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Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

by

Erik Schaltz

Supervisor: Peter Omand Rasmussen

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Content
Introduction Background Purpose Design Drive cycle analysis System description Energy management strategy Results Implementation DC/DC converter modeling and operation Conclusion Future work
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Consortium: Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack (FCSPP)


Partners Companies
Cykkellet/DSR Scandinavia Dantherm EGJ Udvikling Falsled Hjtryk GMR Maskiner H2 Logic KK-electronic Migatronic Parker Hannifin DK Serenergy Trans-Lift Xperion

Research institutions
Aalborg University Copenhagen Business School Danish Technological Institute Hydrogen Innovation & Research Center

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Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack - Concept

Purpose:To replace the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) in mobile applications


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Consortium PhD Projects


Technical T1: Fuel Cells by Jesper Lebk, AAU/TI T2: Power Electronics by Erik Schaltz, AAU T3: Balance-of-Plant by Sren Juhl Andreassen, AAU Mercantile/Social science M1: Market Structure by Christian Erik Kampmann, CBS M2: Business Structure by Lucja Kalkstein, CBS

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Consortium Demonstration Projects


Scooter from DSR Scandinavia Pallet truck from Trans-Lift

Focus of this PhD project Truck from GMR Maskiner

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The GMR Truck


Specifications Used in parks, cemeteries, i.e. quite areas Low speed (< 15 km/t) Up to1000 kg payload Battery driven Problems Limited range Limited driving time Long charging time Expensive to frequently Solution replace battery package Modify the truck to operate Desire of a 230 V, 50 Hz outlet with fuel cells for electric tool
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Modification of the GMR Truck


Original

Fuel cell driven

6 x 6 V, 185 Ah lead-acid batteries 2 x 2 kW sep. ex. DC motors Motor controller for armature and field windings

Purpose of PhD project: To design and implement a FCSPP for the GMR Truck

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Content
Introduction Background Purpose Design Drive cycle analysis System description Energy management strategy Results Implementation DC/DC converter modeling and operation Conclusion Future work
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Driving Cycle

The design of the FCSPP depend on the usage of the truck, i.e. the drive cycle 24 days of field measurements are collected

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Driving Distance

Maximum 4 km per day Big variation of usage


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Active and Passive Time Intervals

The length of each bar is the time from the user starts using the truck to he is finish using that day Short time of usage each day
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Drive Train Loss

App. 45 % of the energy is lost from the battery terminals to the shafts

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Energy Management Strategy

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Simulation Result Power Flow

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Simulation Result Battery State-of-Charge

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Simulation Result Ultracapacitor Voltage

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Content
Introduction Background Purpose Design Drive cycle analysis System description Energy management strategy Results Implementation DC/DC converter modeling and operation Conclusion Future work
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Implementation

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Fuel Cell Converter

Battery voltage: 48 V Fuel cell stack voltage: 34 V to 65 V Necessary to both buck and boost the voltage Non-inverting buck-boost converter is used

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Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter

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States of Fuel Cell Converter

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Theoretical Loss of Fuel Cell Converter

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Efficiency of Fuel Cell Converter

Loss due to drivers, measurements, DSP, etc. are not included

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State Change of Fuel Cell Converter

Either buckmode or boostmode

Buck-boost-mode between buck-mode and boost-mode

Overlapping buck-mode and boost-mode


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Content
Introduction Background Purpose Design Drive cycle analysis System description Energy management strategy Results Implementation DC/DC converter modeling and operation Conclusion Future work
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Conclusion
This PhD project is regarding the design and implementation of a Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack (FCSPP) in the GMR Truck A method to design and size the components of a FCSPP in has been developed Due to long heating time (6 min.) of the used fuel cell is it not appropriate in terms of system mass and volume only to use ultracapacitors as the only energy storage device Combining ultracapacitors and batteries as an energy storage device has a positive effect on the system efficiency and life time of the battery A non-inverting buck-boost-converter has been modeled and a transition method between the buck-mode and boost-mode has been proposed
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Future Work
Cost and fuel cell lifetime should be included in the analysis Parallel structures, i.e. fuel cell/battery, fuel cell/ultracapacitor, and battery/ultracapacitor Other types of fuel cell systems should be analyzed, e.g. Low Temperature Proton Exchange Membran (LTPEM) and reformed methanol solutions Other types of batteries should be investigated, e.g. Li-Ion and the energy/power rating should also be considered Other types of energy management strategies should be considered Model of battery lifetime should be improved, i.e. for shallow cycles and current amplitudes

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Thank you

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