Biology- Unit 2 Revision

Last minute cram notes…

Topics Covered: • Ordering The World • Habitats, Environments & Survival • Physiological Adaptations for survival • Behaviors for Survival • Reproductive Strategies for survival • Ecosystems & Their Living Communities

Topic 1(Ordering the world):
Classification (KPCOFGS): Kingdom Phylum Class Order Genus Species There are several mnemonics for remembering this, my teacher uses “Kangaroos Pouch Caught On Fire, Gets Sad” but that was too hard to remember for me, so I

Whittaker): The first two kingdoms should be pretty self explanatory…Here’s a nice table ripped from the textbook (Nature of Bio) . 5 Kingdoms (Robert H.found this one on the net “Kevin Puts Condoms On For Great Sex!”.

Dichotomous Key: Used in identifying specimens by the presence or absence of certain features – Each decision involves choosing between *just two* alternatives (Spotted or Plain. ect) [Eg: Snake Prac] Binomial System(Consists Of Two Parts): 1st Part – Genus Name [What genus is belongs to] 2nd Part – Species Name [What species it belongs to] Eg Homo Sapien .

Oxygen Concentration. Enviroments & Survival): Habbitats & Micro-habbitats: A habitat is basically an area where an organism lives..Genus Species Topic 2(Habbitats...Food Availability (Eg.PH. so for example in a lake habitat a microhabitat would be the bottom of the lake or the shore Tolerance Range: The range of a certain specified condition that the organism can tolerate – Can be Temp. Tropical Fish will only thrive in a certain optimal temperature range) . A Micro-Habbitat is a habitat **WITHIN** a habitat.

) .Niche: The role of a certain organism within a defined habitat (Eg birds with 33mm beaks will only eat worms that live 33mm down and birds with beaks designed for cracking seeds will eat seeds not worms.

Water Availability. The extension that carries information from a body cell to a neuron or another body cell is called an axon. Rain.(Physiological Adaptations For Survival aka. Predators. Human Intervention. Pollination Topic 3 . Nervous System: Monitoring of these variables is undertaken by the nervous system. (Blood Pressure. Sunshine.Abiotic Factors: Non-Living factors that influence an organisms environment – Eg: Wind. Nerve Cells (Also Known As Neurons) are the basic unit of the nervous system. Terrain Biotic Factors: Living factors that influence an organisms environment – Eg: Availability of Food. Ect) – Eg Body temperature will always be roughly 37 no matter if it is 5 degrees or 35 degrees outside. . Temperature. Homeostasis): Homeostasis: Maintaining of internal variables within a specific limit. Blood Sugar.

• Effector Neurons – Carry impulses away from CNS to muscle cells or glands and cause a response. The hypothalamus serves as the “temperature control centre” of the body. Temperature Regulation in Humans: • Changes in temperature detected by thermo-receptors in the skin. Information Detected is transmitted as an electrical impulse to the CNS by the Affector Neuron. • . Affector (Sensory Neurons) .Different Types of Neurons: • Affector (Sensory) Neurons – Have receptors that detect change in external or internal environment. • Connector Neurons – Link Sensory and Effector Neurons.transmit this information to the hypothalamus in the brain.

Heat Gain: • Basic metabolic Processess • Shivering • Exercise • Ect Heat Loss: • Evaporation via sweat • Convection • Radiation and conduction Heat Generation Via Hormones: .

Difference between Endothermic & Ectothermic: • Endothermic – Rely on Internal Sources for body heat Ectothermic – Depend on External sources for body heat (Eg Sun) • Water Balance: • • • Regulated by kidneys Also called osmo-regulation Two Significant hormones are involved – Vasopressin and Anti-Diuretic Hormone ( ADH) Osmo-receptors detect changes in water balance in the body – When there is a drop in water concentration. Vasopressin is released into the bloodstream. • .

• Water Balance in plants: • Most water is lost through stomata • Prevention of waterloss: o Closing Stomata o Waxy Cuticle o Rolled Up Leaves o Storage of water – Eg large vacuoles in succulents Stimulus response model: .• Vasopressin increases re-absorption of water in the kidneys When the correct water balance is achieved – water concentration increases and negative feedback leads to a decreased secretion of vasopressin.

Continue cycle until balance is achieved Topic 4 – Behaviors for Survival Innate VS Learned Behavior: .

Plant Behavior: • Three kinds discussed: o Photoperiodism – Long day VS Short Day plants… The day isn’t the important bit…the actual important bit is the night… so Long Day Plants are actually Short night plants…and Short Day Plants are actually Long Night Plants o Phototropism – When a plant moves in response to light – A Plant hormone called auxin increases in concentration on the darker side of the tip and increases growth – this increased growth on the .

Topic 5 – Reproductive strategies for survival • Internal & External Fertilisation • K Selection and R Selection • Monogamy and Polygamy • Oviparity & Viviparty . o Geotropism – Growth in response to gravity – Auxin accumulates near the bottom of plant shoots and therefore plants grow upwards against gravity.dark side means plants bend towards the light.

parasite host relationships – energy flow – food chains – food webs – trophic levels – abundance – distribution – population dynamics…Sorry!! . Ran out of time to cover:Ecosystems – autotrophs & hetrotrophs – decomposers & detritvores.• Plant Reproduction and pollination.kingpomba .

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