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COLOUR STABILIZATION OF WHITE WINES AND INFLUENCE ON THE AROMA PROFILE IN PRESENCE OF IMMOBILIZED YEASTS

Azahara Lopez-Toledano, Lourdes Moyano, Luis Zea, Julieta Mérida, Manuel Medina* Dpto. Agricultural Chemistry. University of Cordoba. Edificio Marie Curie. Campus de Rabanales. 14014. Córdoba (Spain) Tfno: +34 957 218 636. E-mail: qe1mecam@uco.es Keywords: Immobilized yeast, white wines, browning, aroma compounds, sensorial analyses.

Summary Commercial white wines of sherry type obtained by biological aging were stored in bottles during a year at 19 ± 1 ºC. A batch of bottles was maintained in contact with yeasts immobilized in κ-carragenate gel beads, and they were periodically open to sampling (G). A second batch without gel and also open to sampling was used as a first reference (WG1), while a third batch also without gel and non uncorked during the experiment acted as a second reference (WG2) to delay browning of white wines stored at in bottles for one year. After twelve months of storage the wines WG1 reached the commercial rejection limit for A420 (about 0.180 au), those stored in contact with gel beads (G) exhibited virtually no browning, showing the WG2 wines intermediate values. The aroma profiles of the stored wines, as well as the corresponding to a freshly bottled wine (R), were determined by GC-MS, grouping the OAVs of the 65 compounds quantified in 8 odorant series (fruity, balsamic, chemistry, floral, vegetal, fatty, empyreumatic and spicy). An ANOVA analysis (p<0.01) carried out on the series showed significant differences between the wines G and WG2 for the balsamic, chemistry, vegetal and fatty series, while the wines R and G were differentiated by fruity, floral, vegetal, fatty, empyreumatic and spicy series. A sensorial analysis revealed favorable significant differences for the flavor of the freshly bottled wines in relation to those stored with gel beads, these last not yet rejectable by consumers. Regarding colour, the results of gel-treated wines were somewhat worse than for the freshly bottled wines, but much better than for the wines stored in the absence of gel.

Resumen Vinos blancos comerciales tipo sherry obtenidos por envejecimiento biológico fueron almacenados en botellas durante un año a 19 ± 1 ºC. Un lote de botellas se mantuvo en contacto con levaduras inmovilizadas en gel de κ-carragenato, abriéndose para su muestreo a intervalos regulares (G); un segundo lote, sin gel y abierto periódicamente, actuó como primer testigo (WG1), en tanto que un tercer lote, sin gel y sin abrir durante toda la experiencia, se tomó como segundo testigo (WG2). Tras doce meses, los vinos WG1 alcanzaron el valor límite comercial de pardeamiento (A420 alrededor de 0.180 u.a.), en tanto que aquellos almacenados con cuentas de gel (G) se mantuvieron prácticamente sin pardear, situándose los WG2 en valores intermedios. Los perfiles aromáticos de los vinos almacenados, así como el correspondiente a un vino recientemente embotellado (R), fueron determinados mediante CG-

2007). El ANOVA (p<0. Resumé Des vins blancs commerciaux type sherry obtenus par vieillissement biologique ont été stockés dans des bouteilles pendant une année à 19 ± 1 ºC. floral. Gómez-Miguez. empireumática y especiada. 2005. 2002). 2001. Un análisis sensorial reveló diferencias significativas en el flavor a favor de los vinos recién embotellados respecto a los almacenados con cuentas de gel. empireumática y especiada). balsamique. empyreumatique et épicée).01) effectué sur les séries a montré que les vins G et WG2 ont été différenciés dans les séries balsamique.a.180 u. Zea et al. Les profils aromatiques des vins stockés.. the colour of which becomes unstable. química. sans gel et ouvert périodiquement. un second lot. 2004. et al. grasa.). végétale. Un lot de bouteilles a été maintenu en contact avec des levures immobilisées dans κ-carragen. a été pris comme second témoin (WG2).. sans gel et sans ouvrir pendant toute l'expérience.. aunque estos últimos se juzgaron todavía no rechazables. chimique. vegetal. use the concentration/odour threshold ratio (odour activity value. les vins WG1 ont atteint la valeur limite commerciale de brunissement (A420 autour de 0. grasse. tant que ceux stockés avec des grain de gel (G) ont été pratiquement maintenus sans brunissement. ainsi que celui correspondant à un vin récemment mis en bouteilles (R). Escudero et al.EM. química. Several authors (Guth. 1997. L'ANOVA (p<0. vegetal y grasa. Moreno et al. 2 . empyreumatique et épicée. On the other hand. en étant ouvert pour son échantillonnage à des intervalles réguliers (G) . 2002. Essentially. H. it shortening its commercial life as a result. los vinos tratados con cuentas de gel fueron algo peores que los recién embotellados y mucho mejores que los almacenados sin cuentas de gel. the problem arises from phenolic compounds that can evolve via different chemical pathways to produce coloured compounds in the yellow–brown spectral region. tant qu'un troisième lot. végétale. a été pris comme premier témoin (WG1). en se situant les WG2 dans des valeurs intermédiaires. the volatile fraction is considered to be one of the most important attributes.. browning is a serious problem during the storage of drinks such as white wine. Respecto al color. En ce qui concerne la couleur. Après douze mois. balsámica. bien que ces derniers aient été encore jugés non refusables. ont été déterminés par CG-EM. OAV) to estimate the particular importance of each compound to the overall aroma of wine. INTRODUCCIÓN Although several parameters may play a role in the study of wine. florale.. les vins traités avec de gel ont été quelque mauvais que les récemment mises en bouteilles et beaucoup meilleurs que ceux stockés sans gel.. This method of aroma fraction study is advantageous because it greatly reduces the number of variables to be interpreted preserving their relative importance according to the OAV of each compound (Moyano et al. floral.01) realizado sobre las citadas series mostró que los vinos G y WG2 se diferenciaron en las series balsámica. florale. Wine aroma can be composed of a large number of different volatiles but only a small fraction contributes to the odour. chimique. tandis que les vins R et G l'ont rendu dans les séries fruitée. vegetal. Moyano et al. mientras que los vinos R y G lo hicieron en las series frutal. végétale et grasse. agrupándose los VAOs de los 65 compuestos del aroma cuantificados en 8 series odorantes (frutal. agroupant les VAOs des 65 composés de l'arôme quantifiés dans 8 séries odorantes (fruitée. Une analyse sensorielle a révélé des différences significatives dans le flaveur pour les vins mis en bouteilles en comparaison avec les stockés avec de gel.

. 1976.. 1997. 2002). DU 600 model. empyreumatic and spicy. Volatile compounds were determined by capillary-column gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following continuous extraction of 100 mL of sample with 100 mL of Freon-11 for 24 h according to the method described in a previous work (Moreno et al. southern Spain). chemistry. Samples of commercial sherry type white wines obtained by biological ageing in the Montilla-Moriles region (Cordoba. 2002). containing 15% (v/v) ethanol. according to the odour descriptors of the different compounds. authors such as Bonilla. 2002). Cells were immobilized in κ-carragenate gels in the form of cylindrical beads of 4. vegetal. However. MATERIALS AND METHODS Samples and experiments. 2002). The Odour Activity Value (OAV) for each compound was calculated by dividing its wine concentration by the corresponding to its odour threshold (Guth. The main objective was to observe the changes in their sensorial profile because of a prolonged contact of yeasts used to prevent browning. Moyano et al. Merida and Medina (2001) have proposed the use of these microorganisms in wine fining treatments on account of the selectivity of their cell walls to brown polymers (Razmkhab et al..Yeasts have been found to retain anthocyans in wine (Bourzeix & Heredia. being the tasters asked for the latter. 1986. 2005). Canada).. White wines type sherry stored during 12 months in presence and absence of yeasts are studied in this work. Samples used to the experiment were: Sample R G WG1 WG2 Storage 0 1 year 1 year 1 year Gel Beads No Yes No No Description Commercial wine freshly bottled Periodically open bottles to measure A420 nm Periodically open bottled to measure A420 nm Closed bottles Analytical Procedures. yeasts in contact with model solutions of some flavans have been found to delay browning. Spectrophotometric measures at 420 nm were made in a Beckman spectrophotometer.. This international standard evaluates the differentiation among three samples.75 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick. The number of beads used was that required to obtain a final concentration of 2 g of yeasts per liter of wine. 1988) and to interact with other polyphenols in model solutions (Salmon et al. The yeasts used were dehydrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were supplied by Mauripan (Fleischmann. Augustin. fruity. The OAVs were grouped in eight aroma series. were subjected to browning under variable conditions. Cuinier. floral. In the second and third tests the 3 . which has been ascribed to an inhibitory effect on the formation of coloured compounds and/or their adsorption as they are formed (LopezToledano et al. A first analysis involved a triangular test to identify significant overall differences (colour excepted) between the wines in accordance with ISO 4120-1983. two of them the same and one different. balsamic. in addition to this retention ability. on 10 mm pathlength. Mayen. In this respect.. Sensory analyses. fatty.

This sample (WG2) was stored under the same conditions for a year.147 au. Absorbance at 420 nm of commercial additional wine sample in triplicate wine freshly bottled R and those stored for one was also bottled at the start of the year in the absence WG1 and WG2 and experiment but was not uncorked at presence of gel beads G. In relation to the wines supplied with the yeast gel.140 considered as limit for commercial rejection of pale sherry type wine. taste room. etc. R WG2 G 0 5 10 acceptable 15 desirable 20 undesirable Figure 2.103 0.200 immobilized yeasts (G). therefore showing the gels a high G efficiency in preventing browning of the wine. As can be seen.185 au (WG1) in the wine stored without gel beads. any time. the samples were rated for flavour and colour. the A420 increased from 0. an Figure 1. because the bottles were 0. The tasters were asked for the differences (significant at p < 0. In our case. All tests were conducted by 19 tasters chosen in accordance with ISO 6658-1985.001) in aroma between the wines containing gel beads (G) and freshly bottled wine FLAVOUR .080 level was higher than in samples nonR G WG1 WG2 uncorked during the storage. In order to evaluate their potential impact a triangular test (ISO 4120-1983) was performed using the forced judgment technique in blind tasting (with the wines in opaque glasses to ignore colour differences).120 However. 4 .) Prolonged contact of the yeast gels with the wines might cause appreciable changes in their sensory properties. 0. it should be pointed out that their absorbance remained virtually constant at the levels of the freshly R bottled wines (R.standard ISO 4121-1987 was applied. it can be reasonably expected that absorbance 0. this last value 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 1 shows absorbance at 420 nm in a commercial wine freshly bottled (R) and those stored for one year in absence (WG1 and WG2) and presence of 0. respectively. 2 = acceptable and 3 = desirable. which establishes the conditions for each test above-mentioned (tasters selection.u. commercial wine WG2 without storage and used as reference).180 au in the freshly bottled wine (R) to 0.100 opened in each sampling.).160 0. increasing its absorbance after this period to only 0. COLOUR A420 (a. In fact. which evaluates a sensory property by means of a value within a predetermined scale. Sensory tests for flavour and colour carried out in the commercial wine freshly bottled (R) and those stored for one year in the absence (WG2) and presence of gel beads (G). on the following scale: 1 = undesirable.

but much better than those for the wines bottled in the absence of gel (89. Figure 2 shows the results of these sensory analyses on the reference wines (R). and acceptable or desirable in 63. Flavour was deemed undesirable in 57. 5 . G wines showed significantly higher OAVs for the vegetal series than R. Two additional sensory tests for flavour and colour were performed in accordance with ISO 4121-1987. The variance analysis (p<0. Therefore.without storage (R). To study deeply the sensory differences in the aroma profile of the wines. acceptable. according to their odour descriptors (Figure 3). The wines stored in the presence of gel beads were judged of lower quality than reference wines. probably because they showed significantly lower OAVs for the floral and spicy series. vegetal. 65 aroma compounds were quantified by GC-MS. floral. undesirable). Aroma series of the wines obtained by grouping the compounds with similar odour descriptor. which was found acceptable or desirable in 84. all tasters deemed the gel-treated wines as acceptable (52%) or desirable (48%). balsamic.5% undesirable). using a three-score scale (desirable. chemistry. but still without rejection for the most of the consumers. vegetal and chemistry series in relation to the reference wines (R) and those stored in the presence of gel beads (G). those stored non-uncorked for 12 months (WG2) and those stored in the presence of gel beads (G) for the same period.9% of cases in the wines treated with gel beads (G). These results were somewhat worse than for the freshly bottled wines (100% desirable). WG2 wines showed floral OAVs significantly lower than the R wines.8% of cases in the WG2 wines.This could explain that tasters pointed out the WG2 wines as the most undesirable. found such differences in 71% of the cases.2% of cases. In addition. empyreumatic and spicy). R WG2 Fruity x 10 60 G Spicy 40 20 Balsamic Empyreumatic 0 Chemistry Fatty x10 Vegetal Floral Figure 3. their OAVs calculated and the compounds assigned to one or several aroma series (fruity. fatty. This last result was something worse than for the reference wine (R).01) carried out on the aroma series showed significant differences. Regarding colour. In addition. The wines stored for one year in absence of immobilized yeast (WG2) were found increased in the fatty. the gel-treated wines were judged of a lower quality than R.

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This work was supported by grant from the Andalusian Government (Spain).ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 7 . Reference AGR-767.