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A CRITICAL REVIEW ON DATE PITS ABSTRACT
God has not created anything useless in this world. Therefore use of such commodities
4considered waste can render unlimited benefits to mankind otherwise they will be creating 5unlimited episodes of problems . Take the example of only one such waste commodity and you 6will be astonished to know interesting facts about it. 7 This review article provides information on the nutritional and functional constituents of date
8pits from over 80 references. Date seeds contain higher protein (5.1 g/100 g) and fat (9.0 g/100 g) 9as compared to the date flesh. It is also high in dietary fiber (73.1 g/100 g), phenolics (3942 10mg/100 g) and antioxidants (80400 μmol/100 g). 11 Date pit comprises 10-15% of the date fruit. Date pits were considered waste in the past and
12were a major waste produced during date syrup, pitted dates and other date products 13manufacturing. In the United States, pulverized ground date pits were used on a small scale, on dirt 14roads as a type of road base gravel. However, finding a way to make a profit on the pits would 15benefit date farmers substantially. 16 Some researchers used them in animal feed and outstanding results were obtained in respect
17of weight gain and less disease attack in animals. Diets, containing date pits, supported broiler 18weights and resulted in feed conversions comparable to, or better than, the control diet. Several 19investigations on the effects of pits in animal diets suggest the presence of substantial amounts of 20tannins, resistant starch and natural anabolic agents. 21 Further studies on date pits have exposed interesting and surprising facts about date pits.
22Date pits contain 22.50-80.20 % dietary fiber. The components of dietary fiber include cellulose, 23hemicellulose, pectins, hydrocolloids and lignin. Date pit dietary fiber consumption helps in 24preventing heart disease and cancer, normalization of blood lipids, regulation of glucose absorption 25and insulin secretion, prevention of constipation and diverticular disease. 26They contain 5.0–13.2% fat. It has been found that date seed oil (DSO) has better oxidative 27stability than most vegetables and also has a high antioxidant capacity owing to its richness in 28phenol and tocopherol compounds. Alpha-tocopherol constitutes 24.97% of the total tocopherols 29of DSO.
Date pit oil contains alpha-tocopherol 243.00 ± 6.50 ppm and Polyphenols 319.00 ± 7.30
31ppm. These phenolic components possess benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, 32antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as reduction of 33cardiovascular diseases. Date seed oil (DSO) can be used against male infertility by protecting 34spermatozoa against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated damage and can improve sperm function, 35possibly owing to antioxidant properties. Date pits also contain significant higher contents of total 36phenolics (3102–4430 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight) and antioxidant activity 37(580–929 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh weight). 38 Date seed oil (DSO) has a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced
39oxidative stress (OS) in human skin organ culture and suggested that the use of DSO as a dietary 40supplement may have beneficial effects in protecting against skin disorders in humans 41 The bioactive component(s), namely, protein and some derived polyphenolic compounds
42such as polysaccharides, lignans and bioflavonoids, are present in reasonable amounts in date pit 43which are reported to bind to the protein coat of virus and thus arrest absorption of the virus in the 44host cell. Therefore date pit extract has antiviral activity and has great potential to be used against 45viral infections like HIV. 46 Estrogens are a group of female sex steroid hormones that are synthesized in the ovary and
47placenta. They include estradiol, estriol, and estrone. The steroid sex hormone, estrone has been 48detected in the date pits as well as in the pollen grains of Phoenix dactylifera. The hormone estrone 49can be prepared commercially from date pits and can be used for treating different female estrogen 50related ailments. 51 This detailed information on nutritional and health promoting components of dates and their
52seeds will enhance our knowledge and appreciation for the use of dates in our daily diet and their 53seeds as a functional food ingredient. 54Keywords: Date pits, Antioxidants, Date pit oil. 55
59INTRODUCTION 60 61 BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION The botanical name of the date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., is presumably derived from a
62Phoenician name "phoenix", which means date palm, and "dactylifera" derived from a Greek word 63"daktulos" meaning a finger, illustrating the fruit's form (Linné, 1734). 64 Another source refers this botanical name to the legendary Egyptian bird, "Phoenix", which
65lived to be 500 years old, and cast itself into a fire from which it rose with renewed growth (Pliny, 661489; Van Zyl, 1983). This resemblance to the date palm, which can also re-grow after fire 67damage, makes the bird and the date palm share this name, while "dactylifera" originates from the 68Hebrew word "dachel" which describes the fruit's shape (Popenoe, 1938). 69 Belonging to the Angiosperms-Monocotyledones, Palmaceae is a family of about 200 genera
70and 1, 500 species (Dowson, 1982). Phoenix (Coryphoideae Phoeniceae) is one of the genera 71which contains a dozen species, all native to the tropical or subtropical regions of Africa or 72Southern Asia, including Phoenix dactylifera L. (Munier, 1973). According to Dransfield and Uhl, 73(1986) date palm is classified as follows: - Group: - Order: - Family: - Sub-family: - Tribe: - Genus: - Species: Spadiciflora Palmea Palmaceae Coryphyoideae Phoeniceae Phoenix Dactylifera L.
842005).9 million tons in 2004 (FAO.392 Oman 34 238 5 436 2. export.180 Pakistan 81 622 65 346 22.5 million US $). and Pakistan (22. 2007).. However.473 . followed by Tunisia and Algeria. the date palm is likely to continue to provide a good 88source of low cost food. 1995 370 Dowson. and 86are marketed worldwide as a high-value fruit crop. It has always played an important part in the economic and social lives of the people of 81these regions.) has been an important crop in arid and semiarid regions of 80the world. production. Iran. The fruit of the date palm is well known as a staple food (Besbes et al.068 tonnes in 2004 (FAOSTAT.563 Egypt 35 1.289.60 million tons 89in 1994 to 6. the United States achieved the 93highest export price (3. 1923 244 Saaidi.4 million US $). 2004a).b 400 FAO. With the present uncertainty in the world food 87supply and an expected increase in demand. Egypt. Countries Area Production Export Commercia Export 1000 1000 tons 1000 tons l value Hectares value 1000 US $ US $/ton Algeria 135 470 8 1. and export value of dates for 97 2004.75TABLE 1 76Number of date varieties described per country Egypt Egypt and Sudan Iran Iraq Morocco Tunisia USA Number of varieties described Author/Reference 26 Brown. due 94to their strategy of growing top quality date varieties and targeting the high-value European 95markets (Zaid and Arias-Jimenez. Saudi Arabia 92(24. 1950 77 78 79 PRODUCTION The date (Phoenix dactylifera L.511 tonnes in 1974 to 6.339 US $/ton) among these countries.4 million US $).1 million US $).820 14. Table 2 shows that Tunisia is leading the exporting countries in 91terms of gross exports (84. 85 Dates are produced largely in the hot desert regions of Southwest Asia and North Africa. 1906 196 Nixon. Saudi Arabia.430 Iraq 102 875 24 183 4.166 3 457 1. 96Table 2 Cultivation area.772. followed by Iran (36. Indeed. 1924 22 Mason. 1925a. 2002). and Iraq are the main 90producing countries (Table 2).370 Iran 185 880 95 383 36. the 83production has tripled from 2. 1979 250 Kearney. The 82world production of dates has increased considerably during the last 30 years. The world production of dates has increased from about 4.
Siddiqui 109and Gupta. date 124fruits (Tamer) vary in shape.100 tones respectively. 111and sugar content. Khairpur. 1982. 107Khalaal. The moisture content at this stage is up to 85%. Normally the tips of the fruit start 116ripening by turning brown as they enter the Rutab stage which is characterized by a decrease in 117weight due to moisture loss. 1994). Length and width may vary from 18–110mm to 8–32 mm. At the Kimri stages there is a rapid increase in size. El-Zoghbi. At the end of this stage the fruit 112starts to turn yellow or red depending on the variety. and weight.382 13. the 113sucrose starts to be converted to glucose and fructose. 2006-2007) 105 106 LIFE CYCLE AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS Dates pass through four stages of development known by their Arabic names. weight. Al-Shahib and Marshall. Khairpur district is known as Queen of Date palm in Pakistan.Saudi 145 901 Arabia Tunisia 45 122 UAE 186 760 USA 2 15 World 1.. 1995..700 and 29. the sweet Khalaal. size. and tannins 114will start to precipitate and lose their astringency.248 The area under cultivation of dates in Pakistan and Sindh is 84. the moisture content goes down. 103Therefore.. The moisture content decreases 119to about 35% and the dates at this stage are sold as fresh fruit.33% of Sindh however the area is increasing day by day.908 98 Source: (FAOSTAT). In some varieties this latter process occurs 115rapidly. dates 121distinguished from most other fruits in that they have a botanical maturity at least 3 commercial 122maturation levels. 1994. 1993). Many studies had discussed the physical and chemical development of 108dates as they pass through these stages (Sawaya et al. Kimri.. (Sayed. Mustafa et al.1994. which makes the fruit palatable at the Khalaal stage.300 hectares 101respectively and its total production is 426. In the Khalaal stage weight gain is slow. 2003). Only when the dates are left to ripen 120further on the palm or sun dried they will develop into the Tamer (dried) stage. . and Tamer.127 13.300 and 201.1983. Al-Hooti et al. Rutab.090 84. Usually they are oblong in shape although certain 125varieties may be almost round. Kingri and Kot 104Diji are three major Date palm growing areas of the district.129 6. the Rutab. 1997.357 296. Only Khairpur 102district share is 34% of Pakistan and 83. According to variety and growth conditions. There are 123over 2000 different date varieties (Amer.339 786 24. Therefore. 1101999. and the Tamer stage (Barreveld. Ahmed and Ahmed.110 219 3. 1986. the conversion of sucrose into invert sugar (the degree depending on 118the variety) and a browning of the skin and softening of the tissues. Myhara et al. 99 100 44 40 60 4 377 548 2. (FAO 2007).
92 5.4 4.75 67.1% moisture.3 7.84 80. also. 1998).5 9. 2002) (Besbes et al.) are popular among the population of the 129Middle East countries. 2004) (Besbes et al. 1984) (Sawaya et al.05 1.29 5. 2007) (Al-Farsi et al. 2007) (Hamada et al.73 6. 132 133 PROXIMATE COMPOSITION Chemical and nutritional constituents of date seeds were reported by numerous researchers.14 86.8 Protein g/100 g 3.1 Carbohydr ates g/100 g 86. 2002) (Hamada et al...19 10.1–7. Moistur e g/100 g 3. found to be good sources of dietary fiber.9 73.2 10..5 78..04 1.40 5. 142 The good nutritional value of date seeds is also based on their high dietary fiber content. which 141varied between 77..90 g/100 g in Um-sellah.2002)..8 1.2 fat.5–80.6 5.8 64.92 5.89 83. 134Al-Farsi et al.02 g/100 g in Mabseeli to 1405.23 11. Um-sellah.54 72.15 77..9 9.3 74.0 1.4 1. 1355.9–1.2 5. 2.04 4.1 Phenoli cs mg/100 g 4430 4293 3102 3942 Antioxida nts μmol/100 g 58000 90300 92900 80400 References Varieties Mabseeli Umsellah Shahal Fard Khalas Lulu Deglet noor Allig Ruzeiz Sifri Average (Al-Farsi et al. 143which makes them suitable for the preparation of fiber-based foods and dietary supplements (Al144Farsi and Lee. Fat in seeds was ranged from 5. Seeds were.43 5. 145 Table 3 Date seed composition.0 Ash g/100 g 1. 2002) (Hamada et al.9 13. 128 Dates of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.89 1.5 6.4% protein.07 77..2% dietary fiber. fat. followed by moisture.3–6.58 9.0–13.7 6. 2008).4 75..9 5. (2007) reported that the date seeds contain 3.7 71.14 4.48 78.16 0.03 1. 2008)..65 10. and Shahal).0 Energy kcal/10 0g 387 386 379 385 412 391 386 401 403 408 394 Fiber g/100 g 79. along with 139small amounts of protein. . 0.0 1. 136 Al-Farsi et al..09 9. 1984) 146 Data are expressed on wet weight basis.02 5. 2007) (Al-Farsi et al.40 2.8 73.8% ash and 22.02 1.0 5. A date is composed of a seed surrounded by a fleshy pericarp which 130constitutes about 85–90% of date fruit weight (Elleuch et al. and ash.1 9. The seed constitutes between 13110% and 15% of date fruit weight (Hussein et al. 2004) (Sawaya et al.126respectively and the average weight per fruit is about 2 to 60 grams (Zaid and Arias127Jimenez. They found that 138carbohydrate was the predominant component in all varieties..03 9.4 8.15 g/100 g fresh weight.5 68. (2007) evaluated the chemical composition of seeds of three native sun-dried 137date varieties from Oman (namely Mabseeli.75 and 80.1 Fat g/100 g 5...
68 - Water Protein Fat Ash Carbohydrate * Crude fibre Others Water extract Water activity 152SUGAR CONTENTS 153Table 3 Sugar analysis of roasted date pits Sugar type Amount Wet basis. glutathione 160peroxidase. They are continuously produced in the 159human body and they are controlled by endogenous enzymes (superoxide dismutase. 164 Chaira et al. 149* Carbohydrate was estimated by difference.98 Source: (Rahman et al. kg/100 kg sample Reducing sugars 1.24) 7. such as antioxidant. 2006) 155 156 157 ANTIOXIDANT Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species..84 sugars Total sugars 2.31 21.08 0.50 21.95 (0.37% in Alig. kg/100 kg sample 1. catalase).13% in Deglet nour and 12. as well as reduction 171of cardiovascular diseases.02) 61.96 (0. An exposure to external oxidant substances or a failure in the defense 161mechanisms results when there is an over-production of these species. also.picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. As some synthetic .35 6. it is considered important to increase the antioxidant intake in the 172human diet and one way of achieving this is by enriching food with phenolics. 150Source: (Rahman et al. chemical signaling and immune function.87 2.147Table 1 Proximate composition.98 62. ROS/RNS are essential to energy supply.66 (0.11 1. to possess benefits. kg/100 kg dry solids 1.96 (0. 2006) 151 Dry basis. 2004). 158detoxification.93 154 148Note: Values in the parentheses are standard deviation. anti- 170carcinogenic.diphenyl-2. water extract and water activity of roasted date pit powder Component Amount Wet basis. anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory activities.31) 0. antimicrobial. In addition ethyl acetate 166extracts from both these varieties showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards 11671... Thus.09 Non-reducing 1.007) 6.31) 6. 168 169 PHENOLICS Phenolic components have been shown. 2007 reported about the composition of date pit from two varieties (Deglet nour 165and Alig ) as oil contents 10..57 (0. The antioxidant hypothesis 162says that ‘as antioxidants can prevent oxidative damages.005) Dry basis. kg/100 kg dry solids 7.08 8.00 (0. increased intakes from the diet will also 163reduce the risks of chronic diseases’ (Stanner et al.43) 0.09 (0.
5. 2008). Carbohydrates 62.01 188 189 190 191 Oxidative stability (hr) 41.50 187. Source: Basunay and Al-Marzooq (2011) Rahman et al.20 fat. as well as reduction of cardiovascular diseases 185(Peterson and Dwyer. antimutagenic and antiinflamatory 184activities (Halliwell.08%.40 % protein.35%.00-13.30 Values are ± mean SE of three estimations.. anticarcinogenic. Ash 0. (2007) reported date seeds contain significant higher contents of total 195phenolics (3102–4430 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight) and antioxidant activity 196(580–929 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh weight). Non-reducing sugars 1. tocopherols and oxidative stability of date pit oil.00 ± 4.00 Α-tocopherol ppm 243.30 198. Oils Parameters Date pits oil Palm kernel oil 44.. 2010). 194 Al-Farsi et al. 2. 182 Phenolic compounds of date seeds mainly phenolic acids and flavonids.98%.00 ± 4.80 % ash and 22. 187 Table 7. 199 It has been found that date seed oil (DSO) has better oxidative stability than most vegetables 200and also has a high antioxidant capacity owing to its richness in phenol and tocopherol compounds 201(Besbes et al.173antioxidants may exhibit toxicity. require high manufacturing costs and have lower efficiency than 174natural antioxidants.. Also seeds 181contain high levels of phenolics (3102-4430 mg Gallic acid 1100 gm (Ardekani et al. the 176natural antioxidants commercially produced include tocopherols.50 Polyphenols ppm 319. there is a need to identify natural and possibly to devise more economical 175ways to obtain effective antioxidants with potential to be incorporated into foods. 1998). Thus it is considered important to increase the antioxidant intake in 186the human diet and one way achieving this is by enriching food with phenolics. 2006 reported proximate analysis of roasted date pits to contain protein 1927. Therefore date by-products (seeds) can be 197served as a good source of natural antioxidants and can potentially be considered as a functional 198food or functional food ingredient.10% moisture. .40 ± 2.31%.10-7. 1997 and Diplock et al.60 ± 2.20 % dietary fiber. antimicrobial. 2004 b and c). 178 Beyond compositional analysis.50-80. Polyphenols. have been shown to 183possess such as antioxidant. and Crude Fiber 21.301806.90-1. ascorbic acid and plant extracts 177(Al-Farsi and Lee.. Sugar analysis of 193roasted date pits as reducing sugars 1. Fat 8.87%. 0.98%. At present.. and Total sugars 2. there is work of (Al-Farsi and Lee 2008) who researched the 179functional properties of date seeds. Their reported composition was 3.11%.00 ± 7.00 ± 6. 1998).08%.
.001 1256.50 ± 22. 212Magnesium 789.09 1.33 mg/kg.5 10. H M 2011) 209 210 MINERAL CONTENTS OF DATE PITS Rahman et al.96 mg/kg.35 ± 11.19 mg/kg.12 ± 0.6 45. 211Potassium 2540. 2006 reported mineral Contents of roasted date pits as Sodium 165 mg/kg. 213Lead < 0. Cadmium<0.02 Constituents Sodium (Na) Calcium (Ca) Potassium (k) Iron (Fe) Copper (Cu) Phosphorus (P) Magnesium (Mg) Zinc (Zn) Manganese (Mn) Values are ± mean SE of three estimations.23 ± 0.05 mg/kg. Chromium <0.50 189. Source: Basunay and Al-Marzooq (2011) 215 216 217 .4 19. W H and Habib.05 mg/kg.202 Ardekani et al (2010) reported that Iranian date palm seed has a relatively high antioxidant 203activity due to contribution of phenolics compounds. The Iranian date seeds are strong radical 204scavengers and can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants for medicinal and 205commercial uses. Source: (Ibrahim. Calcium 191.7 ND.33 mg/kg. 206 Table Antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity of date seeds Component Total phenolics (mg gallic acid equivalent kg−1) Total flavonoids (mg rutin equivalent kg−1) β-Carotene (μg kg−1) Lutein (μg kg−1) β-Cryptoxanthin (μg kg−1) Lycopene (μg kg−1) Zeaxanthin (μg kg−1) α-Carotene (μg kg−1) FRAP (μmol ferrous equivalent kg−1) DPPH (% inhibition) Superoxide (% inhibition) 207 208 Value 24 600 63 674 3142 1599 20.001 7.76 mg/kg.30 ± 13. Copper 5.05 19. Zinc 1.05 811.05 mg/kg.67 ± 0. Iron 21. 214 Table 4.02 ± 0.02 2489. Manganese 6. not detected.00 ± 10. Phosphorous 1300 mg/kg.19 5. MINERAL CONTENTS OF DATE PITS Concentration (mg/kg samples) 160.8 ND 756 280 41.53 mg/kg.48 mg/kg.23 ± 16.
0075%.218Table 4 Mineral contents of roasted date pits Constituent Concentration (mg/kg sample) Sodium (Na) 165.74 ± 0.00 ± 5.00 ± 4.01 1.65 ± 0.15 232 233 234 Refractive index at 40°C 1.05 ± 0. C15 (pentadecanoic) 0.4595 ± 0.4500 ± 0. 227 Date seed oil has been reported to be composed of about 44% saturated fatty acids (SFA).15 Iodine number I2/100 g oil 46.21%. 22841% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 14% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).13 19.05 254. Source: Basunay and Al-Marzooq (2011) . 226C18:1 (Oleic) 6.39%.64%.70 ± 0.13 Saponification number 213.05 Chromium (Cr) <0.53 Phosphorus (P) 1300 Lead (Pb) <0.33 Copper (Cu) 5. (Besbes 229et al.33 Magnesium (Mg) 789.10 0. 2006) 220 221 222 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF DATE PITS Rahman et al. Some physical and chemical properties of date pits oil compared with palm 231kernel oil.50 Unsabonifiable matter (%) 1. C12 (lauric) 0.00 Potassium (K) 2540.001 Color at yellow 35 Red 0.062%. Oils Parameters Date pits oil Palm kernel oil 1. Fatty acid composition of roasted date pits oil as 225C10 (capric) 0. C18:2 (Linoleic) 1. C18:2 (Linoleic) 0. C12 (lauric) 6. 2004a)..0049%.793%.61%. O2/ kg oil 1.30 ± 1. C16 (Palmitic) 2. C16 (Palmitic) 0.0006%.96 Calcium (Ca) 191.01 Free fatty acids (% as oleic acid) 0.54%.19 Zinc (Zn) 1.73 ± 0.13 Values are ± mean SE of three estimations.128%..002 Peroxide value meq..76 Iron (Fe 21.48 Manganese (Mn) 6.50 ± 0.001 1.508%. 2006 reported fatty acid composition of roasted date pits powder sample as 223C10 (capric) 0.05 Cadmium (Cd) <0.42 ± 0.003 1.05 219 Source: (Rahman et al.90 ± 0. 224C18:1 (Oleic) 0.50 ± 2. C15 (pentadecanoic) 0. 230 Table 5.
11 ± 0.01 C26 10.33 ± 3.01 Β-sitosterol 25.70 ± 5.10 1.50 C18:2 8.235 Table 6.80 Stigmasterol 3.508 6.001 C12:0 35.09 36.50 Total unsaturated 49.0049 0..71 2.01 C8:0 0.21 2.01 0.05 7.05 ± 0.61 ± 3.01 11. Source: Basunay and Al-Marzooq (2011) 242 243 244 245Table 2 Fatty acids composition of roasted date pits Fatty acid kg/100 kg kg/100 kg sample oil C10 (capric) 0.21 38.83 ± 0.00 Fatty acid (%) 236 237 238 239 Table 7.10 Campsterol 8.70 ± 2.18 0.0075 C16 (palmitic) 0.45 ± 0. Fatty acids composition of date pits oil compared with palm kernel oil.10 ± 4.66 ± 0. 2006) C8 0.72 ± 4.01 3.31 2.03 11.20 ± 0.00 ± 3.80 15.02 ± 0.09 ± 1.59 Total sterols 39.10 C18:1 39.85 ± 4.39 C18:2 (linoleic) 0.01 C20 0.50 ± 2.31 ± 1.89 ± 0.00 Values are ± mean SE of three estimations.29 ± 6.25 ± 1.25 ± 0.81 0.10 ± 019 10.62 0.50 ± 1.71 ± 1.51 9.10 Total fatty acids 100.001 C12 0.58 ± 0.72 C18:0 3.15 3.04 ± 0.90 Total hydrocarbons 60.79 ± 2.02 ± 0. Type of oils Date pits oil Palm kernel oil 2.61 C18:3 0.00 ± 1.51 ± 0.15 ± 1.40 ± 0.91 C28 0.19 45.85 ± 2.48 ± 0.00 ± 3. Unsaponifiable matter fraction (Hydrocarbons and sterols) of date pits oil 240compared with palm kernel oil.793 C15 (pentadecanoic) 0.50 Cholesterol 0.35 38.57 ± 0.48 ± 1.15 C14:0 0.00 ± 0.90 16.10 C16 0.062 C12 (lauric 0.001 0.001 Total saturated 51.04 ± 0.79 ± 5.30 ± 0.80 0.16 ± 0.11 0.79 ± 3.00 2.01 Squalene 11.00 ± 0.00 ± 0.001 1.72 62.0006 0.12 C20:0 0.61 246Source: (Rahman et al.00 ± 0.02 0.09 ± 0.27 ± 0.12 ± 0.67 ± 2.88 ± 1.42 ± 0.04 ± 0.35 ± 0.001 C10 0.001 C16:0 12.23 ± 3.01 C18 3. Source: Basunay and Al-Marzooq (2011) kg/100 kg FA 0.03 C30 10.03 Values are ± mean SE of three estimations.26 ±4.30 29.50 100.19 26.15 C24 15.001 C22 6.01 7.11 ± 0.20 ± 0.15 21.54 6.64 C18:1 (oleic 0.83 ± 3.85 15.79 ± 2.00 C10:0 0.93 4.043 15.81 ± 0.01 C14 1.50 ± 2.20 247 .00 Brassicaesterol 1.128 1. 241 Type of oils Compounds Date pits oil Palm kernel oil 0.00 70.87 ± 0.
They are components that have antimicrobial. phytic acid. Dillard and German. 256 The date seeds are considered as waste product of many date processing plants producing 257pitted dates (seed). 1998).248 249 250 USES OF DATE PITS AS ANIMAL FEED Vandepopuliere. and other degenerative diseases as well as ageing 272(Joseph et al. are used mainly as animal feeds in the cattle.. and other biotic compounds. 1999) and natural anabolic agents (Elgasim. With world production of dates reaching 6.9 million tonnes in 2004. from 260this approximately 863 thousand tonnes of date seeds are year globally produced (FAO. Finely milled . such as dietary fibre. essential 266minerals. 2007). Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that there 270are clear significant positive associations between intake of fruits and vegetables and reduced rate 271of heart diseases mortality. containing date pits. Several investigations 253on the effects of pits in animal diets suggest the presence of substantial amounts of tannins. date syrup and date confectionery. camel and poultry 259(Rahman et al. sheep.. Palm date seeds were 278evaluated by Almana & Mahmoud (Larrauri et al. or better than. These date wastes are not consumed by 258humans and at present.. 2551995). 1995) as a source of dietary fiber. This is 273attributed to the fact that these foods may provide an optimal mix of dietary fiber. 275 276 USE IN BREAD Since a large quantity of date seeds are being produced as a waste material and the seeds 277contain a significant amount of bioactive phenolics and dietary fiber. 262 263 FUNCTIONAL FOODS Functional food components are health-promoting. utilization of such waste is very important to increase the income of this sector. Functional foods are defined as those foods that provide health benefits 269beyond basic nutrition (IFICF. and Lyons (1995) incorporated date pits in broiler starting diets 251at levels ranging from 5% to 27%. a-amylase inhibitors and tannins.Al-Yousef. 2000. 267 There is a particular lack of information on functional constituents of dates and their potential 268value as functional foods. vitamins. 1999. 2000. natural 274antioxidants. Diets.Al-Yousef. anti265carcinogenic and other health-promoting activities. 2007). 261Thus. nutritious materials from plant and 264microbial sources (Pszczola. Wargovich. 254resistant starch (Hadarmi. the control diet. 2000). common cancers. & Humeida. 1998). Prior and Cao.. supported broiler weights and 252resulted in feed conversions comparable to.
285Breads containing the fine date seed fiber had higher dietary fiber contents than wheat bran 286controls. Bread containing 10% coarse date seed 284fiber had a higher dietary fiber content and similar sensory properties to the wheat bran control. 2007). 10 and 15% date seed fibers were 282compared to control flat breads containing wheat bran. 5. 304Saccharose. water.. 1995).279date seed fiber had a total dietary fiber content of 71% while the coarsely milled fraction contained 28080% total dietary fiber. The jam 309samples produced were evaluated in terms of the sensory evaluation which includes taste. but lower color. ascorbic acid and Gum Arabic were added to the jam. flavor. Hence. Others suggest some potential uses of the date seeds and their constituents 294in cosmetics. chewing. pectin.. . 306The design showed that there were ten variations of jams to be produced according to the content 307of different materials where the parameters such as amount of saccharose. 295 DATE PIT OIL MAYONNAISE 296 Date pit oil was used by Basunay and Al-Marzooq (2011) to replace conventional oil in 297producing mayonnaise.. rheological characteristics and sensory 281properties of Saudi Mafrood flat breads containing 0. 288 289 USE OF DATE PIT OIL IN BAKERY Briones et al. 300Results showed that the date pit oil could be used as non-traditional oil in some food processing 301such as mayonnaise products. pharmaceuticals and to a lesser degree for food products (Devshony et al. The data demonstrated that mayonnaise containing date pit oil 299was superior in sensory characteristics as compared with control manufactured from corn oil. (2011) reported that little research has been undertaken on date seeds and this 290has focused particularly on their chemical composition for nutritional purposes. 1992). odor. Rheological properties were similar for 283doughs containing coarse date seed fiber or wheat bran. texture. pectin and dietary fiber 308from Gum Arabic were varied to give the best acceptability of the DPK jam samples. Design 305Expert software was used to determine the optimum amount of the ingredients for the DPK jam. Total dietary fiber contents. uniformity and overall acceptability sensory 287scores (Larrauri et al.. citric acid. and sensory qualities were evaluated in comparison with commercial 298mayonnaise prepared from corn oil. 302USE IN MAKING DATE PIT JAM 303 Powdered date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) kernel (DPK) was used to produce edible jam. Some applications such as oil extraction from the 292seeds and the use of the seeds as a dietary-fiber provider in bakery formulations have been reported 293(Rahman et al. studies on 291product development from date seeds are limited.
2006 suggested that caffeine-free date-pits-coffee could be developed when 320caffeine is a concern but a coffee-related flavor is desired. All the data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel 314spreadsheet.55 – 2. Dates-extract (DE) has inhibitory effect on α329amylase and α-glucosidase. flatulence. 3382006). but minor effect on α-amylase activity (Kwon et al. strongly inhibits both enzymes.0) represented “liked extremely”. patients using 333Acarbose usually suffer from abdominal distention. The samples were 312evaluated based on a five point hedonic scale. Horii. Therefore it is attractive to find a substance that has a strong 337inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase... However. These side effects are caused by the excessive inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase 335resulting in the abnormal bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon 336(Bischoff. 2007).64/4) the DPK jam samples. Available anti-diabetic drugs used to treat non-insulin dependent diabetes 332mellitus NIDDM. The inhibition percentages on α-amylase and α-glucosidase are found 330to be in the range of 6-24% and 54%. Inhibition of these enzymes hinders blood glucose level 327increase after a carbohydrate diet and can be an important strategy in the management of non328insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The results clearly show the NIDDM treatment 331potential of date extract. International Islamic University Malaysia.2012). such as Acarbose. 321 A commercial product (Date Pits Powder – Coffee Substitute) has also been introduced 322recently to the market (Rahman et al.. respectively.98/4. The average of overall acceptability 316is 2. 1994. .310aroma.. This study is the outcome of the research done to find the acceptability of the production 317of DPK jams (Mirghani et al. The results showed that 60% of panelists accept (> 3. where zero (0. 318 319 USE AS DATE PIT COFFEE Shafiur et al.1/4) the product while the others 31540 % moderately accept (2.0) represented “disliked extremely” 313and four (4. 1994). appearance and overall acceptability by the panelist selected from students of Biochemical311Biotechnology Engineering.. 323 324 325 NUTRACEUTICAL VALUE USE AGAINST HYPERGLYCEMIA α-Amylase and α-glucosidase are key enzymes involved in carbohydrates breakdown and 326intestinal absorption. respectively. meteorism and possibly diarrhea 334(Bischoff. 1987).
dactylifera were 347found to be more effective than leaves extracts. aeruginosa. using 355Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25668 as the host cell. 362 Date pit extract has promising antiviral activity.3. 2). 1998) : binding to a suitable host 369bacterium and injection of its genome. with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 357<10 mg /ml.339 340 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY The crude methanol.6 and 1.2007). 1. The date pit extracts show a strong ability to inhibit the 359infectivity of Pseudomonas phage ATCC 14209-B1 and completely prevented bacterial lysis.. Shigella flexeneri.( Jassim and Naji.2012).) was prepared and 354its antiviral activity evaluated against lytic Pseudomonas phage ATCC 14209-B1. ( Perveen. Results clearly showed that S. The decimal reduction time (D-values). Minimum 349inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. as evidenced by the presence of 366higher numbers of Ps.B1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. whereas the water extract had very little effect on all test bacterial species and there was 346almost negligible effect on P. 360which it is hoped will promote research into its potential as a novel antiviral agent against 361pathogenic human viruses. the concentration exponent (Z) and the phage 358inactivation kinetics were determined. 1). with minimum inhibitory concentration 363(MIC) concentrations found to be >10 mg/ml for Pseudomonas phage ATCC 14209-B1 (Fig. 341Sukri and Rothana ) of Phoenix dactylifera were tested for antibacterial action against selected 342Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria. aeruginosa cells surviving (Fig. pyogenes was found to be 1. The results suggest that the cause of the 367inhibition could be due to interference with some aspect of the phage’s lytic cycle. Pits extracts of all three varieties of P. It 364was also found that the 100 and 1000 mg/ml concentrations of date pit extract show a strong ability 365to inhibit the infectivity of Pseudomonas phage ATCC 14209. 352ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY 353 A crude acetone extract of the pit of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. respectively. acetone and water extracts of leaves and pits of three varieties (Barhee. The lytic cycle 368of the phage consists of three major phases (Stewart et al. Staphylococcus aureus. the acetone 343and methanol extracts showed good antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis.4 mg/ml for 350methanol leaves and pits extracts and acetone leaves and pits extracts. Escherichia 344coli.1. pyogenes was most 348sensitive pathogen to the crude extracts and had shown maximum zone of inhibition. and then 370lysis of the cell and release of progeny phage into the environment.a period of intracellular production of new virions. 351Bokhari and Soliman . The antiviral activity of date pits was 356found to be mediated by binding to the phage. 1. Barring Enterococcus faecalis. To further understand the . and Streptococcus 345pyogenes.
(2007) showed that date seed oil (DSO) has a protective effect against 400hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress (OS) in human skin organ culture and . 372the first of these stages. and is one of the main reasons why an effective vaccine for 389HIV has not been developed yet (Jassim .In this regard. 3). Alywi and Maysara 1987).phage binding.2003). and 385appeared to be related to the adsorption stage of the phage replication cycle) Since HIV is an RNA 386virus it is not subjected to the ‘proofreading’ that occurs during DNA transcription. protein 378and some derived polyphenolic compounds such as polysaccharides. The phage 376infectivity inhibition may be attributable to date pit extract’s heat-labile bioactive component(s) 377attaching to or modifying the surface of the phages.. 380which were reported to act principally by binding to the protein coat and thus arrest absorption of 381the virus (Jassim and Naji . further studies are needed to investigate the direct 382effect of date pit protein and polyphenolic compounds on phage binding to host cells. namely. date palm 384pit extract has demonstrated positive antiviral results (this effect was rapid. aeruginosa (Fig.2005). 398USE OF DATE PIT OIL FOR SKIN PROTECTION 399 Dammak et al.371mechanism by which Ps. dose dependent. and to 383determine whether the nucleic acid was damaged inside the phage capsid. As a 387consequence this kind of virus mutates very often.2005). Aeruginosa as a result of novel mechanism of interaction with binding of the 393phage to the host bacterium and injection of its genome. However. and that this effect was abolished by heating. This enables HIV to grow resistant to 388antiretroviral pharmaceuticals quickly.The bioactive component(s). aeruginosa cells resisted phage lysis in the presence of date pit extract. it could conceivably play a role 394in combination therapy or even as a novel new class of anti-HIV phyto chemo-type therapy for 395drugs development ‘fusion and attachment inhibitors’ similar to the Enfuvirtide (T-20) in which 396inhibit or blocks HIV from entering the CD4 cell are important drugs for the treatment of AIDS 397(Jassim . date palm pit extract could play an 390important role in a control replication of HIV-1 this hypothesis has been based from the results of 391date pit extract which has strongly inhibited the infectivity of the lytic Pseudomonas phage ATCC 39214209-B1 to Ps. Therefore. was investigated. (Mutlak . are 379present in reasonable amounts in date pit (Barreveld 2007). It was found that 374the >100 mg/ml of date pit extract strongly inhibited the infectivity of Pseudomonas phage ATCC 37514209-B1 to Ps. In this study. This effect was shown to be due to a 373direct effect of the extract on the phage itself rather than an effect on the host cell. lignans and bioflavonoids.
) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity was studied in rats. and 420bilirubin level in animals pre. 415( Qarawi et al 2004).( Recknagel et 418al. 416Liver cirrhosis induced by CCl4 is perhaps the best-studied model of liver cirrhosis.( Kowalska. the recorded 432content of vitamin C in the date flesh and pits (0. The reduction of CCl4-induced elevated plasma activities of aspartate 419aminotransferase(AST). histology.. was prophylactic to CCl4 poisoning. Estrogens are a group of female sex steroid hormones that are synthesized in the ovary and 443placenta (Williams and Lemke 2002) (Lopez and Barecelo 2002). alkaline phosphatase (ALP).( El-Mougy et al . An additional and important factor in the hepatoprotective 428activity of any drug is the ability of its constituents to inhibit the aromatase activity of cytochrome 429P-450.and post-treated with the aqueous extracts of date flesh or pits shows 421their ability to restore the normal functional status of the poisoned liver.137%. and estimation of plasma 410concentration of bilirubin and enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase.1989). The mechanism by which the date pits and flesh induces its 423hepatoprotective activity is not certain. The data suggest that the daily oral 435consumption of an aqueous extract of the flesh and pits of dates.2 ml/100 g) either before or after 408administration of flesh or pits. it is suggested that flavonoids in Phoenix 430dactylifera could be a factor contributing to its hepatoprotective ability through inhibition of 431cytochrome P-450 aromatase. 2009). A similar percentage of protection was achieved when the aqueous extracts of 438the flesh and pits were used as a cure against CCl4 poisoning after toxicity was induced ( Qarawi 439et al 2004). achieving about 80% protection with date palm flesh 437and 70% with pits. it is possible that β-sitosterol. is 426transformed to a free radical through the microsomal cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme. and also to protect against 422subsequent CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Extracts of date flesh and date pits are effective agents in the treatment 434and prevention of CCl4-induced hepatic cytotoxicity. However. They include estradiol. alanine aminotransferase (ALT).401suggested that the use of DSO as a dietary supplement may have beneficial effects in protecting 402against skin disorders in humans (Ben et al.179% and 0.. thereby favoring liver regeneration. This study suggests that CCl4414induced liver damage in rats can be ameliorated by treatment of extracts from date flesh or pits. Sixty male Wistar 406rats were divided into six equal groups of 10. Four groups received extracts of flesh or pits of 407Phoenix dactylifera and intraperitoneal (IP) CCl4 (0. (Nan-Lin and PinTome 1988) CCl4.1993) Several mechanisms underlying this toxicity have been suggested. respectively) may also play a 433role in hepatoprotection. a constituent of 424Phoenix dactylifera. estriol. 403 404 AMELIORATIVE ACTIVITY OF DATE PITS EXTRACT. the inactive metabolite. and as a part of the daily diet ad 436libitum. Brandt and Puett 1999)11 In addition. alanine 411aminotransferase. Treatment with aqueous extract of date flesh or pits 412significantly reduced CCl4-induced elevation in plasma enzyme and bilirubin concentration and 413ameliorated morphological and histological liver damage in rats. On that basis. Liver damage was assessed by liver morphology. 417(Cornelius.. and alkaline phosphatase. Two groups were controls. The ameliorative activity of aqueous extracts of the flesh and pits of dates (Phoenix dactylifera 405L. 427resulting in activation of CCl4 toxicity. . 440 441 442 ESTROGEN LIKE ACTIVITY OF DATE PIT EXTRACT. 1991) is at least partly responsible for the protective 425activity against CCl4 hepatotoxicity. one treated with CCl4 and one with only 409saline.
. sperm 469viability (after 30 min and 24 h) and percentage of reacted acrosome (P < 0. After 461spermiogram. P < 0. 465Acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation were assessed by staining with fluorescein 466isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum and spectrophotometric measurement of malondialdehyde. acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation. These include the two studies by Heftmann and Bennett which 450reported the isolation of the hormone estrone from the seeds (date pits) and pollen grains of the 451date palm Phoenix dactylifera growing in California. Sixteen patients (mean age: 35 years.1% date seed oil. Estrone is a primary estrogenic component of several pharmaceutical preparations 445including those containing conjugated and esterified estrogens (Williams and Lemke 2002). 446However.1% DATE SEED OIL and 100 464μm H2O2. The antioxidant effects of DSO were tested on human 457sperm motility. Motility and viability were determined using World Health Organization criteria. estrogen therapy should be carefully prescribed due to its known side effects even in low 447amounts (Rang .83%. range: 25– 45945 years) referred to the Histology–Embryology Laboratory of the Medicine Faculty of Sfax for 460semen analysis after 12–24 months of sexual intercourse without conception were selected. sperm selection by two interface discontinuous Sill Select gradient was performed.444and estrone. Results showed that incubation with H2O2 alone led to a significant increase in lipid 468peroxidation (57. incubation with 0.05) and protected spermatozoa against the 471deleterious effects of H2O2 on motility. 474EFFECT OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA) SEED FIBERS ON PLASMA . and co-incubation with 0.S. estrone has been detected in the date pits as well as in the pollen 449grains of Phoenix dactylifera. incubation with 100 μm 463H2O2. sperm viability.A (Heftmann . The steroid sex hormone. U. Few studies have been cited about some parts of date palm 448trees. reacted acrosome and lipid peroxidation assessed in vitro after 458H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in spermatozoa. 467respectively.05). 462and selected spermatozoa were used in four experimental assays: control.05) associated with a significant decrease in sperm motility. 456possibly owing to antioxidant properties. Dale and Ritter 2002). Date seed oil 470improved sperm motility after 24 h of incubation (P < 0. 472Therefore supplementation with date seed oil may have a function in antioxidant protection against 473male infertility. viability. KO and Heftmann 1966). KO and Bennett 1965) 452(Bennett. 453 454 USE OF DATE PIT OIL FOR MALE INFERTILITY Fatma et al (2009) reported that in vitro supplementation with date seed oil (DSO) can protect 455spermatozoa against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated damage and can improve sperm function.
2.05) increased in plasma of rats administered 495orally the Arabian and date pit coffees all concentrations except (50 mg/kg body weight/day) 496compared to the control group. such level (1. The increase in this index was higher for the Arabian 493coffee compared to the date pit coffee. Wistar rats were randomly 478divided into five groups and the experiments proceeded for 27 days. there was no significant 502difference in this index between rats administered date pit coffee and the control group.05) increased in plasma of rats 500administered orally Arabian coffee at all concentrations compared to the control group and it 501increased with the increase of the concentration of the coffee.. however. 490The control group was administered water orally instead of coffee. Low 499density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) significantly (P<0.cholesterol (VLDL-c) significantly (P< 0.5%) of date seeds fiber 484had no effect in HDL cholesterol level.5% and 5. 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day) on total homocysteine and plasma lipids. The results 481revealed that diet based on date seed fiber had good potential as a source of dietary fiber in diet. 485Effect of Date Pit Coffee on Total Homocysteine and Plasma Lipids in Rats 486 487 Al-Ghanem et al. total cholesterol and triglyceride.05) increased in plasma of rats 504administered orally date pit coffee all concentrations compared to the control group but the 505increase in dose concentration of date pit coffee had no further effect in the concentration of 506VLDL-c. however. 476 Five diets were investigated which include basal diet. The objective of study was to 479investigate the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds crude fiber on triglycerides.05) increased the concentration of homocysteine in the 492plasma of rats compared to the control group. (2010) in his studies used forty two male Wister albino rats (100±10 g) 488to evaluate the effects of Arabian and date pit coffees administered orally at different 489concentrations (50. 480cholesterol and high density and low density lipoproteins in plasma lipids in rats. (Salah and Maiman 2005). the increase dose concentration of Arabian and date pit 497coffees had no further effect on the concentration of TC. There was no significant difference in this 498index between rats administered Arabian coffee and those administered date pit coffee. and increased with the increase of the concentration of the 494coffee.475LIPID. there was no significant difference in this index between rats administered .2% date seed fiber. 482Diet contained 1. However. However. All concentrations of Arabian 491and date pit coffees significantly (P<0. Total cholesterol (TC) significantly (P<0. Very low 503density lipoprotein. cellulose diet and three defatted date 477seed fibers diets containing 1.5% date seed fibers is the most appropriate because of its action in reducing 483LDL cholesterol.5%.
05) increased in plasma of rats administered date pit coffee at the all concentrations 509compared to the control group and it increased with the increase of the concentration of the date pit 510coffee. On the contrary. Triglyceride (TG) concentration in plasma of rats also 512increased significantly (P<0. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) 525significantly (P< 0. Results also showed a significant increase in the activity of catalase (CAT) in serum 532of rats administered all doses of Arabian coffee and the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg bw/day of date pit 533coffees compared to the control group. This increase was higher in the rats administered the 534Arabian coffee compared to those administered the date pit coffee. (2010) in his studies used forty two male Wister albino rats (100±10 g) to 522evaluate the effects of Arabian and date pit coffees administered orally at different concentrations 523(50. 519 520 521 Effect of Date Pit Coffee on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats Al-Ghanem et al. 536the increase in dose concentration of date pit coffee significantly (P< 0. The control group was 524administered water orally instead of coffee. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) significantly 508(P<0. the 529increase in dose concentration of date pit coffee significantly (P< 0.05) in rats administered date pit coffee compared to those 513administered Arabian coffee but the increase in dose concentration of date pit coffee had no further 514effect in the concentration of TG.05) decreased the activity 537of CAT. there was no significant difference in this index 515between rats administered Arabian coffee and the control group.. and its activity at its highest concentration significantly decreased compared to the . the results suggest 516that Arabian and date pit coffees may increase homocysteine and TC and in serum of rats.507Arabian coffee and the control group.05) increased in serum of rats administered all doses of both Arabian and date 526pit coffees compared to the control group. however. However. there was no significant difference in this index between rats administered 511Arabian coffee and the control group. but its activity in its lowest concentration remained significantly higher compared to the 531control group. however. however. Date pit 517coffee increased HDL-c and TG and VLDL-c in plasma of rats. 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day) on antioxidant enzymes. the increase in dose 528concentration of Arabian coffee had no further effect on the activity of SOD.05) decreased the activity of 530SOD. Arabian coffee increased LDL-c in 518plasma of rats. the increase in the 535concentration of the dose of Arabian coffee had no effect on the activity of CAT. On the contrary. This increase was higher in the rats administered the 527Arabian coffee compared to those administered the date pit coffee.In conclusion.
548 . However.538control group. Arabian and date pit coffees had no effect on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 539activity in the plasma of rats. It seems 546reasonable to conclude that a further characterization of the active ingredients may reveal useful 547compounds. 542CONCLUSION 543 In general. dietary fiber and a wide range of components having nutraceutical importance 545and could potentially be considered as a functional food or functional food ingredient. it is suggested that date by-products (seeds) could be served as a good source of 544natural antioxidants. the results suggest that Arabian and date pit coffees 540may increase the activities of SOD and CAT in serum and plasma of rats. they have no 541effect on the activity of GPX. In conclusion.
which may indicate the presence of 564substantial amounts of lignin and perhaps resistant starch in date pits. that the acid detergent fibre is very high. Linne. in comparison to cereal grains and oil seeds. which may indicate that the phytic acid concentration in 558date seeds is unusually small. Siren. further research is needed to characterize 577isolated components and to search for bioactive constituents with antimicrobial. Thorough investigation of these fibres. thus. which were grown in different locations. such as antioxidant capacity.19–0.e. 579 .96 mg/g in the 10 varieties they 576studied. This conclusion is 559supported by the report of Attalla and Harraz (1996) who found that date pits of 11 cultivars grown 560in the Qassim region contained small amounts of phosphorus (0..6-trisphosphate. 1994). Thus. hypercholesterolemia. Due to their importance in developing 567functional foods from date pits. The difference between the quantities of neutral 562detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre gives the hemicellulose content of the pit sample. interference with the 556vaso-constricting agent neuropeptide Y and. 1997). Al-Tamrah.48–2. It should 563be noted. i. Date pits can be a source of dietary fibre without any negative impact on sensory 571quality of end-products if the pits are properly milled (Almana & Mahmoud. will determine their potential uses as 570functional foods.549 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 550Functional foods 551 For instance. phytic acid plays a major role in the treatment of cancer. Other 572functional components that may be present in pits are selenium. especially for 568the presence and quantities of resistant starches. Selenium levels were found to be in the range 1. and 574BaOsman (1994) determined the selenium content in dates of some cultivars grown in Saudi 575Arabia. plant fibres can 565exhibit unique qualities. inherent susceptibility to fermentation to 566release ferulic acid and glucose retardation indices. which can be used as antioxidant 573(thus anticarcinogenic) in human therapeutics (Pszczola. Furthermore. the carbohydrates should be characterized further.2. and Persson (1991) 554outlined potential pharmacological applications for D-myo-inositol-1. Date pits from the 557three varieties contained very little ash. as well as 569other interesting and associated components in date pits. Al-Showiman. Work done recently has indicated that specific 553inositol polyphosphates have different functional potentials. reduction of hypertension. including 555anti-inflammatory effects.26%). 1998). 552hypercalcuria and kidney stones (Plaami. however. Pits contained a large 561quantity of fibre that may have health benefits. antioxidant and 578other health promoting activities. reduction in secondary complications of diabetes.
2000). while Mg. 602Minerals Estimation 603 Minerals Na and K will be estimated through Flame photometer. Zn. 609 Statistical Analysis 610 611 612 The data of each parameter will be subjected to statistical analysis to determine the level of significance (Steel et al. 590Chemical Analysis 591 The roasted date-pit powder will be analyzed for the moisture. Ca. 599Insoluble Dietary Fiber (IDF) 600 In soluble dietary fiber (IDF) in whole roasted date-pit powder will be determined by the 601procedure described in AACC (2000). 604Mn and Fe will be measured through Atomic Absorption Spectrometer according to the method 605described in AOAC (1990).581MATERIALS 582 AND METHODS Raw material will be procured from various date research institutes. ash..(2007) with slight modification. Then dried whole pits will be roasted at 220 oC for 15–20 min and cooled to ambient 587temperature. fat. 606Sensory Evaluation of date pit coffee. The seeds 585will be separated by passing the water over a metal strain and they will be oven dried for 2 days at 58650 oC. Date pit powder will 583be produced by the method followed by Rehman et al. Roasted seeds will then be ground to a coarse setting size of 500 um. 593Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) 594 The whole roasted date-pit powder samples will be analyzed for total dietary fiber 595according to AACC (2000). protein and fiber 592content (AACC. Pits from 584the fully matured date fruit (tamar) will be cleaned by boiling them in water for an hour. by employing Megazyme assay kit. Sensory evaluation of bread will be performed by the procedure by Lawless and Heymann . 607 608(1998). 1997) and principle component analysis (Snedecor and Cochran. 596Soluble Dietary Fiber (SDF) 597 The whole roasted date-pit powder samples will be analyzed for soluble dietary fiber 598method as mentioned in AACC (2000). 1980).. The ground 588material will be the roasted date-pit powder and it will be stored in airtight food-grade containers 589until used for experimentation. Cu.
neurologic. FBG was checked in 635overnight fasted rats and were divided into five groups of each. 624(iii) Severely diabetic animals showing FBG above 250 mg/dl. 647HDLcholesterol and triglyceride levels were estimated andLDL cholesterol was calculated at 648the beginning and after 7 and 14 days of experiment. 625Assessment of hypoglycemic activity in normal healthy rats 626Initial testing was carried with the different doses of the seed extract in 24 normal healthy 627male rats fasted overnight. Control groups of sub and mild 636diabetic animals received vehicle (distilled water) only. Control rats 628(groupI) were given vehicle (distilled water) only while other groups II–IV received aqueous 629seed extract suspended in distilled water orally at doses 100. 650LD50 experiment 651Four groups of rats of both sex (six animals per group. Depending on their 619fasting blood glucose level (BGL) the animals will be divided arbitrarily 620in to three groups (Gupta et al. 623(ii) Mild diabetic animals with FBG of 120–250 mg/dl. 630respectively. 2 and 3 h after glucose loading. Group V served as normal healthy 644control. Food consumption. 250 637and 500 mg/kg of aqueous seed extract and a dose of 250 mg/kg of standard drug 638tolbutamide were administered orally to rest of the four groups of each. autonomic and toxic effects at short intervals of 655time for 24 h. 250 and 500 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected just prior to glucose administration (0 h) 641and 1. 4. 5. of seed extract suspended in distilled water daily for 2 weeks.. 10 or 15 653times of effective dose of water extract of seeds of Roasted date-pit powder. usually one week after streptozotocin injection. 642Assessment of activity of extract in severely diabetic rats 643Study was carried on three groups (V–VII) of six rats each.D. three females and three males) and 652weighing about 180–220 g were administered orally a single dose of either 2. The rats of all the groups were given glucose (3 g/kg) after 90 min of the extract and 640drug administration. feces and urine were also examined at 2 h and then at 6 h 656intervals for 24 h.5. sub and mild diabetic 639animals. 617FBG level will be estimated at the time of induction of diabetes and PPG will be checked regularly 618up to stable hyperglycemia. 1969). Induction of diabetes in rats 615 A freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg b. 657Statstical analysis 658All the group data were statistically evaluated using Student’s t-test. 2005): 621(i) Sub diabetic animals.w. Changes in body weight and urine sugar 649were also assessed. The animals were divided into four equal groups.1M citrate buffer.5 will be injected intraperitoneally to overnight fasted rats (Brosky and Logothelopoulos. pH 6164. 632Assessment of activity of extract on glucose tolerance in sub and mild diabetic rats 633The hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Roasted date-pit powder seeds in sub and mild 634diabetic rats was assessed by improvement of glucose tolerance.) in 0.w. expressed as the 659mean±S. 660 . Blood glucose levels were estimated before and after 2. from six rats in each group. Control rats (group 646V and VI) were given vehicle (distilled water) only. total cholesterol. with nearly normal FBG of 80–120 mg/dl but showing abnormal glucose 622tolerance. whereas variable doses of 100. Fasting blood glucose. 6 and 8 h of seed 631extract administration.613 614 Efficacy Studies. group VI as diabetic control and group VII was orally treated with a single dose of 250 645mg/kg b. Then rats were 654observed for gross behavioural.
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891 892 extract on α-Amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes relevant to non-insulin diabetes mellitus. J Biochem Tech (2010) 2(2):158-160 ISSN: 0974-2328. dependent .
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