Prof. Abousleiman N.

Younane
Email: yabousle@ou.edu
Office: SEC, Suite P119
L
F
ΔL
Δr
r
A
Δr
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

Axial
Lateral
r
F
Frictionless
contact
Strain
Stress
Axial Lateral
Electrical connection points
strain measuring grid portion of gage
Strain grid alignment marks
Direction of Strain measurement
Load (lbs) ΔL, Axial
(inches)
ΔD,
Lateral
(inches)
0 0 0
3140 0.002 0.0002
6280 0.004 0.0004
9420 0.006 0.0006
12560 0.008 0.0008
15700 0.01 0.001
18840 0.012 0.0012
20410 0.015 0.0018
19625 0.018 0.002
Sample area = 3.14 square inches
Sample length L = 4 inches
Sample diameter D = 2 inches
Load (lbs) ΔL, Axial
(inches)
ΔD, Lateral
(inches)
Stress
(psi)
Axial
strain
(in/in)
Lateral
Strain
(in/in)
0 0 0 0 0 0
3140 0.002 0.0002 1000 0.0005 -0.0001
6280 0.004 0.0004 2000 0.001 -0.0002
9420 0.006 0.0006 3000 0.0015 -0.0003
12560 0.008 0.0008 4000 0.002 -0.0004
15700 0.01 0.001 5000 0.0025 -0.0005
18840 0.012 0.0012 6000 0.003 -0.0006
20410 0.015 0.0018 6500 0.00375 -0.0009
19625 0.018 0.002 6250 0.0045 -0.001
Sample area = 3.14 square inches
Sample length L = 4 inches
Sample diameter D = 2 inches

Stress


Axial strain


Radial strain

A
F
axial
= =
1
o o
L
L
axial
A
= c
r
r
radial
A
= c
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity E




Poisson’s Ratio

axial
axial
E
c
o
=
axial axial
E c o * =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
axial
radial
c
c
v
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
-0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
S
t
r
e
s
s

(

p
s
i
)

Strain ( inch/inch)
E = 2,000,000 psi
Young’s Modulus
Axial
Lateral
ν = 0.2 Poisson’s ratio
Electrical connection points
strain measuring grid portion of gage
Strain grid alignment marks
Direction of Strain measurement
Strain
Stress
Axial Lateral
Ar
L
AL

r
L
0

Axial
Radial
o



Confining Stress


Axial strain


Radial strain


Volumetric Strain
r
r
rr
A
= c
L
L
aa
A
= c
applied kk
o o × = 3
rr aa kk
V
V
c c c × + =
A
= 2
Bulk Modulus K









kk
kk
K
c
o
=
rr aa
kk
K
c c
o
× +
=
2
( )
rr aa kk
K c c o × + = 2
( ) v 2 1 3 ÷
=
E
K
( )
E K
C
v 2 1 3 1 ÷
= =
Compressibility C




0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0007
C
o
n
f
i
n
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)

Strain ( in/in)
Unjacketed Hydrostatic Test
Axial
Circumferential
Volumetric
Confining
Stress
(psi)
Axial
Strain
(inch/inch)
Lateral
Strain
(inch/inch)
Volumetric
Strain
(inch/inch)
Bulk Modulus
(psi)
0 0 0
0
2000 0.00011 0.0001
0.00031
4000 0.00022 0.0002
0.00062
6000 0.00033 0.0003
0.00093
8000 0.00044 0.0004
0.00124
10000 0.00055 0.0005
0.00155
12000 0.00066 0.0006
0.00186
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002
C
o
n
f
i
n
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s


o
k
k

(

p
s
i
)

Strain ( inch / inch or volume/volume)
Hydrostatic Pressurization
Axial
Lateral
Volumetric
kk
kk
K
c
o
=
Support reactions

Vertical translation
prevented
Rotation prevented
Consider the FBD of the beam AC:
2 m


3 m


1 m


F = 150 kN


O


3 m


1 m


F = 150 kN


O


F
AB

F
CD

kN 150 F F F 0; F ) (
CD AB y
= = + = | +
¿
m kN 150 m 1 F m 3 F
m 1 F m 3 F 0; M
CD
CD A
· = · = ·
= · ÷ · =
¿
0
kN 50 F kN 100 F
CD AB
= =
The rigid beam AC is supported at its
ends by two rods AB and CD. If a
concentrated force F = 150 kN is applied
at point O, determine the internal forces
in the two rods AB and CD.
First draw the
free body
diagram

Determine the reaction force
at constraints A and B.

C

D

F
A
F
B
C

D

F
A
F
B
C

D

Free body diagram
0 ) 5 / 2 ( ; 0 ) ( = + + × ÷ = | +
¿ B A y
F F ft ft kip F
kip F F
B A
10 = +
0 ) 5 5 5 . 2 ( 30 ) 5 . 2 ( ; 0 = + + · + · ÷ · = +
¿
ft F ft kip ft F M
B A O
O

2.5 ft
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
ft kip F F
B A
· = + 30 5 . 12 5 . 2
Determine F
A
and F
B
from

kip F
A
5 . 9 =
kip F
B
5 . 0 =
Determine the reaction
torques at the supports A
and B.
Determine the reaction
torques at the supports A
and B.
Consider the FBD on the right side
of section E:
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
E
= +
¿
200 lb/ft

V
E

M
E

lb 450 4.5 200
2
1
V
E
= × × =
ft lb 675 )
3
4.5
( 450 M
E
· = × =
Cross section E
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
Determine the reaction force from
the beam FBD
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
B
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0
3
9
400 9
2
1
2
20
20 300 - 20 F
A
= × × × + × × ×
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

lb 7800 400 9
2
1
20 300 F F
B A
= × × + × = +
lb 5070 F lb 2730 F
B A
= =
Now consider the FBD on the left
side of section D
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
D
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0 6 F - 3 6 300 M
A D
= × × × +
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

) ( lb 930 2730 - 1800 V
D
+ ÷ = =
ft lb 10980 5400 - 6 2730 M
D
· = × =
lb 1800 6 300 V F
D A
= × = +
4000 feet
1760 psi
H
σ
h
σ
H
σ
h
σ
V
σ
V
σ
In situ stresses in formations
The normal stress σ
x
(or σ
xx
) acts on the left and right surfaces of the cubic
element which have normals in x direction
z
x
y
x
σ
y
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
σ
A A
x
σ
y
σ
At section A-A
The normal stress σ
y
(or σ
yy
) acts on the front and back surfaces of the cubic
element which have normals in y direction
x
σ
y
σ
z
x
y
x
σ
y
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
σ
B
B
The normal stress σ
z
(or σ
zz
) acts on the top and bottom surfaces of the cubic
element which have normals in z direction
x
σ
z
σ
At section B-B
x
σ
z
σ
z
x
y
x
σ
y
σ
x
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
σ
C
C
y
σ
z
σ
At section C-C
y
σ
z
σ
F

F

a

a

b

b

F

F

a

a

A
F
A
F
σ
a - a
a - a
= =
x
σ
F/A σ
x
=
0 σ
y
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

0
F/A
σ
σ
y
x
Stress matrix (2-D):
y
x
x
σ
F

F

a

a

b

b

F

θ cos
A
F
A/cosθ
cosθ F
A
F
σ
2
b - b
x'
b - b
=
·
= =
F

b

b

F
x’

F
y’

y’
x’
θ

cosθ sinθ
A
F
A/cosθ
sinθ F -
A
F
τ
b - b
y'
b - b
· ÷ =
·
= =
x'
σ
y'
σ
y' x'
τ
θ F/Acos σ
2
x'
=
θ F/Asin σ
2
y'
=
cosθ -F/Asinθ τ
y' x'
· =
(
¸
(

¸

·
·
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
θ F/Asin cosθ F/Asinθ -
cosθ F/Asinθ - θ F/Acos
σ τ
τ σ
σ'
2
2
y' x' y'
y' x' x'
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
2
3
1
σ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
t
yz
t
xy
t
xz
z
x
y
The shear stress τ
xy
(or σ
xy
) acts on the surface normal to x (the first subscript) axis,
pointing the y (the second subscript) direction
A A
xy
τ
xy
τ
xy
τ
xy
τ
At section A-A
2
3
1
σ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
t
yz
t
xy
t
xz
The shear stress τ
xz
(or σ
xz
) acts on the surface normal to x (the first subscript) axis,
pointing the z (the second subscript) direction
B
B
z
x
y
xz
τ
xz
τ
xz
τ
xz
τ
At section B-B
2
3
1
σ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
z
σ
z
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
t
yz
t
xy
t
xz
The shear stress τ
yz
(or σ
yz
) acts on the surface normal to y (the first subscript) axis,
pointing the z (the second subscript) direction
z
x
y
yz
τ
yz
τ
yz
τ
yz
τ
At section C-C
C
C
F

F

a

a

b

b

F

θ cos
A
F
A/cosθ
cosθ F
A
F
σ
2
b - b
x'
b - b
=
·
= =
F

b

b

F
x’

F
y’

y’
x’
θ

cosθ sinθ
A
F
A/cosθ
sinθ F -
A
F
τ
b - b
y'
b - b
· ÷ =
·
= =
x'
σ
y'
σ
y' x'
τ
θ F/Acos σ
2
x'
=
θ F/Asin σ
2
y'
=
cosθ -F/Asinθ τ
y' x'
· =
(
¸
(

¸

·
·
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
θ F/Asin cosθ F/Asinθ -
cosθ F/Asinθ - θ F/Acos
σ τ
τ σ
σ'
2
2
y' x' y'
y' x' x'
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
x
σ
y
σ
xy
τ
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
y' x' y'
y' x' x'
ij
y yx
xy x
ij
σ τ
τ σ
σ'
σ τ
τ σ
σ
x'
σ
y'
σ
y' x'
τ
The two stress states corresponding to different
orientations are equivalent.

Stress matrix (3-D):
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
ij
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ
Stress tensor components vary with the
orientation of cube element.

Stress tensor is symmetric: t
xy
= t
yx
, t
xz
= t
zx
,
t
yz
= t
zy
÷ There are only 6 stress
components. Why?



(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
ij
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
ij
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ
or
Stress matrix (3-D):
For 3-D stress, i = 1, 2, 3 or x, y, z;
j = 1, 2, 3 or x, y, z

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
ij
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ
The first subscript i: the area on
which the force is acting has a
normal in the i direction

The second subscript j: the direction
of the applied force


Einstein summation convention
(equal subscript)

zz yy xx
33 22 11
kk jj ii
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
+ + =
+ + =
= =
4000 feet
1760 psi
H
σ
h
σ
H
σ
h
σ
V
σ
V
σ
In situ stresses in formations
Stress matrix (3-D):
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
zz
yy
xx
ij
σ 0
0 σ 0
0 0 σ
σ
H
σ
h
σ
V
σ
z
x
y
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
V
h
H
ij
σ 0
0 σ 0
0 0 σ
σ
F

F

L

ΔL

d

Δd

L
ΔL
ε
x
= Normal axial strain
x y
νε
d
Δd
ε ÷ = ÷ =
Lateral strain
y
x
Poisson’s ratio
L
D
c
c
v ÷ =
ε
D
= strain along the diametrical axis
ε
L
= strain along the longitudinal axis
P

P

Also a dimensionless quantity u
t
¸ ÷ =
2
strain Shear
xy
γ
xy xy
τ
y
x
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
Pure shear: τ
xy
= τ
yx

θ
0
= π/2

θ = π/2- ¸
xy

xy
τ
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
θ

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
y
x
y
yx
xy
x
ij
ε 0
0 ε
ε
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε
F

F

L

ΔL

d

Δd

y
x
P

P

Strain matrix (2-D):
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
0 0
0 F/A
σ τ
τ σ
σ
y yx
xy x
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
Strain matrix (2-D):
γ
xy xy
τ
y
x
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
= π/2

θ = π/2- ¸
xy

xy
τ
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
θ

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
0
2
γ
2
γ
0
ε
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε
yx
xy
y
yx
xy
x
ij
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
0 τ
τ 0
σ τ
τ σ
σ
yx
xy
y yx
xy x
ij
Stress matrix (2-D):
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

=
y
yx
xy
x
yy yx
xy xx
ij
ε
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε ε
ε ε
ε
Stress matrix (2-D):
(c
xy
= c
xy
, ¸
xy
= ¸
yx
)




γ
xy
xy
τ
y
x
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx
τ
θ
0
= π/2

θ = π/2- ¸
xy

θ
0
θ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
y
σ
x
ε
x
ε
y
ε
y
ε
(
¸
(

¸

=
y yx
xy x
ij
σ τ
τ σ
σ
Strain matrix (2-D):
Deformed
Cubic element Parallelepiped element
Strain tensor (matrix)
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
z
zy
zx
yz
y
yx
xz
xy
x
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
ij
ε
2
γ
2
γ
2
γ
ε
2
γ
2
γ
2
γ
ε
ε ε ε
ε ε ε
ε ε ε
ε
(c
xy
= ¸
xy
/2, c
xz
= ¸
xz
/2, c
yz
= ¸
yz
/2)


Consider the FBD on the right side
of section E:
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
E
= +
¿
200 lb/ft

V
E

M
E

lb 450 4.5 200
2
1
V
E
= × × =
ft lb 675 )
3
4.5
( 450 M
E
· = × =
Cross section E
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
Determine the reaction force from
the beam FBD
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
B
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0
3
9
400 9
2
1
2
20
20 300 - 20 F
A
= × × × + × × ×
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

lb 7800 400 9
2
1
20 300 F F
B A
= × × + × = +
lb 5070 F lb 2730 F
B A
= =
Now consider the FBD on the left
side of section D
0 F ) (
y
= | +
¿
0 M
D
= +
¿
F
A

M
D

0 6 F - 3 6 300 M
A D
= × × × +
Cross section D
V
D

F
A

F
B

) ( lb 930 2730 - 1800 V
D
+ ÷ = =
ft lb 10980 5400 - 6 2730 M
D
· = × =
lb 1800 6 300 V F
D A
= × = +
Determine the internal force F
BC
in the rod BC, normal to a-a section
0 M
A
= +
¿
5
4
sinθ ;
2
3
8 3 sinθ AB F
BC
= × × = · ·
(
ft lb M
ft lb ft lb M
M
V
V lb lb
F
lb N
lb N
F
B
B
B
B
B
y
B
B
x
. 400 400 800
0 ) 2 ( 200 ) 4 (
5
3
33 . 333
0
0
0 200
5
3
3 . 333
0
7 . 266
0
5
4
3 . 333
0
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
= +
= ¬
= ÷ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= | +
= ¬
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷÷ ÷
¿
¿
¿
+
θ

kN 15 )
5
4
(3
2
3
8 3 F
BC
= × × × = /
F
BC
F
y,C

F
x,C

F
y,A

F
x,A

FBD
At section a-a
MPa 12.2
0.035
10 15
A
F
σ
2
3
a - a
BC
a - a
=
×
= = 0 τ =
a - a
θ

F
y,A

F
x,A

F
BC

The area of section b-b
cosθ A A
b - b a - a
· =
F
BC

θ

Stresses at section b-b
MPa 4.4
0.00204
10 9
A
F
σ
3
b - b
x
b - b
=
×
= =
MPa 5.88
0.00204
10 12
A
F
3
b - b
y
b - b
=
×
= = τ
F
y

F
x

kN 9
5
3
15 cosθ F F
BC x
= × = · =
kN 12
5
4
15 sinθ F F
BC y
= × = · =
2
2
a - a
b - b
m 0.00204
3/5
0.035
cosθ
A
A = = =
F
y,A

F
x,A

b

b

a

a

θ

F
BC

F
y

F
x

Up to 2012/1/27 Friday

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