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La Liga Policy Institute

Working Towards Renewal and Reform in Governance, Economy, Living Environments and Global Relationships No. 25-A, Marunong Street, Brgy. Central District, Quezon City (632) 990-4236

La Liga Policy Institute for the Alternative Budget Initiative-Environment (ABI-ENVI) Cluster


The Unfortunate Truth: Current Philippine Climate Context

Climate Change and Disaster Impacts: As Real As They Can Get The Philippines has not been spared of weather-related disturbances and disasters. The past typhoons, and more recently, even monsoon rains, have been unusually devastating to our country and our people. The more recent weather-related disturbances and disasters include: 1. Tropical Storm Sendong1 (December 15 - 18, 2011) affected a total of 131,618 families in 866 baranggays across 60 municipalities and 9 cities covering 13 provinces in Regions VI, VII, IX, X, XI, CARAGA, and ARMM. The total damages of Sendong amounted to PhP 2.1 billion, with PhP 1.4 billion in damages to infrastructure and PhP 700 million in agriculture. 2. Typhoon Gener2 (July 31 - August 7, 2012) - affected a total of 211,185 families in 1,266 baranggays across 152 municipalities and 28 cities covering 35 provinces in Regions 1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, CAR and NCR. The total damages of Gener amounted to PhP 1.1 billion, with PhP 690 million in damages to infrastructure and PhP 411 million in agriculture. 3. Southwest Monsoon Habagat3 (August 6 - 10, 2012) - affected a total of 825,018 families in 2,498 baranggays across 173 municipalities and 36 cities covering 16 provinces in Regions I, III, IVA, IVB, VI and NCR. The total damages of Habagat amounted to PhP 2,263,539,045, with PhP 639,128,230 in damages to infrastructure and PhP 1,624,410,815 in agriculture. The message is clearer than ever, climate change is here and now, and the shattering impacts of disasters, both climate-related and not, is as real as they can get, with grim indications that the worse may still be forthcoming.

Final Report on the Effects and Emergency Management re Tropical Storm SENDONG (Washi). National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). Downloaded from 2 NDRRMC Update. Situation Report No. 22 Effects of Typhoon Gener. Downloaded from 3 NDRRMC Update. Situation Report No. 16 Effects of Southwest Monsoon. Downloaded from

Continuing and More Warning Signals In 2011, the DOST-PAGASA launched the study, Climate Change in the Philippines4 detailing the climate projections for the country in terms of annual mean temperatures, precipitation levels and typhoon intensities by 2020 and by 2050. The general projections, under a mid-range GHG emissions scenario, point to three major findings: a) the dry season will get drier; b) the wet season will get wetter; and, c) while there are no signals that the number of typhoons entering the country will increase, there are indications that the typhoons that will hit the country will be unusually devastating. As in all other climate projections, the study does not guarantee a 100% accuracy, but rather, it aims to be a guidebook for national and local stakeholders involved in development policy making, programming, planning and especially budgeting. The study endeavoured to downscale the projections from the national up to the provincial levels and can still be further scaled down into key cities and select municipalities. Maplecroft, an international organization analyzing trends, risks and projections through their Global Risks Portfolio, launched their 2012 Natural Hazards Risk Atlas. This report indicated that the Philippines ranked 2nd to Bangladesh, among the countries in Asia with high exposure of cities and trading hubs to events such as flooding, earthquakes and tropical cyclones. In addition, the report also said that these countries demonstrate poor capability to recover from a significant event exposing investments and delivery of social services. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) also recently launched the Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012: Green Urbanization in Asia. This report focused on the growing stress to environmental sustainability caused by rapid urbanization. It indicated that Manila is among the top 20 megacities where rapid urbanization causes increased vulnerability to inland and coastal floods, water and air pollution. These recent studies all add to earlier warning signals indicating the Philippines vulnerability and risk to climate change and disasters. Also, while all these studies and reports indicate a grim scenario for the Philippines, they also outline necessary urgent steps that need to be undertaken, albeit in varying degrees and priorities on climate change mitigation, adaptation and disaster risk reduction. As such, the crucial question that should be directed to key decision makers in the on-going national and local budgeting process for FY 2013 is that whether the scenarios and projections indicated in the various studies are actually being considered and given weight in either finetuning allocations by program expenditure and by geographic distribution or by implementing new programs that deviate from the business-as-usual mode to ultimately enhance the countrys resilience and adaptive capacity.

Climate Change in the Philippines. DOST-PAGASA. Downloaded from


But Supposedly There is Money: Potential Climate Change-Related Budget Items in the 2013 National Expenditure Program (NEP)

Since 2009, when La Liga and ABI-ENVI started advocating for a climate-sensitive national budget, it also started to tag potential climate change-related budget items in the proposed national budget. This tagging is aimed at determining a basic baseline on public finance for climate change as well as identifying possible sources for specific climate related budget proposals. Beyond looking at indications on whether these budgets are increasing for each fiscal year, the tagging also tries to look at what budgets by expense types (personnel services, maintenance and operating expenses and capital outlays) and allocations to types of programs are prioritized. Since 2011, the Climate Change Commission (CCC) has also been tagging the proposed agency budgets in order to fulfill its mandate of ensuring that climate change actions are mainstreamed in the budgets of government agencies. More recently, the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) has also started tagging the proposed national budget which according to them aims to assess if the climate and DRR plans outlined in the 2011-2016 Philippine Development Plan (PDP) are translated into budget allocations. The Department of Finance (DOF), as head of the climate finance group of government is also tagging international climate finance coming into the country which they say aims to track which monies come in the form of grants or loans for mitigation or adaptation and whether these are part of the regular Official Development Assistance (ODA) Packages or are new and additional money. The current discussions evolving at international climate talks are touted to be focused on building and strengthening national funds for climate change actions. This will eventually highlight the need to assess the status, levels and progress of the Philippines national climate finance readiness as what the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) initiated in its discussion paper Readiness for Climate Finance: A framework for understanding what it means to be ready to use climate finance5. As such, there is a need to enhance the tagging and tracking of climate related budgets. This is in order to maximize the expected inflow of climate finance at the minimum, and at the maximum, realize the full potentials of allocations already in the national budget to make a substantial impact for adaptation and disaster risk reduction and management. A total of PhP 84,385,870,000 has been tagged as potential climate change related budgets out of the PhP 2.006 trillion 2013 NEP, representing around four percent (4%) of the total proposed national budget for FY 2013.

UNDP. Readiness for Climate Finance: A framework for understanding what it means to be

ready to use climate finance. March, 2012.

Table 1: Potential Climate Change-related Budget Items in the 2013 NEP Budget Item Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change Commission A. PROGRAMS. I. Operations. a. Policy Formulation, Research & Development, Coordination & Monitoring of Climate Change Programs & activities of the different National/ Local Government Agencies & other offices Special Provision: 1. Climate and Risk Resilient Municipalities within the Eighteen Major River Pesos Basins Program. The amount of Six Million (P6,000,000) appropriated under the Climate Change Commission shall be and used in support of the following projects activities under the Climate and Risk Resilient Municipalities within the Eighteen Major River Basins Program: Likewise, the amount of Forty Million Pesos (P40,000,000) for Rainwater Collector under the Priority Social and Economic Projects Fund shall be in support of the Climate and Risk Resilient Municipalities within the 18 Major River Basins Program. Department of Education k. Quick Response Fund 550,000,000 Department of Health 51,866,000 e. Environmental and Occupational Health Department of Transportation and Communication II.FOREIGN-ASSISTED PROJECTS d. Maritime Disaster 465,935,000 Response Helicopter Acquisition Project Calamity Fund A. 1. Aid, Relief and Rehabilitation Services to Communities/Areas Affected by Calamities, including Training of Personnel, and Other Pre-disaster Activities A. 2. Repair and Reconstruction of Permanent Structures, including Capital Expenditures for Predisaster Operations, Rehabilitation and Other Related Activities 2,650,000,000 TOTAL





Department of Agriculture III. h. Quick Response Fund [OSEC] B. PROJECT(s).I. Locally-Funded Project(s) 84. Climate Change Adaptation Works B. PROJECT(s).II. Foreign-Assisted Project(s) B. II. h. UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAW TITLE I PROGRAM. 1. Establishment of Agro-Meteorological Stations in Highly Vulnerable Agricultural Areas: A Tool for Climate Change Adaptation and in the Development of Local Early Warning System (Agromet cum Climate Change) B. II. NATIONAL IRRIGATION ADMINISTRATION 2. Adopting to Climate Change Impact through the Construction of Water Impounding Facilities in the Philippines (Pasa SRIP)-Isabela CCC Identified Quick Response Fund [NIA] Climate Change Vulnerability Mapping in Agriculture and Irrigated Areas and its Watershed Technology Interventions for CCA/application in the existing irrigation systems Riverbank Protection Works Along Siffu River Beside Siffu North Main Canal CCA activities in Pantabangan Watershed servicing the Upper Pampanga River Integrated Irrigation Systems DOST-PAGASA J. A. II. Support to Operations; a. Climate Data Management, AGROMETEOROLOGICAL and Weather Modification Research and Development. 1. Operation and maintenance of meteorological data banks, including the provision of processed agroclimatological information b. Training Activities in Atmospheric- Geophysical and Allied Sciences

500,000,000 206,447,000



500,000,000 58,375,000 55,000,000 73,720,000 19,352,000



c. Provision of Support Services d. Installation, Repair and Maintenance of Telemetering Multiplex System for Flood Forecasting and Warning Covering Pampanga, Agno, Bicol and Cagayan River Basin J. A. III. Operations. a. Weather and Flood Forecasting and Geophysical and Astronomical Services; 1. Typhoon warning and weather forecasting services, including the operation of meteorological communication and regional forecast centers, the provision of numerical weather prediction techniques and analyses 2. Flood forecasting and hydro-meteorological services 3. Operation and maintenance of flood forecasting and warning system for dam operation project I covering Pantabangan and Angat Dam 4. Operation and maintenance of the flood forecasting and warning system for dam operation Project II covering Binga, Ambuklao and Magat Dam 5. Operation and maintenance of astronomical observatories/planetarium including the provision of standard time services J. A. III. b. Observation and Acquisition of Data for Atmospheric-Geophysical and Allied Sciences; 1. Observation, measurement, recording and reporting of atmospheric, geophysical and astronomical data, including the operation and maintenance of surface and upper air observation network 2. Operation of upgraded geostationary meteorological satellite receiving and processing systems acquired under the 1988 Grant-in-Aid Program of Japan and 1990 International Development Assistance Program of Australia 3. Operation and maintenance of Weather Surveillance Radar Network J. A. III. c. Research on Atmospheric, Geophysical and Allied Sciences; 1. Atmospheric- geophysical, astronomical and space sciences research

5,492,000 38,058,000


49,918,000 11,852,000







2. Weather modification activities and NATURAL DISASTER REDUCTION including the payment of P25,000 per annum for the flying pay of personnel (on flying status) undertaking aerial flights, equivalent to 25% of their base pay: PROVIDED, That flying pay shall be given only to personnel who have logged more than ten (10) flying hours a month 3. Conduct of researches for natural disaster, pursuant to Section 10 of PD No. 78, as amended 4. Agro-climactic research and farm weather services and climate variability and climate change studies B. PROJECT(s). I. Locally-Funded Project(s); a. Telemetered Flood Forecasting and Warning System for 13 out of 18 Major Rivers in the Philippines B. I. II. Foreign-Assisted Project(s); a. Improvement of the Meteorological Radar System JICA Radar b. Improvement of Capabilities to Cope with Natural Disasters Caused by Climate Change (JICS) DOST-PHIVOLCS A. III. Operations. a. Scientific and Technological Research and Development on Volcanology, Seismology and Geophysics and Disaster Mitigation B. PROJECT(s). I. Locally-Funded Project(s); a. Enhancement of Earthquake and Volcano Monitoring and Effective Utilization of Disaster Mitigation Information in the Philippines b. Enhancement of Volcano,Earthquake and Tsunami Warning Systems for Disaster Risk Reduction in the Philippines c. Improvement of PHIVOLCS Main Office Building d. Construction of Seismic Vaults e. Construction of Unmanned Seismic Stations Department of National Defense A. III. Operations. c. Supervision, Coordination and Direction of Disaster (Response) Management A. III. g. Quick Response Fund


8,286,000 100,313,00


40,000,000 41,251,000



16,000,000 25,000,000 3,200,000 3,600,000 2,350,000 352,500,000

D. OFFICE OF CIVIL DEFENSE A. II. Operations. a. a. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management. 1. Planning, Direction and Coordination for Civil Defense A. II. Operations. b. Quick Response Fund F.1. PHILIPPINE ARMY (LAND FORCES) 64,228,000 530,000,000

A. III. Operations. c. Disaster Response. 1. Operation and 1,137,379,000 maintenance of units engaged in disaster and relief operations F.2. PHILIPPINE AIR FORCE (AIR FORCE) A. III. Operations. c. Disaster Response. 1. Disaster 315,894,000 response and relief services F.3. PHILIPPINE NAVY (NAVAL FORCES) 586,000 A. III. Operations. c. Disaster Response Department of Interior and Local Government A. III. Operations. c. Local Governance Performance 1,003,700,000 Management Program - Performance-Based Challenge Fund for Local Government Units B. PROJECT(s) I. Locally-Funded Project(s) 19,571,000 B. I. a. Emergency Response Network (Patrol 117) B. I. b. Enhancing LGU Capacity on Climate Change 76,000,000 Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management Framework B. I. c. Civil Society Organization/People's Participation 22,000,000 Partnership Program 50,000,000 B. I. d. Manila Bay Clean-Up Project Department of Social Welfare and Development II. a. Assistance to Victims of Disasters and Natural 48,043,000 Calamities Including Handling and Hauling of Commodity Donations II. d. Quick Response Fund. 1. Central Office (National 662,500,000 Project Monitoring Office) Department of Public Works and Highways II. b. Regional Support (Planning and Design, Construction, Maintenance and Material Quality Control and Hydrology Divisions); II. Operational Support for the Maintenance and Repair of Infrastructure Facilities and Other Related Activities. Flood Control and Drainage Systems, Structures and Related Facilities 269,296,000


III. b. Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation of Infrastructure Facilities Other Public Buildings Flood Control and Drainage Systems, Structures and Related Facilities Flood Control and Drainage Systems, Structures and Related Facilities Septage and Sewerage Special Provision: 24. Quick Response Fund. The amount of Six Hundred Million Pesos (P600,000,000) appropriated under B.I.h for the Quick Response Fund (QRF) shall serve as a stand-by fund to be used for relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction programs and projects in order that the situation and living conditions of people living in communities or areas stricken by calamities, epidemics, crises, and catastrophes occuring during the year may be normalized as quickly as possible: PROVIDED, That in the release of the QRF, the available balance thereof, based on the third quarter report of the immediately preceding year shall be considered in determining the amount to be released in the current year. B. PROJECT(s). I. Locally-Funded Project(s) Flood Control and Drainage Projects, (MFO-3) 2. Contractual Obligations. b. Flood Control g- Public-Private Partnership Strategic Support Fund h. Disaster Related Rehabilitation Projects B. PROJECT(s). II. Foreign-Assisted Project(s) Post Ondoy and Pepeng Short-Term Infrastructure Rehabilitation Project b. Flood Control Projects. 1. San Roque Multi-Purpose Project, Flood Control Component, (Reimbursement of Funds Advanced by NPC) (JEXIM) b. 2. Pasig-Marikina River Channel Improvement Project, Phase II, JBIC, 26th YCP, (PH-P239) b. 3. Mt. Pinatubo Hazard Urgent Mitigation Project (Flood Control Works in Porac - Gumain River and Pasac Delta Area) (JBIC, 27th YCP, PH-P241), Pampanga b. 4. Flood Risk Management Project (FRIMP) along Principal Rivers b. 5. Pasig-Marikina River Channel Improvement Project, Phase III, Pasig-Marikina River, NCR


17,308,000 200,000,000


12,080,425,000 64,171,000 1,502,680,000 600,000,000 367,500,000 75,050,000 850,000,000 447,433,000 500,410,000 1,479,720,000

b. 6. Integrated Disaster Risk Redecution and Climate Change Adaptation Measures in the Low Lying Areas of Pampanga Bay, Pampanga Metro Manila Development Authority B. PROJECT(s). I. Locally-Funded Project(s) a. Urgent Disaster Flood Control Works under the PasigSan Juan-Marikina River System and Other Areas in Metro Manila b. Flood Control and Drainage Projects - National Capital Region Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission Rehabilitation and Development of Esteros leading to Pasig River National Housing Authority Special Provision 1. Housing and Relocation Program. The amount of Ten Billion One Hundred Twenty Million Six Hundred Eighteen Thousand Pesos (P10,120,618,000) appropriated as subsidy for NHA's Housing Program for Informal Settler Families Residing in Danger Areas in Metro Manila shall be used in support of the Housing and Relocation Program. Special Provision 2. b) Emergency Housing Assistance for Calamity Victims Program SUB-TOTAL Sustainable Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department of Agriculture A. III. g. Promotion and Development of Organic Agriculture. C. BFAR. A. III. c. Promotion and Development of Organic Agriculture


221,000,000 60,000,000



620,980,000 47,954,768,000

887,564,000 21,136,000

K. Philippine Center for Postharvest Development and 18,500,000 Mehcanization. III. b. National Rice Program. c. Promotion and Development of Organic Agriculture B. II. Foreign-Assisted Project(s) a. Integrated Coastal Resource Management Project 80,185,000 (ADB Loan No. 2311 PHI) Department of Environment and Natural Resources II. Support to Operations a. Formulation and Monitoring of ENR Sector Policies, 293,375,000 Plans, Programs and Projects

b. Data Management Including Systems Development and Maintenance c. Production and Dissemination of Technical and Popular Materials in the Conservation and Development of Natural Resources Including Environmental Education d. Legal Services, Including Operations Against Unlawful Titling of Public Land e. Conduct of Special Studies, Design and Development in Support of Forestry, Mining and Environmental Management Operations f. Provision for Operations Against Illegal Forest Resources Extraction/Utilization Activities, Including Payment of Rewards to Informers in the Discovery and Seizure of Illegally Collected/ Transported Forest Products and the Apprehension of Violators of Section 68 (b) of P.D. No. 705, as Amended by E. O. No. 277, the Hauling Fees of Confiscated Logs, Space Rentals, Guards, Representation Expenses and other Expenses in the Disposal/Selling of Confiscated Illegally Cut Logs, Subject to Special Budget and Approval by the President III. Operations a. Forest Management 1. Management of Forest Lands and Forest Resources 2. Forest Development (NGP) 3. Forest protection 4. Community-based forestry program 5. Soil conservation and watershed management 6. Forest boundary delineation and land use allocation b. Land Management 1. Land management services 2. Land Surveys 3. Survey of foreshores reservation, patrimonial properties and other lands covered by the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program in coordination with the Department of Agrarian Reform 4. Land Records Management 5. Field network survey c. Protected Areas and Wildlife Management Protected Area Management

355,969,000 144,616,000 127,136,000 232,248,000


7,995,431,000 992,858,000 5,072,533,000 957,375,000 112,660,000 484,655,000 375,350,000 1,546,835,000 1,105,932,000 27,544,000 30,217,000 204,405,000 178,737,000 604,110,000 222,383,000

Operation and maintenance of the Ninoy Aquino Park and Wildlife Nature Center in Quezon City Development and rehabilitation of the Hinulugang Taktak National Park in Antipolo, Rizal Development and rehabilitation of the Mt. Apo National Park Philippine Eagle Conservation Project Pawikan Conservation Project Tamaraw Conservation Project Operation and maintenance of the Crocodile Farm Institute in Irawan, Palawan Development and Rehabilitation of Apo and Tubataha Reef Development and Rehabilitation of Mts. Banahaw and San Cristobal Development and Rehabilitation of Mt. Kitanglad Development and Rehabilitation of Northern Negros National Park Development and Rehabilitation of Central Cebu National Park Biodiversity Conservation Program Tarsier Conservation Project Coastal and Marine Resources Management d. Ecosystems Research and Development 1. Ecosystems Research and Development Service 2. Clonal Nursery and Production of Quality Planting Materials (QPM) of Premium and Indigenous Forest Species for National Greening Program B. PROJECT(s) I. Locally Funded Project(s) Development, updating and implementation of the Operational Plan for the Manila Bay Coastal Management Strategy pursuant to SC Decision with GR No. 171947-48 b. Implementation of PAMANA Program II. Foreign-Assisted Project(s) b. Integrated Coastal Resource Management Project (ADB Proposed) c. Community-Based Forest and Mangrove Management Project

39,895,000 15,342,000 2,992,000 5,935,000 7,226,000 7,862,000 9,970,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 131,338,000 8,000,000 146,167,000 1,170,871,000 322,543,000 848,328,000

150,000,000 92,718,000

135,852,000 7,000,000

d. Project on Forestland Management d. Integrated Natural Resources Environmental Management Project (INREMP) e. Land Administration Management Project II Attached Agencies in Environmental Management Bureau Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau National Mapping and Resource Information Authority National Water Resources Board Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff CCC Tagged OSEC: Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal and Watershed Areas OSEC: R & D for CCA-DRRM OSEC: Mainstreaming of CCA-DRRM in the Preparation of Forest Land Use Plan OSEC: Watershed and River Basin Management OSEC: Rehabilitation and Expansion of Protected Areas and Key Biodiversity Areas OSEC: Capacity Building for Environment and Natural Resources OSEC: Information and Education Campaign EMB: Monitoring of Water Quality of Manila Bay EMB: Monitoring of Water Quality of Four (4) River Systems in Major River Basins EMB: Implementation of Ecological Solid Waste Management NAMRIA: Unified Mapping (Large-scale Topographic Base Mapping) NAMRIA: Coastal Resource Mapping and Assessment NAMRIA: Mapping of Low-lying Areas Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise MGB: Geohazard Mapping and Assessment MGB: Groundwater Resource Assessment TOTAL Renewable Energy Department of Energy A. III. e. Direction and Control of Renewable Energy Exploration, Development and Utilization

337,940,000 300,000,000 910,197,000

1,036,975,000 999,030,000 2,958,359,000 61,998,000 60,676,000

3,000,000 110,000,000 69,000,000 6,623,000,000 87,000,000 4,000,000 21,000,000 59,000,000 4,000,000 47,000,000 1,546,000,000 21,319,000 27,346,000 298,000,000 3,000,000 29,523,886,000


A. III. i. For the operational requirements of the National Biofuels Board A. III. j. For the operational requirements of the National Renewable Energy Board B. PROJECT(s). I. Foreign-Assisted Project(s) a. Market Transformation Through the Introduction of Energy Efficient Electric Tricycle (Etrike) ADB Loan) TOTAL Clean and Green Industrial Technology DOST D. Forest Products Research and Development Institute E. Industrial Technology Development Institute K. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development N. Philippine Council for Industry, Energy and Emerging Technology Research and Development DOTC III. Project Development Funds for Public-Private Partnership Transport Infrastructure Projects TOTAL GRAND TOTAL

17,627,000 5,199,000

2,580,010,000 2,676,911,000

111,149,000 259,911,000 840,070,000 444,175,000

2,575,000,000 4,230,305,000 84,385,870,000


Deviating from a Business-As-Usual (BAU) Mode

Its catchy, cute and profound. We read about it in reports, studies and even in the news. We also hear it in conferences, dialogues and speeches of government officials as well as NGO development workers, environment advocates and citizen leaders. But what exactly does deviating from the BAU mode, especially BAU budgeting, really mean. La Liga and ABI-ENVI posits these three basic measures: a) Hindi na pwede ang pa-peteks peteks lang na budget The levels of allocations in our national budget since 2002 for climate change related programs, more specifically for environment sustainability, show that it has not only really been a priority for government spending, but misallocations have actually contributed to the dire straits we currently face. This therefore highlights the need for urgent, substantial, coordinated, predictable and measurable CCA-DRR financing starting with the 2013 budget.

b) Hindi na pwede ang pa-cute effect The onslaught of climate change and disaster impacts was a wake-up call for national and local government officials and provided an opportunity for them to effectively respond to this escalating development challenge. While the options for adaptation and disaster risk reduction were obvious, the difficult but necessary and urgent steps were obviously watered-down in favour of easier, cuter and more good media-copy projects that while having impacts on cleaning and greening physical spaces, were later wiped out by devastating typhoons and floods. Obviously, when traditional politics kicked-in, the deviation from the BAU mode made a U-turn. As such, there is a need for national agencies and LGUs, in partnership with citizens groups and the private sector, to make very difficult and highly unpopular but strategic political decisions. These include squarely facing the issue of relocating both formal and informal communities in danger zones to safer grounds within the city/municipality and unclogging critical waterways of formal, informal and commercial/industrial settlements and establishments, when this may mean losing votes in favour of saving lives, properties and investments and gaining more ground in poverty alleviation with efficient delivery of social services. c) Hindi lang palakihan at padamihan Another result of the impacts of climate change and disasters is the knee-jerk reaction to catch-up and recover from damages at the soonest possible time covering the largest possible areas. If unchecked, these results in constantly trying to cover more areas but failing to ensure the sustainability of previously covered areas, owing mainly to budget constraints. This is particularly evident in reforestation programs where new areas are targeted and budgeted each year but misses out on targeting and budgeting for maintenance and sustainability of previous areas. As such, deviating from the BAU budgeting entails ensuring the sustainability of environmental rehabilitation gains while progressively expanding the targets. d) Kapag sinabing lahat, dapat lahat The climate crisis, where the vulnerabilities of countries and communities increased mainly due to the recklessness of others, highlighted the need for fairness and justice. As the Philippine delegation to international climate talks join other developing countries in demanding for climate justice, it must first and foremost be implemented within our country. When national agencies and LGUs talk about plans of demolishing shanties and relocating informal settler families to unclog rivers and waterways, they must also talk in the same light about evicting and relocating formal settlements and commercial/industrial

establishments that are equally causing clogging and pollution. Fairness and justice must always be upheld and should never be compromised. IV. Climate-Sensitive and DRR-Proofed Alternative Budget Proposals for FY 2013

To effectively respond to the increasing vulnerability of the country to the devastating impacts of climate change and disasters, La Liga and ABI-ENVI proposes a total of over PhP 31 billion for the following non-BAU budget priorities that aims to jumpstart actions to enhance the Philippines resiliency and adaptive capacity: 1. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) involves a comprehensive, integrated and proactive approach to address the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of disasters and climate change. This promotes the involvement of the broadest possible sectors and stakeholders, with particular concern for vulnerable groups at the local level. 2. Biodiversity Conservation, Sustainable Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry involves the conservation, protection and rehabilitation of our ecosystems through sustainable natural resources management. These entail a shift from a purely resource utilization framework to a more sustainable manner where the carrying capacity of the environment is given due consideration. It gives premium to community-based or indigenous management of specific natural resource base. 3. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Systems While more popularly categorized as a mitigation initiative, renewable energy has in fact clear adaptation effects. Apart from emissions and pollution reduction, RE systems, especially community-based and off-grid, provide a more sustainable energy alternative because of much lower environmental and social impact than conventional sources of energy. RE systems also complement adaptation initiatives in contiguous resource base such as sustainable water, forest, land and coastal practices. 4. Ecological Waste Management - involves the rational management, segregation and reduction of wastes from residential/household as well as industrial sources. Apart from reduction, reusing and recycling of wastes for other usable sustainable purposes such as organic fertilizers, renewable energy and industrial applications, this also involves the research, development and application of alternative biodegradable materials to existing non-biodegradables such as plastics. The safe regulation, handling and disposal of toxic wastes are also included.

Table 2. Climate-Sensitive and DRR-Proofed Alternative Budget Proposals for FY 2013 Variance (ABI Proposal less NEP)

Budget Item Disaster Risk Reduction National Housing Authority Housing Program for Informal Settler Families Residing in Danger Areas in Metro Manila New Item: Risk assessment of relocation sites to be identified New Item: Construction of temporary shelter for ISFs in danger zones (to be sourced from the Emergency Housing Assistance for Calamity Victims Program) New Item: Research on appropriate housing technology for relocation sites (to be sourced from the Settlement Upgrading Program) National Anti-Poverty Commission II. Operations a. Plan/Policy Formulation, Advocacy, Coordination and Monitoring of all Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Programs (to include Community dialogues with ISFs in danger zones) Department of Environment and Natural Resources II. Support to Operations d. Legal Services to include enforcement and monitoring of rivers and waterways easement policies Department of Interior and Local Government 1. Locally Funded Projects b. Enhancing LGU Capacity on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management Framework (to include eviction of industrial/commercial establishments and formal settlers in 18 major river basins) Department of Public Works and Highways

GAA 2012

NEP 2013

ABI Proposal



12,000,000,000 17,000,000

1,879,382,000 17,000,000

















From: Priority Social and Economic Projects Fund - 2. Accessibility Facilities for the Disabled Persons [Construction and maintenance of PWD access ramps in public infrastructures (roads, bridges, transport terminals)] Department of National Defense Implementation of the NDRRMP using the NDRRMF (QRF 2,250,000,000, Mitigation and Preparedness5,250,000,000) a. Disaster Risk Management (for revolving fund of the OCD for DRR as mandated by the DRRM Act) Climate Change Commission New Item: Technical assistance to LGUs to integrate LCCAP and DRR into AIPs and Budgets New Item: Peoples Survival Fund Department of Environment and Natural Resources Operations a. Forest Management Soil Conservation and Watershed management, New Item: Rehabilitation of the UMRBPL Sub Total Biodiversity, Sustainable Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department of Agriculture a. Development of the Crops Sector Reconstruction and Disaster Response Fund - Allocate PhP 1 B for climate adaptation actions that include training on climate resilient crops and assistance to farms damaged by extreme weather events within the DA "Development of Crops Sector






7,500,000,000 1,000,000,000

0 1,000,000,000

100,000,000 1,000,000,000

100,000,000 1,000,000,000



100,000,000 22,715,613,000

100,000,000 4,946,207,000





g. Promotion and Development of Organic; C. BFAR. A. III. c. K. PhilMech. III. b. c. - Implementation of the National Organic Agriculture Program (NOAP) pursuant to the IRR of the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010 (RA 10068) New Item: Vulnerability and Adaptation Needs Assessment (VNA) - a) Crops, b) Fisheries, c) Poultry and Livestock New Item: Research, Development and Extension on climate resilient - a) Crops, b) fisheries, c) Poultry and Livestock C. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources III. Operations, 2. Conservation, regulation and protection of fisheries and aquatic resources (to include VNA on Fisheries) Department of Environment and Natural Resources National Greening Program; Maintenance and sustainability of reforested areas including provision of community forest wardens (green jobs) II. Support to Operations c. Production and Dissemination of Technical and Popular Materials in the Conservation and Development of Natural Resources Including Environmental Education (to include climate change literacy program) III. Operations 4. Community-based forestry program 5. Soil conservation and watershed management c. Protected Areas and Wildlife Management Development and Rehabilitation of Apo and Tubataha Reef Development and Rehabilitation of Mts. Banahaw and San Cristobal



1,260,000,000 30,000,000

332,800,000 30,000,000




13,627,000 5,072,533,000





105,855,000 106,307,000 377,889,000 207,289,000

144,616,000 112,660,000 484,655,000 222,383,000 2,000,000 1,000,000

151,532,000 200,000,000 500,000,000 250,000,000 5,000,000 5,000,000

6,916,000 87,340,000 15,345,000 27,617,000 3,000,000 4,000,000

Development and Rehabilitation of Mt. Kitanglad Development and Rehabilitation of Northern Negros National Park Development and Rehabilitation of Central Cebu National Park Development and Rehabilitation of the Mt. Kanlaon National Park Biodiversity Conservation Program Sub Total Clean and Green Industrial Technologies Department of Science and Technology N. Philippine Council for Industry, Energy and Emerging Technology Research and Development New and Renewable Energy Systems Department of Energy New Item: Renewable Energy Trust Fund as mandated by the RE Act of 2008 (to be sourced from the ADB E-trike loan) New item: For the operational requirements of the Renewable Energy Management Bureau to coordinate implementation of RE Act. New Item: Research and Development on off Grid Renewable energy systems Sub Total Ecological Waste Management Department of Environment and Natural Resources Environmental Management Bureau B. PROJECT(s) - I. Locally-Funded Project(s)

1,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000

5,000,000 5,000,000 5,000,000 5,000,000 177,231,000 4,828,763,000

4,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 45,893,000 2,785,284,000

177,231,000 12,159,113,000

131,338,000 19,247,198,000







5,000,000 50,000,000 2,055,000,000

5,000,000 50,000,000 2,055,000,000

b. Implementation of Ecological Solid Wastes Management Act of 2000 (R.A. No. 9003) c. Implementation of Clean Water Act of 2004 (R.A. No. 9275) New Item: Conduct of intensive IEC on waste reduction, segregation and composting to include campaign on reusable bags New Item: Toxics Inventory New Item: Conduct Zero Waste national and regional summits for private and public schools Sub Total TOTAL


100,000,000 50,000,000

53,000,000 50,000,000

30,000,000 10,000,000 40,000,000 230,000,000 30,829,376,000

30,000,000 10,000,000 40,000,000 183,000,000 10,525,316,000

0 25,858,747,000

47,000,000 37,507,779,000

The networks and organizations that contribute to the ALTERNATIVE BUDGET INITIATIVE ENVIRONMENT CLUSTER include: 1. Aksyon Klima 2. Alyansa Tigil Mina 3. Earth Savers Movement 4. EcoWaste Coalition 5. First Philippine Conservation Incorporated (FPCI) 6. Haribon Foundation 7. Institute for Climate and Sustainable Cities (ICSC) 8. Kaakbay 9. One Organic Movement (OOM) 10. Partido Kalikasan / Eco Sustainability Institute 11. Partnership for Clean Air (PCA) 12. Philippine Federation for Environmental Concerns (PFEC) 13. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) 14. RESILIENCE: Nurturing Disaster-Ready Cities and Communities 15. Saganang Buhay sa Liga ng Bayan Foundation (SBSB) 16. Sustainability Watch 17. Sagip Sierra Madre Environmental Society Inc. 18. Sibol ng Agham at Teknolohiya (SIBAT) 19. Unang Hakbang Foundation 20. Upholding Life and Nature (ULAN) The La Liga Policy Institute (La Liga) serves as convening organization of the cluster.