. assessments of reports. For example: By OPEC's criteria. ·When using Acronym. apostrophe 's' is used to show possession to that acronym. to be placed in the center of the envelope. the whole world is their market place. the USPS requires two things on the envelope. . ·One note of caution: Acronyms whose meanings are either not known or understood should be better left as they are rather than ending in putting your foot on the wrong side. The first is the address of the recipient. ·Similar to abbreviations." For any letter addressed within the United States. as well as in the procedure of operation. it is generally referred to within the United States as "the post office. Another optional addition to the address is a ZIP+4 code. ADDRESS GUIDELINES ADDRESS GUIDELINES The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an agency of the United States government responsible for providing postal service in the United States. It is sometimes required to put the name of the addressee above the address. In case of lowercased acronyms like rbc. plural is made by adding apostrophe 's' as in rbc’s.·Plurals in acronyms are made by adding lower cased 's' to upper cased acronym as in WBCs.
com/ncsc/lookups/usps_abbreviations. USPS guidelines mention that all items in an address should be in all capital letters with no punctuation marks on an envelope. For example: DENNIS RUSSO . Check out at (http://www.O. Also. In a 9-digit ZIP code.usps. Zip codes have 5 digits or 9 digits. A common myth is that a comma is required after the city name. but this is not true. Box Line 3: City and ZIP+4 code Example Mr.The formatting of the address is as follows Line 1: Name of recipient Line 2: Street address or P.htm) The formatting of a return address is identical. The Post Office recommends use of all upper case block letters using the appropriate formats and abbreviations and leaving out all punctuation except for the hyphen in the ZIP+4 code to ease automated address reading and speed processing. ZIP + 4 code. ZIP codes must be used on all mails. a hyphen is placed after the first 5 digits. John Dan 1111 JOHNSON ST NEW YORK NY 10036-4658 The USPS maintains a list of proper abbreviations.
. operative titles. ·As in abbreviations. For example: D&C (dilatation and curettage) T&A (tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy) ·No space is used before and after ampersand. It is a symbol which represents word 'and'. assessments. APGAR SCORE APGAR SCORE The Apgar score was devised in 1952 by Virginia Apgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after childbirth.PO BOX 6018 BABYLON NY AMPERSAND AMPERSAND ·An ampersand (&) is a logogram representing the conjunction "and". and conclusion. meaning "and It is used in abbreviations. ampersand is not to be used in diagnosis. The name derives from the phrase "and per se and".
where 0 is lowest and 2 is highest score. muscle tone. The condition of a newborn is assessed on basis of 5 factors. Each of these factors is rated from 0 to 2. i. and color. reflex irritability. with the “A” of Apgar in upper case. namely heart rate. The five criteria of the Apgar score: Score 0 Skin color Heart rate Reflex irritability Muscle tone Respiration blue all over absent no response to stimulation none absent Score 1 blue at extremities <100 grimace/feeble cry when stimulated some flexion weak or irregular Score 2 normal >100 sneeze/cough/pulls away when stimulated active movement strong Acronym Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity Respiration CANCER CLASSIFICATION AND GUIDELINES CANCER CLASSIFICATION AND GUIDELINES . thus making a total score of 10.It is used to assess the condition of a newborn immediately after birth. Apgar score is reported in Arabic numerals. breathing effort.e. For example: The infant's Apgar Score was 5 at 1 minute and 7 at 5 minutes. 1 minute after birth and 5 minutes after birth.
·If the stage has a subdivision. and with grade. III. it is placed immediately after the roman numeral without space. ·By rule with stage. ·Stage I cancers are localized to one part of the body. . and IV to describe the progression of cancer. These are as follows: Roman Numeral Staging This system uses numerals I. Subdivisions contain uppercased alphabet or Roman numerals only. Arabic numerals are used. Roman Numeral Staging. For example: stage I grade 1 stage IIA grade 4 stage III3 stage IVB Several classification systems have been developed depending upon the body areas affected and the extent of tumor. TNM staging. ·In transcription. Cancers can be staged in various methods such as Ann Arbor staging. the word “stage” and “grade” of cancer are not capitalized. II.·Stages and Grades of Cancer: The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. Roman numerals are used.
or spread to other organs or throughout the body.·Stage II cancers are locally advanced. and no metastases (no spreading through the body). and is an acronym for the words Tumor. Whether a cancer is designated as Stage II or Stage III can depend on the specific type of cancer. ·Stage IV cancers have often metastasized. ·T (TI-T4): Tumor (T) refers to the primary tumor and carries a number of 0 to 4. Each of these criteria is separately listed and paired with a number to indicate the TNM stage. ·N (N1-N3): N represents regional lymph node involvement and can also be ranked from 0 to 4. M0 ·TNM classification makes use of staging indicators to define cancer and assess their stage. TNM staging TNM Staging is used for solid tumors. For example: T2. and Metastases. N2 involvement of the lymph nodes. The specific criteria for Stages II and III therefore differ according to diagnosis. These are: . Capital letters are used for staging followed by Arabic numeral without space. Stage II i ndicates affected lymph nodes on only one side of the diaphragm. whereas Stage III indicates affected lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. N1. M0 TX. N0. in Hodgkin's Disease. A T1N2M0 cancer would be a cancer with a T1 tumor. for example. ·M (M0-Ml): Metastasis is represented by the letter M. Nodes. and is 0 if no metastasis has occurred or 1 if metastases are present. as are Stage III cancers.
G3 Host performance: HO. place the grade specified online with CIN with a hyphen joining the two. H3. and ·3 represents severe dysplasia (maximum severity). H2. L1.Grade: GX. Arabic numeral from 1 to 4 is used to specify the grade with grade being in lower case. CIN System CIN stands for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and is used to classify the lesions of the cervical cancer. RO. V2 Broders Index Broders index is a classification used to report the aggressiveness of a malignant tumor. G2. La. For example: Broders grade 4. HI. RI. R2 Scleral invasion: SO. To transcribe. . S2 Venous invasion: VX. H4 Lymphatic invasion: LX. Sl. where ·1 represents mild dysplasia (lower severity). G 1. with grade 1 having best prognosis and grade 4 the worst. VI. L2 Residual tumor: RX. ·2 represents moderate dysplasia. It is reported in grades from 1 to 4. VA. It is classified from 1 to 3 Arabic numerals.
C2: extends through the bowel wall with metastasis to the lymph nodes. B1: extends into muscularis mucosa. It is classified from A to C (uppercase alphabets). level IV into reticular dermis level V into subcutaneous fat. level II into underlying papillary dermis. Dukes Classification This classification is used to report the extent of operable adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum. Roman numeral from I to V are used to indicate the invasion. C1: limited to the bowel wall with metastasis to the lymph nodes.For example: ClN-1 Clark Level This classification is used to report level of invasion of the primary malignant melanoma or the skin. . Dukes Dukes Dukes Dukes Dukes A: confined to mucosa. B2: extends through the muscularis mucosa. level III to junction of papillary and reticular dermis. Clark Clark Clark Clark Clark level I limited to epidermis. arising from epidermis.
and transcribed by placing capital letter followed by Arabic numeral 1 through 3. or C on the same line. Upper case M is to precede the numeral without a space. ·Small lymphoblasts with mature appearance ·More immature than L1. M0: M1: M2: M3: M4: undifferentiated myeloblastic. The Arabic numerals for subdivision of Band C are transcribed just immediate after it without the space. with some immature cells myeloblastic with differentiation of cells promyelocytic myelomonocytic . with different nuclear shapes and sizes ·Relatively large lymphoblasts Acute myelogenous leukemia is classified from 0 to 7 (Arabic numerals). This system utilizes FAB classification of malignant tumors explained later in this section. B. with alphabet A. lymphocytic and myelogenous. where FAB stands for FrenchAmerican-British. (Dukes) and not (Duke's).Dukes is transcribed without apostrophe. Acute lymphocytic leukemia is divided in three classes. For example: Dukes C1 FAB Classification It is a system of classification for acute leukemias.
in situ A: invading submucosa B: invading mucosa . from class 0 to 0 depending upon the extent of invasion. The higher the score. O: non-invasive. For subdivisions. upper case alphabets are used without space from the division. FIGO stands for Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et Obstetrique on the organization.M5: monocytic M6: erythroleukemia M7: megakaryocytic FIGO Staging It is a system of classification for staging of gynecologic cancers. Uppercased alphabets are used. For example: ovarian cancer. The score or grade to determine the severity is reached at by totaling the score achieved on a scale of 1 to 5 for each dominant and secondary pattern. Arabic numeral is used for the score with space between word grade and score. For example: The patient has Gleason score 8. and IV being highly malignant and most severe. the severer is the prognosis. Gleason Tumor Score It is a classification system used for adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. FIGO stage IIB. which developed it. It is expressed in stages 0 to IV with 0 being precancerous stage. Jewett and Strong Staging It is a system used to classify extent of the bladder carcinoma.
days of the week. Jewett Class C. languages. and months. . Here we discuss some basic rules of capitalization that are to be kept in mind when transcribing medical reports: ·Capitalize all the proper nouns-This includes names of a person. For example: George Bush English France White House Monday June ·Capitalize brand names of drugs and not their generic names. countries. races. place. organization. CAPITALIZATION GUIDELINES CAPITALIZATION GUIDELINES Capitalization has always been a nagging question especially for the early beginners of transcription.C: invading surrounding tissue D: lymph node metastasis For example: The patient has bladder carcinoma.
capitalize the words building. For example: Washington State Building The patient was taken to Mercy Medical Center. but do not capitalize the adjectives. room. Ecotrin (brand name) ·As discussed earlier.For example: aspirin (generic) should be small unless the sentence starts with it. Also. For example: CABG from coronary artery bypass grafting. ·Capitalize eponyms. rbc. otherwise not. prefixes. . For example: non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Parkinson’s disease red rubber Robinson catheter parkinsonism pasteurized milk ·All Acronyms are transcribed in upper-case letters (capitalized) except for a few. do not capitalize the nouns. center. adjectives. only when they accompany a proper noun or are part of the official name. and verbs derived from eponyms. and common nouns that accompany them. like wbc.
COPD from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease However. north. in abbreviated form (like S aureus. ·Capitalize name of religious holidays and festivals. the genus is capitali zed. south) when part of the geographic name. For example: East Africa South Korea His house is in the west where the dark men reign. west. religions. For example: Thanksgiving Memorial Day Christmas Day New Year Day ·Always capitalize sociocultural designations like races. ·Capitalize compass directions (east. otherwise not. H pylori). For example: Spanish African-American Hispanic .
mm.3 mg (Correct): ·While transcribing metric measurements. mg. then decimal point and zero should not be placed though it does not changes the value. like cm. (Transcribed): The cyst was 1. they should be converted to decimals and transcribed.25 mg (Incorrect): Clonidine 0. For example: (Dictated): The cyst was two and a half cm in size. ·But when only whole numbers are dictated and fractions are not dictated.5 cm in size.” ·While transcribing quantities less than 1. if fractions are dictated. . zero (0) is placed before the decimal followed by the numeral value. For example: Clonidine.Caucasian Methodist DECIMALS DECIMALS ·While transcribing decimals. periods are to be used “.
2 cm. . (Correct) The cyst measured 2. even if decimal point and zero are dictated following the whole number. (Incorrect) Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus Terms The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has categorized diabetes mellitus into t he following types: Type 1. insulin-dependent diabetes.For example: (Correct): The patient was given dexamethasone 5 mg IV. laboratory values and pathology specimens should be transcribed as dictated.5 cm. which requires insulin usage for life time. one should not place them on their own.0 x 1.5 x 3 x 2.6 cm.5 cm. (Incorrect): The patient was given dexamethasone 5. (Transcribed): The cyst measured 2. Similarly. (Incorrect) Now take the second example.3 cm. if they are not dictated.0 x 2. But there is an exception to this as mentioned below. (Dictated): The cyst measured 2 x 4 x 1. (Transcribed): The lesion measured 2 x 4 x 1.2 x 3.0 mg IV.0 x 3.0 x 2. (Dictated): The cyst measured 2.8 cm. ·However. (Correct) The lesion measured 2.2 x 3.
oral hypoglycemics may be used to keep it under control. Proper way of transcription – "Type" is followed by Arabic letter "1 or 2" in whic type is lower cased unless starting the sentence." For example: Type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetes mellitus type 2. develops in women during pregnancy and usually resolves after pregnancy. exercise. in which glucose levels are between normal and diabetic.Type 2. 35 units and so on but the ideal way is to write a capital letter "U" followed by number of milliliters without any space between U and numeral to describe its concentration. Change in lifestyle. . which does not require insulin for sustaining life." Insulin Terminology: There are namely four types of insulin classified as: Fast acting (Humalog insulin) Short acting (Regular insulin) Intermediate acting (NPH and Lente) Extended or long acting: (ultralente insulin) How to write the concentration: Concentration of insulin is measured in units per milliliter of blood. eating habits. Non-insulin-dependent and insulin-dependent are always hyphenated either preceding or following the noun "diabetes. the insulin is transcribed as 40 units. Gestational diabetes. Impaired glucose tolerance. non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Normally. Hyphen is not used to join the "type" with "Arabic numeral.
h.i.d.i.For example: U35: 35 units of insulin per milliliter of blood. right eye O. Drug Abbreviations Drug Abbreviations: These are some of the most commonly used drug abbreviations: a.4h. U 70: 70 units of insulin per milliliter of blood.d.o. left eye O.d.c.8h.o. transcribe units and there is no need to change it to U. at bedtime p.S. transcribe U. after meals p. If units is dictated. Caution: The old theory of transcribing Ad verbatim should always be applied and transcribe as dictated. before meals or food b.s. every other day t.o. every four hours q.i.n.U.d. every hour q. If U is dictated. every other day q. by mouth p. every eight hours q.d. each eye mcg microgram(s) mg milligram(s) mEq milliequivalent(s) ML milliliter(s) q. four times a day q.r. three times a day .c.D. as needed O. twice daily h.
Dextromethorphan 15 mg p.h. q. q. Enteric-coated aspirin 81 mg p. before meals or food b.n. q.s.r. Keflex 500 mg p. Amikacin 430 mg p.o. q.h.i.r.8h. Meropenem 1 gram IV q.o. Meropenem 1 gram IV q.i. Paxil 40 mg p.h.o. q. Lescol 20 mg p.d.8h. p.8h.o.d.o.d. Morphine soluble tablets one p. t. Drug Terminology Drug Terminology These are some of the most commonly used drug abbreviations: a.i. by mouth p.o.d.o.2-4h.o.o. q.n.c. at bedtime p.d.s. breakthrough pain.i. p.Examples: Remeron 30 mg p. q.d. Cisapride 10 mg p.s.r. twice daily h.n. as needed .o.s. q.o. q. Pepcid 20 mg p. after meals p.c.
8h.day q.d. 0. every other day t. ranging from names of diseases to parts of the body to certain medical signs have been named after people. four times a day q.4h. every four hours q.S. right eye O.d.h.o.o. four hours 80 mg five hundred mg Dos q.U.d.d.O. every eight hours q. . every hour q. every other day q.i. three times a day EPONYM USAGE EPONYM USAGE ·Many terms in medicine. q.80 mg 500 mg q.4h. Eponymous terms are most commonly named after the person who first described them but occasionally they are named for famous patients who have had that condition.d. left eye O.D. each eye mcg microgram(s) mg milligram(s) mEq milliequivalent(s) ML milliliter(s) Some Dos and Donts in drug prescription: Don’t q.i.
For example: Down syndrome (Correct) Down's syndrome (Incorrect) McBurney point (Correct) McBurney's point (Incorrect) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (Correct) Gaucher disease (Correct) ·Adjectives and/or verbs derived from eponyms are not capitalized. Apostrophe is never used. For example: The patient is suffering from parkinsonism. and prefixes that accompany them. adjectives. Do not use possessive forms with eponyms.For example: Down syndrome Ewing sarcoma Arnold-Chiari malformation Asperger syndrome Gaucher disease ·Eponym is always capitalized but not the common nouns. ·Plurals of eponyms are made by adding s or es. For example: Babinskis (Correct) Babinski's (Incorrect) .
The address is usually typed with a left margin alignment and is begun leaving a space of 3 to 4 lines below the date of the letter. However.·The genus names should be capitalized only when in singular form and accompanied by a species name. Salutations and Attention line One of the most error-prone zone in transcription is while transcribing letters. So take utmost care during transcribing letters. Addressing Names. Species name is never capitalized. For example: Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria flavescens Staphylococcus aureus staphylococcal infection meningococcal infection staphylococci Format For Letters Format for Letters. ·Guidelines for Addressing Names of Persons: . Since letters are usually addressed to doctors who are themselves highly proficient in their profession. The plurals and adjectival forms of genus are not capitalized. any error in the letter can make them a little annoyed. this can vary depending on letter size and customer specifications.
Bethpage. James F." should be used when one does not know which title is to be used for a woman. the degree should be preferred over the title.. Phd Mr. McCartney. do not use any title. the title "Ms. McCartney. Bethpage. For example: Incorrect: Correct Dr. Similarly. MD Dr. Phd ·Always use the complete name of a person if known with the courtesy title For example: Dr. Linda McKinley.. MD Dr. Wright ·The name of the person should never be abbreviated when addressing him or her. James F. or a professional title as Dr. Both the degree and title must never be used together. Allen Markowitz Professor John P. Linda McKinley or Linda McKinley. Hyle and McCArtney Captain Copper W. Shawn Patrice. Doyle Drs. Ms. If one does not know whether the person is a man or a woman. MD is the right way to address and not Pat K. when the degree of the pe rson addressed is know. In cases. Shawn Patrice or Shawn Patrice. MD . Bethpage or James F. DO Mr. For example: Patrick K. Pugh. DO Dr. Mrs. is added to a name.Always a courtesy title like Mr.
the parts of the name are to be separated by comma. Lee J. Hills. MD. Lee J. So the correct way of transcribing is Hills. Lee J. Under all circumstances. the names are written in reverse order with the last name first and first name last. MS ·Sometimes. Beth-Israel General Hospital .. always copy as it is printed on the company’s letterhead. For example: Queens-Long Island Medical Group. MD ·Guidelines for Addressing Names of Firms: When transcribing name of the firm. website or as mentioned in the directory. the abbreviations and punctations of the firm’s name are not to be changed. Hills. MD (see the comma usage) However. MMS.·When a person has two or more degrees. one cannot address a person with the title in the reverse order. they are to be separated by a comma in between them and should be placed in order of increasing distinction and recognition. FACOG and not as Lee J. For example. Example: Lee J. MD can also be written as Hills.. In such cases. it is wrong to write Dr. FACOG. MD. Hills. Usually a comma is placed after the last name and before the degree if it needs to be mentioned. Hills. For example: Lee J.
Boulevard and even Apartment except when the address line is getting too big. city. Haslip and Kimbrell Dental Clinic ·Guidelines for Addressing Persons with Business Titles: While writing official letters or addressing people of higher business profile. The state name can be abbreviated or can be . Mirchandani. Camille. For example: Levlin K. it looks nice to have the whole address mentioned in two or three lines.Copper & Raunchy Pathology Lab. West. state and Zip code. When a business title accompanies any name. Usually the address starts with street name. it is usually written last after the degree or after the name separated by a comma but if the space does not permit it to be on the same line. mentioning the business title looks more professional and respectful. MS. One should not abbreviate North. MD. The city name is always to be spelled out and separated with comma from the State. Schwanam. Street. LLB Chief of Sales Benjamin F. South. Medical Director Kevin Kasparov. it can be written on the next line without the use of the comma. Usually. apartment or suite number. Avenue. MS Head of Forensic Sciences ·Guidelines while writing address: The address is to be written immediately flushed to the next line after the name of the person or the firm.
Comma should only be used to separate the street and suite names or as in city and state name. MD PO Box 1934 Maples. street. Johnson. MA 13456 Napil B. suite or apartment number) Elaine Markowitz. Finally. MD One Nameoke Street. 1782 Collinmore Street Luxemborg.spelled out and is separated from the zip code with one or two space but no comma or dash. Pakisha. LLB Apartment 34. MD 1465 Broadway. website or as approved by the USPS. Suite QE Far Rockaway. New York 11551 Susan B. it is better to copy the address as mentioned on the letter head. Hewlett. New York 11432 (One should always be spelled out when used in building. For example: Kathy Suekat. There is no need to put comma or period at the end of the address line. CA 44560 .
e. Wu and Mrs. Bond: Professor Bill and Professor Kavita: Dr. and Mrs. Ben: or Dear Doctor Ben: Drs. Brenda: ·Some examples for married couples. Mike and Dr. Usually. Lee: Linda and Betty: or Dear Linda and Betty. Dear Dear Dear Dear Dear Mr. Mike and Lee or Dear Dr. The salutation starts after leaving two blank lines after the address line and is to be followed by a co lon or a comma as felt appropriate. Mrs. Bright: ·Some examples for unmarried couples associated with business or work purposes. Bright and Dr. Cathy: Captain Pat and Professor Rina: Mr. Kathy and Ms.·Forms of Salutations: After finishing with the address line starts the most important part of a letter i. while addressing two or more people. it’s easier to write the salutation when a person addressed is single but becomes more difficult and more error prone. salutation. Dr. This is a highly important protocol when starting the letter. . ·Here are some common ways of writing salutation: Dear Dear Dear Dear Dear Paul: or Dear Paul.
Blake If the title is going long. For example: Attention: Mrs. Ladies and Gentleman: Dear Professor McCarthy et al: (One can also use the name of the most senior person of the firm followed by et all. Nancy P. It is wrong to use abbreviated form of Attention as Attn. Nancy P. Nancy P. visibility and neatness. Blake or ATTENTION: Mrs. When t he attention line is used. Blake Purchasing officer Always take care that the second line should start at the same point where the name of the person starts. meaning all others. . Example: Attention: Mrs. it should be typed two blank spaces after the last address line flushed with the left margin. It should be written in full and usually capital form or even the first letter in caps would do but it is never to be abbreviated. use the standard salutation format. Mills and Dr. Hilton: Dear William and Nancy: ·When addressing a large group together. This maintains clarity. one can accommodate on the second line.) ·Guidelines to Use Attention Line: Sometimes it becomes necessary to use the Attention line instead of going straight to salutation.Dear Professor Paul and Mrs. Wright: Dear Dr.
Some would like to use only the salutation format without any attention line while some would prefer to use the attention line. This is the most frequent format used rather than using Dear Mrs. ·So the start of a letter would look as follows: May 28. Blake Dear Madam: . In any case. Nancy P. For example: Attention: Mrs. New York 11621 Attention: Mrs.It is always debatable to use both the attention line and the salutation line. Nancy P. 2006 Bethnovar Medical Clinic 1024 Nameoke Street. Nancy as mentioning the same name twice is improper. Suite 2B Far Rockaway. the salutation should always be in accordance with the attention line. Blake Dear Madam.
Tips while transcribing Fractions: ·Fractions are to be spelled out when less than 1 and if it is not followed immediately by a noun. A fraction is a way of expressing a quantity based on an amount that is divided into a number of equal-sized parts. and eight quarters would make two cakes. each part of a cake split into four equal parts is called a quarter (and represented numerically as 1⁄4). For example. two quarters is half the cake. Arabic numeral should be used to transcribe it. the patient had come to me. ·When the fraction precedes a noun. ·Fractions are to be spelled out if the sentence begins with them. Use a hyphen to join the fraction with the noun it modifies. For example: One and a half years back. For example: The specimen measured one-quarter of a pound. For example: A 1½-inch incision was made.FRACTIONS FRACTIONS ·In common usage a fraction is any part of a unit. .
For example: (Dictated): The lesion was three and a half cm in size. (Correct) . For example The patient is a 4-½ -years old.5 cm in size. always use numerals for fractions. convert it into decimals. For example: A 4-l/2-year-old patient was brought to me for second opinion. . with a hyphen between the whole number and the fraction.·Employ Arabic numerals for fractions in ages. For example: The cyst measured 1-1/2 x 2-1/2 x 1 inch. ·In case of dimensions when using imperial units. with other units of measure. The lesion was 3-1/2 cm in size (Incorrect) ·Place a hyphen following the whole number and place the fraction on the same line if there is no possibility of reducing size of fractions. ·If a fraction is dictated with SI units. This 5-½-year-old patient underwent bilateral hand surgery. (Transcribed): The lesion was 3. However. fractions are used.
oceans. which are derived from geographic names but used to convey a special meaning. rivers. cities. Though Niagara Falls is the most famous tourist attraction. Geographic Names For example: United States of America. countries. For example: River Ravi flows through India and Pakistan. ·The words. then separate the state and country from city and state respectively by commas. the falls in Cherrapunji are extremely beautiful. islands. The ocean was quite dirty. For example: plaster of paris. continents. and streets. Mount Everest. Great Britain ·Capitalize common nouns only when they are a part of proper names.Geographic Names & Proper Names Geographic Names & Proper Names ·Always capitalize the names of geographic divisions like mountains. not when they stand alone. are not capitalized. french fries ·If the name of a city precedes the name of the state or if name of a state precedes the name of a country in text. towns. states. . Tokyo. New York.
apartment.For example: The doctor lives in Babylon. street. For example: George Bush II Lady Harding Hospital. and things are not to be capitalized. New York. For example: Novartis is a big pharmaceutical company She owns her own cosmetic clinic Columbia is a very famous university in Canada. This is an 81-year-old African-American lady Proper Names ·Names of a person. places. For example: This Spanish-speaking lady comes from New York. . His office is in San Jose. ·Common names. ·Proper adjectives and sociocultural derivatives from geographic names are capitalized. place. California. organization should always be capitalized.
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