# Mathematics of Apportionment

Institute of Mathematics University of the Philippines-Diliman

(UP Diliman)

Mathematics of Apportionment

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Apportionment is the process of allotting identical, indivisible objects among participants entitled to unequal shares.

(UP Diliman)

Mathematics of Apportionment

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Alice, Bob, and Charlie order a pizza for 100. Alice and Bob ate 6 slices each, and Charlie just had 2 slices. They want to split the pizza cost fairly. The smallest denomination they have is 10 peso coin. So they have to round how much each owes to the nearest ten pesos.

(UP Diliman)

Mathematics of Apportionment

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Alice, Bob, and Charlie order a pizza for 100. Alice and Bob ate 6 slices each, and Charlie just had 2 slices. They want to split the pizza cost fairly. The smallest denomination they have is 10 peso coin. So they have to round how much each owes to the nearest ten pesos. What?s the fair way to split the bill?

(UP Diliman)

Mathematics of Apportionment

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If they had coins. Alice Bob Charlie Total Slices eaten 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 100 ( total price to be paid) Fair Share = number of slices eaten total number of slices (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 4 / 14 ..

30 100 ( total price to be paid) Fair Share = number of slices eaten total number of slices (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 4 / 14 .90 42.. Alice Bob Charlie Total Slices eaten 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.If they had coins.90 14.

one by one. assigning each ten peso. to the person or persons whose fair shares were rounded down the most (the decimal portion of the fair share was the highest) (If one person gets rounded down to zero. assign him ten pesos. If a shortage occurs.) (Used in the US Congress to divide seats) (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 5 / 14 .Highest Remainder Method (also known as Hamilton’s Method) Each person’s fair share is rounded down to the nearest ten pesos.

30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 6 / 14 .90 42.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.90 14.

90 14.90 42.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 Who contributes 10php? (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 6 / 14 .

90 14.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.30php (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 6 / 14 .90 42. Charlie rounded down by 4.90php.30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 Alice and Bob rounded down by 2.

90 42.90 14.90php. Charlie rounded down by 4.30php Charlie contributes the last 10php (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 6 / 14 .30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 Final Contribution 40 40 20 100 Alice and Bob rounded down by 2.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.

30php (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 6 / 14 . Charlie rounded down by 4.66 6.90 42.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.66 10 Alice and Bob rounded down by 2.30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 Final Contribution 40 40 20 100 Price paid per slice eaten 6.90php.90 14.

.If pizza costs 110php. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 7 / 14 .

10 47.70 110 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 7 / 14 .. Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 47.10 15.If pizza costs 110php.

70php (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 7 / 14 . Charlie rounded down by 5.. Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 47.10 15.If pizza costs 110php.70 110 90 Alice and Bob rounded down by 7.10 47.10php.

70 110 Final Contribution 50 50 10 110 90 Alice and Bob rounded down by 7. Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 47.10php.70php Pizza costs 10php more but Charlie pays 10php less (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 7 / 14 .10 47.10 15.If pizza costs 110php.. Charlie rounded down by 5.

70 110 Final Contribution 50 50 10 110 90 Alice and Bob rounded down by 7.10 15. Charlie rounded down by 5.10php.70php Pizza costs 10php more but Charlie pays 10php less Alabama Paradox (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 7 / 14 .. Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 47.If pizza costs 110php.10 47.

Deﬁnition (Alabama Paradox) refers to any time that increasing the total to be apportioned can decrease one party?s allocation (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 8 / 14 .

Deﬁnition (Alabama Paradox) refers to any time that increasing the total to be apportioned can decrease one party?s allocation Example: increasing the price of the pizza decreased Charlie’s contribution (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 8 / 14 .

the seats of the US Congress increased from 299 to 300.Deﬁnition (Alabama Paradox) refers to any time that increasing the total to be apportioned can decrease one party?s allocation Example: increasing the price of the pizza decreased Charlie’s contribution in 1880. but Alabama decreased its representation from 8 seats to 7 seats! (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 8 / 14 .

Smallest Divisors Method (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 9 / 14 .

If a surplus occurs. repeat steps (1)-(2) with another divisor (If one person gets rounded down to zero. if the sum of the modiﬁed shares is not equal to the total to be apportioned (ie. total number of pizza slices) into a bigger number 2. 1. compute modiﬁed quotas by changing the divisor in the fair share computation (ie. assign him ten pesos. round up the modiﬁed quotas (modiﬁed shares) 3.) (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 9 / 14 . price of the whole pizza).Smallest Divisors Method (also known as Adams’ Method) Each person’s fair share is rounded up to the nearest ten pesos.

Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 10 / 14 .90 14.90 42.

(UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 10 / 14 .30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 Shortage occurs.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.90 14. Modify divisor to 13.90 42.

Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 10 / 14 .

38 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 10 / 14 .Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quotas 46.15 15.15 46.

(UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 10 / 14 .15 46.38 Modiﬁed Shares 40 40 10 90 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) Shortage still occurs. Modify divisor to 12.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quotas 46.15 15.

00 16. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 10 / 14 . Modify divisor to 12.00 50.67 Modiﬁed Shares 50 50 10 110 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) Shortage still occurs.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quotas 50.

Greatest Divisors Method (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 11 / 14 .

total number of pizza slices) into a smaller number 2. compute modiﬁed quotas by changing the divisor in the fair share computation (ie. repeat steps (1)-(3) with another divisor (If one person gets rounded down to zero. If a shortage occurs. the sum of the modiﬁed shares must be equal to the total to be apportioned (ie. a shortage occurs).) (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 11 / 14 . round down the modiﬁed quotas (modiﬁed shares) 3. 1.Greatest Divisors Method (also known as Jefferson’s Method) Each person’s fair share is rounded down to the nearest ten pesos. if (3) is not satisﬁed (ie. assign him ten pesos. price of the whole pizza) 4.

90 14.90 42.30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 12 / 14 .Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.

30 100 Rounded Down 40 40 10 90 Shortage occurs.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Fair Share (in php) 42.90 14. Modify divisor to 13. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 12 / 14 .90 42.

Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 12 / 14 .

38 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 12 / 14 .15 15.15 46.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quotas 46.

38 Modiﬁed Shares 40 40 10 90 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) Shortage still occurs.15 46.Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quotas 46. Modify divisor to 12. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 12 / 14 .15 15.

67 Modiﬁed Shares 50 50 10 110 Modiﬁed Quota = number of slices eaten 13 ( total price to be paid) Shortage still occurs. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 12 / 14 .Slices Alice Bob Charlie Total 6 6 2 14 Modiﬁed Quotas 50.00 16.00 50. Modify divisor to 12.

(UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 13 / 14 . Young (1982) proved that any method of apportionment with three or more parties is subject to some paradox of apportionment. Balinski and P.M.

division of seats between parties in a system of proportional representation): the quota rule: Each of the parties gets one of the two numbers closest to its fair share of seats (if the party’s fair share is 3.M. It does not have the population paradox: If party A gets more votes and party B gets fewer votes. no seat will be transferred from A to B. Theorem (Impossibility Theorem) No apportionment method. Balinski and P. Young (1982) proved that any method of apportionment with three or more parties is subject to some paradox of apportionment. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 13 / 14 . between three of more parties. satisﬁes all of the following (for example.74 seats. it gets either 3 or 4). no party’s number of seats decreases. It does not have the Alabama paradox: If the total number of seats is increased.

unless we are willing to put up with some anomalies in apportionment. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 14 / 14 .Fair division of seats cannot be decided strictly on a mathematical basis.

One will need to consider other concepts of fairness when apportioning shares.Fair division of seats cannot be decided strictly on a mathematical basis. (UP Diliman) Mathematics of Apportionment 14 / 14 . unless we are willing to put up with some anomalies in apportionment.