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June 17, 2011 Engr. JOSELITO D.

TUCIT Dean IEAT BASC, San Ildefonso, Bulacan Dear Sir: Good Day! Submitting herewith attached the compendium of lectures. This has been prepared to facilitate the learning process of Fruit and Vegetable Processing to provide the students a better understanding of the concept and principles of the course. In this connection, may I request your good office for the comments, suggestions and endorse the said compilation to the director for instruction. Hoping for your action and approval. Thank you. Very truly yours,

MYRNA S. EGUIA Associate Professor 2

Preface

Fruit and vegetable processing is a valuable means and an interrelated activity in food technology. Products that cannot be consumed fresh, can be processed into some finished materials, making seasonal products available the whole year round. Processed products from fruits and vegetables had increased its acceptance in the local and export market, and became a potential means to create a gainful employment, as a means of livelihood projects for may families. Both are important to have opportunities for individual enterprise and initiative to uplift communities as whole, particularly in the rural areas. This is a useful source of information for fruit and vegetable processing. As a reference material for teachers and students, who enter higher education to study food science, food technology and other related subjects in vocational/technical schools offering home economics, foods and nutrition, and food technology. Likewise, it is a useful guide for livelihood projects, specifically for home processing, because of its comprehensive approach. It gives a brief discussion of the different principles and procedures in fruit and vegetable processing found to produce acceptable products, specifically to those who would-be processors to be properly informed.

MYRNA S. EGUIA
The Author Approved for use in the Institute

Engr. JOSELITO D. TUCIT


Dean, Institute of Engineering and Applied Technology

Noted:

Engr. LIBERATO C. SILVERIO


Director for Instruction

COMPENDIUM OF LECTURES IN FT 114 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING

MYRNA S. EGUIA Lecturer

Institute of Engineering and Applied Technology Bulacan Agricultural State College Pinaod, San Ildefonso, Bulacan

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Preface
Chapter I INTRODUCTION TO FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING A. Importance of preserving fruits and vegetables B. Why do we need to preserve fruits and vegetables

C. Processing Possibilities of Fruits in the Philippines D. Processing Possibilities of Vegetables in the Philippines
E. Methods of Processing Fruits and Vegetables 1. Drying and Dehydration 2. Refrigeration and Freezing 3. Fermentation and Pickling 4. Sugar Concentrate 5. Canning 6. Use of food Additives 7. Ionizing Radiation Chapter II QUALITY CONTROL IN FOOD PROCESSING A. The Different Meaning of Quality B. The Quality Cycle C. General Quality Control Perception D. Total Quality Control E. Quality Assurance

F. Quality Control in Food Processing

Chapter III THE MARKETING PLANS

A. The Marketing System B. The Elements of Marketing System C. Operational Dimensions of Marketing System D. Marketing Concept and Selling Concept INDEX References: 1. Bautista, Ofelia K. 1990. Postharvest Technology for Southeast Asian Perishable Crops. Technology and Livelihood resource Center. UPLB. Los Baos, Laguna. 2. Beverly Burnett-Fell and Kim Stutchbury. 2000. Food Technology in Action. John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd. Sidney, Australia. 3. De leon, Sonia Y. And M. De Guzman. 1998. Preservation of Philippine Foods. A Manual of Principles and Procedures. Phoenix Publishing House Inc. Quezon City. Phil. 4. De Leon, Sonia Y., L.O. Martinez and O. C. Bravo. Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Dehydration. U.P. Diliman, Quezon City. Phil. 5. Frazier, Wiliam, and D.C. Westhoff. 1988. Food Microbiology. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Singapore.

6. Gatchalian, Miflora M. and S.Y. De Leon. 1992. Introduction to Food Technology. Merriam & Webster Bookstore, Inc. Mla. Phil.
7. Preservation of Philippine Fruits and Vegetables. Laboratory Services Division. BPI. Manila. 8. Principles and Methods of Fruit and Vegetable Processing. Correspondence School. Meralco Ave. Pasig, Metro Manila.

9. Gatchalian, Miflora M. and S.Y. De Leon. 1992. Introduction to Food Technology. Merriam & Webster Bookstore, Inc. Mla. Phil.
10. Quality control for Food Industry. An Introductory Handbook. 1991. International Trade Center UNCTAD/GATT. Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction to Fruit and Vegetable Processing

Fruits and vegetables have long been valued by man kind as nourishing foods. Most of them can be eaten fresh when they contain large amounts of water. However, they are also perishable and do not remain fresh for a long time. Some of the important reasons for processing fruits and vegetables are:

1. To convert perishable agricultural products into a form which can be stored and
transported to market all year round; 2. To extend the time period of the availability of fruits and vegetables in order to lessen the high cost of out-of-season fruits; 3. To retain the nutritive value and palatability or taste of fruits and vegetables; 4. To create gainful employment for many families and provide rewarding opportunities for individual enterprise and initiative, to uplift communities particularly in rural areas. Processing involves physical and chemical change or both. In physical change they are transformed into shape. The volume may either increase or decrease by removing or adding substances such as water. In chemical change, the chemical composition of fruits and vegetables undergo alteration or become different due to the reactions involved. The act of preserving food is called food processing. Processing of fruits differs from that of vegetables because they have separate qualities. Similarly, processing may differ from one fruit to another or from one vegetable to another. The processes that can be used for preserving fruits and vegetables are: (i) Drying and dehydration; (ii) Fermentation and Pickling; (iii) Sugar concentrates; (iv) Use of chemical additives; (v) Canning; and (vi) Ionizing radiation Why Do We Need to Preserve Fruits and Vegetables Almost all vegetables can be grown anywhere in the country because of natural fertility of the soil. Fruits have varieties which can be found only in specific localities. This is because of climatic and soil conditions which can be found in particular areas of the country. But generally, fruits and vegetables abound in our market stalls fresh from farms all-year round. Their availability is affected by natural and man-made factors such as: 1. Seasonality 2. Abnormal climatic changes 3. Plant pest and diseases 4. Location of source, transportation problems and improper handling 5. Perishability and spoilage Seasonality Seasonal fruits and vegetables are those available only at specific times of the year. Delicious and vitamin-rich vegetables like cabbage, raddish, tomato, corn and fruits like lanzones, guava, atis and chico are seasonal. Vegetables and fruits which have grown out-ofseason are often smaller in size, discolored and infested with microorganisms, Besides they cost more. However, new developments in agronomy makes the growing of out-of-season plants possible by controlled conditions. Abnormal climatic change. Abrupt changes in climatic conditions affect the growth of fruits and vegetables. Storms generally destroy plants.

a. Fragile vegetables get excessively soaked during rainy days or dried during long periods with no rain or drought and they spoil easily. If plants survive the taste of the fruit and vegetable is severely affected. b. Most of the vegetables are prone to spoil or rot because of their great sensitivity to heat or to the absence or excess of moisture in the air. Some of them survive; however, these will be of poor quality. c .Fruit bearing trees shed their flowers when struck by strong winds and rain. Young fruits tend to fall as strong typhoon winds rip through their branches. d. Excessive heat, cause fruits to ripen prematurely or dry out e. Temperature during summer months tend to remove much water content of fruits and vegetables be evaporation and become wilted or wrinkled. f. Prolonged storage can cause loss of their nutritive value wearing out of their natural appearance g. When overripe or wilted develop a disagreeable taste and caused chemical changes in their chemical composition during natural process of aging. Plant pests and Diseases. Plant pests and diseases can wipe out an entire plantation of fruits or vegetables if not checked early. Some instances in the past shown how prices have zoomed sky-high as a result of infestation of pest and diseases. Location of Source, Transportation Problems and Improper Handling. Some vegetables are highly perishable and may not be transported for a certain period of time without physical and nutritive damages. These types of vegetables may not be relished fresh but need to be preserved before eaten. Refrigeration or cooling during transport is one way, but it is expensive.

Processing Possibilities of Philippine Fruits and Vegetables.


The Philippines as a tropical country is endowed with abundant fruit and vegetables. These can be preserved in many ways even at home. The most common methods are by refrigerating, freezing, salting, fermentation, drying and dehydration, preserved in sugar and canning. Table 1 Processing possibilities of Philippine fruits
Names (Common, English, Scientific) 1. Abocado, avocado Persia Americana Mill 2. Anonas, anonas Anona reticulate Linn. 3. Atis, sugar apple Anonas squamosa Linn 4. Balimbing, carambola, bilimbi, star fruit Averrhoa carambola Linn 5. Bayabas, guava Psiduim guajava Linn. 6. Bignay Antidesma bunius Linn Height of Season February - July May - July September - December April - June Processing Possibilities Spread, for flavoring Frozen, juice, jam, butter Frozen puree Candied Jam, jelly, butter * May - August Juice, wine

7. Kaimito, star apple Chrysophyllum cainito Linn 8. Kalamansi, Philippine lemon Citrus microcarpa Bunge 9. Kamyas, balimbi Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. 10. Kasuy, cashew Anacardium accidentale Linn. 11.Dalanghita, native orange Citrus nobilis Lour. 12. Dayap, lime Citrus aurantifolia Christm. 13. Duhat, black plum, java plum Sizygium cumini Linn. 14. Durian, durian Durio zibethinus Murr. 15. Guyabano, soursop Anona muricata Linn. 16. Istroberi, strawberry Fragaria vessa Linn. 17. Langka, jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus 18. Lansones, lanzon Lansium domesticum Linn. 19. Makopa, curacao apple, Syzygium samarengense (Blume) Merr. Perry 20. Mangga, mango Mangifera indica Linn. 21. Mangostan, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana Linn. 22. Milon, melon Cucumis meta Linn. 23. Pakwan, water melon Citrullus meto Linn. 24. Papaya, papaya Carica papaya Linn. 25. Pasyonaryo, passion fruit Passiflora foetida Linn. 26. Pinya, pineapple Anonas camosus Linn. 27. Rambutan, rambutan Nephelium lappacum 28. Saging saba, banana Musa sapientum Linn. (compressa var.) 29. Sampaloc, tamarind Tamarindus indica Linn. 30. Santol, santol Sandoricum koetjape (Bumf) Marr.

January - March June - October ** July - September December - May September - November March - July August - November August - November * March - August August - November May - July May - June May - November April July November - December April - July December * May - July August - October * February - April July - September

Wine, frozen Juice, candied rind, concentrate Candied, pickles, preserve Wine Candied, juice, wine, canned in syrup, marmalade, Juice, marmalade, candied Juice, wine Frozen, candied, jam Juice, frozen, jam, preserve Jam, frozen, preserve Candied, jam, marmalade, frozen, canned in syrup Wine, canned in syrup, frozen Candied Juice, jam, preserve, chutney, marmalade, pickle, frozen, candied Preserve Juice, preserve, candied, canned in syrup Frozen candied, p[ickled, juice, preserve, canned in syrup Frozen, pickle, candied, jam, jelly, marmalade, juice, preserve, canned syrup Jelly, frozen, canned juice Preserve, jam, juice, candied, canned, frozen Frozen canned in syrup Candied, jam, catsup crackers, chips Candied, preserve, jam, jelly juice, sauce Preserve, wine, jelly, jam, marmalade, juice

31. Siniguelas, Spanish plum Spondias, purpurea Linn. 32. Suha, pommelo Citrus gandis Osbeck

April - June November June April - June

Juice, canned in syrup Preserve, candied rind, juice

Table 2 Processing possibilities of vegetables


Pilipino Names 1.Abitsuelas 2.Ampalaya 3.Bataw 4.Bawang 5.Kalabasa 6.Kamatis 7.Kamote 8.Kamoteng kahoy 9.Karot 10.Koliplower 11.Gabi 12.Garbansos 13.Labong 14.Luya 15.Malunggay 16.Mani 17.Munggo 18. Niyog 19. Paayap 20.Papaya 21.Patani 22.Patatas 23.Pepino 24.Petsay 25.Repolyo 26.Sayote 27.Sigarilyas English Names Snap beans Bitter melon Hyacinth bean Garlic Squash Tomatoes Sweet potato Cassava Carrot Cauliflower Taro Chickpea Bamboo shoot Ginger Horse radish Peanut Mung bean Coconut Cowpea Papaya Lima bean Potato Cucumber Chinese cabbage Cabbage Chayote Goa, Winged bean Scientific Names Phaseolus vulgaris Linn. Momordica charantia Linn. Dolicheslab lab Linn Allium sativum Linn Cucurbita maxima Duchesne Lypersicum esculentum Mill Ipomea batatas (Linn) Poir Manihot esculentum Crantz Pobl Daucus carota Linn. Brassica oleraces Linn. Colocasia esculentum (Linn.) Schotti Endl. Cicer earientinum Linn. Bambusspinosa Roxb. Zingiber officinale Rosc. Moringa olegigera Linn. Arachis hypogaea Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Cocos nucifers Linn. Vigma sinensis Linn. Carica papaya Linn. Phaseolus Tunatua Linn. Solanium tuberrosum Linn. Cucumis sativus Linn. Brassica chinensis Linn. Brassica aleracez Linn. Sechium edule Sw. Psephocarpus tetrgonolobus Processing Possibilities canned, frozen pickled, canned dried, powdered dried, powdered, pickled canned, sweetened candied Canned, juice, sauce, puree, catsup Candied, dehydrated, powdered fermented, dehydrated canned, pickled canned, pickled powdered dried, canned pickled, canned candied, powdered, dehydrated, pickled boiled candied dried, powdered dried, candied, preserved, fermented dried, candied, preserved, fermented pickled dried, pickled, canned dried, canned, powdered pickled pickled fermented, preserve, pickled Canned Canned, pickled

28.Sibuyas tagalog 29.Sibuyas bombay 30.Sili 31.Siling labuyo 32.Singkamas 33.Sitaw 34.Sitsaro 35.Talong 36.Togue 37.Tugi 38.Ubi 39.Upo

Tagalog onion Onion Sweet pepper Chili pepper Yam bean Yard-long bean Sweet pea Eggplant Mungo sprout Spiny yam Yam Bottle gourd

Linn. Allium cepa Linn. var. ascolonicum Allium cepa Linn. Capsicum annum Linn. Capsicum frutescens Linn. (Fruw) Pachyrrhizus erosus ( Linn.) Urb. Vigna sinensis var. Sesquipedalis Fruw. Pisum sativum Linn. Solanum melongena Linn. Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Dioscoreaesculenta (Lour) Burkill Dioscorea alata Linn. Lagenaria siceraria (Mill) Standly

Pickled, canned Pickled, powedered, dried Pickled, canned Dried, canned Dried, canned, sweetened Canned, frozen Canned Pickled, canned Canned, pickled, dehydrated Jam, dehydrated Jam, dehydrated, candied Canned

bean

METHODS OF PROCESSING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 1. Drying and Dehydration 2. Refrigeration and Freezing 3. Fermentation and Pickling 4. Sugar Concentrates Preservation 5. Canning 6. Use of Food Additives 7. Ionizing Radiation DRYING AND DEHYDRATION Drying is the process whereby the water content is removed or reduces the amount of moisture or water content from fresh foods to prevent the growth or multiplication of bacteria and other microorganisms through the application of heat by natural means. This is the oldest and most widely used of all forms of food preservation. During the drying process, when heat is applied on the fruit and vegetable, there is lost in the total number of microorganisms present. But heating is effective only with certain kinds and number of organisms originally present and with the drying process used. Usually, all yeast and most bacteria are destroyed, but it is common that spores of bacteria and molds survive. A few species of heat resistant bacteria in their vegetative stage also survive. During the drying process, microorganisms may even grow if the process is not properly done.

Air, is generally used as the drying medium because it is plentiful and convenient. Besides, heating of food can be controlled. It is used to conduct heat to the food being dried and to carry away moisture vapor from the food. No complicated or elaborate moisture receiving system is required with air. Drying can be done gradually, and the tendency to scorch (slightly burn) and discolor can be controlled. In drying, air carries hat to the food, causing water to turn into vapor. It also act as the medium wherein moisture vapor that is freed from the dehydrating food is carried away. More air is needed to conduct heat to the food in order to evaporate the water present in the food than what is needed to remove water vapor from the chamber. A chamber is a an enclosed equipment use to dry food under controlled temperature. There are machines which can dry fruits and vegetables in large numbers and with greater ease. These are called driers. They are useful in large-scale processing industry. What happens to fruits and vegetables after they are dried or dehydrated? Dehydrated fruits and vegetables may spoil depending on the care given to them before and during processing. Microbes which are originally present, particularly in the skin of fruits and vegetables, tend to cause spoilage. Spores and molds are likely to be most numerous. Even though the original quality and taste of fresh fruits and vegetables are partly lost during the process, the nutritive value of these food items are more concentrated in the remaining mass. However, as in any method of preservation, water soluble vitamins are partially oxidized and lessened during blanching and enzyme inactivation. Among the food contents that are partly destroyed or lost during the process are; Ascorbic acid which is damaged or lost by oxidative processes Carotene which is also damaged or lost by oxidative processes and sun-drying Riboflavin which is greatly affected by light Other nutritive values, like vitamins General Types of Drying: 1. Natural drying. This involves the use of the heat of the sun where the food is exposed to sunlight. The heat of the sun causes the food to release its moisture. This method is limited only to climates with intense heat coming from the sun. The simplest way of drying fruits and vegetables is to put them on trays and exposed under the heat of the sun to dry. 2. Artificial drying is the process done in controlled temperature, relative humidity and air flow in a closed chamber or controlled environment, usually an enclosure, like room or equipment for drying which may or may not be electrically operated. 3. Air blast this is the process used to dry food with the velocity of wind i.e. with the use of electric fan or wind from the environment.

Dehydration is an artificial means of drying which uses a systematic and controlled process in
removing the water content of fruits and vegetables. It is important to keep them in a well sealed and absorbent containers/packaging materials and store in dry place. Dehydrated fruits and vegetables may spoil depending on the care given to them before and during processing. Microbes which were originally present, particularly in the skin tend to cause spoilage where spores and molds are numerous. The quality and taste of fresh fruits and vegetables are partly lost during the process, nutritive value are more concentrated in the remaining mass. However, as in any method of food preservation, water soluble vitamins are partly oxidized and lessened during blanching and enzyme inactivation. Among the food contents partly destroyed/lost are: 1. Ascorbic acid which is damaged during oxidative processes. 2. Carotene damaged during oxidative process and sun drying

3. Riboflavin greatly affected by light 4. Vitamins Driers are machines use to dry fruits and vegetables in large scale/number of foods but not at home because it requires a large space. Advantages of Dehydration. Drying, generally applies to all methods of moisture removal, while dehydration applies to the removal of moisture under controlled conditions. 1. The cooking of quality dehydrated foods is generally superior to sun-dried ones. Dehydrated cooked vegetables resemble the cooked fresh vegetables in flavor, color and other sensory attributes. 2. Sanitary conditions can be controlled in dehydration than in sun-drying. In the open field, contamination from the dust, insects, birds and rodents is a constant hazard. While in dehydration plant, the contamination can be prevented and minimized through proper monitoring and observance of good manufacturing practices. 3. Dehydration is a more expensive process than sun-drying, but the superior quality of dehydrated products commands a higher value in the market. Because of the dehydrations more complex process requiring equipment which cost relatively high, there is an increase in the cost of production. Only by increasing the price of the commodity can a manufacturer be able to sustain the business. On the part of the consumer they get a better quality product. 4. Dehydration is accomplished in considerably shorter time than sun-drying. Since in dehydration there is control, necessary adjustments can be made to hasten the drying time of the commodity. Unlike sun-drying, wherein the product is all dependent on the amount of intensity of the heat from the sun, therefore during the months when the intensity of heat is low drying takes a long time. 5. Less space and fewer trays are needed for dehydration than for sun-drying which requires wide outdoor space. The product to be dehydrated are placed in trays and filed inside a dehydrator, with proper time and temperature, will dry in a predetermined length of time. While in sun-drying the product should be exposed to the suns ray to ensure complete drying and requires a wide space to be able to dry a considerable amount of product. 6. Sun-drying cannot be done during rainy season. Many dehydration methods can operate regardless of weather conditions, because it is an indoor operation, unlike sun-drying. 7. Yield from dehydration is usually higher than in sun-drying. This is attributed to the loss of sugar in sun-drying due to respiration and fermentation, and ;lack of control in sundrying process where unnecessary losses occur, like too much moisture and volatile compounds. 8. Certain green or slightly immature fruits continue to develop and acquire the color of mature fruits during sun-drying. This does not occur during dehydration. This is because of a more complex preparation and pre-treatments which fruits to be dehydrated undergo. There is very important benefit we can derive from dried foods, like fruits and vegetables. They can find their greatest use in times of disaster, either natural or manmade because they are lighter and compact, they can be delivered easily to a greater number of people. Factors Influencing the Rate of Drying The drying process proceeds at varying rates depending on a number of factors. These factors are nature materials, shape, size and arrangement, temperature, humidity and velocity of air.

1.Nature of Material being Dried. The individual nature or characteristics of the material is the most important factors which influence the rate of drying. Materials of higher moisture content require a shorter drying period than those of lower water levels. Carrots for example, which have as much solid matter as potatoes were fond to react a final moisture level of 0.06 in five hours as against 7 hours of potatoes of nearly the same size of and under the same external conditions. A difference in the composition of the material would also affect the drying rate in the high moisture range,. Blanched materials dry faster than the unblanched ones, probably blanching kills the tissues and makes the cell membranes more freely permeable to water. Products that contain high levels of sugar, tend to bind moisture which resulted in a slower drying rate compared to those with lower levels of sugar. Fibrous materials dry quickly while starchy materials do not. 2.Shape, Size, and Arrangement of the Material Pieces The classical drying theory predicts that the drying rate of a substance varies inversely with the square of the thickness if the surface film resistance to moisture transfer away from the wet piece is negligible in comparison with internal diffusional resistance. A small difference in the thickness of material can cause disproportionate changes in the drying time. Particles of a few microns in diameter like those in spray-drying dry with in seconds of contact with hot air. Disposition of the material with respect to the drying air. The arrangement of the materials on drying trays should be such that a maximum surface is exposed. In commercial dehydration air spaces are left in between stacked trays and tray bottoms are perforated to prevent uneven drying. Size particles. Since moisture is lost from the surface of the food, the smaller the size the faster is the rate of drying. Moisture from the inside can move to the surface faster due to the short distance. Load of wet material per unit tray. The maintenance of a very uniform spread of a predetermined total weight of material on drying trays is vital in dehydration processes. As drying proceeds, the material may shrink leading to an open structure through which air can circulate. 3.Temperature, Humidity and Velocity of Air Over the Material Being Dried Air contains vapor, the amount is expressed as the humidity that can be expressed as relative and absolute humidity. Relative humidity . is the most commonly used. It is the percent vapor present in the air. A dry air has 0% relative humidity and the one saturated has a relative humidity of 100%. The amount of moisture which could be absorbed by air is very temperature dependent. The table below shows water and relative humidity in relation to temperature. Table 3 Water and relative humidity in relation to temperature
Temperature 20 30 40 50 Relative Humidity (%) 90 50 28 15 Water Removed (kg) 0.6 7.0 14.5 24.0

Absolute Humidity. It is the actual weight of water vapor present in the air. This is usually expressed in kilogram of water per kilogram of dry air. It does not change with the temperature and this is because no water is added or lost by heating it.

Wet Bulb Depression It is the difference between the temperature of the drying air and the wet bulb temperature. If the difference between these two is zero, the air is saturated, no drying will occur. Air temperature (dry bulb) It is the temperature of the air circulating in the environment of dehydrator. Changing the air temperature at constant wet bulb depression does not have an appreciable effect on the initial drying rate of drying down to a moisture content of about one percent. In the low moisture range, drying rate is substantially greater at higher temperature. Air Velocity It is the rate of air circulation in a dryer or dehydrator. When size, temperature, relative humidity and time are held constant for a process no identical product is produced. The effect of air velocity in drying potato half-diced using tray loadings of 1.5 pounds per square feet air temperature of 71.1C and wet bulb depression of 15.6C. Air velocities were 100, 600, 800, and 1,000 feet per minute across the tray surface. The drying rates were found to be virtually identical for 800 and 1,000 feet per minute and only that of lowest velocity was significantly slower. Below a moisture content of 0.05, the drying rate was substantially independent of air velocity. Barometric Pressure. In the initial phases of dehydration, the temperature of the wet material will approximate the wet bulb temperature regardless of barometric pressure. The rate of drying is approximately proportional to the difference between the vapor pressure of water at the wet bulb temperature and the partial pressure of water vapor in the air. This difference will be less if the barometric pressure is low. In the low moisture range, the temperature of the material approaches that of the drying air. The main rate- determining factor is the internal resistance to translocation of moisture which is nearly unaffected by barometric pressure. Procedures for Drying of Fruits Selection of fruits Fruit that are preferred for drying are those with distinctive flavor. They should be fresh, ripe, firm and free from bruises. They should be graded according to maturity, size and color. Preparation of fruits Wash the fruit very well. Small fruits with thin skin are dried whole and bigger fruits with thick skin are peeled by hand, machine or lye bath. They are sliced or cubed according to preference and use. Some fruits are treated with sulfur dioxide before drying. This is a process of sulfuring. Sulfuring is done to; 1. it prevents darkening and brown discoloration during dehydration and storage 2. it hastens the drying process 3. it conserves Vitamin C 4. it acts as a fumigant against insects 5. it inhibits organisms that cause spoilage There are two ways of treating fruits and vegetables with sulfur dioxide. 1. By exposing the whole or sliced fruits or vegetables to fumes or burning sulfur in a sulfur house or in a closed chamber. One teaspoon of sulfur is needed for one-half kilo of fruit. 2. By blanching, 3. By spraying or by dipping the fruit or vegetable in a 1% to 2% solution of sodium sulfite or sodium bisulfite. Proportions are usually one quart of the solution to two to

five kilos of the product. The type of fruit or vegetable and its moisture content will determine the amount of sulfur to be used and the length of time the fruit or vegetable shall be exposed. Drying of fruits After sulfuring, spread the fruits in thin layers on trays. If to be dried under the sun, cover the trays with mosquito netting to keep insects and dust away from the fruits. Fruits may also be dried in an oven or home drier. The length of time of drying will depend on the type of fruits and the size of pieces. Fruits are already dry when they feel somewhat leathery and when pressed together, spring apart when released Table 4 The Process of drying some fruits Fruit
Mango

Ingredients
Mature just ripe carabao mangoes. 2% salt solution (1 teaspoon salt for every quart of water Just ripe pineapple, preferably Hawaiian variety. 0.5% potassium sorbate solution

Procedure
Peel the mangoes. Slice the sides and cut into halves or quarters. Dip the cut mangoes in 2 salt solution. Sulfur for about 30 minutes. Dry at 153F (67C) Wash the pineapple. Pare and remove the eyes. Cut into inch to 1 inch thick. Blanch for about 15 minutes. Sulfur for 30 minutes. Dry until moisture is reduced to about 30-35%. Dip in 0.5% potassium sorbate solution fore about 2 minutes to prevent mold growth. Peel the banana. Cut into halves lengthwise or slice crosswise. Dip the slices in 1% citric acid solution or tartaric acid solution and 0,1% potassium metabisulfite solution. The rinse the fruit with water. Drain well. Sulfur for 30 minutes. Dry at 130-140F (54C 60C). Blach in boiling water for 3 -5 minutes. Pare and cut into halves and quarters. Remove the seeds. Sulfur for 30 minutes. Dry at 140F (60C). Wash the guava very well. Peel and cut into halves or quarters and remove the seeds. To improve the flavor and color soak in 2% salt solution. Sulfur for 30 minutes. Dry at 130F (54 C). Wash banana. Pell and slice about 1/8 inch thick. Soak in 1000 ppm metabisulfite solution for 1 hour to avoid discoloration. Drain from soaking medium. Dip in boiling water for 30 seconds, then in cold water for 5 seconds. Drain. Dry at 65C 70C or under the sun until bone dry. For better storage, pack in plastic bag or can.

Pineapple

Banana

Mature banana 1% citric acid or tartaric acid solution 0.1% potassium metabisulfite solution Ripe, fleshy santol Ripe fleshy guava 2% salt solution

Santol Guava

Banana (Chips)

Mature, underripe saba 1000 part permillion (ppm) sodium metabisulfite solution

Procedures for Drying Vegetables They should be fresh, tender and free from bruises. They should be at the right maturity stage because vegetables that are not fully matured deteriorate rapidly during drying.

Preparation of vegetable Remove and discard the inedible portion of the vegetable. Wash all the portions thoroughly in running water. Then cut or slice according to preference and use. Blanch in steam or in boiling water. Blanching. This is done for the following reasons: 1. it helps retain flavor, color and texture; 2. it reduces drying time; 3. it retains minerals and vitamins 4. it withers the leafy vegetables making them easy to pack in small spaces; 5. it stops deterioration of vegetables after harvesting; 6. it reduces the bitter flavor of strong-flavored vegetables; 7. it reduces the bacterial growth in vegetables.

Equipment used in blanching.


a). For boiling water blanch- one or two gallon kettle made of enamel ware or stainless steel, aluminum, wire basket or several thickness of cheesecloth placed inside the kettle. b).For steam blanch- a basket and kettle with a tight lid and a rack that holds the basket at least three inches above the bottom of the kettle. Blanching Procedure. It is best to blanch about one-half kilo or two cups of vegetables at a time so that all particles of vegetables are uniformly and thoroughly heated. Heating time varies with the kind and size of cut vegetables. When a time range is given, use the shortest time for small vegetables and the longer time for large ones. Start counting as soon as water boils after addition of vegetables. Steam blanching usually takes one to two minutes longer than boil blanching. In one or two gallons of boiling water, lower the wire basket or cheesecloth with two cups of vegetables. See to it that all vegetables are submerged into the boiling water. Cover the kettle and turn knob into high heat. Count time only from the moment the water resumes boiling. The same water may be reused up to three or four times except in cases when two much flavor is acquired by the boiling water (taste to test). Add boiling water as needed to retain the proportion of one gallon of water to two cups of vegetables. To steam blanch vegetables, pour water until two inches of the kettle is filled and bring the water to a vigorous boil. Lower the basket or cheesecloth containing a thin layer of vegetables on the rack. Cover and start timing the process when water boils after the vegetables have been added. Steam blanching is recommended to prevent loss of flavor of vegetables during the boiling process. An example of a vegetable that is usually steam blanched is the squash. However, steam blanching is not recommended for some types of vegetables like leafy vegetables because they stick together and cannot be heated uniformly. Strong-flavored vegetables which need to remove some of the flavor are blanched in boiling water for better results. Drying of vegetables. Place the vegetables on trays and dry them under the sun or in an oven or in a controlled temperature inside the chamber or in home-made drier. The length of time of drying varies and depends upon the type and size of cut vegetable, types of drier and drying temperature. Dry vegetables are crackly, brittle and crisp. Table 5 The Process of drying some vegetables and spices

Vegetable/Spice 1. Carrot 2. Garlic 3. Ginger 4. Lima beans 5. Okra

Ingredients Mature, firm carrot Mature garlic Fresh, fleshy ginger 10% chloride of lime solution Mature beans Okra, small pods

6. Onion 7. Peas 8. Potato

Mature onion Cooled 3% brine Mature peas Mature, firm potatoes

9. Sayote 10. Sweet potato 11. Squash

Firm sayote Sweet potato Squash

Procedures Wash very well. Pare and cube. Steam-blanch for about 5 minutes. Arrange on trays. Dry at 150F (66 C) until tough and leathery. Remove the pulp. Slice lengthwise. Spread on trays. Dry at 160F (71C) till dry and brittle. Scrape skin and wash. Dip in 10% chloride of lime solution. Arrange on trays. Dry under the sun until color is pale or almost white. Shell beans. Steam-blanch for 10 minutes. Spread on trays. Dry partially at 120F (49C). Continue drying at 145F (63C) until hard and wrinkled. If pods are large cut in half. Remove the stems. Steamblanch for 4 to 7 minutes depending on the size of pieces. Arrange on trays. Initially dry at 125F (52C) until tough and leathery. Peel onions. Slice thinly (about 1/8 inch). Dip in 3% brine. Steam-blanch for 2 minutes. Spread on trays and dry at 140F (60C) until hard and wrinkled. Shell peas. Steam-blanch for 2 minutes. Spread on trays and dry at 150F (66C) until hard and wrinkled. Wash potatoes. Pare and slice or cube. Blanch in boiling water for 2 minutes. If in steam, blanch for 4 minutes. Arrange on trays. Dry at 150F (66C) until crisp and brittle. Wash, peel and slice about inch thick. Steam-blanch for 4 to 5 minutes. Arrange on trays and dry at 160F (71C) until tough but brittle. Peel and slice about inch thick. Steam-blanch for about 5 minutes. Arrange on trays. Dry at 150F (66C) until tough but brittle. Wash, pare and cut into four pieces. Remove seeds and pithy materials. Slice or shred thinly. Steam-blanch for 4 to 5 minutes. Spread on trays and dry at 177F (77C) until tough but brittle.

Problems That Occur During Drying Several problems are encountered when drying fruits and vegetables. They are the following:

1. Casehardening. This is the formation of a hard and impermeable surface on the outer
covering of the food. This happens when the temperature is too high and the relative humidity is too low. Moisture is removed from the surface is faster than it can diffuse or spread from the innermost part of the food. Further removal of water is not possible because the dried outer surface becomes impenetrable.

2. Browning or heat damage. This is also referred to as scorching or burning. this is


irreversible color change due to overheating during dehydration. If the degree of browning is not great, the change in color may be the only noticeable effect, but when the

change goes on further, the flavor, the re-hydration capacity, and the ascorbic acid content may also be adversely affected.

3. Discoloration. Discoloration or darkening during drying is due to enzyme action. This is


usually occurs among light-colored fruits and vegetables. This can be remedied by treating food with sulfur dioxide gas. Food may also dipped into a liquid containing a similar substance. However, this process destroys thiamin; thus, it is not recommended for foods which are good sources of thiamin.

4. Destruction of nutrients. Carotene and ascorbic acid are damaged by oxidative processes.
Riboflavin is destroyed by sulfuring, while other water-soluble vitamins are oxidized during drying. Prolonged exposures to high temperature lower the biological value of proteins and speed up oxidation of fats.

5. Loss of volatile constituents. The water vapor leaving the drier carries with it traces of
volatile constituents of the fresh food. This results in the irreversible loss of the characteristic flavor and odor of the original fresh food.

6. Loss of ability to re-hydrate completely. As water evaporates from the food, the tissues
collapse leaving behind a solid dried particle which not only re-hydrates slowly but incompletely. The product then becomes unsatisfactory for use under certain conditions.

7. Shrinkage. Unequal shrinkage in different parts of a single piece often produced wrapped
and distorted product. This is prevented by slow drying of highly shrinking material such that the material shrinks down fully. Packaging and Storing Dried Foods Dried foods absorb moisture from surrounding air. They should packed in a moisture-proof containers like heavy-waxed cartons, tin cans, jars, cellophane, plastic bags, and foil pouches. Some even require packing in vacuum or inert gas such as nitrogen. An in-package dessicant (activated lime) or IPD is used to remove water left in dehydrated foods. It is enclosed in an envelope and placed with the dried product in a package or container to absorb water vapor from the product. The dessicant must not allow to contaminate the product. A packaging material must be strong and stable to withstand long storage and packing. Since it will be in contact with the food, it must not contain harmful elements or chemicals that may contaminate the food. Cost, size, shape, convenience of use and appearance are factors that should also be considered. A good packaging material must have complete protection against moisture, light, air, foreign odor and animal pests. Lastly, dried foods should be stored in a dry place.

REFRIGERATION AND FREEZING Refrigeration and freezing operate on the same principle of cooling foods to delay the action of enzymes and the destructive effects of microorganisms. They differ only in that freezing starts at the temperature level of OC and below (or 32F and below). Refrigeration or cooling starts at the temperature level of 32C or 115F. The Basic Principles Involved in Some of the Processes What happens when a food is refrigerated or frozen? All living cells, of which food is made of contain much water usually 2/3 or more of their weight. The cell contains organic and inorganic substances, including salt, sugar and acids in aqueous (watery) solution and more organic molecules, such as proteins which are in colloidal suspension. Dissolved gases are also found in the watery solution. Thus, freezing is needed to tie up most of the moisture present and also increase the concentration of these dissolved substances in the unfrozen moisture. Freezing reduces the available water which is needed by microbes to act on the food even at a temperature close to or equal to OC to cause spoilage. Deep freezing starts from OF down to -20F or -17.8C. It is surprising that even at these temperature levels, certain microorganisms can still grow like Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Alcaligenes, Micrococus or Flavobacterium. They grow fairly well at these low temperature levels as do some yeasts and many of the molds. A food thermometer is used as guide to indicate what microorganisms can exist based on temperature intervals. The maximum (highest) and minimum (lowest) temperature indications in the food thermometer are 37C (98F) and -18C (OF). Based on the scale more microorganisms grow better as temperature rises and food spoilage is faster.

Benefits that can be derived from preserving fruits and vegetables in cold temperature: 1. 2. 3. 4. Food retains its original freshness since its water content is kept. Food spoilage is delayed because the action of microorganisms is slowed down. The availability of food is extended. Freezing destroys certain parasites present in the food, particularly when temperature is brought down to OC. 5. Some foods, like fruits, taste better when cold. Chilling is very common to households. This is done with the use of a refrigerator. Freezing can be done in a large freezer and I the small compartment of an ordinary refrigerator. If a refrigerator or a freezer is not available, an ice box will be a good substitute. The temperature inside an icebox varies from, 4.4C (40F to 55F), depending on the amount of ice it contains, the rate of melting, the amount of food, the kind of icebox, etc. Refrigeration or chilling of food has a shorter time interval to delay spoilage of food, while freezing or cold storage preserves food longer. However, freezing has also its bad effects. The following are few of its adverse effects: 1. Although there is little change in the nutritive value of protein due to freezing, denaturalization of protein may occur. This condition make protein-containing foods unfit to eat due to a change in the quality of food. 2. Enzyme activity is stimulated in supercooled areas of a frozen tissue. The speed of enzyme reactions is greater in supercooled water than in crystallized (icy) water at the same temperature. In figure 2, the relationship between temperature and the amount of non-crystalline water at the freezing point of water (the point where ice starts to form) is illustrated. It shows that there is much non-crystalline water at 15F and above. Thus, there is some basis on the common view that at such range (15F and above), severe damage of quality foods occur not only in appearance, but also in nutrient content. Enzyme control is easiest to obtain by destroying them with a short treatment of hot water (blanching) before freezing and storage. Long term storage at 20F yields unacceptable foods. 3. Even though the freezing process itself does not destroy food nutrients, the process involved in the preparation of food commodities for freezing result in the loss of vitamins. These processes include blanching, washing, trimming and grinding. Exposure of tissues result in losses due to oxidation. In general, vitamin C losses occur when tissues are ruptured (torn) and are exposed to the air. During storage, vitamin C losses continue. The higher the storage temperature, the greater the destruction of nutrients. Greater losses are found with vitamin C than with other vitamins in frozen foods. Blanching to inactivate enzyme is important to protect not only the vitamins, but also the quality of frozen foods. 4. Thawing (defreezing) damage to frozen fruits and vegetables are easily seen since their tissues are particularly sensitive. Orange juice or naranghita juice, when processed quickly and carefully but allowed to thaw and freeze several times during distribution will not taste the same as it originally tasted.

Because of these disadvantages, it is important to know what to do best in order to minimize, if not to remove totally, the negative effects of freezing. Here are some steps to follow to prevent the negative effects of freezing:

1. Protect the food by packaging. Fruit and vegetables to be frozen should be packed in
wooden, glass, paper or plastic containers to prevent excessive loss of water which results to freezer burn. Glazing or cooling with ice is the simplest and should be done periodically 2. Avoid rupturing the skin of fruits and vegetables to prevent exposure of the tissues which are easily oxidized. 3. Add ascorbic acid to fruits before freezing to protect their quality. 4. Store at the temperature level of -10F to preserve food better and -30F for best preservation.

Steps in Freezing Fruits and Vegetables:


1. Selection. The quality of food to be frozen is very important. Select fruits and vegetables on the basis of their maturity and suitability for freezing. They must be fresh, firm and free from blemishes. Fruits should be ripe enough for best flavor, color and texture. Underripe fruits may have bitter taste during freezing. Freeze fruits at the stage when they should be best eaten fresh. Vegetables must be garden-fresh, tender, free from blemishes and at the same time mature as for cooking purposes. 2. Preparation. This step includes washing, blanching, peeling, cutting and other processes needed prior to freezing. Wash small quantities of fruits and vegetables preferably in cold running water to remove all dirt and to reduce bacteria present. Drain very well. Fruits and vegetables soaked in water make poor frozen products. Remove portions which cannot be eaten like stems and seeds. Peel as the case may be. Slice or cut into desired shapes and sizes. 2.1 How to Prevent Discoloration Light colored fruits and vegetables easily get discolored when cut. During preparation, drop fruits as soon as peeled into a 0.05% citric acid solution or into a solution containing three tablespoons of kalamansi juice per gallon of water. Fruits may also be immersed into a solution made of teaspoon citric acid in one quart of water for one to two minutes before placing the fruit in syrup or rolling in sugar.Ascorbic acid in place of citric acid may also be used. It is added to the syrup or sugar before combining it with the fruit. Dissolve one-fourth teaspoon ascorbic acid in a small amount of syrup. Then add this to the rest of the syrup. For dry sugar packs, mix again one-fourth teaspoon of powdered ascorbic acid with sugar (same amount for each quart of fruit). Roll fruit in the mixture until it is well-coated. Table 6 The equivalent amount of ascorbic acid in crystalline and in tablet form
Crystalline (Powder)Teaspoon 1 3/4 1/2 1/4 1/8 Tablet Form (Milligram) 3,000 2,250 1,500 75 375

2.2 Blanching Vegetables are usually blanched before freezing to destroy enzymes that may cause the development of undesirable flavor, poor texture and loss of ascorbic acid content within a few weeks of freezing storage. Blanching may be done either in boiling water or in steam. In boiling water blanch, the equipment needed are; one or two gallon aluminum, enamelware or stainless steel kettle, and a wire basket or a loose bag made of several thicknesses or cheese cloth. In steam blanching, a kettle with a tight lid, a basket or a cheesecloth, and a rack that holds the basket at least three inches above the bottom of the kettle are the equipment needed. In one to two gallons of boiling water, lower the wire basket or cheesecloth with two cups of vegetables. (It is recommended to blanch only about one-half or two cups of vegetables at a time so that all particles of vegetables are uniformly heated). Cover the bottle and turn off the heat at full blast. When a time range is given , use the shortest time for small vegetables and the longer time for large ones. Start timing the process only from the moment the water resumes boiling, usually 60-75 minutes after the addition of vegetables. The same water may be reused up to three or four times except in cases when too much flavor is acquired by the boiling water (taste to test). Add boiling water as needed to retain the proportion of one gallon of water to two cups of vegetables. To steam blanch vegetables, put two inches of water in the kettle and bring the water to a vigorous boil. Lower the basket of cheesecloth containing a thin layer of vegetables on the rack. Cover and count time as soon as water resumes boiling after the addition of vegetables. Steam blanching usually takes one to two minutes longer than water blanching.

After blanching, the vegetables must be cooled at once to stop further cooking. Remove the basket or bag of vegetables from the kettle and plunge into a pan of cold water. Add ice to keep the water cold. Another way is to place the basket or bag under running water. This usually takes a longer time than the blanching period. 3. Packing Fruits and Vegetables for Freezing Whether to pack fruits with sugar or with syrup pr to leave them unsweetened depends partly on the sweetness of the fruits and their intended use. a. Dry pack. This is the best packing method for fruits used for cooking purposes because there is less liquid in the pack. The juicy fruits freeze well when packed with dry sugar. The sugar draws out the juice forming enough syrup to cover the fruit when packed. The recommended proportion is one part of sugar to four parts of fruit (by weight). Sprinkle dry sugar over the fruit. Mix gently until the juice is drawn out and the sugar is dissolved. Sugar may also be added in between layers of fruits as the product is placed in the container. For fruits that discolor, mix one-fourth teaspoon powdered ascorbic acid or citric acid or a mixture of both acids with the amount of sugar needed per quart of fruits. b. Syrup pack. Fruits packed in syrup are best for dessert. The syrup may be either thin or heavy depending on how sour the fruit is. Thin syrup is used for mild or delicate-flavored fruits like melons and pineapples to prevent overpowering of flavor. Fruits packed in thin syrup must be served, while still incompletely thawed and still frosty. Heavy syrup is used for strong-flavored or very sour fruits. The fruits are packed in containers and covered with cold syrup which are prepared the day before. To prevent discoloration, add one-fourth teaspoon citric acid powder or one-half teaspoon crystalline (1500 mg.) ascorbic acid per quart of cold syrup. b.1 Preparation of Syrup For each pint of fruit, one-half to two-thirds cup of syrup is needed. Table 7. Syrup concentration with amount of sugar to dissolve in water.
Per cent of syrup 20 30 40 50 60 70 Cups of Sugar 1 2 3 1/3 4 7 9 Cups of Water 4 4 4 4 4 4 Yield-Cups Syrup 5 5 1/3 5 1/2 6 1/2 7 3/4 8 2/3

Dissolve the sugar completely in boiling water. Let the syrup cool. The store in the refrigerator until ready for use. A 40% syrup is recommended for most fruits. Too heavy syrup tends to make the fruits flabby. c. Use of Corn Syrup Light corn syrup may be used to replace up to 25% of the sugar to be used to help retain the natural flavor of fruits. d. Unsweetened pack. This method is usually used for pies, jellies, jams and preservatives, and for people on special diets. Sugar in any form is not added to fruits. However, they cannot be held in frozen storage for long. To strengthen storage life slightly, they should be covered with the unsweetened juice of the fruit concerned. If this is not available, water with some ascorbic acid or citric acid will do, specially for light-colored fruits. 3.1 Packaging the Fruits Pack fruits firmly in rigid containers or in laminated bags in boxes. Leave one-half inch head space to allow for expansion. Make sure that the fruits are completely covered with syrup. A small piece of crumpled parchment paper or other water-resistant paper placed on top would keep the fruits down. Press the fruits into syrup and cover the container tightly. Label with the kind of fruit, date frozen and amount of sugar used. Then, place the container in the freezer immediately. If it is necessary to hold packaged fruits for a short time before freezing, place them in the refrigerator. 3.2 Packaging the Vegetables After the vegetables have been blanched and cooled, drain them thoroughly in absorbent towel or paper. Pack immediately into suitable containers, leaving one-half inch head space as allowance for expansion. Since the normal glutamates in most vegetables are leached during blanching, add about 0.15% dry monosodium glutamate (salt) dissolved in small amount of water. Then, pack tightly and gently force out any air pockets. Seal securely. Label and freeze immediately. Sometimes a loose pack is preferred because with this type, only portions needed can be poured out. In this case, pre-freeze the drained vegetables in a single layer on a tray. Then, pack the pre-frozen vegetables in a container, this time, with no headspace. Seal and return to freezer. e. Brine packing for vegetables. A brine solution is made by dissolving four teaspoons (3/4 ounces) of salt in a gallon of water. Heat and stir to dissolve salt. Strain to remove impurities in salt. Like the use of syrup for fruits, brine should also be chilled before adding to vegetables. Place vegetables in container and add brine enough to cover the vegetables. Leave some head space foe expansion. 3.3 Packaging Materials Foods to be frozen must be properly packaged to prevent loss of moisture which may lead to loss of juiciness and toughness of food. It is also necessary to keep air out of the packaged food since oxygen causes flavor changes such as oxidation rancidity in fatty foods. Moisture vaporproof (MVP) packaging materials which do not permit moisture to leave or air to enter the package are best used for protection. Packaging materials should not impart any color or flavor that is wholly different from the food. 3.4 Types of Packaging Materials

The packaging materials that must be used are sheets, bags or rigid containers and their characteristics. Table 8 Types of packaging materials and their characteristics.
Packaging Materials A. Sheets Aluminum foil, freezer weight Cellophane, Freezer weight Characteristics Most efficient moisture-vapor proof (MVP) sheet; needs an over wrap as it may be punctured; gradually wears away due to salt present in food; can be used in reheating of foods; can be used for a second time only if clean and free of punctures; use freezer tape to seal. MVP; can be heat-sealed; requires as over wrap as it becomes brittle either at room temperature or at freezing temperature; cannot be purchased for longer than immediate use. MVP; pliable rubber composition film; sealed like polyethylene film; transparent and light weight. MVP; it clings closely to product to make a neat wrap; transparent and light weight. Poor MVP even when a double layer is used; should not be used for more than 60 days. Made from many sheet materials; may be provided with boxes which open either at top or end; before filling, the bags are placed in the box; seal as the sheet material composing the bag. Good MVP if lids are tightly fitted in place; used directly from freezer to re-heat foods. Good MVP if tightly sealed; use plain or enameled cans depending on the type of food; seal with can sealer May be used when thoroughly cleaned and deodorized completely; seal with freezer tape at the rim; better use with dry foods to prevent rusting. Wide-mouthed to allow removal pf food without thawing; canning jars may be used but food must be thawed before removing; available in pints and quarts. Variable MVP depending on thickness of waxing; exemplified by paper drinking cups, ice cream and cottage cheese cups; may be used for weeks or one month at most; cannot be re-used; cannot be filled with hot food. MVP when lid is tightly closed; good for most moist foods. For pre-cooked frozen foods; some types like pyrex can go straight to oven from freezer; cover is sealed with freezer tape.

Pliofilm Saran film Wax-coated paper B. Bags and Boxed bags C. Rigid Containers Aluminum containers Cans (for canning) Coffee, dried milk, nut cans Glass jars (for freezing) Paperboard cartons

Plastic containers Oven glass casseroles

The type of packaging materials to be used depends on the size and shape of the food, its consistency, whether solid or liquid. Aluminum freezer foil is useful for wrapping foods with

irregular shapes. For dry packs, plastic bags are usually used. For liquid or semi-liquid foods, rigid containers are needed. The simplest form of packaging material for fruits and vegetables is heavily waxed cardboard box with heat-sealing cellophane liners. 4. Freezing of some Tropical Fruits and Vegetables Some of the tropical fruits and vegetables need to be frozen. Details are shown in the table below Table 9 Freezing of some fruits
Fruits Atis Ingredients Fully ripe but firm 3/4 cup sugar 1/2cup kalamansi Procedure Half the atis and scoop out the flesh with spoon. Mash and strain to remove seeds. Add measured sugar and kalamansi per quart of atis puree. Mix three ingredients very well. Pack in rigid container. Be sure to leave one-half inch headspace as allowance for expansion. Seal. label and freeze. This is good punch or al. Slice avocado and remove seeds. Mash the pulp and add sugar. Pack the puree in rigid container or plastic packaging. Seal, label and freeze. Open langka fruit, separate the segments and remove sedds. Place the pulp in bowl and sprinkle sugar (3/4 cup sugar per quart of fruit). Mix very well until sugar is completely dissolved. Pack, seal label and freeze. Boil blanch lanzones for 5 minutes. Peel and separate into segments. Place in rigid container, not more than 1/2 inch measured from the top. Cover with syrup to prevent darkening, add 1/4 teaspoon citric acid per cup of syrup. Seal, label and freeze. Wash very well Peel and removed seed. Scoop flesh and slice. Pack in rigid container For syrup pack: cover with cold 30% syrup, Leave inch head space. Add citric acid or ascorbic acid (1/4 teaspoon per cup of syrup) to prevent discoloration For dry sugar pack , place mango slices in bowl. Sprinkle with sugar. Mix very well until sugar is dissolved. Add citric acid to prevent discoloration. Pack, cover and freeze. Cut cantaloupe in two; Water melon into four. Remove seeds. Peel and slice into desired sizes. Pack in rigid containers and cover with syrup. Leave at least 1/2 inch headspace. Seal label and freeze. Half papaya. Remove seeds and peel, slice dice or form into balls depending on your preference. Pack in rigid containers. For syrup pack cover with cold 30% syrup. leave inch headspace. For dry sugar pack, mix with 11/23 to cup sugar per quart of papaya. Seal, label and freeze. Pare pineapple, remove eyes and core. Cut into desired shape, round, slice, cube, wedge. For syrup pack, place in rigid containers and cover with 20% -30% syrup. If to be frozen unsweetened, pack in rigid containers. In between slices, place double thickness or cellophane for easier separation. Seal, label and

Avocado Jackfruit (Langka) Lanzones

Evenly ripe avocado Sugar Firm but ripe langka 3/4 cup sugar/qrt of fruit Ripe, sweet lanzones 30% cold syrup (2cups sugar to 4 cups water) Citric acid or ascorbic acid Fully ripe mangoes For syrup pack: 30% cold syrup (2 cups sugar to 4 cups water). For dry pack 1/2 cup sugar per quart of mango) Citric or ascorbic acid Melon with full flavor And aroma 30% cold syrup Ripe, firm papaya For syrup pack: 30% cold syrup (2 cups sugar to 4 cups water). For dry pack 1/2 cup sugar per quart of papaya) Ripe, firm pineapple For syrup pack, 20-30% of cold syrup (20%: 1 cup sugar to 4 cups water; 30%: (2 cups sugar to 4

Mango

Melon (includes cantaloupe and water melon Papaya

Pineapple

cups water)

freeze.

Soursop (Guyabano)

Fully ripe, firm guyabano Sugar Kalamansi Ripe, firm strawberries For syrup pack: 40 50% cold syrup (40%: 3 1/3 cups of sugar to 4 cups water; 50%: 4 cups of sugar to 4 cups of water) For dry pack: 1/2 to sugar (per quart of fruit) Jackfruit, Papaya, Pineapple, Mango, Watermelon, Cantaloupe, and other desired fruits. 30% syrup: 2 cups sugar to 4 cups water.

Strawberry

Half guyabano and scoop with spoon. Mash the pulp, strain and remove seeds. Add 1 cup sugar to cup of kalamansi juice per quart of pulp. Mix very well until sugar is completely dissolved. Packed in rigid container. Leave 1/2 inch headspace. Seal, label and freeze. Wash strawberries very well. Drain, remove stems and hulls. They must be frozen whole, sliced or barely crushed. Pack in rigid container. For syrup pack, cover with cold 40-50% syrup, leave 1/2 inch headspace. For sugar pack, mix with sugar, stir to dissolve sugar completely. Seal, label and freeze.

Fruit Cocktail

Fruits may be cut or sliced into desired sizes and shapes. Pack in rigid container. Cover with syrup, leave 1/2 inch headspace for expansion. Serve while still little frosty. Do not serve when completely thawed

Table 10 Freezing of some vegetables


Vegetables Asparagus Procedure Wash very well. Cut about 2 inches long and remove the tender portion of the stalks. Tie loosely into bunches. Boil blanch small stalks for 2 minutes and large stalks for 4 minutes. Cool at once, drain and dry. Pack, seal label and freeze. Choose immature carrots. Wash very ell to get rid of dirt. Scrape the skin. Small carrots may be frozen whole while large ones may be cut into sticks or cubes, depending on intended use. Boil blanch whole carrots for 5 minutes and cut or sliced ones, for about 2 minutes. Cool at once, drain and dry. Pack, seal, label and freeze. Choose white, well formed heads. Wash very well. Cut stem close to the head and break into flowerettes about 1 inch across. Soak in salt solution (1/4 cup salt per quart of water) to remove insects. After 30 minutes, wash again to remove salt. Boil blanch for 3 minutes. Cool immediately, drain and dry. Pack, seal label and freeze. Remove husk and silk. Wash and boil blanch for 6-10 minutes depending on size of ears. Cool at once. Wipe dry. Pack in plastic bag or cellophane and freeze. Wash very well, sort according to size. Small ones may be frozen whole, while the larges ones should be cut into pieces, 1-2 inches long. Boil blanch in 3 minutes, while steam blanch for 4 minutes. Cool at ones. Drain very well and dry. Pack, seal label and freeze. Wash very well and remove stems. Sort according to size. Boil blanch in 3 minutes. Steam blanch for 4 minutes. Cool at once. Drain very well and

Carrot

Cauliflower

Corn, on the cob Green beans (Abitsuelas) Hyacinth beans (Bataw)

Leafy greens Okra

Lima beans (Patani) Squash Sweet pea pods (Sitsaro) Winged beans (Sigarilyas)

Yard-long beans (Sitao)

dry. Pack, seal, label and freeze. Wash very well and discard bruised leaves. Boil blanch for 2 minutes. Cool at once. Drain very well and dry. Pack loosely to prevent bruising of leaves. Seal, label and freeze. Choose young, tender pots. Remove the stems and sort according to size and cut into two if large. Boil blanch for 2 minutes or steam blanch for about 3 1/2 minutes. Cool at once. Drain very well and dry. Pack, seal label and freeze. Shell medium size beans. Boil blanch for 3-4 minutes according to size. Cool at once. Drain very well and dry. Pack, seal ;label and freeze. Wash very well. Pare and cut into cubes. Boil blanch for 3 minutes. Cool at once. Drain very well and dry. Pack, seal, label and freeze. Wash very well and remove seeds. Sort out according to size. Boil blanch for 1 minutes for small ones and 2 minutes for large ones. Cool at once. Drain very well and dry. Pack, seal, label and freeze. Choose young ones, wash very well and remove stems. Sort according to size. If to freeze whole, boil blanch for 2 1/2 minutes. It may also be cut 2 inches long, if diagonally cut, 1 cm thick. Boil blanch for 1 1/2 to 2 minutes. Cool at once. Drain very well and dry. Pack, seal, label and freeze. Choose tender and immature sitao. Wash very well and remove the ends. Cut into 2 inches long. Boil blanch for 3 minutes. Cool at once. Drain very well and dry. Pack, seal, label and freeze.

4.1Thawing of Fruits and Vegetables Fruits. The full flavor of the fruit will be retained if some measures should be followed. Frozen fruits which are served without cooking should not be removed from the container until time for serving. During thawing, the container should be returned over to keep the pieces covered with syrup. Some frozen fruits like strawberries and lanzones are better when served still in the partly-frozen stage. Frozen fruits which shall be used to cook pie fillings, jams, preserves and the like, must be thawed completely until pieces are separated. It is better to thaw inside the refrigerator than at room temperature. Vegetables. For better retention of color, flavor and food value, cook the frozen vegetables by dropping the directly into rapid bailing water while still in the frozen state. Try to separate the pieces during the first two minutes of cooking or, if possible, before dropping into boiling water. This is done so that pieces on the outside and inside of the frozen block be uniformly cooked. For certain vegetables like cauliflower, asparagus and other green leaves, this cannot be easily done without causing injury; so one hour thawing at room temperature is necessary. They are easily thawed when dropped in boiling water. The only exception is frozen corn-on the cob which must be completely thawed before cooking. If frozen vegetables are packed in boil-in-bags, cooking is simplier. Immersed into boiling water so that there is no direct contact of the vegetables with the water; thus the flavor of the vegetable is retained. Do not overcooked frozen vegetables. Blanching partially cooks the vegetables. The time to cook frozen vegetables is about half time to cook fresh ones. 5. Refrigeration of Fruits and Vegetables

Proper storage of fruits and vegetables may slow down changes in the quality of perishable foods. One way to retard or slow down all form of deterioration is storage in low temperature (slightly above freezing). The rate of deterioration follows the rule of chemical reactions that the higher the temperature, the faster the reaction rate. Since deterioration is not involved with just chemical changes, it is difficult to measure the rate of delay of deterioration for corresponding change in temperature. 5.1 Requirements of Food Refrigeration Temperature inside the refrigerator depends on the location of the storage compartment. The temperature is lowest at the top and highest at the bottom. Foods respond differently at different temperature levels. Some foods are preserved better when stored at a high temperature, while other foods are better kept at a low temperature. Fruits and vegetables are usually stored at about 50F. There are three important factors to proper refrigeration storage; 1. maintenance of a fairly constant temperature 2. free air circulation 3. control of the relative humidity of the refrigerator. Free air circulation is important to avoid dehydration of products. It is also needed to remove heat given off by the food and the heat that leaks through the walls of the refrigerator. The difference in vapor pressure of the refrigerator and that of the causes the removal of moisture from the unpacked food. Thus, control of the relative humidity inside the refrigerator is essential. Too much evaporation from the food will stop only when the air becomes saturated. High relative humidity will encourage mold growth. 5.2 Procedures for Refrigeration of Fruits and Vegetables Selection. Fruits and vegetables to be refrigerated should be at the stage when they are best eaten. Fruits should be mature and ripe. Unripe fruits will not ripen normally even when returned to warm temperature. It is also important to store good-quality fruits and vegetables that are fresh and free from bruises and blemishes, because they spoil easily and may contaminate the sound ones. Discard or eat at once bruised fruits and vegetables. Preparation. Wash fruits and vegetables and dry at immediately before storing. Never store wet fruits as moisture may lead to mold growth and spoilage. To keep fruits longer, pack them in perforated plastic bags. Remove the roots and tops of some vegetables like radishes and carrots for longer storage. Peas should not be removed from pods. Do not husk sweet corn to remain fresh longer. Wrap vegetables in perforated plastic bags or banana leaves to minimize wilting. Green leafy vegetables should be wrapped in moisture-proof plastic bags. Refrigeration and Storage Temperature. Some fruits are stored in ordinary refrigeration temperature, while others are better stored in a cool room than in the refrigerator. Some fruits if stored below 56F, suffer chilling injuries like flesh discoloration and skin pitting. High temperature and humidity cause sprouting and decay of some vegetables. Low temperature, 40F or below, results in the accumulation of sugar which gives potatoes an undesirables sweet taste and causes them to brown too much when fried. Some fruits and vegetables when refrigerated together in a common storage result to the cross-transfer of odors. For example, apples should not be stored with celery, cabbage, potato and onion. Celery and onion damage each foods quality. Citrus fruits take up most strong odors.

Table 11 Storage temperature of fruits with approximate storage life


Fruits Apple Banana Cherry Coconut Lemon Mango Papaya Pineapple (ripe) Strawberry Vegetables Cabbage Carrots Cauliflower Celery Cucumber Eggplant Garlic Leeks, green Lettuce Mushroom Okra Onions Peas, green Pepper, green Potato Spinach Sweet Potato Tomato Ripe Mature green Storage Temperature (F) 30 to 31 53 to 60 31 to 32 32 to 35 55 to 58 50 45 40 to 45 31 to 32 Storage Temperature (F) 32 32 32 31 to 32 45 to 50 45 to 50 32 32 32 32 50 32 32 45 40 32 55 to 60 40 to 50 55 to 70 Approximate Storage Life 1 to 2 weeks 1 to 3 weeks 10 to 14 weeks 1 to 2 weeks 1 to 4 months 15 to 20 days 15 to 20 days 2 to 4 weeks 7 to 10 days Approximate Storage Life 3 to 4 months 10 to 14 days 2 to 3 weeks 2 to 4 months 10 to 14 days 10 days 6 tp 8 months 1 to 3 months 2 to 3 weeks 5 days 2 weeks 6 to 8 months 11 to 2 weeks 8 to 10 days 6 to 9 months 10 to 14 days 4 to 6 months 7 to 10 days 3 to 5 weeks

Table12 Storage temperature of vegetable with approximate storage life

FERMENTATION AND PICKLING Fermentation is a process by which carbohydrates are oxidized by anaerobic or partially anaerobic microorganisms, such as yeast. Fermentation takes place when the fruits/vegetables are made into other products such as wine making or vinegar out of sugar cane. Vegetables can be fermented such as burong gulay. Fermentation can produce new desired flavors and physical characteristics and aid in the preservation of food. Pickling is the preservation of food in vinegar or brine solution with flavoring. Fermented and pickled vegetables need to be protected from molds which act on the acids and allow other microorganisms to set in. Cold storage is advised for fermented and pickled vegetables.

What Causes Fermentation:


Fermentation occurs when microorganisms which are naturally present in vegetables and fruits decompose and change the form and texture of such foods. These microorganisms aerobic are always active, and when controlled results to desirable and useful products; but when uncontrolled, ends up in spoilage or putrefaction. Putrefaction is the anaerobic or partially anaerobic oxidation of carbohydrates. It is destructive process and accompanied by undesirable odor. Generally, fruits and vegetables are considered acidic because they have pH values of 4.5 down to 3.0 while vegetables are next with 6.5 down to 4.5. Those within the pH values 2.0 to 4.4 are classified as high-acid fruits, between 4.5 and 6.0 are classified as medium-acid fruits, and 6.2 to 6.8 are classified as low-acid fruits. pH Values of Common Philippine Fruits: High-acid fruits 2.0 2.2 2.3 3.0 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Lime juice Tamarind pulp ripe Tamarind pulp unripe Mango (green),Passion fruit juice, Lanzones (ripe) Santol and Spanish plum (unipe) Santol (ripe), Mango (kalabaw rare ripe) Mango (piko variety rare ripe) Spanish and Black plum (ripe), Pineapple (ripe) Native orange juice, Pineapple pulp and Lanzone (unripe), Pomelo (ripe) Pomelo (unripe) Soursop, Guava and Pomegranate (ripe)

Medium-acid fruits

4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.8

Low-acid fruits

Black plum (unripe) Anonas pulp and Tomato (ripe) Tomato and Pomegranate (unripe), Banana (saba) Aztec kwamochile and Jackfruit (ripe) Aztec kwamochile and Soursop (unripe), Banana (lacatan) Watermelon and Mango (piko) ripe Papaya and Sugar apple (ripe), Watermelon (unripe) Jackfruit (unripe) Star apple violet (unripe), Chico (ripe) Star apple and Chico (unripe), Star apple violet and Papaya (ripe) Canistel tiese (ripe) Canistel tiese and Papaya unripe) Avocado (ripe), Chico mamei (unripe) Cantaloupe pulp(ripe) Avocado (unripe) Squash (ripe) Squash (unripe), Sugar apple Chico mamei (ripe) Bread fruit (unripe)

Three Types of Fermentation: 1. Alcoholic fermentation This is the decomposition of simple sugar into alcohol and carbon
dioxide by means of enzymes and yeasts. Fruit juices are fermented directly into wine by alcohol-producing yeasts. 1.1 Process Involved in Wine Making: Selection and preparation of fruit. Any fruit containing sufficient sugar may be used for wine making. If sugar is lacking in the fruit, cane sugar may be added. The flavor which the wine acquires depend largely on the kind of fruit used. Fruits should be ripe and free from bruises and diseases. They be gathered at the stage of maturity. Wash the fruit very well and peel if necessary. Preparation and pasteurization of juice. Fruits are crushed or smashed to extract the juice. A press is recommended to do this but hand crushing and straining through a piece of a strong cheesecloth will do. Dilute the extracted juice with two parts of water, adding sugar if necessary, to increase the amount of fermentation material. The sweetened juice is then pasteurized to kill microorganisms which may cause spoilage. Cool the mixture. Fermentation. Add a small amount of bakery yeasts or commercial yeast preparation to the mixture. Place the whole mixture in an open glass or enameled container covered with a piece of cloth or fine mesh. Fermentation takes place within 48 hours after preparation. You can notice the froth produced by the prepared mixture. Storing and aging. When the fermentation is under way, transfer the mixture to a suitable wood barrel (preferably oak) or in a demijohn or other similar containers. Plug hole with cotton and keep the preparation undisturbed,

preferably in the dark, quiet place for about three months or until no more gas is evolved. Clearing of wine. Heat the aged wine in a steam bath to a temperature of 50C to 60C. Add 5 % of well beaten egg-white (5 cubic centimeter of egg-white to one liter of wine). Stir to maintain the temperature for 15 to 20 minutes and cool. Siphon and filter. Pasteurization. Filter the mixture, throw out residues and pasteurize at 80C for 20 minutes to kill microorganisms. Bottling. Bottle the aged and clear wine. Bottles must be clear and sterile as possible.

Some Tropical Fruits Made into Wine Banana Wine Ingredients 1 part of peeled banana, cut into pieces (lakatan or saba) 1 1/2 parts of water 1/2 cup sugar Fleishmanns yeast Procedure 1. Wash bananas, peel and cut into pieces. Add water and boil for about 5 minutes. 2. Allow to stand until the following day. 3. Strain. Add sugar and heat. 4. Place in clean glass container or demijohn and add 1 tablespoon yeast for every 20 25 liters of boiled sweetened juice. 5. Plug mouth of demijohn with a clean piece of cloth. 6. Allow to stand until fermentation is completed about 2 3 weeks. 7. Siphon out the clean fermented liquid, filter and transfer to a sterile oak barrel for aging. Cover the hole with a wooden plug and seal with melted paraffin. 8. After aging for at least two years, clarify the wine by heating to about 60C with egg-white (1 egg-white for every 25 liters of wine) for about 30 minutes. 9. Allow to cool. The transfer to containers which must be completely filled to prevent the wine from turning sour. Wine should be siphoned and filtered into clean and sterilized bottles. Keep in cool, dark, quiet place where bottles are undisturbed.

Guava Wine Ingredients

Guava, water, sugar and yeast Procedure 1. Select ripe and sound fruit. Cut into four pieces. 2. Add two parts of water to one part of fruits. Boil until the fruits are soft. Strain and measure the content. 3. To every three parts of extract, add one part of sugar. Stir and measure the extract. Cool 4. To every 15 to 20 liters, add on tablespoon yeast. 5. Place in a demijohn to ferment. This will take 2 weeks or longer. 6. When the fermentation is completed, transfer into wine barrels and aged for at least one year. Pineapple Wine Ingredients 4 cups fresh pineapple juice 1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon dry yeast 5% egg white Procedure 1. Extract juice of pineapple and measure 2. Add one cup of sugar to every four cups of juice. Stir very well and heat to 60C. 3. Cool to lukewarm and add one tablespoon of yeast for every 15 to 20 liters of the juice mixture. Loosely stopper the mouth of the container with cotton. Let it ferment for two or more weeks, until fermentation stops. 4. After fermentation. Heat to 50C. Then set aside for a month. Pour the clear liquid into wine barrel and age for at least one year or more.

Coco Wine Ingredients Coconut water, sugar, yeast, 5% egg-white Procedure 1. Strain coconut water and measure.

2. To every five parts of coconut water, add 1 1/2 parts of first class sugar. Boil the sweetened coconut water. 3. Place in a stoppered container (with cotton plug) and allow to cool. 4. Add one tablespoon of yeast to every 15 to 20 liters of sweetened juice for fermentation. 5. When fermentation is over, pour the clear wine and heat to 50C to kill undesirable organisms. 6. Age in oak barrels for at least two years. After aging, clarify with eggwhite. Filter and bottle.

Santol Wine Ingredients 1 part ripe santol 1 1/2 parts water 1/2 part sugar Fleischmanns yeast or Red star yeast Procedure 1. Peel santol fruit, cut into halves and remove seeds. 2. Chop fruit and measure. 3. Add 1 1/2 part of water to every part of santol pulp. Boil until the fruit is soft. 4. Cool and strain. 5. To the extract, add sugar(1/2 part to every part extract). 6. Cool and place in glass containers. 7. Add one tablespoon yeast for every 30 liters of the extract. 8. Allow to ferment for a month. 9. Decant the clear liquid into wine barrels and age for 2 years. 10. Clarify the wine with the use of egg whites (8eggwhites for every 30 liters of wine). Proceed as in the clarification of banana wine. Siphon into sterilized demijohns. Filter wine and bottle by siphoning into clear and sterilized bottles.

2. Acetic acid fermentation Acetous fermentation follows the normal alcoholic fermentation
and brought about by aceto bacter or vinegar bacteria. It is a process of double fermentation. Vinegar made from fruit juices, molasses and other saccharine liquids. Vinegar Manufacture Vinegar is made from sugary and starchy materials by alcoholic and acetic fermentation 2.1 Procedure in Vinegar Making: 1. Fermentation Two fermentation processes are involved

a. Alcoholic fermentation the sugar present in the raw material is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the action of yeast. This occurs in two stages (i) preliminary or violent fermentation and takes from three to six days and most of the sugar is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. At this stage, foreign organisms cannot live and grow in the ferment liquid. (ii) secondary fermentation is slower and takes two to three weeks. At this stage contamination with some bacteria is possible. If the product become sluggish, aerate the fermenting liquid to invigorate the yeast and maintain the temperature of the liquid at 24C to 29C. b. Acetic fermentation alcohol is converted into acetic acid by the action of vinegar bacteria Methods of Acetification: b.1 Slow process use in the preparation of wine to vinegar where liquid is converted into vinegar after about three months. It is also called Orleans process used in the preparation of wine to vinegar. Fresh unpasteurized vinegar is added to the fermenting liquid and the mixture is placed in barrels about 3/4 full. Bore holes a few inches above the surface of the liquid. The liquid will be converted into vinegar after three months. b.2 Quick process the rate of acetification is proportional to the amount of oxygen in contact with the reacting components. In this method, a cylindrical and upright tank or generator is used, to be filled with materials (corn cob, rattan, bamboo shavings) which will enable the vinegar to percolate and the vinegar bacteria tom develop. The generator tank is about 10 to 14 ft. in height, 48 to 60 inches in diameter and has three compartments into which the fermented liquid flows. The middle or central compartment contains the shavings and the third and bottom is the receiving chamber for the acetified liquid. 2. Aging. To get rid of harsh flavor, odor and color which usually characterize newly made vinegar, especially prepared by the quick process, place vinegar in well-fitted tanks or barrels. Let them stay for six months to one year. After this time the vinegar develop agreeable flavor, odor and color. 3. Filtering or Fining. Vinegar is filtered to attain an attractive and brilliantly clear appearance. Casein, gelatin, isinglass and high-grade bentonite clay are the common fining materials used for this purpose. Another method is by making use of a filter press which consists of plates and frames corrosion resistant aluminum bronze. Before passing the vinegar through the filter press, add a small amount of filter aid like decalite or Hyflo Super-Cel. 4. Pasteurization and Bottling. Vinegar bacteria may grow even after filteration, resulting in the cloudy appearance of the vinegar. Prevent this by heating the filtered vinegar to 60C for a few minutes. Pour into bottles while hot. to pasteurize bottled vinegar, heat the filled bottles in a water bath canner until the contents of the bottles reach 60C.

3. Lactic acid fermentation Brine or salt is added to fruits and vegetables which are
preserved by lactic acid fermentation to inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and to improve flavor and texture of the product. Salt allows the growth of lactobacilli and similar bacteria which ferment the sugar present in lactic acid. Lactic cid and salt

preserve the product in the absence of air. A salt concentration from 40 to 50 salometer is used to hold cucumbers until they can be made into sweet pickles, relish and other products.

PICKLING
It is a method of processing food in brine or in vinegar with or without bacterial fermentation. The lactic acid formed by fermentation and pickling act as preservative. Vinegar and salt may be used separately or in combination depending on the kind of pickle preferred. Pickles are combination of fruits and vegetables preserved in vinegar with or without spices. They may or may not undergo a preliminary fermentation in brine before being combined with a pickling solution. They are immersed in brine solution to promote the growth of lactic acid bacteria, the predominant microorganisms involved in fermentation. These organisms occur in vegetables and grow in 5 15% salt solution. Salt extracts from the juice from the shredded vegetables and controls the growth of putrefactive and other spoilage bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria utilize the sugar that diffuses from vegetables to form lactic acid. Since fruit and vegetables contain varying amounts of sugar, the fermentation process results in varying amount of lactic acid. For the home, where the use of low salt concentration is desirable, the fermented state of the vegetables is attached within two weeks. For large quantities of vegetables, the practice is to use an increasing concentration of salt up to 15%. Preservation With Vinegar- When the preservative used is vinegar, the acetic acid content of the pickles and liquid must be high, above 2% of acetic acid. This is to prevent or stop the growth of bacteria other than vinegar bacteria. Vegetables should be stored before pickling 10% of strong vinegar if to be preserved in vinegar alone. Salting Without Fermentation- The vegetables should be soaked first in strong brine or salt solution for a number of weeks for better absorption of vinegar. If they are made into vinegar pickles, they should be removed from brine and soaked in hot water until excess salt from their tissues is removed. They are then stored in plain or spiced or sweetened and spiced vinegar. If sweet pickles are preferred store the vegetables in unsweetened vinegar for several weeks to reduce shriveling when finally stored in the sweetened vinegar. Table 13 Brine chart
Salometer Reading 20 40 60 80 100 Percent salt 5.3 10.6 15.9 21.2 26.5 Salt per Qrt of Water (G) (Oz) 60 2 120 4 180 240 300 6 8 10 Uses and Character of Brine Dill pickles only Pickles and most pickled vegetables(Floats egg to surface) Checks fermentation Stops fermentation Saturated solution

Kimchi Ingredients 1/2 kilo Cabbage (Pechay Baguio) 2 cups cold water 3 cloves chopped fine garlic 1/4 finely chopped ginger 1/2 cup rock salt 1/2 teaspoon dried chill powder or drop fresh chilli peppers 1 teaspoon sugar 6 stalks green onion finely chopped wide mouth jar

Procedure Cut head of cabbage diagonally into 2 inch size. Sprinkle the salt liberally on the surface and let stand for 12 24 hours. Rinse and desalt the vegetables with cold water and drain. Mix the rest of the ingredients thoroughly. Be sure all soluble ingredients are dissolved. Pack in glass jars with airtight cover, pressing it firmly. Ferment for 24 hours at room temperature. Store in a refrigerator.

Pickled Cucumber. Various fruits and vegetables may be pickled, but cucumber is the most
common fruit. Cucumber may be unfermented or partially or fully fermented. Pickles are usually pasteurized to improve their keeping quality. Three main kinds of pickles: 1. Dill Pickles a. Fermented dill pickles b. Unfermented dill pickles c. Dill pickles made from salt stock 2. Sour Pickles prepared from Fermented Salt Stock a.. Sour pickles b. Plain sour pickles c. Sliced or hot sour pickles d. Mixed sour pickles 1.Mixed unspiced 2. Spiced or hot mixed pickles 3. Mixed chutney-consists of chopped, freshened salt stock, cauliflower and silver skin onions and seasoned with lemon peel and sliced onions, coriander and celery seed, Japanese chills, oils of cassia and cloves, and covered with vinegar. e. Relish, chow chow. etc. 1. Chow chow has the same base as chutney but is covered with a chow sauce made from yellow and brown mustard seed, turmeric, garlic, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, cayenne, black and white pepper, and vinegar. 2. Relish. 3. Sweet Pickles

a. Plain sweet pickles- prepared from freshened salt stock, vinegar, sugar and spices. The sugar content is 12 22%. 1. Standard sweet pickles 2. Midget sweet pickles 3. Burgherkins 4. Slices, chips, or wafers sliced transversely to give thin dices. 5. Candied chips containing 44 55% sugar and suitable spice oils. 6. Sweet dill pickles-similar to candied chips but sliced longitudinally and made from genuine dills or dill flavors added. 7. Bread and butter or country-style pickles- made from fresh cucumber and onions, washed, sliced intop chips, soaked for 12 hours in 25 salinometer brine. Packed in jars, covered with heavy syrup of 60% sugar containing 5% vinegar, and pasteurized. 8. Peeled pickles- peels of large salt stock freshened and processed as for plain sweet pickles. b. Mix sweet pickles 1. Plain mixed sweet pickles are prepared from brined onions and cauliflower and salt stock after freshening. Sugar content is about 20%. 2. Mustard pickles or sweet chow are similar to chow chow but contain 20% sugar. 3. Jamaica pickles consist of preserved ginger, cut cauliflower, pickles, onions, raisins, lemon, orange, and citron peel, brown sugar, and vinegar covered with a special cooked sauce. c. Relish or chopped sweet pickles 1. Plain relish- contains chopped freshened salt stock, green tomatoes, cauliflower, red peppers, and onion in a 20% syrup. 2. Spread relish-similar to plain relish but consisting of half mayonnaise and half vegetables. a. India relish-contains the ingredients of relish and also red bell pepper. b. Piccadilli-sliced green tomatoes, onions, and sweet pickles covered with a spiced sweet vinegar. c. Fruit relish- plain relish component with citron, orange, lemon peels and sugar. d. Mexican relish. e. Vegetable relish- contains ordinary relish ingredients plus ground fresh cabbage, mustard, and celery seeds, spices, and sugar to finish at 25% sugar and 1.5% acetic acid. Cucumber Relish Ingredients 1/2 kilo chopped cucumbers 1/4 cup chopped onions 1 cup chopped sweet red pepper 1/2 cup chopped sweet green pepper 2 cups vinegar 1/2 to 1 cup sugar 2 teaspoons salt

1 teaspoon each of mustard seed, broken cloves, broken cinnamon stick and all spice (powdered) Procedure Prepare the vegetables. Remove skin from onions, core and seed pepper. Place prepared vegetables in chopping bowl and chop into desired size or put through medium-sized cutter of the food chopper .Mix the vegetables and cover with brine made by mixing 1/4 cup of salt with 4 cups of water. Allow to stand for 3 4 hours. Tie the spices, except mustard seed, loosely in a thin muslin bag and simmer in the vinegar in a double boiler for 20 minutes. Restore the vinegar to original volume by adding water. Allow to stand until vegetables are ready to go into this pickle solution. Drain off the brine from the vegetables. Press lightly to expel all free brine and p[lace the vegetable in clear water for 1 2 hours. Drain off all the water and pour over the vegetables, the pickle solution to which has been added the salt, sugar, mustard seed and spices. Allow to stand for 24 hours. Drain off the pickle solution and pack vegetables into clean sterile jars to form a medium pack. Concentrate the pickle solution to approximately 1 cup for each pint jar of vegetables. Pour the hot pickle solution over the packed vegetables. Adjust the covers and process in the water bath at boiling temperature, the pint jars for 5 minutes, the quart jars for 8 minutes. Seal, cool, label date and store. Brined Cucumber (Salt Stock) Ingredients 1 kilo fresh, immature, whole medium sized cucumber about 10 cm (4 inc) length, cut into 1/2 wheel 3 cups salt 8 cups warm water Procedure Wash thoroughly 4 quart jar with hot, soapy water, rinse and dry. Wash cucumber, whole weigh them, and pack into containers. Make the brine by dissolving 3/4 cup salt per quart of warm water. Allow to cool. Cover the cucumber with brine. Let stand covered, weighing the cucumber down with a polyethylene bag of water securely tied. Cover the jar with wax paper or muslin square and secure with a rubber band. Add cup salt to every 3 cups of cucumber the following day so as to maintain the strength of the brine. Continue adding1/2 cup of salt daily for 3 days. As the pickles ferment, a scum will form on the surface of the brine. This scum should be skimmed off as it forms. Note the end of fermentation. The product is known as salt stock and may be used for sour, sweet sour, or mixed pickles, relishes, or other products after proper desalting.

Sweet Cucumber Pickles Ingredients 4 cups vinegar, 4% acetic acid 4 cups sugar (use only 3 cups of sugar if sour pickle is desired) 2 tablespoons whole allspice or 1 tablespoon ground allspice 3 tablespoons white or yellow mustard seeds 3 tablespoons celery seeds 71/2 cm (3 in.) cinnamon stick

Procedure Prepare the amount of pickling solution necessary (approximately one-half the volume of the vegetable salt stock) Place the vinegar in a saucepan. Add the sugar ( 1/2 cup per 4 cups of vinegar). Tie the spices in a cheesecloth bag and add this to the vinegar in the pan. Heat to boil and add to the freshened salt stock to which 1/4 teaspoon of alum has been added. Put the spice bag in the pickle solution. Allow to stand for 2 3 days. When the cucumber have been plump, drain off the pickle solution, add 1/2 cup sugar, heat to boiling, pour over the cucumber while the syrup is still boiling hot. Do not boil the cucumber in the pickling solution. Repeat this operation until pickles are as sweet as desired. Remove the spice bag as soon as the pickle solution is spiced to taste. Pack the finished pickles loosely into clean jars. Add the pickle solution, approximately 3/4 cup for each pint jar. Pour hot solution over packed pickles to fill the jars to within 1/4 in. of the top. Remove trapped air by inserting a knife against the side of the jar and add more pickling solution to completely immerse the pickled cucumbers. Adjust the covers and process in water bath for 8 10 minutes at 82C (180F).

Sour Cucumber Pickles Ingredients 1 kilo whole cucumber (fresh or fermented) about 10 cm (4 in) long For each kilo, use pickling solution of: 2 1/2 cups vinegar 1/2 cup sugar 2 tablespoons celery seeds 2 teaspoons whole cloves 2 teaspoons mustard seeds 2 teaspoons pepper corns Procedure Make an infusion of the vinegar, sugar, and spices all tied in a bag by heating in double boiler for 5 minutes. Remove the spice bag from the double boiler before putting the boiling syrup over the cucumber. Drain off the syrup on the second day and heat to full boil. Pack cucumber into hot sterilized jars and cover with boiling-hot syrup. Remove trapped air bubbles with a knife. Seal immediately. Cool, label, date and store.

Bread and Butter Pickles (24-Hour cure) Ingredients 1 kilo onion or 6 cucumber each about 10 cm long 3 onion, 2 cm diam. 3/4 cup salt 4 cups water 1 cup vinegar, 4% acetic acid 1 cup sugar

1 teaspoon celery seed 1 teaspoon mustard seed 3/4 teaspoon turmeric, 1 cm long 1/2 teaspoon ginger powder or fresh (1 cm long sliced) 1/4 teaspoon pepper Procedure Wash cucumber and peel onion. Slice cucumber and onion thinly and let stand in brine solution (3/4 cup salt per quart. water) for at least 5 hours. Drain and rinse under cold water. Combine vinegar, sugar, and spices and bring to a boil. Add cucumber and onion and stir over low heat for 2 minutes. Place in hot sterile jar and seal. Cool, label, date and store.

Burong Mangga Ingredients 1 kilo Mango unripe 1/4 cup salt 1 quart water Procedure Choose fresh green mangoes. Wash very well. Pare and slice. Pack in a wide-mouthed jar. Prepare 5% brine or 1/4 cup salt per quart of warm water. Cool, strain and pour over packed mango. To weigh mangoes down, use inverted saucer or plate over wax paper or cheesecloth. Ferment for two days.

Burong Mustasa Ingredients 1 kilo fresh-green mustasa leaves

1/2 cup salt 1 liter rice washing Procedure


Wash leaves very well. Cut off roots. Sprinkle with salt to wilt leaves Boil the rice wash with salt and cool. Put the leaves in a jar and add the rice washing. Weight down the leaves so that they are thoroughly submerged. Ferment for two to three days.

Pickled onion

Ingredients 1/2 kilo white onion 1 cm (1/2 inch diam.) 1/4 cup salt 1 pint boiled water 1 pint vinegar ( 4-5% acetic acid) 1 pint sugar 2 tablespoon allspice Procedure Wash and peel onions, then thoroughly rinse in tap water. Pack into a clean sterile jar. Pour cooked brine. Put a plastic sheet on top of the onions and keep these below the surface of the brine by weighing them down with a plastic bag of water tied securely. To keep out dust and insects, cover jar with 2 thickness of wax paper secured with rubber band. Allow to ferment until translucent and develop lactic acid smell. Drain onions from acid vinegar, sugar and allspice. Add onions and heat vinegar just to boiling point. Pack in sterile jars Shake the bottles or work the blade of a knife down the sides of the jar. Leave 1/2 cm headspace. Seal immediately, cool, label date and store.

SUGAR CONCENTRATES
These are foods that are cooked and preserved in sugar; they are made from fruits and vegetables using sugar as a preservative. Basically, these products are much alike since all of them are preserved with sugar and are jellied to some extent. Their individual characteristics depend on the kind of fruit or vegetable used and the way it is prepared, the proportions of the different ingredients in the mixture sand the method of cooking. Different Forms of Sugar Concentrates : 1. Jelly prepared by boiling the fruit with small amount of water, straining the juice, adding sugar and concentrating to such consistency that gelatinization takes place upon cooling. A perfect jelly is clear, transparent and has an attractive color. It is semi-solid food which retains its form, quivers and does not flow when removed from the container or mold. It should not be syrupy, sticky, or gummy and should retain the flavor and aroma of the original fruit. Its texture is so tender that it cuts easily with spoon and yet so firm that a sharp edge and smooth, sparkling cut remains. Ingredients in Jelly making: A. Fruit should have full flavor and have sufficient pectin and acid

B. Pectin causes jelly to set, gives continuity to the jelly structure and capable of
forming a gel when sugar and acid are in the right proportions. Three ways of Finding Pectin content: i. Cooking test - get a small portion of the juice boiled with sugar will gel if it is rich in pectin ii. Alcohol test for every 1 T fruit juice add 2 T 95% denatured wood alcohol: if it has transparent jelly-like lump the fruit juice is rich in pectin ;if the jelly-like clot is broken into two or more lumps and not very firm, it has moderate pectin; if the clot is broken into numerous small pieces and cloudy, it has very little pectin.

iii.Jelmeter test an instrument similar to graduated pipette marked to indicate the amount of sugar to be added to juice; if the juice is viscous the juice is rich in pectin but if it runs down the tube of a jelmeter more slowly than the juice with little pectin and fruit juice that runs down below the one-half (1/2) mark of the jelmeter has a low pectin content. Testing for pectin content-Mix one tablespoon of juice with two tablespoons of denatured alcohol. Observe the following: high pectin content: gives a firm, jelly-like clot moderate pectin content : gives a soft jelly-like clot and usually breaks into two or three lumps poor pectin content : juice looks cloudy or forms clot which breaks into several pieces

Table 14 Pectin content of some Philippine fruits


Local Name Anonas Bayabas, green Bayabas, pula Kamatis Granada Part Used Pulp ripe Peeling, ripe Pulp unripe Whole fruit ripe Whole fruit unripe Whole fruit ripe Whole fruit unripe Whole fruit ripe Whole fruit unripe Pulp ripe Seeds ripe Pulp unripe Seeds unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Peeling ripe Pulp unripe Peeling unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Total Pectin (Calcium Pectate on fresh basis) 2.14 2.10 2.03 1.41 1.92 1.52 1.18 0.21 0.72 2.95 1.89 3.08 1.60 2.14 1.77 1.15 4.72 1.75 5.31 1.95 3.32 3.06 3.34 1.87 3.96 1.11 0.88 1.49 2.03 0.49 0.48

Guyabano Lokwat

Papaya Pili pulp Rimas Saging bungulan Saging butuan Saging gloria

Saging lakatan Saging latundan Saging morado Saging saba Saging ternate Santol Siniguelas

Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp ripe Pulp unripe Pulp and skin ripe

2.08 1.78 1.05 2.97 1.30 1.42 1.72 1.58 0.93 0.95 2.63 2.50 2.52

C. Acid this will make jelly firm and rigid in structure and ess ential flavor and in gel
formation. Gel formation occurs from pH 2.5 to pH 3.4 (pH level of acidity and alkalinity). The ideal pH value for successful gel formation is pH 3.2 Values above 3.5 do not permit gel formation while values below 2.5 result to weak and slack jelly. To test the acidity of the fruit: Mix one tablespoon of kalamansi juice and eight tablespoon or onehalf cup water. The fruit juice has a high acid content if its taste is as sour as the solution of kalamansi and water. When fruit juices lack acid, their jellying may be improved by adding acid in the form of kalamansi or lemon juice or commercial citric or tartaric acid. If the juice has too high acid content, combine with juices low acidity to a proportion that the combined juices taste as sour as the standard acid solution.

D. Sugar- is the precipitating agent of pectin causing it to form the network of jelly;
it controls the rigidity or strength of the jelly and adds flavor to the product while acting as a preservative. The amount of sugar to be added depends upon the acid and pectin content of the juice. The more acid is in the solution, the less sugar is required. The higher the pectin content, the more sugar can be added. For better results, 3/5 to 3/4 cup of sugar is recommended. Less than this would give a lower jelly strength. Add sugar to the juice before boiling. Test for Jellying Point: 1. Bubble Formation. Large bubbles that tend to jump out of the pan are formed rather than the uniformly small bubbles 2. Cold plate test: a. with water b. with out water 3. Spoon, sheet or flake test 4. Temperature test. Get the temperature of the juice before boiling. the jelly will set when the juice is heated to 8 to 10F higher than the boiling point of water, usually 119.5 to 222F depending on the desired consistency.

How to Make Jelly 1. Selecting the fruit. A mixture of slightly underripe and ripe fruits is best for jelly, making, because they are rich in acid and pectin content. If overripe fruits are used, the pectin changes into pectic acid and pectic acid will not form into jelly. Too green fruits, will not have enough flavor. 2. Preparing the fruit Wash the fruit very well in several changes of cold water. Crush soft fruits and grind or chop hard ones to increase the area for pectin extraction. Place the fruit in a large kettle. Cover barely with water to prevent scorching. The amount of water to be used depends on the kind of fruit. Juicy or watery fruits require less water (about one-half cup per kilo of fruit). Add acid to fruits low in acid content before juice is extracted. 3. Boiling the fruit Boil the fruit slowly for maximum extraction of juice and pectin. The length of boiling time depends on the variety and texture of the fruit. Soft fruits may be tender after boiling for two to three minutes while firmer fruits will require longer boiling. Do not over boil or over cook because long boiling reduces the jellying strength of the pectin and gives cloudy juice which is very difficult to filter. 4. Extracting the juice. Transfer the cooked pulp and juice into a damp jelly bag and allow the juice to drain completely. The clearest jelly comes from the fruit that has dripped through a jelly bag without pressing. However, more juice can be obtained if the bag of juice is twisted and pressed a little to squeeze the juice, but not the pulp. Re-strain pressed juices through a double thickness of damp cheesecloth without squeezing. Fruits rich in pectin are usually extracted twice. Return pulp into the kettle in which it was previously boiled. Add water and boil. Drain. Mix the first and second extractions. 5. Adding sugar measure the juice in a pan and boil before adding sugar. The amount of sugar depends on the pectin content of the juice. Add one cup sugar if the juice is rich in pectin. For moderate amount of pectin add 3/4 cup sugar per cup of fruit. For pale juices, add sugar when the juice is cold to preserve the color, since the longer the juice and the sugar are heated together, the deeper or brighter the color of the product. 6. Cooking the jelly Better quality jelly is obtained when small quantities are cooked. Jelly cooked in big batches or quantities require longer boiling which is harmful to flavor and color. Cook no more than two cups especially if it is your first time to cook. Boil, uncover as fast as possible without stirring until setting or jellying end point is reached. 7. Finishing the jelly Remove the pan from the heat as soon as jellying point is reached. Skin off the scum quickly either by drawing a piece of clean kitchen paper with torn edges across the surface of the jelly, or better still by straining the jelly through two thicknesses of sinamay cloth. Pour at once into warm jelly jars leaving one-half inch allowance from the top. This is done to prevent the jelly from setting in the pans and from spoiling the consistency. Set aside to cool undisturbed to allow proper gel formation. Before the jelly cools completely, pour melted paraffin 1/8 inch thick or cover the surface with wax tissue. If air bubbles appear in the paraffin, prick them to ensure a good seal. Table 15 Problems in jelly making
Condition Jelly is cloudy Causes 1. Fruit used was too green 2. Fruit may have been Prevention 1. Fruit should be firm, ripe 2. Fruit should be cooked

Jelly is low in fruit flavor

cooked too long before staining 3. Juice may have been Squeezed. 4. Jelly was poured into jar too slowly. 5. Jelly mixture was allowed to stand before it was poured into the jars. 1. Fruit used had little flavor 2. Jelly was stored too long 3. Storage area was too warm

only until tender. 3. Let juice drip only through cotton flannel bag. Do not squeeze. 4. Work quickly. 5. Immediately upon reaching jellying point, pour into jars and seal 1. Use full flavored fruit; tree ripened is the best. 2. Jelly should not be stored over a year 3. Storage area should be cool, dark and dry. 1. Too short cooking period result in sugar not dissolve completely and not mixed thoroughly with the juice 2 Cook a little longer. 3. Long slow cooking results in too much evaporation of water content of the fruit. 1. Use fruit that is riper. 2. Cook just enough 3. When pectin is not added, cup of sugar per 1 cup of juice is the right amount for most fruits. When measuring cups, level off sugar with straight edge of a knife. Use vacuum sealing next time. Test for seal before storing jelly. Test for seal before storing

Jelly contains glasslike particles

1. Too much sugar was used.

2. The mixture have been cooked too little. 3. The mixture have been cooked too slowly or too long Jelly is tough or stiff 1.Too much pectin in fruit. 2. Jelly was over cooked 3. Too little sugar, the mixture had to be cooked too long to reach jellying stage

Jelly molds Spoilage evident Jelly ferments Spoilage evident

Jar was not sealed properly allowing mold to grow on surface of jelly. Yeasts grow on jelly when seal is not airtight causing the jelly to break through paraffin and to weep

2. Jams- This is made from crushed fruit prepared by boiling the whole fruit pulp with sugar to a moderately thick consistency. It may either be smooth or uniform in consistency or it may contain pieces of fruit. The fruits in jam do not retain their shapes. How to Make Jam 1. Selecting the fruit. Fruits should be matured fresh and firm. Trim the fruits to remove the hard and diseased portion. Wash in running water. Cut into desired pieces uniformly so that cooking is even 2. Preparing, boiling and extracting pectin from the fruit. Simmer the fruit with enough water to break the cell walls to extract pectin. Add sugar and boil until

fruit is soft. 3. Testing the acidity. Add acid (citric acid or tartaric acid) if the fruit is not sour enough. 4. Testing the pectin. Use the same test as in jelly making. 5. Adding the required amount of sugar. Add sugar when the skin of the fruits are completely softened; otherwise the fruits become hard if sugar is added early. 6. Cooking the jam. After sugar has been added, boil rapidly until the jam starts to set in. The secret is cook slowly before adding sugar and rapidly afterwards. 7. Testing the setting point. This is the point when sugar concentration reaches 60 percent. The same test of setting jellying point of jelly making. If boiling is not complete, that is when fruits are not cooked, fermentation may destroy the jam. The jam becomes watery after a few weeks. If over cooked, the sugar crystallizes and sugar lumps are formed. 8. Finishing the jam. When the jam reaches the setting point remove the scum by scooping it with clean wooden spoon. Quickly pour the jam into sterile jars and bottle. Fill up to the top to allow shrinkage. if the fruit are cooked in whole pieces, allow the jam to cool first in the kettle until a thin skin or coating begins to form on top. This is to prevent the fruit from rising to the top part of the bottle. Then stir the jam gently and pour into the jar. Gently press a piece of waxed tissues on the surface of the jam in each bottle or cover with a layer of paraffin. Seal tightly. Wipe each jar with clean cloth. Store in dark, cool, dry place. Table 16 Problems in jam making
Condition Slack jam Syneresis (weeping or bleeding) Crystallization Hard or sunken fruit (happens also marmalade) Mold and yeast growth Cause Prolonged boiling, too much acid, too little acid and pectin, presence of mineral salt in fruit, too much sugar Too long boiling time, insufficient cooling after filling, use of discolored pulp, excessive use of buffers, contamination with metals, biological causes and mechanical injury. Too much acid, too little acid, prolonged boiling, too much cream of tartar, too long standing in pan after cooking, Very hard water used in pre-cooking fruit peel, boiling of fruit or peel in heavy syrup with sufficient precooking. Excessive humidity of jam storage, contamination prior to sealing of jars and bottles, low-soluble solid content of the product., the danger line is 65%, slack jam.

in

Pineapple Jam Ingredients 1 cup sugar per cup of fruit pulp pineapple pulp

Procedure Use regular-sized pineapple. Peel the fruit and remove the eyes. Wash very well and grate with papaya grater or cut into small pieces and chop finely. To every cup of chopped or grated pulp, add one cup sugar. Boil until thick. While hot, pour into sterile jars and seal tightly.

Mango jam Ingredients 3/4 cup sugar per 1 cup fruit pulp 1 tablespoon kalamansi juice 2 tablespoon glucose (optional) Procedure Choose fully ripe mangoes. Wash very well. Slice and scoop out the flesh. Mash the pulp or flesh and measure. Place in pan and boil over strong fire, stirring constantly. After about three minutes, add kalamansi juice. Continue stirring until mixture is thick. Remove from heat and pour while still hot in sterile jars. Seal tightly.

Guyabano Jam Ingredients 3/4 cup of sugar per 1 cup of fruit pulp Procedure Select fully ripe guyabano. Wash, peel and remove the seeds. Grind the pulp and measure. Mix the right proportion of sugar and pulp. Place in a pan and boil, stirring constantly until thick. Pour while hot in sterile jars. Seal tightly. 3. Marmalades It is a clear jelly with pieces of fruits distributed evenly throughout it; it contains citrus fruit peels. The principles of jelly making apply also to the preparation of marmalade. Preparation of Marmalades 1. Preparing the fruit. Juice and sliced fruit are prepared separately. They are mixed only during the final boiling of the fruit and juice with sugar. In preparing a marmalade from oranges or lemons, the fruits are mixed in proportion of 1/2 kilogram of lemons to 2 5 kilograms of oranges. They are sliced thinly (about 1/16 of an inch). Placed the sliced fruits in an aluminum or Press the hot pulp in heavy cloth or in two thickness of cheesecloth to eliminate the fine fruit pulp. Clear the juice by letting it settle in shallow vessels or containers for 24 hours. The juice should give a good pectin test and should contain at least 1% of acid expressed as citric acid.

2. Boiling. The juice and peel are combined after the peel has been boiled in water until tender. If the peel slices are very thin and the juice is rich in pectin, add about five to seven percent of the sliced peels to the juice. Add sugar equal in weight to the juice. If the slices are thick add larger proportion by weight of peel. If whole or sliced fruit is used without previous separation of the peel and juice, be sure to boil the fruit until tender before the sugar will be added. 3. Addition of sugar. The amount of sugar needed depends on the composition of the juice. More sugar can be added to juices rich in pectin and acid than to those deficient in one or both constituents. 4. End point. The juice, peel, and sugar, or sugar and sliced or chopped whole fruit, are boiled to jellying point, usually 104C. A good marmalade should be of jelly-like consistency and not syrup. 5. Cooling. It is important to cool the marmalade partially to allow absorption of sugar by the peel and to prevent the peel from coming to the surface instead of remaining in suspension. 6. Flavoring. A small amount of orange extract added and mixed to the marmalade after the boiling has been completed will improve the flavor. This is done because boiling removes much of the orange oil from peels. 7. Packing and pasteurizing. The marmalade should be packed in vacuum sealed glass or tin containers to reduce oxidation of the product. Pasteurize in water at 82C except when filled and sealed at or above 85C.

Guava Marmalade Ingredients guava pulp and juice sugar kalamansi or lemon Procedure Use well ripened guava fruit. Wash very well and remove blossom ends. Slice and place in a kettle with a little water. Boil gently until the fruit is soft. Press boiled fruit through a course sieve. Discard the seeds. Mix one cup of combined pulp and juice, 3/4 cup of sugar and juice of one lemon or kalamansi. Cook until mixtures thickens. Pour into sterile jars and seal completely. Carrot Marmalade Ingredients 1/2 pound carrots 2 lemons Procedure Wash and scrape carrots to remove dirt. Boil them until soft. Grind through a food grinder or chopper. Put the grated hard outer layer or coating of the fruit and juice of the lemons into a saucepan and cook for five minutes. Measure the carrots and mix with an equal amount of sugar. Cook for ten minutes. Pour into sterile jars. Seal completely.

Mango-Melon Marmalade Ingredients 4 ripe firm carabao mangoes 1 ripe firm melon 1 lemon Procedure Wash fruits very well. Peel mango slice and scoop out flesh. Chop finely using stainless steel. Cut melon into four. Remove the seeds and skin Chop finely. Measure the chopped fruits in pan. For every cup of fruits, add 3/4 cup of sugar and rind of one lemon. Stir mixture well until sugar is dissolved. Cook rapidly while stirring constantly until mixture thickens. Remove from heat, stir and skim alternately for three minutes. Pour while hot into sterile jars and seal at once. Mango-Orange Marmalade Ingredients 8 ripe mangoes 2 oranges peel 1 orange sugar Procedure Wash fruits very well. Peel mango slice and scoop out flesh. Chop finely using stainless steel. Remove peel and seeds of orange. Chop finely. Shred the orange peel. Combine chopped mango, orange pulp and peel in an enamel or stainless kettle. For every cup of the combined mixture, add 3/4- 1 cup sugar. Stir until sugar is completely dissolved. Boil mixture rapidly while constantly stirring until thick. Pour while hot into sterile jars. Seal completely. 4. Preserves These are whole small fruits or vegetables or pieces of large fruits or vegetables cooked in thick syrup until clear and somewhat translucent. The product retains it original shape and form. It is crisp and tender not soft or tough. The secret of the preserves is the slow absorption of syrup by the fruit or vegetable. How to Prepare Fruit and Vegetable Preserves 1. Selection. Choose mature, firm and sound fruits and vegetables. Wash and cut them in uniform sizes and shapes or leave them whole if small. 2. Preparation, boiling and adding sugar. Drop fruit or vegetables into boiling syrup. The amount of sugar required is about 3/4 to 1 cup per cup of fruit or vegetable. Sugar may be added in different ways to suit the type of fruit or vegetable used. Sprinkle juicy fruits like tomatoes and berries with sugar and let stand overnight. Cook juicy fruits with firm skin directly in medium syrup. Put firm fruits into thin syrup to give time for softening before the syrup becomes too concentrated. Place sour fruits directly into heavy syrup. 3. Cooking . Make sure that fruits or vegetables are covered with syrup at all

times so that surface will not dry and harden before the syrup entered the pieces. Cook rapidly to look bright and attractive. Continue to cook until tender, sparkling and glistening. The syrup may allow to thicken as it boils with the fruit. The syrup may be concentrated by alternate cooking and resting period. The fruit or vegetable is allowed to plump or to soften while the syrup thickens because water evaporates during the rest period. 4. Finishing. Cool rapidly and plump the preserve. Put in shallow tray or pan and run or pour cold water underneath it to cool the preserves. This will help the fruits and vegetables retain their natural color and flavor. This will allow them to plump or to become soft and tender while sugar in the syrup is being absorbed gradually. Put the preserves in sterile jars. Meanwhile, heat the remaining syrup until thickens Then put over the preserves. Process in kettle with simmering water for about twenty minutes. Pour melted paraffin on top of the preserve before finally covering the jars airtight. 5. Labeling and storing. Label and store in a cool, dark dry place.

Table 17 Making syrup for preserves


Density Degrees Balling 10 20 30 40 50 60 Amount sugar per 2 qrt water 1 cup or 200gms 1 3/4 cups/350gms 3 1/4 cups/650gms 5 1/4 cups/1,050gms 8 cups/1,600gms 12 cups/2,400gms Characteristic of fruit Very sweet or very hard Medium sweet or medium hard Sweet or slightly soft Slightly sour and soft Sour and soft Very sour Characteristic of syrup Very thin Thin Medium thin Medium thick Medium thick Very thick

Table 18 Problems in making preserves


Condition Soft, breaks easily Shriveled Dark color Hard or tough Crystallization of sugar Causes Use of over ripe fruit or vegetables, too much stirring while cooking, over cooking Syrup is too heavy, Too long cooking time, sugar added too early Use of very hard fruit or vegetable. syrup is too heavy Over cooking, too much sugar, sugar is added too late, failure to add acid while concentrating the syrup.

Kaong in Syrup Ingredients Kaong Sugar

Procedure Soak three cups of kaong in several changes of water to remove the acid flavor. Drain. Boil water and pour into kaong. Rinse in fresh water. Set aside. Prepare a thin syrup using 1/2 cup of sugar and 1/2 cup water for every cup of kaong. Boil syrup. Add kaong and simmer for five minutes. Soak kaong in syrup overnight having all pieces fully soaked. Drain kaong. Add another 1/2 cup sugar per cup of kaong to the syrup. Bring syrup to a boil, then add kaong. Simmer for five minutes. Immediately pack kaong in sterile jars. Pour boiling syrup and seal at once.

Banana Preserve Ingredients Banana saba Sugar Procedure Use ripe banana saba variety. Boil unpeeled in enough water. Peel Remove adhering fibers. Prepare syrup, two parts sugar and one part water. Cook banana in the syrup for 15 minutes. Soak overnight. The following day, boil syrup for 15 minutes. Drain. Pack banana in preserving jars. Fill with syrup. Remove bubbles, then fill with syrup. Half-seal sterile jars for 25 minutes in boiling water or for 15 minutes in a pressure cooker. Seal tightly.

Kalamansi Preserve Ingredients Kalamansi Sugar Procedure Select big and green kalamansi. Cut slits in the lower end of the fruit to remove seeds and juice. Soak in water overnight. Boil in copper vat with enough water. Remove from fire when the natural color of kalamansi has set. Soak again in water for three days changing water often. Boil in plenty of water three or four times, changing the water after every boiling. Drain. Cook in syrup (2 parts sugar and one part water) for 15 minutes. Soak over night. Boil in the same syrup until it begins to thicken. Drain the syrup. Remove bubbles, refill, half-seal and sterilize jars for 20 minutes.

Guyabano Preserve Ingredients Guyabano Sugar Procedure Select mature, ripe guyabano. Peel, remove seeds and slice thinly to about 1/4 of an inch with stainless knife. Soak slices in water while mashing them lightly. Blanch in boiling water for 15 minutes. Cook in syrup until thick. Drain. Pack guyabano in preserving jars. Fill with syrup and sterilize for 30 minutes in boiling water or at 10 minutes for 10 pounds in a pressure cooker. Makapuno Preserve Ingredients Makapuno Sugar Procedure Cut open the nuts and discard the oily viscous portion. Scrape the meat and blanch in boiling water for two minutes. Drain. Cook in enough syrup two parts sugar and one part water. Boil makapuno until transparent. Pour while hot in preserving jar and sterilize for 20 minutes in boiling water bath or pressure level for 10 pounds in 10 minutes. Kamias Preserve Ingredients Kamias Sugar Procedure Select big, mature, and firm fruit. Soak in lime water (1 teaspoonful lime to 1 liter water). Wash and boil in copper vat or kettle with enough water to cover. Stir once in a while. When the natural color of kamias has set, remove from fire and soak in cold water for two hours. Drain and press each one lightly to remove excess water. Prepare syrup two parts sugar and one part water. Boil kamias in syrup for 30 minutes. Drain. Pack in jars and pour syrup. Remove air bubbles and refill with syrup. Half-seal and sterilize jars in boiling water bath for 30 minutes. Seal tightly.

5. Candied fruits and vegetables They are prepared by gradually concentrating them in
syrup be repeatedly boiling until the fruit or vegetable is heavily filled with syrup. To prevent stickiness, the product is dried after boiling in syrup.

6. Glazed fruits and Vegetables- are prepared by coating candied fruits and vegetables with concentrated solution of sugar and confectioners glucose syrup. They are also dried to produce a transparent product. The finished product should not be soft or too tough and leathery.

How to Make Candy 1. Selection of fruits and vegetables. Choose mature, firm and sound fruits and vegetables.
Too soft and overripe will not stand long process.

2. Preparation of fruits and vegetables. Soak the fruits/vegetables in dilute lime solution to
make the texture firm. Treat with dilute solution of sulfurous acid those that easily discolor. After this process, wash fruits/vegetables very well to remove sulfur or lime. Drain. 3. Boiling. Cook the fruit/vegetable with just enough water until tender. This will make the tissues soft and more permeable to syrup. Be sure not to over cooked them so not to spoil the shape and texture of fruit/vegetable.

4. Cooking. Drain the boiled fruit/vegetable and place in pan. Pour cooled starting syrup enough to cover fruit/vegetable. Bring the mixture to boiling point. Set aside to cool Keep the fruit/vegetable completely submerged with syrup. Use clean plate or weight to press down fruit/vegetable so that they will not become dry and hardened. 4. Drying. Drain the fruit/vegetable in colander. Dip colander into simmering water for three seconds. This is done to remove syrup at the surface. Spread the fruit/vegetable in racks to dry. The syrup can be used again. Just dilute or add three parts syrup to one part6 water. Dry candies thoroughly until no syrup can be extracted from any part of the candy. Dry the candies under the sun or in oven at 100F for 10 minutes to retain natural color. 5. Finishing the candy. The finishing can be crystallized or glazed surface. Before the candies completely dry, roll each piece in granulated sugar. Then dry thoroughly. For glazed surface, make fresh syrup by mixing one pound sugar to one-half cup water and boil. Dip the candies into syrup. Then arrange the pieces on rack or tray in oven at temperature not higher than 120F. Turn the candies while drying so that the candies will dry on all sides. Wrap each candy in wax paper. The finished product should appear whole and not disintegrated. The natural color should be retained all throughout. It should be crisp and tender but firm. Glazed Nata de Coco Ingredients Nata sugar Glucose Procedure Cut nata de coco 2 x 1 x 1 and soak in several changes of water until the acid odor is removed. Boil in water 3 to 4 times. Drain and weigh the nata. For every kilo of nata add 1 kilo sugar. Mix and set aside overnight. Add 2 tablespoons glucose and heat to boiling for about 10 minutes. Set aside for one day, stirring once in a while. Cover. Drain nata, concentrate the syrup and soak nata slices.. Set aside. Drain and dry on trays lined with sinamay. Cool and wrap individually in cellophane papers or pack in plastic bags.

Candied Kamias Ingredients 1 kilo Kamias 2 kilos Sugar 1 tablespoon lime in one liter water (lime solution) Procedure Wash kamias and soak in lime solution overnight. Wash thoroughly to remove traces of lime in kamias. Boil in enough water for three to five minutes. Drain. Prick the bottom part of kamias with fine tooth pick and press each fruit lightly. Prepare syrup, two parts sugar to one part water. Boil and strain. Return syrup to fire and add kamias. Boil for about five minutes. Soak overnight. Drain. Add sugar to thicken syrup. Add kamias and boil. Allow to soak overnight. Drain and arrange kamias in trays to dry under the sun. Finish drying in an oven at a low temperature. Cool and wrap in cellophane. Peanut Candy Ingredients 2 cups of finely ground fresh peanuts 1 cup sugar 1/2 cup water Procedure Make syrup without stirring. When thick, add peanuts and stir constantly to avoid burning. Test the mixture to see whether it is ready for pouring by dropping a small amount in cold water. If the mixture forms hard balls, remove it from fire. Pour on a greased board and roll out a sheet 1/2 cm thick. Cut into bars of convenient lengths and wrap in wax paper. Candied Kundol Ingredients Kundol sugar lime solution Procedure Wash and pare kundol. Half and remove inner pulp and seeds. Cut into slices (1 1/2 inches in length and width and 1/4 inch thick). Soak in lime solution. Blanch slices for 5 10 minutes or until slices become transparent. Cool in running water. Prepare syrup enough to cover the kundol slices, made of two parts sugar and one part water. (Use one kilo sugar for every kilo of drained kundol slices). Boil syrup, add slices and let boil for three to five minutes. Set aside overnight. Next day, drain off syrup and boil until thicker in consistency. One-half cup sugar may be added for every kilo sugar used. Add slices and let boil for three to five minutes. Set aside overnight. Drain off syrup, concentrate until thick, add slices and boil for three to five minutes. Drain and arrange slices in trays to dry. Wrap in cellophane.

Squash Paste Candy Ingredients squash pulp sugar butter Procedure Wash squash. Cut into four pieces and remove seeds. Cook in boiling water. Drain off water from squash. Cool, pare and cut into small pieces. Weigh one kilo of squash pulp and add 1/2 kilo sugar. Mix well until blended. Pour mixture into thick aluminum pan, add butter and cook over medium heat, stirring constantly. Add the weighed sugar 1/2 kilo and continue cooking. Add lemon rind. The paste candy is done when no longer sticks to the pan. Transfer into a smooth board greased with butter. Level to 1/4 inch thick. Allow to cool and cut with buttered candy cutter. Wrap in cellophane paper and pack in a plastic bag. Store inside a dry, clear and airtight glass jar.

CANNING A method of food preservation wherein food is hermetically sealed and subjected to heat
treatment sufficient to prevent spoilage. Methods commonly used 1. Open-kettle method -The food is cooked directly in an open vessel as a means of killing the bacteria and packed boiling hot in sterilized glass jars and sealed completely. Fruits, tomatoes, and pickles may be preserved in this method. 2. Hot or cold-pack method. Hot packed method - The raw materials are pre-cooked and packed immediately in the containers, sealed completely and processed in a boiling water bath or pressure cooker. Cold-Pack Method - Cold or Raw prepared product is packed in the containers and covered with syrup or any other liquid, the container is partially sealed, sterilized and sealed completely. Processing The important operation in canning , which means heating or cooking the food after packing them in the containers. Three methods of applying heat to the packed containers: 1. Pasteurization- the foods are heated in sealed or partially sealed containers to a temperature below the boiling point of water for a period sufficient to ensure preservation; that is 71C 85C. Fruit juices and syrups are examples of products which could be pasteurized satisfactorily. 2. Sterilization- means that containers are placed and processed in boiling water. 3. Pressure cooking- sealed containers are placed in a pressure cooker, where due to the confined steam, the temperature is raised many degrees above the boiling point of water. Boiling water Bath- Any utensil in which water can be boiled and which has a tightly fitted cover and a rack to fit in the bottom may be used. It must be deep enough to allow the water to cover the top of the jars 2 -4 inches and leave a space between the water and the cover of the kettle. The rack allows free circulation of water. The cover should fit tightly to prevent unnecessary loss of water through evaporation. Water should be near boiling point when jars are placed into the canner and tightly covered. The heat applied should be rapid until water boils. The heat should be reduced to have a moderate vigorous boiling. Containers for Canning

Glass jars and tin cans are two types of containers used in canning. For home canning, glass jars are more practical to use. These can be recycled provided they are free from nicks or cracks. It is better to use new cap (rubberized or not). Glass jars either have glass covers or metal screw caps. All glass jars are sealed with a soft elastic rubber ring placed on the lid of the jar. Glass jars with metal screw caps (called masontype Jar) are sealed well after the metal caps are screwed down to the lid of the jar. Tin cans are commercial canning. They are lighter in weight unbreakable and easier to handle. Although the cost is lower than glass jars, glass jars are still preferred for home canning mainly because of the added investment required for a metal can-sealing equipment. Steps in Canning 1. Selection of fruits and vegetables. Fruits/vegetables should be graded according to size, color, ripeness, texture, flavor, proportion and other standard set to ensure quality of the processed products. 2. Washing of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables to be canned should be washed to make them free from germs, soil, and other foreign materials. 3. Blanching or Scalding. It is a process of heating the fruit/vegetable with hot water or steam. This is done to soften the material to be processed and make it easier to peel, to eliminate disagreeable raw flavor and odor, and eliminate substances that stain vegetables and other fruits. This is done within the shortest time possible to avoid loss of flavor, vitamins and minerals in the fruit and vegetable. 4. Peeling. It is the process of removing the outer skin/covering of fruits and vegetables. Four ways to remove skin of fruits/vegetables. 1). hand peeling- make use of stainless knife 2) peeling with the use of heat done through blanching/scalding 3) lye peeling make use of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate; the concentration of sodium hydroxide is from 1.5 to 2 percent for fruits, while 10 to 15 percent for vegetables; lye solution should be added to water just below boiling point usually 1/2 to 1 minutes, however the length of immersion varies depend on the maturity of fruits and vegetables. 4) mechanical peeling- this is done with an upright cylinder with rapidly removing disc, the peeling process is made easier with spraying of water to wash away peels. 5. Filling- This refers to the process by which fruits/vegetables to be packed are packed inside the container. This is done by cold pack, hot pack and open kettle method. 6. Addition of Brine or Syrup. Add the necessary amount of brine or syrup to fill the empty spaces left packing the fruit/vegetable. In filling, the usual head space provided is 1/4 to 1/2 of an inch. Brine or syrup is added to enhance the flavor and degree of preservation. The usual amount of salt added is one teaspoon for every quart of water. Be sure that the added salt and water are free from impurities such as iron, calcium and sulfate, because they will discolorization will occur, toughness of fruit/vegetable and will have unpleasant flavor in the product. Brine should be boiled first and filtered. Syrup added to the fruits will maintain the natural flavor, sweeten the fruit, eliminate the undesirable flavor, tissues become firm and help solidify the fruit and will preserve the natural color. Table 19 Approximate sugar concentration for thin, medium, and thick syrup
Syrup Thin Sugar(cup) 1 Water(cup) 3 Approximate Sugar % 20 Applicability Medium sweet fruits

Medium Thick

1 1

2 1

30 40

Slightly sour fruits Sour fruits

7. Exhausting.- It is a process of removing a part of the gas or air from the canned material
before sealing the container. This is done by heating the canned food in steam or in boiling water. To exhaust in boiling water, prepare a large kettle and a wooden rack. A rack has to be placed at least 1/2 inch above the bottom of the inside part of the kettle to prevent the containers from having direct contact with the body of the kettle. If water is near boiling point, place the containers on top of the rack. Be sure that the water level is within two inches below the top of the containers to prevent water from getting into the food. Cover the kettle and let the water boil for 10 minutes. Remove the containers from the kettle and seal them. When exhausting in steam, the same equipment is needed as in the other method of exhausting. The rack should be placed at least one or two inches above the bottom of the inside part of the kettle. Water should only be up to the level of the rack. Place containers on top of the rack if water is near boiling point. Cover the kettle tightly and let the water boil for 10 minutes. Remove the containers from the kettle and seal them tightly. Use sealing equipment for tin cans.

8. Cooking. This is done by heating the canned products for a certain period of time, to kill
the microorganisms still present in the food, to improve the texture, flavor and the acceptance of the food, and to eliminate the substances that decrease the quality of the product. Hot water bath and steamer methods are the only applicable in processing fruits and tomatoes. A few minutes in hot water bath canner or steamer is enough to preserve these foods. 9. Cooling. This is necessary in canned foods to kill microorganisms that were not destroyed during cooking process. Cool food canned in tin cans, in running water. Then leave them in a cool place for further cooling and drying. Foods canned in glass jars are cooled top side up and are placed on a thick absorbent cloth. Leave them in a cool dry place. Be sure that hot glass jars do not come in contact with cold water to avoid breaking. 10. Labeling. Mark all containers with the proper labels to show contents and date of canning. This will allow to check against spoilage and other defects in quality of the canned products. Types of Spoilage in Canned Foods 1. Swelling. The ends (top and bottom parts) of tin cans become tightly swollen because of gas formed by microorganisms within the can. The tight bulges at the ends of cans will swell back again when pressed. Foods in swelled cans are usually unfit for consumption. It is acted upon by poisonous organisms called Clostridium botullinum, The food appears discolored and tastes sour. Gas formation is caused by improper sterilization (underheated cans) or penetration of germs through leaks. 2. Hydrogen swelling. This is due to the formation of hydrogen gas in the can. Formation of gas is not caused by microorganism but by the wearing away of the walls of the tin can. The food is no longer fit for consumption. 3. Springer. This may be a mild swell or mild hydrogen swell. The end of a can, if pressed by hand will temporarily swell. Springer may be due to overfilling of the can or to insufficient heating during the exhausting process.

4. Flipper. When a can whose end bulges when it is struck against a hard surface. This
indicate an early case of swell or hydrogen swell. this is often due to over filled or under exhausted cans. 5. Flat sours. This is characterized by a flat sour taste in foods packed in tin cans or glass jars, brought about by organisms present in the cans and develop amount of acidity. No swelling and other external defects but observed but having the taste of flat sours, because of undercooking and insufficient cooling of canned foods 6. Stack burning. This is observed in foods packed in glass jars and tin cans. It is a result of storing canned foods while hot. The food contents develop poor texture, disagreeable flavor and darkening of color. 7. Discoloration. This occurs in foods packed in glass jars or tin cans. This is caused by metal bacterial contamination and excessive heating of canned foods. The metallic substances as they pass various steps or foods come in contact with metal containers when packed causes spoilage. Glass jars are safe to use for canning. Darkening of foods observed in fruits/vegetables are due to prolonged heating at high temperature (254F and above).

USE OF FOOD ADDITIVES These are substances when added directly or indirectly to food to improve its quality in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, keeping quality or nutritive value. Food additives are substances used in preserving food, which when properly used, result to cheaper, safer, more abundant and higher quality foods available the whole year round. The use of food additives is strictly administer by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This is a government agency that strictly identifies the list of additives that have been proven safe when applied to foods. Classification of Food Additives 1. Intentional additives. These are substances added to the food to perform specific function such as to enhance food flavor, appearance, storage life, etc. 2. Incidental additives. These are substances which are obtained as the food passes various processing lines. They do not perform specific function in the finished products. Reasons for Using Food Additives (Intentional Additives) 1. They make foods appear more attractive to consumers in terms of improved flavor, storage life, texture and stability. 2. They maintain the quality of the food in terms of nutritive value. 3. They help ease up food processing. A. Additives that increase receptivity of consumers to finished products: 1. Food colors. These make the products appear better than they actually are. Two categories of food colors i) natural colors used in foods such as alkanet, annatto, carotene, chlorophyll, cochineal, saffron and turmeric; ii). artificial colors 2. Flavoring materials. These are additives are used to enhance the flavor and aroma in the foods. Two categories; i) natural flavoring include spices, and spice

extractives, monosodium glutamate (such as those of vetsin and ajinomoto) oleo resins, etc. 3. Emulsifiers, stabilizers or thickeners. Emulsifiers- These substances are used to give or maintain the desired texture in foods. They also maintain the uniformity and lengthen storage life of canned products. Stabilizers They are used to improve the texture and flavor of foods, examples of these are agar-agar, gelatin, cellulose gum and other vegetable gums. Thickeners- They are used to sweetened beverages and fruit jellies. Examples are natural gums such as sodium alginate and pectin, cellulose gum and sorbitol. 4. Acids, alkalies, buffers and neutralizing agents. Acids and alkalies are used to control the degree of acidity and alkalinity in processed foods. They also prevent discoloration of fruits/vegetables during processing and offset low acidity in fruits when making jams and jellies. Examples of these are, malic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid which improve the sour taste of beverages and fruit juices. Buffers- are used to adjust and stabilize acidity and alkalinity in foods to favorable degree. Neutralizing agents- are used to check excessive acidity. 5. Clarifying agents These additives are used to make beverages, fruit juices, soft drinks, vinegar and beer relatively clear. Among those commonly used are pectinases for fruit juices and vinegar, tannin, albumin and methyl cellulose for beer.

6. Texturizers or firming agents. These improves firmness of foods. They harden


the foods processed as applied to sweet and dill pickles, canned potatoes, sliced apples, tomatoes, peas, etc. Among the firming agents used are aluminum sulfate, potassium sulfate, sodium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium gluconate and magnesium chloride. B. Additives that maintain or improve nutritive value. Vitamins and minerals are usually added to finished food products to improve their nutritional quality. Among the common nutrients supplemented are thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and Vitamins A and D, etc. C. Additives that improve keeping quality. 1. Antioxidants These additives are used to prevent spoilage indicated by disagreeable flavor and odor in foods. This kind of spoilage comes when substances in fatty foods interact with oxygen. Among the commonly used antioxidants are propyl gallate, butylated hydroxytoluene for potato chips, ascorbyl palmitate for candies and ascorbic acid for frozen fruits. 2. Preservatives. These are substances added to foods to minimize if not prevent the growth of food-spoiling microorganisms. Sodium benzoate and benzoic acid, are used for fruit juices, pickles and candied products. D. Additives that help ease up food processing These are additives that are used to make certain processing easier. Sulfur dioxide is used in scalding/blanching to help prevent or minimize browning of fruits/vegetables during drying. Among those used in canning are mucidin and nisin which help prevent microbial spoilage. Table 20 List of allowable food additives for processed fruits and vegetables
Type A. Food Colors Usage For food coloring Level of Application % Depends on intensity desired

Green No. 3 Yellow No. 5 Yellow No. 6 Red No. 2 Red No. 3 Blue No. 1 Blue No. 2 Violet No. 1 Red No. 40 B. Stabilizers: Thickeners Agar-agar Cellulose, Sodium Carboxymethyl Gelatin Sodium pectinate

For food coloring For food coloring For food coloring For food coloring For food coloring For food coloring For food coloring For food coloring For food coloring For candied jellies, artificially sweetened jelly and preserve Stabilizer for: Artificially sweetened jelly and preserve Thickener /Stabilizer for: Base for fruit gelatins and puddings, fruit sherbets Thickener for: Fruit sherbet, fruit jelly, preserves, jams

Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired Depends on intensity desired 10% .075% 0.5% 0.5% 0.75% 0.01% - 1.0% 1.0% 3.0% 0.5% 2.5% 0.25% Up to amount not to exceed 8.0% 0.25% 3.0% 2.0%

C. Buffers, Acids, Alkalies Sodium acetate Candies Acetic acid Pickles, catsup, candies Adipic acid Buffer and neutralizing agent for Candies Ammonium carbonate Candies Calcium carbonate Alkali for candies Calcium gluconate Buffer for candies Calcium hydroxide Alkali for canned peas Calcium oxide Potassium carbonate Sodium citrate Citric acid Alkali for candies Alkali for candies Alkali for candies and jams

Adjust acidity for fruit products, candies, canned vegetables Lactic acid Candies, fruit jelly, preserves Malic acid Fruit jelly, jams Calcium monoBuffer for Canned potatoes and basic phosphate tomatoes, canned green and red peppers, Potassium Alkali peeling agent for tubers hydroxide and fruits Sodium hydroxide Alkali for canned peas Tartaric acid Candies, jellies D. Non-nutritive and special dietary sweeteners Ammonium Fruits saccharin Calcium saccharin Artificially sweetened jellies, jams and preserves Sodium saccharin

2.0% 2.0% 2 4.0% 2.5% 0.035% 1.0% 4.0%

0.0012%

IRRADIATION This is a method of food preservation that supplements refrigeration. It is defined as the exposure of food to electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength such as gamma rays, xrays or electrons. The most common source of radiation is cobalt 60 (Co-60). Another source is Cesium 137(Cs-137). In their search for new improved methods of food preservation, investigators paid attention to the possible utilization of radiations of various frequencies, ranging from low-frequency electrical current to high-frequency gamma rays. Much of this work has focused on the use of i). ultra violet radiation, ii). ionizing radiation, and iii).microwave heating. Spectrum of radiation has two categories one on each side of visible light: 1. Low-frequency, long wave-length, low-quantum energy radiation ranges from radio waves to infrared. The effect of this radiations on microorganisms is related to their thermal agitation of the food. 2. High-frequency, shorter-wavelength radiations have high quantum energies and actually excite or destroy organic compounds and microorganisms without heating the product. Microbial destruction without the generation of high temperatures suggested is called cold sterilization.

When applied to food industry, shorter-wavelength radiation can be divided into two groups; i). Lower-frequency, and ii). lower-energy radiation. For example, the ultraviolet part of the spectrum, has sufficient energy only to excite molecules. This area of the spectrum is employed in the food industry and is covered in the section on ultraviolet irradiation. Radiations of higher frequencies have high energy contents and are capable of actually breaking individual molecules into ions, is called ionizing radiation.

A. Ultraviolet Radiation. This is the most widely used in the food industry. Radiation with
wavelengths near 260 nm is absorbed strongly by purines and by pyrimidines and most germicidal. Around 200 nm is strongly absorbed by oxygen and may result in the production of ozone and ineffective against microorganisms. Germicidal lamps- Quartz-mercury vapor lamps or low-pressure mercury lamps are the sources of ultraviolet radiation in food industry. This emit radiation at 254 nm. Factors Influencing Effectiveness of Ultraviolet radiation. 1. Time. The longer the time of exposure to a given concentration, the more effective the treatment. 2. Intensity. The intensity of rays reaching the object will depend on the power of the lamp, the distance from the lamp to the object and the kind and amount of interfering material in the path of the rays. 3. Penetration. The nature of the object or material being irradiated has an important influence on the effectiveness of the process. Penetration is reduced even by clear water, which also exerts a protective effect on microorganisms, dissolved minerals salts, especially iron and cloudiness reduced effectiveness of the rays, thin layer of fatty or greasy material cuts off the rays, and opaque materials where ultraviolet rays cannot penetrate through the objects. Therefore, the rays

affect only the outer surface of most irradiated foods directly exposed to the lamp and do not penetrate to microorganisms inside the food. The lamps, only reduce the number of viable microorganisms in the air surrounding the food. Application to Food Industry. The use of ultraviolet irradiation in the food industry can only be used for specific foods. Examples of successful use are treatment of water used for beverages; aging of meats; treatment of knives for slicing bread; treatment of breads and cakes; packaging of sliced bacon; sanitizing eating utensils; prevention of growth of film yeast on pickle, vinegar, and sauerkraut vats; killing of spores on sugar crystal and in syrups; storage and packaging of cheese; prevention of mold growth on walls and shelves; and treatment of air used for or in storage and processing rooms.

B. Ionizing Radiation. These include x-rays or gamma rays, cathode or beta rays, protons,
neutrons and alpha particles. X-rays- are penetrating electromagnetic waves which are produced by bombardment of a heavy-metal target with cathode rays within an evacuated tube. They are considered economical in food industry. Gamma-rays- are emitted from by-products of atomic fission or from imitations of such by-products. Cobalt 60 and cesium 137 but cobalt 60 the most promising for commercial applications. Beta rays are streams of electrons (beta particles of uniform radioactive material. Electrons are small, negatively charged magnetic and electric fields. The higher the charge of the electron, the deeper its penetration. Cathode rays are streams of electrons (beta particles) from cathode of evacuated tube which are accelerated by artificial means. Effects on Microorganisms. The bactericidal efficacy of a given dose of irradiation depends on the following. 1. The kind and species of organism. 2. The number of organisms (or spores) originally present. The more organisms there are the less effective a given dose will be. 3. The composition of the food. proteins, catalase, and reducing substances (nitrites, sulfites and sulfhydryl compounds) may be protective. Compounds that combine with the SH groups would be sensitizing. Products of ionization may be harmful to the organisms. 4. The presence or absence of oxygen. The effect of free oxygen varies with the organism, ranging from no effect to sensitization of the organism. Undesirable side reactions are to be intensified in the presence of oxygen and less frequent in a vacuum or an atmosphere of nitrogen. 5. The physical state of the food during irradiation. Both moisture content and temperature affect different organisms in different ways. 6. The condition of the organisms. Age, temperature of growth and sporulation and state- vegetative or spore may affect the sensitivity of the organisms. Effects on Foods Radiation doses heavy enough to affect sterilization found to produce undesirable side reactions or secondary changes in many kinds of foods, causing undesirable colors, odors, tastes or even physical properties. Some of the changes produces by sterilizing doses of radiation are 1. in meat- a rise in Ph, destruction of glutathione, and increase in carbonyl compounds, hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan. 2. in fats and lipids- destruction of natural antioxidants, oxidation followed by partial polymerization and increase in carbonyl compounds.

3. in vitamins- reduction in most foods of levels of thiamine, pyridoxine, and


vitamins B12, C, D, E and K, riboflavin and niacin are fairly stable. The lower the dosage of irradiation the less frequent the undesirable effects on the food. Destruction of many food enzymes requires five to ten times the dosage of rays needed to kill all the microorganisms. Enzyme action may continue after all microorganisms have been destroyed unless a special blanching treatment has preceded irradiation. Applications. Low-level irradiation( 1 kiloGray) can be used for fresh fruits and vegetables to kill insects and to inhibit spoilage. Dry or dehydrated vegetables (herbs and spices) can be irradiated at up to 30 kiloGray to kill insects. C. Microwave processing. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves between infrared and radio waves. Microwave heating and processing of foods is becoming increasingly popular, particularly at the consumer level. Specific frequencies are usually at either 915 megacycles or 2,450 megacycles. The energy or heat produced by microwaves as they pass through a food is a result of the extremely rapid oscillation of the food molecules in an attempt to align themselves with the electromagnetic field being produced. This rapid oscillation, or intermolecule friction, generates heat. The preservative effect of microwaves or the bactericidal effect produced is really a function of the heat that is generated. The microwaves themselves do not result in any inactivation of foodborne microorganisms, rather it is the heat produced by the excitation of food molecules that actually results in microbial destruction.

Table 21 Applications of food irradiation


Type of Food Meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, some vegetables, baked goods, prepared foods Spices and other seasonings Meat, poultry, fish Radiation dose in kiloGrays 20 70 Effect of treatment Sterilization. Treated product can be stored at room temperature without spoilage. Treated product is safe for hospital patients who require microbiological sterile diets. Reduces number of microorganisms and insects. Replaces chemicals used for this purpose. Delays spoilage by reducing the number of microorganisms in the fresh refrigerated product. Kills some types of food poisoning bacteria. Extends shelf life by delaying mold growth. Kills insects or prevents them from reproducing. Could partially replace fumigants used for this purpose . Delays ripening Inhibits sprouting. Inactivates trichinae

8 30 1 10

Strawberries and some fruits Grain, fruit, vegetables and other foods subject to insect infestation Bananas, avocados, mangoes, papayas, guavas, and certain other non citrus fruits Potatoes, onions, garlic Pork

14 0.1 1 0.25 0.35 0.05 0.15 0.08 0.15

Grain dehydrated vegetables, other foods

Desirable physical and chemical changes. Various doses

Benefits from Irradiation: 1. Citrus, papayas and mangoes- It control fruit fly, weevil and anthracnose (in combination with hot water dip) without the problem of residues. 2. Papaya, mangoes, pineapple, banana It delays ripening by inactivating enzymes. 3. Minimizes deterioration of mushrooms, onions, and garlic- Irradiation increases refrigerated storage life of garlic by at least one month, while non-treated onions were completely deteriorated one month after the regular storage period but still 60% marketable. Post storage life under ambient conditions was also increased. 4. Inhibits sprouting and prevents rotting of potatoes, garlic, onions and yams. The problem in using irradiation for commercial method is cost. Table 22 Irradiation rates for various fruits and vegetables
Fruit Mango, Okrong carabao Papaya Pineapple Bananas Potatoes Onions Yams Mushrooms Garlic Recommended Dosage Kilora (Kr) KiloGray (KGY) 25 -73 .025 - .075 26 0.26 35 0.35 25 75 0.25 -0.75 50 0.5 20 35 0.2 0.35 8 15 0.08 0.15 5 15 0.05 0.15 3 12 0.03 0.12 8 15 0.08 0.15 50 100 0.5 0.1 5 15 10 0.05 0.15 0.1 Source Loaharanu. 1971 Manalo. 1985 Akamine, et.al. 1965 Moy. et. al. 1971 Kao. 1971 Sreenivas.1971 Luster. 1982 Banditsing, 1985 Mercado and Alabastro. 1981 Luster. 1982 & Kwon, et. al 1985 Banditsing. et. al 1985

References: 1. Bautista, Ofelia K. 1990. Postharvest Technology for Southeast Asian Perishable Crops. Technology and Livelihood resource Center. UPLB. Los Baos, Laguna. 2. De leon, Sonia Y. And M. De Guzman. 1998. Preservation of Philippine Foods. A Manual of Principles and Procedures. Phoenix Publishing House Inc. Quezon City. Phil. 3. De Leon, Sonia Y., L.O. Martinez and O. C. Bravo. Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Dehydration. U.P. Diliman, Quezon City. Phil. 4. Frazier, Wiliam, and D.C. Westhoff. 1988. Food Microbiology. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Singapore.

5. Preservation of Philippine Fruits and Vegetables. Laboratory Services Division. BPI. Manila. 6. Principles and Methods of Fruit and Vegetable Processing. Correspondence School. Meralco Ave. Pasig, Metro Manila.

Chapter II
QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY Introduction Ones quality can be greatly enhanced by the availability of many comforts of living. In this day, age and environment, such comforts normally come from satisfaction with services and products of manufacture. The state at which service is provided or at which items reach the ultimate consumer determines the degree of ones level of satisfaction. This in turn affects ones assessment of his own level of enjoyment in the comforts of life. Several authorities define quality in various ways, but the term generally appears to be associated with fitness for use or the satisfaction level of consumers. The manner in which a service is provided or the state at which food items reach the ultimate consumer may determine this consumers level of satisfaction There are various concepts of quality which is applicable to food. 1. Quality as a composite of product attributes. The acceptability and desirability of a commodity are largely dependent on a set a unwritten specifications that consumers generally expect from given product. Acceptability of these products are gauged in terms of quality attributes perceived by man and the basis for selecting a product on the characteristics that differentiate it from the others. It means that quality as a composite of sensory attributes gives the product its specific identity from the point of view of the user. Among these sensory attributes are color, texture, odor, and taste

CONCEPTS OF QUALITY Concept 1A Composite of characteristics/attributes which differs from unit to unit (Kreamer & Twigg, 1983) Concept 1B Totality of features/characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need (also known as general acceptability) (Amerine, et. wl. 1965) Concept 2A Uniformity, consistency and conformity to a given standard or specifications (Kramer & Twigg, 1982) Concept 2B A statement of what the user wants and what the manufacturers can provide. (Gatchalian, 1989) Concept 3A Fitness for use (Juran, 1974) Figure 1 The Concepts of Quality 57 2. Quality as consistency in meeting the users requirements. The degree of consumer acceptance of a product is determined by the extent to which the expected sensory characteristics are observed repeatedly in the commodity. when a food item consistently conforms to the buyers expectations, that the product is considered to be of a uniform or consistent quality, indicating also that the manufacturer has consistently met product standards and specifications. When expected specific sensory attributes are missing in the food item, it could easily be judged as one of low quality; the reverse is true when all expected attributes are present. 3. Quality as fitness for use. Manufactured commodities are end products of mans technological applications on available resources. Most of the time, acceptability of these products are gauged in terms of quality attributes perceived by man. Manufacturing entrepreneurs particularly those greatly concerned with quality maintenance, refer to level of product quality as its degree of fitness for use by the consumers. The measure of its progress in the consumer market is the extent with which repeat buys are observed. 4. Other meanings of quality. Quality connotes different things to different people. It is associated with high standard of excellence or a fast-selling brand as being special quality. Example of brand of rum described as de calidad or E.S.Q. or extra special quality. Other products may be associated with export quality shipped abroad for foreign consumption. To large scale manufacturers who are aware of prestige and implications of product failure to loss of consumers confidence they become serious in their quality control polices and fully believe that quality means product reliability and consistency. To small-scale producers which made products that are highly demanded quality as a by-word is not a great urgency. For as long as the product sells at the price

they set they remain the business. Their concern is to produce and have their product immediately sold out, prestige is not necessarily the order of the day. One of the biggest deterrents to the Filipino business success is the fly-by-night attitude or get-richquick syndrome definitely throws away the long term implications of an effective quality control system. A successful entrepreneur must built quality first into his product and find means to maintain them. There is no cost to quality if control is established at the start. When one does things right the first time he can continue doing it everytime. When there is successful quality control there are no four Rs e.g. Rejects, Rework, Recall, Regrets. With no four Rs, there would be no cost incurred, as such, the built-in quality is actually free. The Quality Cycle Quality involves a series of activities which lead to continuous cycle. Once the desire for quality is supported by management and implementation is started, success can be achieved provided the cycle is not broken. 1. Quality Development Cycle. A commodity is developed as a result of consumers identified needs that are evolved into some sort of product description called specifications. The product attributes are identified to set-up a product profile as it descriptive characterization. These are studied and where feasible, measured through selected test procedures which can be utilized as the basis for quality control tests. A good recording and reporting system, is always an asset in any manufacturing undertaking, and can be used in case of consumer complaints or increasing product rejects within the operations. Complaints may be dealt with by the trouble shooting team or those concerned with maintenance of product quality and consumer relations. In this way, producers are continuously informed of the status of their product in the market 58 2. particularly relative to their competitors. The quality cycle starts and ends with the consumer because they are the reason for which the products were manufactured.

Profit Realized

Increased Production

Language of Management

Increased Volume of Sales

Positive Consumer Reaction

Consumers Specifications
Consumer Complaints and Product Improvement
QUALITY CYCLE

Product Profile

Recording & Reporting System Quality Control Approaches

Test Methods

Figure 2 The Expanded quality control development cycle

3. The Sandholm Quality Cycle. This is a telephone-dial type of relationship of activities as


perceived by Sandholm 1979. It has two entities the vendors A which provide the raw 59

4. materials and the consumers B which is the end users. The cycle starts with purchasing
and goes on keeping the creation of desired product quality as its major goal.

3 Inspection 2 Production 4 Marketing

1 Purchasing A Vendors

5 Service B Consumers

Manufacturing Engineering 7 Product Development Figure 3 The Sandholm quality cycle

Market Studies

In between them is the quality cycle involved in the process of product manufacture (1) purchasing buys from the vendors; (2) production process the raw materials in various manufacturing stages; (3) inspection, checks finished product quality; (4) marketing sees to it that product manufactured are sold and a constant supply of finished goods are made available; (5) service, attends to customers at the point of sale and monitors product quality after sales; (6), market studies, looks into consumers requirements/complaints; (7) product development, together with (8) manufacturing engineering designs new or improved products based on consumer reactions or producers desire for cost reduction. A cycle has no end, hence, the idea of continuity of quality control activities once initiated.

5. Fawzi Quality Circuit. This emphasizes the great importance of consumers through a
play-up of the product market segment. The greater the consumer segment served by the product, the higher the volume of production requirements. 60 Market 1. Basic decisions Market Segment 8

2.

Functional decision 3. Design 4. Manufacture 5. 6. Distribution After-sales service

7. The realized product

Figure 4 The quality circuit of Fawzi


To maintain or further expand this market , there is a need to make the following activities. (1) basic decisions- on need for product development, improvement or expansion of production volume leading to some; (2) functional decisions- on which product quality needs to be developed, improved or expanded; this is carried through to (3) the design stage- and when approved, will then be; (4) manufactured- and the finished products are (5) distributed through varied outlets with provisions for (6) after sales services on the product designed, developed and manufactured into (7) the realized product which occupies the targeted segment in the market. The cycle again begins not only to maintain the market segment (8) already occupied by the product but also planning for segment expansion. The quality circuit will remain a continuous and viable process for the manufacturing operations General Quality Control Perceptions The general concept of quality control revolves around maintenance, to a degree, of consumer satisfaction or to the products fitness for use which is categorized into: 1. Quality control as inspection. The manufacturing firms view the concept of Q.C. as the attainment of end-products which contain the least defectives. Hence, the general practice is to sort raw materials for defects and to watch out for defectives from the finished products. The rationale for this practice is the belief that if the manufacturing process is closely guarded, the ultimate end-point is a consistently good finished product. These practices vary on the size of the plant whether small, medium or large scale. Observations show, that smaller the industry, the greater is its dependence on inspection as a tool for 61

2. determining a products fitness for use. While most large scale industries are either highly
mechanized or are in a position to his good technical people. They have also access to new information, to dialogues with consultants or experts, and to refined instrumentation techniques. Often times they have a good organization with a broad-minded management deeply concerned with product quality. To them inspection is important especially to incoming raw materials to have a quality assurance for their volume production. Shortcomings of Inspection. Quality cannot be inspected into the product, it must be built into it right from the beginning (Juran, 1974). No amount of inspection can restore a quality already lost during the process. i) if defective materials are to be accepted, ii) defective finished products may be sold as a seconds or may be rework that add costs. The greater the volume of production, the more difficult the inspection process and the greater the probability that defective products may not be sorted out. With large production volume, to depend on inspection as the means to control quality would actually be providing the greatest risk of including considerable defective items among those released for sale. For emphasis, inspection should never be equated to quality control. It is only a means of identifying those which do not meet specification at any stage of operation or as finished products. Except indirectly, one cannot build quality into an already manufactured product. 3. Quality control as an integrated activity. The activities when properly integrated may provide some extent the needed quality assurance. Such major activities include, 1) prevention, 2) planning, and 3) monitoring. Prevention. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure is an adage which aptly describe one of the quality control

functions. (a). there is concomitant cost which accumulates up to the finished product stage (a finished item holds a particularly proportion of the total production cost, (b) a defective product implies an unsealable item which will not provide the expected return for the cost of producing (try to prevent occurrence of a defective item at any stage of operation). (c) proper assessment of the methods and a thorough understanding of their critical points. (prevention can be achieved), and (d) success in the prevention process requires rigid attention to raw materials specifications and to in-process requirements. Steps to have a good quality products: (1) do not accept poor raw materials ; (2) appropriate technology must be applied/used; (3) defective finished products must be prevented from being released to the market; and (4) the possibilities of doing things right the first time is high while proper practice of prevention requires much planning and vigilant monitoring. Planning. In any manufacturing process, four Ms are efficiently integrated, Men, Materials, Machines and methods. Otherwise, danger of the four Rs Rejects, Rework, Recall and Regrets will inevitably occur. Steps to have excellent planning. (1) Four Ms should be utilized; (2) maintenance of product characteristics to provide consumer satisfaction; (3) proper programming of plant activities (present to its people the companys quality goals and directions, quality functions must be defined and the necessary tools for efficient implementation be provided); (4) assess manpower complement together with their capabilities; and (5) planning provide a great deal of information necessary in the achievement of product quality maintenance, therefore planning for most efficient utilization of the four Ms becomes grave necessity. Monitoring. It describe as the activity concerned with the objective assessment or follow-through of the quality control program as designed and implemented by all concerned. Success or failure of a quality control program can be greatly determined by the efficiency of QC monitoring activities. 62 The factors to a successful monitoring program one must consider the following: 1. a well-defined target or goal based on consumer requirements, i.e. identification of product characteristics desired by the potential end-users; 2. adequate quantification of identified attributes through a realistic set of specifications or standards; 3. effective utilization of men, materials, machines and methods to properly meet the defined specifications or standards and to achieve the manufacturing goal of developing into product its own fitness for use; 4. continuous assessment of comparative results of implemented activities against expectations from the plan; and 5. development of an effective system of recording and reporting such that feed-back of information could be easily achieved. Without a well-planned structure for implementing quality control activities, the monitoring system could be a total failure. When the concepts of prevention, planning, and monitoring are internalized and quality improvement programs (Q.I.P.) are expected to be designed, one warning must be heeded: DO NOT SE-UP A QIP IF A LONG-TERM QUALITY
CONTROL SYSTEM IS NOT ENVISIONED BY THE COMPANY. QUALITY CONTROL ACTIVITIES ONCE STARTED MUST CONTINEU THROUGH TIME. A PREMATURE CESSATION OF A QIP COULD MAKE THE COMPANY MUCH WORSE THAN WHEN THEY STARTED.

Total Quality Control Approaches to total quality control or TQC. The system assumes:

a.) a good organizational structure for QC activities already exists; and b) both management and the workers themselves are willing and motivated enough to accept new responsibilities and greater opportunities for work interrelationships. The essence of total quality control is the encouragement of workers participation through proper motivation and sharing of responsibilities and success.. Employees regardless of rank or status of work assignment are made to realize that the attainment of product quality is their responsibility. A quality control job is a joint activity to attain the companys objectives of quality. The product is everybodys business and everyones responsibility. TQC will fail if there is no integration of functions. For TQC to succeed, there should be an efficient coordination of all the activities of the company. The attitude of you do your job well and Ill do mine should be eliminated. Implementation in Small, Medium, and Large Scale Industries. TQC in small companies can be easily implemented because of direct coordination between managers or owners and employees, there is easily transfer of communication while follow-through activities are speedily implemented, friction is low and can be resolved easily. For larger manufacturing companies, TQC is complicated where there are problem communication gaps, poor interaction, inability to integrate with other personnel and the inability to see how ones responsibility is at all related to quality. There is also danger in top management may alienate themselves from the rest of the company structure, leaving contacts with the employees to those of lower ranks. Uninformed President normally assigns himself knowing the vital considerations and leaves the rest to lower management, there is the possibility that top management will leave some areas unattended which could result to failure of TQC approach. Approaches to Total Quality Control. a.).Q.C. in production- Some considerations in production self control to follow: 1. the selected process for a given product must be proven through time to be truly 62 suitable for the quality requirements of the commodity. 2. the responsibilities of production controllers (P.C.) must be clearly defined and limits of responsibilities fully understood. 3. for the P.C. to be effective in the performance of their functions, they must have full knowledge of Q.C. requirements and the basis of control point to be located. 4. the operator must be given extensive knowledge on the precautions against possible errors which could violate Q.C. requirements. 5. the operator be continuously provided with feed-back regarding his influence on product quality i.e., production volume, he should not feel the sense of conflict when he has to pursue quality objectives. b). Q.C. in the Q.C. Department- these should be implemented in the Q.C. in the department: 1. define the Q.C. objectives and quantify the targets. a. make the personnel understand the importance of quality control, its needs, requirements and targets; b. pursue improvement of quality levels without increase in production costs and gear activities towards cost reduction techniques; c. train the personnel to utilize efficient methods for attaining desired quality approaches for detecting inefficiency in quality maintenance; d. develop approaches to monitoring of product quality in the market place. 2. based on the quality objectives, determine priority programs for implementation with special attention to; a. determination of product status within the company and among market

competitors; b. clarification of management policies to be used as basis for decisionmaking and for establishment of priority programs considering product status; c. determination of needs for personnel training depending on current capabilities and future requirements. 4. when quality objectives have been adequately prioritized, develop action programs which can facilitate the attainment of set objectives and done through: a. reaffirmation of Q.C. objectives in consonance with management policies and company direction; b. development of approaches for fitness for use considering requirements for quality of design, quality of conformance to specifications and the attainment of the product abilities (reliability, maintainability, and availability); c. attention to development of support materials d. provision for the continuous assessment of quality approaches, efficiency and fitness for use to attain the quality objectives. Quality Assurance- means reliability as the probability of a product performing, without failure, a specified function under given conditions for a specified period of time. It is also defined as the broad activity which concerns itself with meeting all the product requirements, resulting to product performance consistently giving satisfaction to the consumers over a period of time including product integrity where it is highly respected by the consumers. Companys Characteristics of Quality Assurance: 1. There is a formal structure where divisions are subdivided into logical subdivisions or departments with each having clear-cut function and lines of authority; 63 2. definition of responsibilities are clearly spelled-out with each set of responsibility being given to a well-selected and definite leadership for implementation; 3. interrelationships of departments, division, and subdivisions with each other, such as cooperation and integration of work assignments can easily done; and 4. based on the first three characteristics, an organizational structure is clearly presented with specific lines of authority fully accepted and understood by all concerned. At this stage, the industrys major concern is the proper treatment of men to avoid breakdown of communications and strengthen mutual respect, trust and confidence. Quality Control Methods in Food Processing 1. Microanalytical and Microbiological Methods. This include approaches to detection of contaminants in food whether seen by the naked eye or those that require the use of microscope. Microanalytical activities ; (a) detection of extraneous activities found in food to determine whether they are harmful or not, (b) indicators of lack of quality control either through personnel carelessness or to poor food plant sanitation. Examples of extraneous matters are rodents hairs, legs of ants, wings of roaches, dust stones and the like. These are indications of contamination in the food product or the factory itself. Microbial testing laboratory- (a) poorly sanitized equipment, (b) microbial load of raw and packaging materials; (c) unhygienic personnel; (d) processing methods has significant effect on the quality of finished product. 2. Grading and Standardization- This could be done in private industries or by government body responsible for the task. When grades or standards are developed by the company or industry they

become a company standard or a trade standard. This standard in mandatory or voluntary because non-compliance of the standard will affect the life or health or safety of the consumers. Trade standards are those developed by the industry groups interested in settings-up of an industry-wide model or guide. Grade or standard is a classification of products into varying levels of quality depending on certain set criteria. One criterion could be related to presence or absence of defects or to classifications by measurement (i.e. weight) or AA for eggs of highest quality, very fresh with no defects, could either be small, medium, or large . Steps of development of grades and standards of quality. 1. determination, measurement, and correlation with human evaluation, of the different quality characteristics possessed by a specific food product; 2. selection of the best method of measurement (improvise if necessary) then simplifying and testing the accuracy and precision of chosen methods. 3. testing of validity and establishment of adequate scales on which to anchor the specified qualities. 4. application in actual situations. 5. provision for continuous revision and improvement to suit conditions without sacrifice on precision. 4. Other Quality Control Tools. Methods or tools unutilized in food processing techniques that can be simplified for purposes of the following: a.) identifying quality attributes; b ) observing changes in the product characteristics; c ) for quality monitoring. Cause and Effect Diagram and Pareto Analysis. This is adapted in Food Technology as a process flow where the effect is the finished product and the causes include the processes that raw material undergo. Step 1. Decide on the product you wish to process. Example: Processing of Canned Pineapple 64 Step 2. Mark the large triangle as the head of the fish and place in it the word Finished Product and at the tip Canned Slice Pineapple. Step 3. Draw a straight line from the head towards the left hand side and mark the tail end as Raw Material. Step 4. Draw the small bones from the main line (major bone) and let this represent each step of the process by putting them in boxes. Step 5. Identify the quality control points per step by drawing the finer bones on the small ones. Step 6. Double line or simply darken the box which contains the step considered to be a critical control point. How to make Pareto Analysis Step 1. Select the item you would like to classify. You may star from either the histogram or check sheet of characteristics. Step 2. Enumerate the items belonging to the classification you have selected. Step 3. Decide on the time period/duration of data gathering.

THE MARKETING SYSTEM Marketing - working with markets attempting to actualize potential exchanges, a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through the exchange processes. - a complex business process directed towards satisfaction of consumers present and future wants through supply goods and services and in the end would reward those engaged in such activities. - a process in a society by which the demand structure for products and services is satisfied through conception, promotion, exchange and physical distribution of goods and services. - a social process which directs and economizes flow of goods and services from producers to consumers effectively matches the supply and demand. - a total system of interacting business activities designed to plan, price, promote and distribute want-satisfying products and services and potential customers. - it is a system concerned with the planning and development of products and services, determination of prices, creation of promotional programs and distribution system to present prospective market for satisfaction of their existing needs and wants, to maximizing profit Elements of Marketing System: Marketing is a system requires planning to determine the products or services that shall be produced involving money or budget and machineries to be used for creating the goods and services. The direction and control top evaluate the products planned were successful or failures, thus requiring further development. Product or service planning and development, pricing, promotion and place of distribution, known as marketing mix four Ps of marketing Planning for Products/ Services

Pricing

Promotion

Place Distribution

69 Marketing manager tasks: Service and profit oriented entrepreneur Determine the right product service Produce or sell Evaluate existing products or services requires modification Profit maximization at reasonable price; products sold best with promotional programs which include administration of personal selling, advertising, publicity, public relations and sales promotions. Marketing Objective can be achieved if products and services will reach the hands of the consumers. Development of strategic places of distribution and selling outlets should be planned so that consumers can avail goods and services when need arises. Presence of current and potential market. Markets consists of buyers and users of products and services; perceiving or forecasting needs of a future market. Satisfaction of existing human needs and wants- based on economic principle, that human needs and wants are insatiable, when buyers continuously demand for new or developed goods for their satisfaction. Out of these needs satisfaction sales is assured. Operational Dimensions of Marketing The Marketing Organizations or Marketers The Things to be Marketed The Target Market or Buyers The Marketing Organizations/Marketers they are the marketing organization, the product or service sellers; they are the producers, manufacturers, wholesalers or retailers of goods. Producers those who buy raw materials and process into final products; example-buy raw materials such as animal skin for shoe-making. Manufacturers those who buy intermediate or half-finished materials and process these into final products; example those who buy dyed-leather products measured per meter for use in shoe-making. Wholesalers those who buy finalfinished products and re-sell them in bulk in the same original form. Retailers those who buy finished products and re-sell in small quantities, the same goods to final users. b. Things to be Marketed: Marketing goods maybe tangibles or intangibles: The products tangibles such as pens, appliances and shoes The services -intangibles such as selling beauty parlor, barber shops, catering services or health shops The ideas- sold through institutional advertisements reminding people about public services of the company, values, policies The institutions or people sold by selling organizations image or goodwill. selling school advertising for the enrolment schedule and course offerings to attract buyers or enrollees. c. Target Market the buyers of the goods; they are the product users or prospective buyers targeted by marketing organizations. Market shall not mean palengke but people

Consumer Market those who buy goods for their own personal use or purpose. example: buy typewriter to accomplish acad. reqts. Industrial Market those inst. or people buy industrial goods either for the purpose of using business operations; example, buy typewriter for recruitment agency business, or for re-sell purpose, like buying same product for re-selling to clients to gain profit.

Operational Dimensions of Marketing Target Market

Marketing System Things to be Marketed Marketing Organizations

Marketing Concept vs Selling Concept: Marketing Concept to determine the needs and wants of the target markets and to adapt the organization to delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than its competitors; they are focused to the buyers Selling Concept assumes that customers will either buy or not to buy enough of the organizations products unless the organization makes a substantial effort to stimulate their interest in its products; focused to the sellers needs and concerns to maximization of profit and social service to enhance quality of life and society
Marketing Concept Steps Involve Determination of customers needs and wants Product planning and development Selling Concept Steps Involved : Product planning and development Promotional programs or personal selling functions in order to sell

the product.

The Marketing Concept

Discover market needs

Research Product planning and Development Production

Distribution of Products and services

GUARANTEED SALES VOLUME AND PROFITS AT CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION

The Selling Concept

Product Planning and Development

Production

Promotional Methods and Selling Persuasive Techniques

Distribution of Products and Services

UNGUARANTEED SALES VOLUME AND PROFIT UNGUARANTEED CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

The Marketing System The marketing organizations/ the marketers must know the following to Improve services to the market Equipped with concept or tools Require the marketing system

Elements of Marketing system

Goods and Services Gathering of Information

Marketing Organizations

Target Market

Information

Payments

The Marketing system and its Environment

Marketing Organizations marketers, sellers of goods or services who can be the producer, manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer Target market buyers classified into consumer market or industrial market MARKET SEGMENTATION: Process of knowing the overview of the entire trget market, but differentiating them from competitors by recognition of sub-markets with similarity in needs but differs in demographic, geographic, economic, cultural and psychological ways. This is customer oriented, where it identifies customer needs in a sub-market, then product is or service is designed to satisfy the sub-markets needs. Bases for Market Segmentation: Choices for segmenting the market: Identify whether buyers are consumer market or industrial market Demographic bases; a. Population its distribution and composition a.1. total population a.2. regional distribution a.3. urban, rural distribution Age groups b.1. children b.2. teenagers b.3. young adults 20 34 b.4. younger middle-aged- 35 49 b.5. Older 50 above c. Sex category c.1. male c.2 female 3. Cultural bases 3.a. race 3.b. religion 3.c. nationality 3.d. education 3.e. occupation 4. Economic bases 4.a Income bracket 4.a.1. high income group A 4.a.2. upper middle income group B 4.a.3. lower middle income group C 4.a.4 low income group D 5. Psychographic basis 5.a. personality 5.b. buying attitudes 5.c products benefits desired Classifications of Market and Goods Consumer market those people who purchase goods and services for their own personal use; Industrial market those people who buy goods and services for business use or for re-sell purpose to gain profit.

Consumer Goods: Purchased by consumer market Convenience Goods Consumers know what, where, and when to buy the products because of complete product knowledge. Consumers purchased in accessible outlets like sari-sari stores Consumers are willing to substitute brands Products not bulky with low unit prices; examples toothpastes, seasonings, etc. Marketing considerations; intensive product distribution and wider product selection by carrying several brands. Shopping Goods Sub-classified into service goods or fashion goods Consumers shop-around before buying before deciding to buy Full product information before buying Service goods have high unit value, bulky and require servicing like delivery, installation, repair and maintenance Marketing consideration Few retail outlets should be near each other for consumers convenience and to compare features; image or reputation of the outlet is impt. to buyers than manufacturers brands. Specialty Goods Consumers reach exclusive dealers of the products. Consumers are after the brand prestige irrespective of its high price. Consumers may not accept substitute brands. Marketing consideration Exclusive distributors or dealership is used for these products; franchise agreement is utilized for control of sales territories and effective distribution. Industrial Goods: Purchased by industrial users or market. Raw Materials Products will become a part of another final product. Products integrated to produce another product can be unidentifiable or cannot be physically separated. example: flour for making bread, etc Marketing considerations: Supply ma be low or limited, standardization and grading is essential. Distribution can be direct from producer or manufacturer. Fabricating materials and parts Goods which will become part of another final product but identifiable in finished form. Assembled products with no further change in form; example sparkplugs and fan belts for automobile and buttons for dresses. Marketing consideration- Purchase in bulk ahead of the selling season; direct personal selling is done between producer and consumer; branding- unimportant. Installation Major equipment for industrial user. Affect operating scale for production quota of the company; examples, adding dozen of typewriter in a business; adding presser machines for a tin can industry. Marketing considerations: Pre-sale and post sale which includes negotiation period before closing of sale through personal selling. Accessory equipment

They facilitate or aid in production operation of industrial market. It will not be part of final product nor gives significant effort in production scale. examples- cash registers for food chain outlets; calculators for auditing firms. Marketing considerations: Direct selling is used for bulky orders; middlemen are used for geographically dispersed market. Operating Supplies These are convenience goods of industrial market. They have low unit price; short-lived, which facilitates business operations. examples pens, pencils papers, etc. Marketing considerations: It demands broad distribution; price wars can happen since products are highly competitive. References: 1. Food Technology. Stage 6 Preliminary Course.