# Prof. Abousleiman N.

Younane
Email: yabousle@ou.edu
Office: SEC, Suite P119
L
F
ΔL
Δr
r
A
Δr
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Axial
Lateral
r
F
Frictionless
contact
Strain
Stress
Axial Lateral
Electrical connection points
strain measuring grid portion of gage
Strain grid alignment marks
Direction of Strain measurement
(inches)
ΔD,
Lateral
(inches)
0 0 0
3140 0.002 0.0002
6280 0.004 0.0004
9420 0.006 0.0006
12560 0.008 0.0008
15700 0.01 0.001
18840 0.012 0.0012
20410 0.015 0.0018
19625 0.018 0.002
Sample area = 3.14 square inches
Sample length L = 4 inches
Sample diameter D = 2 inches
(inches)
ΔD, Lateral
(inches)
Stress
(psi)
Axial
strain
(in/in)
Lateral
Strain
(in/in)
0 0 0 0 0 0
3140 0.002 0.0002 1000 0.0005 -0.0001
6280 0.004 0.0004 2000 0.001 -0.0002
9420 0.006 0.0006 3000 0.0015 -0.0003
12560 0.008 0.0008 4000 0.002 -0.0004
15700 0.01 0.001 5000 0.0025 -0.0005
18840 0.012 0.0012 6000 0.003 -0.0006
20410 0.015 0.0018 6500 0.00375 -0.0009
19625 0.018 0.002 6250 0.0045 -0.001
Sample area = 3.14 square inches
Sample length L = 4 inches
Sample diameter D = 2 inches

Stress

Axial strain

A
F
axial
= =
1
o o
L
L
axial
A
= c
r
r
A
= c
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity E

Poisson’s Ratio

axial
axial
E
c
o
=
axial axial
E c o * =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
axial
c
c
v
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
-0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
S
t
r
e
s
s

(

p
s
i
)

Strain ( inch/inch)
E = 2,000,000 psi
Young’s Modulus
Axial
Lateral
ν = 0.2 Poisson’s ratio
Electrical connection points
strain measuring grid portion of gage
Strain grid alignment marks
Direction of Strain measurement
Strain
Stress
Axial Lateral
Ar
L
AL

r
L
0

Axial
o

Confining Stress

Axial strain

Volumetric Strain
r
r
rr
A
= c
L
L
aa
A
= c
applied kk
o o × = 3
rr aa kk
V
V
c c c × + =
A
= 2
Bulk Modulus K

kk
kk
K
c
o
=
rr aa
kk
K
c c
o
× +
=
2
( )
rr aa kk
K c c o × + = 2
( ) v 2 1 3 ÷
=
E
K
( )
E K
C
v 2 1 3 1 ÷
= =
Compressibility C

0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0007
C
o
n
f
i
n
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)

Strain ( in/in)
Unjacketed Hydrostatic Test
Axial
Circumferential
Volumetric
Confining
Stress
(psi)
Axial
Strain
(inch/inch)
Lateral
Strain
(inch/inch)
Volumetric
Strain
(inch/inch)
Bulk Modulus
(psi)
0 0 0
0
2000 0.00011 0.0001
0.00031
4000 0.00022 0.0002
0.00062
6000 0.00033 0.0003
0.00093
8000 0.00044 0.0004
0.00124
10000 0.00055 0.0005
0.00155
12000 0.00066 0.0006
0.00186
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002
C
o
n
f
i
n
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

o
k
k

(

p
s
i
)

Strain ( inch / inch or volume/volume)
Hydrostatic Pressurization
Axial
Lateral
Volumetric
kk
kk
K
c
o
=
Support reactions

Vertical translation
prevented
Rotation prevented
Consider the FBD of the beam AC:
2 m

3 m

1 m

F = 150 kN

O

3 m

1 m

F = 150 kN

O

F
AB

F
CD

kN 150 F F F 0; F ) (
CD AB y
= = + = | +
¿
m kN 150 m 1 F m 3 F
m 1 F m 3 F 0; M
CD
CD A
· = · = ·
= · ÷ · =
¿
0
kN 50 F kN 100 F
CD AB
= =
The rigid beam AC is supported at its
ends by two rods AB and CD. If a
concentrated force F = 150 kN is applied
at point O, determine the internal forces
in the two rods AB and CD.
First draw the
free body
diagram

Determine the reaction force
at constraints A and B.

C

D

F
A
F
B
C

D

F
A
F
B
C

D

Free body diagram
0 ) 5 / 2 ( ; 0 ) ( = + + × ÷ = | +
¿ B A y
F F ft ft kip F
kip F F
B A
10 = +
0 ) 5 5 5 . 2 ( 30 ) 5 . 2 ( ; 0 = + + · + · ÷ · = +
¿
ft F ft kip ft F M
B A O
O

2.5 ft
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
ft kip F F
B A
· = + 30 5 . 12 5 . 2
Determine F
A
and F
B
from

kip F
A
5 . 9 =
kip F
B
5 . 0 =
Determine the reaction
torques at the supports A
and B.
Determine the reaction
torques at the supports A
and B.
Consider the FBD on the right side
of section E:
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
E
= +
¿
200 lb/ft

V
E

M
E

lb 450 4.5 200
2
1
V
E
= × × =
ft lb 675 )
3
4.5
( 450 M
E
· = × =
Cross section E
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
Determine the reaction force from
the beam FBD
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
B
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0
3
9
400 9
2
1
2
20
20 300 - 20 F
A
= × × × + × × ×
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

lb 7800 400 9
2
1
20 300 F F
B A
= × × + × = +
lb 5070 F lb 2730 F
B A
= =
Now consider the FBD on the left
side of section D
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
D
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0 6 F - 3 6 300 M
A D
= × × × +
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

) ( lb 930 2730 - 1800 V
D
+ ÷ = =
ft lb 10980 5400 - 6 2730 M
D
· = × =
lb 1800 6 300 V F
D A
= × = +
4000 feet
1760 psi
H
σ
h
σ
H
σ
h
σ
V
σ
V
σ
In situ stresses in formations
The normal stress σ
x
(or σ
xx
) acts on the left and right surfaces of the cubic
element which have normals in x direction
z
x
y
x
σ
y
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
σ
A A
x
σ
y
σ
At section A-A
The normal stress σ
y
(or σ
yy
) acts on the front and back surfaces of the cubic
element which have normals in y direction
x
σ
y
σ
z
x
y
x
σ
y
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
σ
B
B
The normal stress σ
z
(or σ
zz
) acts on the top and bottom surfaces of the cubic
element which have normals in z direction
x
σ
z
σ
At section B-B
x
σ
z
σ
z
x
y
x
σ
y
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
σ
C
C
y
σ
z
σ
At section C-C
y
σ
z
σ
F

F

a

a

b

b

F

F

a

a

A
F
A
F
σ
a - a
a - a
= =
x
σ
F/A σ
x
=
0 σ
y
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

0
F/A
σ
σ
y
x
Stress matrix (2-D):
y
x
x
σ
F

F

a

a

b

b

F

θ cos
A
F
A/cosθ
cosθ F
A
F
σ
2
b - b
x'
b - b
=
·
= =
F

b

b

F
x’

F
y’

y’
x’
θ

cosθ sinθ
A
F
A/cosθ
sinθ F -
A
F
τ
b - b
y'
b - b
· ÷ =
·
= =
x'
σ
y'
σ
y' x'
τ
θ F/Acos σ
2
x'
=
θ F/Asin σ
2
y'
=
cosθ -F/Asinθ τ
y' x'
· =
(
¸
(

¸

·
·
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
θ F/Asin cosθ F/Asinθ -
cosθ F/Asinθ - θ F/Acos
σ τ
τ σ
σ'
2
2
y' x' y'
y' x' x'
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
2
3
1
σ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
t
yz
t
xy
t
xz
z
x
y
The shear stress τ
xy
(or σ
xy
) acts on the surface normal to x (the first subscript) axis,
pointing the y (the second subscript) direction
A A
xy
τ
xy
τ
xy
τ
xy
τ
At section A-A
2
3
1
σ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
t
yz
t
xy
t
xz
The shear stress τ
xz
(or σ
xz
) acts on the surface normal to x (the first subscript) axis,
pointing the z (the second subscript) direction
B
B
z
x
y
xz
τ
xz
τ
xz
τ
xz
τ
At section B-B
2
3
1
σ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
t
yz
t
xy
t
xz
The shear stress τ
yz
(or σ
yz
) acts on the surface normal to y (the first subscript) axis,
pointing the z (the second subscript) direction
z
x
y
yz
τ
yz
τ
yz
τ
yz
τ
At section C-C
C
C
F

F

a

a

b

b

F

θ cos
A
F
A/cosθ
cosθ F
A
F
σ
2
b - b
x'
b - b
=
·
= =
F

b

b

F
x’

F
y’

y’
x’
θ

cosθ sinθ
A
F
A/cosθ
sinθ F -
A
F
τ
b - b
y'
b - b
· ÷ =
·
= =
x'
σ
y'
σ
y' x'
τ
θ F/Acos σ
2
x'
=
θ F/Asin σ
2
y'
=
cosθ -F/Asinθ τ
y' x'
· =
(
¸
(

¸

·
·
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
θ F/Asin cosθ F/Asinθ -
cosθ F/Asinθ - θ F/Acos
σ τ
τ σ
σ'
2
2
y' x' y'
y' x' x'
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
x
σ
y
σ
xy
τ
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
y' x' y'
y' x' x'
ij
y yx
xy x
ij
σ τ
τ σ
σ'
σ τ
τ σ
σ
x'
σ
y'
σ
y' x'
τ
The two stress states corresponding to different
orientations are equivalent.

Stress matrix (3-D):
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
ij
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ
Stress tensor components vary with the
orientation of cube element.

Stress tensor is symmetric: t
xy
= t
yx
, t
xz
= t
zx
,
t
yz
= t
zy
÷ There are only 6 stress
components. Why?

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
ij
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
ij
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ
or
Stress matrix (3-D):
For 3-D stress, i = 1, 2, 3 or x, y, z;
j = 1, 2, 3 or x, y, z

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
ij
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ
The first subscript i: the area on
which the force is acting has a
normal in the i direction

The second subscript j: the direction
of the applied force

Einstein summation convention
(equal subscript)

zz yy xx
33 22 11
kk jj ii
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
+ + =
+ + =
= =
4000 feet
1760 psi
H
σ
h
σ
H
σ
h
σ
V
σ
V
σ
In situ stresses in formations
Stress matrix (3-D):
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
zz
yy
xx
ij
σ 0
0 σ 0
0 0 σ
σ
H
σ
h
σ
V
σ
z
x
y
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
V
h
H
ij
σ 0
0 σ 0
0 0 σ
σ
F

F

L

ΔL

d

Δd

L
ΔL
ε
x
= Normal axial strain
x y
νε
d
Δd
ε ÷ = ÷ =
Lateral strain
y
x
Poisson’s ratio
L
D
c
c
v ÷ =
ε
D
= strain along the diametrical axis
ε
L
= strain along the longitudinal axis
P

P

Also a dimensionless quantity u
t
¸ ÷ =
2
strain Shear
xy
γ
xy xy
τ
y
x
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
Pure shear: τ
xy
= τ
yx

θ
0
= π/2

θ = π/2- ¸
xy

xy
τ
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
θ

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
y
x
y
yx
xy
x
ij
ε 0
0 ε
ε
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε
F

F

L

ΔL

d

Δd

y
x
P

P

Strain matrix (2-D):
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
0 0
0 F/A
σ τ
τ σ
σ
y yx
xy x
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
Strain matrix (2-D):
γ
xy xy
τ
y
x
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
= π/2

θ = π/2- ¸
xy

xy
τ
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
θ

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
0
2
γ
2
γ
0
ε
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε
yx
xy
y
yx
xy
x
ij
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
0 τ
τ 0
σ τ
τ σ
σ
yx
xy
y yx
xy x
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
y
yx
xy
x
yy yx
xy xx
ij
ε
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε ε
ε ε
ε
Stress matrix (2-D):
(c
xy
= c
xy
, ¸
xy
= ¸
yx
)

γ
xy
xy
τ
y
x
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
= π/2

θ = π/2- ¸
xy

θ
0
θ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
x
ε
x
ε
y
ε
y
ε
(
¸
(

¸

=
y yx
xy x
ij
σ τ
τ σ
σ
Strain matrix (2-D):
Deformed
Cubic element Parallelepiped element
Strain tensor (matrix)
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
z
zy
zx
yz
y
yx
xz
xy
x
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
ij
ε
2
γ
2
γ
2
γ
ε
2
γ
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε ε ε
ε ε ε
ε ε ε
ε
(c
xy
= ¸
xy
/2, c
xz
= ¸
xz
/2, c
yz
= ¸
yz
/2)

Consider the FBD on the right side
of section E:
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
E
= +
¿
200 lb/ft

V
E

M
E

lb 450 4.5 200
2
1
V
E
= × × =
ft lb 675 )
3
4.5
( 450 M
E
· = × =
Cross section E
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
Determine the reaction force from
the beam FBD
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
B
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0
3
9
400 9
2
1
2
20
20 300 - 20 F
A
= × × × + × × ×
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

lb 7800 400 9
2
1
20 300 F F
B A
= × × + × = +
lb 5070 F lb 2730 F
B A
= =
Now consider the FBD on the left
side of section D
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
D
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0 6 F - 3 6 300 M
A D
= × × × +
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

) ( lb 930 2730 - 1800 V
D
+ ÷ = =
ft lb 10980 5400 - 6 2730 M
D
· = × =
lb 1800 6 300 V F
D A
= × = +
Determine the internal force F
BC
in the rod BC, normal to a-a section
0 M
A
= +
¿
5
4
sinθ ;
2
3
8 3 sinθ AB F
BC
= × × = · ·
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
θ

kN 15 )
5
4
(3
2
3
8 3 F
BC
= × × × = /
F
BC
F
y,C

F
x,C

F
y,A

F
x,A

FBD
At section a-a
MPa 12.2
0.035
10 15
A
F
σ
2
3
a - a
BC
a - a
=
×
= = 0 τ =
a - a
θ

F
y,A

F
x,A

F
BC

The area of section b-b
cosθ A A
b - b a - a
· =
F
BC

θ

Stresses at section b-b
MPa 4.4
0.00204
10 9
A
F
σ
3
b - b
x
b - b
=
×
= =
MPa 5.88
0.00204
10 12
A
F
3
b - b
y
b - b
=
×
= = τ
F
y

F
x

kN 9
5
3
15 cosθ F F
BC x
= × = · =
kN 12
5
4
15 sinθ F F
BC y
= × = · =
2
2
a - a
b - b
m 0.00204
3/5
0.035
cosθ
A
A = = =
F
y,A

F
x,A

b

b

a

a

θ

F
BC

F
y

F
x

Up to 2012/1/27 Friday