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status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children

onitoring
ALBANIA

2nd EDITION

This publication has been produced with the financial assistance of the Swedish Cooperation Agency (SIDA), The Body Shop International, The Oak Foundation and Irish Aid. The views expressed herein are solely those of ECPAT International. The support from these donors does not constitute endorsement of the opinions expressed. This publication was compiled by Ashley Feasley with the assistance of Francois-Xavier Souchet, Anjan Bose, Alessia Altamura, Laura Jokinen and Mark Capaldi. This report was also developed in collaboration with the Albanian Coalition against Trafficking and the Sexual Exploitation of Children (ACTSEC), the ECPAT group in Albania. In particular, the input of the Children’s Human Right Centre of Albania (CRCA) is gratefully acknowledged.

Extracts from this publication may be reproduced only with permission from ECPAT International and acknowledgment of the source and ECPAT International. A copy of the relevant publication using extracted material must be provided to ECPAT.

Copyright © 2012, ECPAT International (2nd Edition) Design by: Manida Naebklang ECPAT International
(End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes)

328/1 Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand www.ecpat.net

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CONTENTS
Glossary Foreword Methodology Albania: Introduction National Plan of Action Coordination and Cooperation Prevention Protection Child and Youth Participation Priority Actions Required Annex Endnotes 4 5 7 9 16 18 22 25 34 36 38 48

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
• ACRN: Albanian Children’s Rights Network • ACTSEC: Albanian Coalition against Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children • ARSIS: Association for the Social Support of Youth • Code of Conduct: A code for travel and tourism companies, providing guidance on the protection of children from sexual exploitation • CoE: Council of Europe • CRC: United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child • CRCA: Children’s Human Rights Centre of Albania • CSE: Commercial sexual exploitation • CSEC: The commercial sexual exploitation of children consists of criminal practices that demean, degrade and threaten the physical and psychosocial integrity of children. There are three primary and interrelated forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children: prostitution, pornography and trafficking for sexual purposes. Commercial sexual exploitation of children comprises sexual abuse that is remunerated in cash or in kind to the child or a third person or persons. • CST: Child sex tourism, or the commercial sexual exploitation of children by men or women who travel from one place to another, usually from a richer country to one that isless developed, and there engage in sexual acts with children, defined as anyone under theage of 18. • CPU: Child protection unit • CRU: Child rights unit • ECPAT: End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes • EI: ECPAT International • EU: European Union • Grooming: Preparing a child for sexual abuse and exploitation • ICT: Information and communication technologies • ILO: International Labour Organization • IOM: International Organization for Migration • IRCCRA: Information and Research Centre for Children’s Rights in Albania • IT: Information technology • NGO: Non-governmental organization • NPA: National Plan of Action • NRM: National referral mechanism • OPSC: Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography • OSCE: Organisation on Security and Cooperation in Europe • TACT: Transnational Action against Child Trafficking • TSC: Technical secretariat for children • UN: United Nations • UNDP: United Nations Development Programme • UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees • UNICEF: United Nations Children’s Fund

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FOREWORD
At the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) held in Stockholm in 1996, governments from around the world first gave recognition that commercial sexual exploitation of children is a global crime of epidemic proportions. The Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Action - a strategic framework for actions against CSEC - was adopted by the 122 governments participating in the Congress in order to guide a systematic global response against the sexual exploitation of children. The outcome document of the First World Congress was soon followed by the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (OPSC). Adopted in 2000 as a legally binding treaty of the United Nations, the Optional Protocol (and other relevant international treaties) reaffirms the urgent need for political will and concrete actions from governments to ensure that children in their countries can live free from all forms of commercial sexual exploitation. In 2001, high-level delegates from 136 governments, local and international nongovernmental organisations and children and young people, convened in Yokohama for the Second World Congress to review the achievements and challenges in combating CSEC as well as to identify new priorities needed to bolster and enhance action. Seven years later, the World Congress III in Rio de Janeiro provided the largest global platform to date for delegates from 137 governments to renew their state’s commitment to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation. The Rio Declaration and Call for Action strongly urges all stakeholders, including the private sector, to continue their due diligence in taking the necessary follow-up actions to eliminate CSEC. The Rio Call for Action emphasises the obligation to uphold the rights of the child as identified in existing international human rights and child rights instruments. It also offers a framework for the accountability of all duty-bearers of children’s rights, particularly governments, in the fight against sexual exploitation of children and re-affirms the continuing relevance of the Agenda for Action, first agreed to in Stockholm twelve years earlier. This report, as part of the Second Edition series of country monitoring reports produced by ECPAT International, provides a comprehensive baseline of information on all manifestations of CSEC in the country and an assessment of achievements and challenges in implementing counteractions (including the participation of children and young people themselves) to eliminate CSEC. The report, which follows the framework of the Stockholm Agenda for Action, serves as an instrument for the sharing of information and experiences among various stakeholders and duty-bearers within the country as well as internationally. It also suggests concrete priority actions urgently needed to proactively advance the national fight against

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CSEC. Furthermore, this report enables the monitoring of the implementation of international instruments on child rights, related to commercial sexual exploitation that have been ratified by the concerned state. The production of this report is achieved through extensive collaboration within the ECPAT global network. ECPAT International would like to thank ECPAT member groups in the countries assessed, local and global experts and other organisations

for their invaluable inputs to this report. ECPAT International would also like to express its profound appreciation of all the hard work of its dedicated team from within the Secretariat and for the generous support of its donors that helped make the finalisation of this report possible. The contributions of all involved have greatly strengthened the monitoring of the Agenda for Action and the heightened collaboration needed to fight the new and evolving complex manifestations of commercial sexual exploitation of children.

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METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY
The Agenda for Action against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children provides a detailed framework and categories of actions to be taken by governments in partnership with civil society organizations and other relevant actors for combating commercial sexual crimes against children. Broadly, these actions are focused on: 1) Coordination and Cooperation; 2) Prevention; 3) Protection; 4) Recovery, Rehabilitation and Reintegration; and 5) Child Participation. The Agenda for Action is thus the formal and guiding structure used by governments that have adopted it and committed to work against CSEC. As such, the Agenda for Action is also the main organising framework for reporting on the status of implementation of the Agenda as seen in the World Congress II of 2001, the Mid-Term Review meetings held between 2004 and 2005 and the World Congress III in 2008. It has been used in the same way to structure and guide the research, analysis and preparation of information presented in these reports on the status of implementation of the Agenda in the individual countries. Preparatory work for this 2nd Edition report involved a review of the literature available on sexual exploitation for each of the countries where ECPAT works. A number of tools were prepared, such as a detailed glossary of CSEC terms, explanatory literature on more difficult themes and concepts and a guide to relevant CSEC-related research tools, to assist researchers in their work and to ensure consistency in the gathering, interpreting and analysing of information from different sources and parts of the world. Desktop research has shown a continuing lack of information in the areas of Recovery, Rehabilitation and Reintegration. After extensive efforts to collect information relevant to these areas for each of the countries covered, it was decided that as this information was not consistently available, the reports thus focus only on those areas of the Agenda for Action where verifiable information can be obtained. Thus, the report covers: Coordination and Cooperation; Prevention; Protection and Child and Youth Participation, and where information on recovery, rehabilitaton and reintegration, was available, it has been included under the country overview. These 2nd Edition Reports also reflect a greater focus on integrated and inter-sector collaboration for the realisation of the right of the child to protection from sexual exploitation, including the need nationally for comprehensive child protection systems. Research of secondary sources, including CRC country and alternative reports, OPSC country and alternative reports, the reports of the Special Rapporteurs, as well as research and field studies of ECPAT, governmental and non-governmental organizations, regional bodies and UN agencies, provided the initial information for each report. This information was compiled, reviewed and used to produce first draft reports. In-house and consultant specialists undertook a similar

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process of review to generate information on specialised areas of the reports, such as the legal sections. Nevertheless, researchers often encountered a lack of information. While sources also included unpublished reports and field and case reports of ECPAT and other partners, many countries lacked up-to-date data and information on areas relevant to this report. Despite these limitations, sufficient information was gathered to provide a broad overview of the situation in each country. Subsequently, first drafts were prepared and shared with ECPAT groups, which then supplemented the information with other local sources and analysis (taking care to identify them and source appropriately). Upon receipt of these inputs, a series of questions were generated by the ECPAT International team for deeper discussion, which involved ECPAT groups and specialists invited by them. The information from these discussions was used to finalise inputs to each of the reports. These consultations proved to be invaluable for analysis of the country

situation. They also served as a measure for triangulating and validating information as different actors offered their perspective and analysis based on their direct work. As previously noted, the information of each country report is organised to correspond to the structure of the Agenda for Action. Thus all the 2nd Edition reports feature updated information in relation to: (i) an overview of the main CSEC manifestations affecting the country; (ii) analysis of the country’s National Plan of Action (NPA) against CSEC and its implementation (or the absence of an NPA); (iii) overview and analysis of coordination and cooperation efforts during the period under review; (iv) overview and analysis of prevention efforts; (v) overview and analysis of protection efforts, which includes detailed information on national legislation related to CSEC (see www.ecpat.net for further details); (vi) overview and analysis of country’s efforts incorporate participation of children in youth in the development and implementation of efforts to combat CSEC and (vii) priority actions required.

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ALBANIA
INTRODUCTION
The Republic of Albania is slowly emerging from a long and difficult transition to democracy after a long-standing authoritarian rule. Albania has encountered many challenges related to the establishment of democracy and the open market system, which has been hampered by widespread corruption and organised crime, as well as the total collapse of the existing social services structure.1 The political and economical changes and ethnic violence resulted in a long period of political isolation and poverty, which gravely affected the population and lead to massive migration flows towards Western Europe. Political and economic instability contributed to unemployment, alcoholism, domestic violence, sexual abuse, prostitution, HIV/ AIDS and human trafficking.2 The country’s GDP per capita is one of the lowest in Europe and its Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Albania 70th amongst 187 countries with data.3 20 percent of the country’s 3 million people have left the country in search of better opportunities abroad.4 A portion of Albania’s population is refugees from Kosovo, as Albania admitted half a million refugees who escaped from Kosovo in 1999.5 Albania is a very ‘young’ nation with 40 percent of its population below the age of 25.6 With approximately 750,000 children under the age of 14 out of a population of 3.2 million, Albania is the ‘youngest’ country in Europe.7 Albania’s youthful demographics are both a strength and a challenge for the Albanian government, which has to guarantee protection to many children and young people despite limited government resources. According to UNICEF, education is particularly lacking in rural areas where only 13 percent of children attend preschool.8 Additionally, not all children are registered at birth in Albania. Children born to internal migrants, particularly Romani children, often are not issued birth certificates and therefore cannot enroll in school.9 However, data collected by UNICEF in 2008 revealed that 99 percent of Albanian children are registered before the age of 5.10 Some of this is attributed to the passing of the Law on Civil Registry in 2009 that facilitated recording of children who were not registered at birth in the civil status register. The Law on Civil Registry, which had initiated the drive to register children, had resulted in the registration of 7,000 Albanian children.11 Roma, Greeks, Macedonians and Vlachs are recognised minority groups in Albania. By virtue of Article 20 of the Albanian Constitution, these groups enjoy a right to their culture; religious, ethnic and linguistic rights; and, the rights to acquire Albanian citizenship or to hold dual citizenship.12 With regard to cultural rights, the Albanian Constitution also respects the right of members of minorities to be taught in schools in their own language. The government has made an effort to promote the two recognised ethno-linguistic minorities, Aromanian and Roma, in the national educational curriculum, however, difficulties to include subjects in the Roma language in the curricula

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remain.13 Schools for Greek and Macedonian minorities are reported to have significantly higher teacher-pupil ratios than the national average while the number of Roma children in schools is reportedly so low that the Ministry of Education and Science issued an instruction allowing Roma children to enroll in schools without being registered.14 In 2010, the European Human Rights Centre reported that approximately 52 percent of the Roma minority have no education, with women being the most affected. Specifically, 18 percent of Roma have attended only a few years of elementary school with only 14 percent completing elementary school and 3 percent graduating from secondary school.15 Additionally, schools are often located far from Roma communities and children belonging to poor families leave school to work in order to contribute to the family’s income.16 Although the Albanian government reportedly set up measures during the 2008-2009 school year by commissioning transportation to improve access for students to schools,17 the attendance problems remain. Albania joined the Decade of Roma Inclusion in 2008, and it is actively working to improve the living conditions of the minority through ad hoc national plans and policies. However, the Roma continue to suffer the effects of poverty and lack of access to resources. They live in backward settlements with no access to basic services such as electricity and water and they are sometimes refused access to health care and social services.18 The high rate of illiteracy (about 15 percent) amongst Roma children, coupled with poverty and a lack of access to resources, are key contributing factors increasing the vulnerability of Roma children to commercial sexual exploitation. A recent report on Human Rights Practices also stated that the vast majority of Albanian street children (90 percent) are Roma.19 Street children survive off small crimes, low paid casual labour and begging. In a recent study conducted by World Vision on street children

in Tirana, 80 percent of the children living or working on the streets have experienced psychosocial and physical violence as well as extreme exposure to environmental elements.20 The difficult living conditions of these children render them vulnerable to cold winters, disease, hunger, physical and sexual violence, as well as trafficking.21 Albanian women are often victims of societal discrimination resulting from traditional social norms that regard women as subordinate to men.22 These views contribute to the existence of commercial sexual exploitation of children. In March 2009, the Minister of Culture, Youth, Tourism and Sports was expelled from office by the Prime Minister after the broadcast of a video taken by a hidden camera that showed the Minister requesting sexual favours from a young woman in exchange for a job in the Ministry.23 Despite the existence of the video, the investigation was terminated at the end of 2009 due to lack of evidence other than the video, which was deemed entrapment by prosecutors.24 In addition to specific incidents that garner national attention (such as the 2009 video scandal), there is a general acceptance of domestic violence and poor treatment of women that has been noted as particularly prevalent in Northeast Albania.25 According to recent research conducted by the National Statistic Agency, which sampled 2,590 families, more than 50 percent of women in the country have suffered physical, psychological or sexual violence.26 A general permissive national attitude toward domestic violence exacerbates the problem. Thirty percent of Albanian girls and women feel that physical abuse against women is acceptable for reasons such as arguing, burning meals or neglecting their children.27 Whether children are the direct victims or their mothers are, domestic violence has a negative impact on children and can result in children fleeing their homes with their mothers or running

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away alone and ending up in institutions, or escaping home and becoming vulnerable to CSEC. Children in institutions are at high risk of abuse.28 To overcome this issue, Albania developed “On the standards of social care services for children in residential institutions” Law DCM No. 659 of 17 October 2005.29 Additionally, the National Action Plan for Children prioritises alternative care by relatives, adoption and foster care over placement in institutions.30 However, the number of children living in institutions remains high. According to the most recent data available (2008), the government identified 231 children living in foster families, 233 children in public residential institutions and 348 children living in nonpublic institutions.31 Albania does not reportedly have a high rate of HIV/AIDS infection, but the number of HIV/AIDS infection cases is increasing. In 2008, the National Institute for Public Health and UNICEF conducted research on risky behaviours and HIV/AIDS, in which adolescents were identified as the most at risk population for many reasons, one being that adolescents do not always use condoms.32 There is no specific data on HIV/AIDS

prevalence amongst youth who have been victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Another critical issue that contributes to commercial sexual exploitation of children is the practice of child marriage. Child marriages in Albania occur mainly within the Roma community, with children marrying at 13 or 14 years of age.33 About 41% of Roma people have married before the age of 16.34 According to the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report, some girls are subjected to forced labour and prostitution following arranged marriages.35 Albania remains a country where children are domestically and internationally trafficked, sold and used for prostitution and pornography. Although the Albanian government at local and national levels has taken serious measures to fight and eliminate child trafficking, CSEC continues to thrive. Organised crime networks, corruption, lack of childcare and protection services, poverty, lack of respect for particularly vulnerable human beings and insufficient and inadequate governmental social support structures for children at the local level continuously put children at risk of being exploited.36

Child prostitution
It is difficult to provide a valid and current estimate of the number of Albanian children involved in prostitution, as many cases are not reported. A newspaper report in the Albanian daily ‘Korrieri’ of 1 June 2008, revealed that according to the data of the National Police Authority and the Tirana Magistrate, there had been a 50 percent increase in the criminal proceedings for prostitution related offences during the first five months of 2008 compared to previous years.37 Generally, the child prostitution market has become more sophisticated, as pimps are reported to operate sex service businesses out of hotel rooms with a ring of associates and taxi drivers to secure their clients.38 While there is a general opinion that more girls are commercially sexually exploited than boys in Albania, many Albanian boys are trafficked for labour, and begging, petty crime and are frequently sexually exploited.39

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Sexual abuse and exploitation of boys
In 2011, a man from Korca was arrested for forcing his 9 year-old nephew to beg on the streets of the capital, Tirana, and to have sexual intercourse with adults. In investigating the case, police tried to find out whether the minor’s parents were aware of the sexual abuse of their child. This event marked the second incident of abuse of minors who are not protected by their relatives. Another one involved a 12 year-old boy who was publicly raped. Also in this case, police managed to arrest the perpetrators who were remanded in prison custody. Protection of minors is becoming a very problematic issue in Albania due to a lack of organisations dealing with the psychological treatment of abused children as well as a reluctant attitude among parents to report cases of child sexual abuse and exploitation.40

A report published by Save the Children entitled ‘Child Trafficking in Albania’, also explores the conditions of child trafficking in the country. Due to the dearth of reliable statistics on trafficking in Albania, the study in the report is based on anecdotal evidence at the grassroots level to establish numbers, recruitments, areas, trends and practices. The report points out that about 60 percent of Albanians trafficked for prostitution are children and more than half of these trafficked children have been tricked into prostitution, while one third of them have been abducted. The report further states that up to 90 percent of the girls in certain rural areas over the age of 19 years did not attend school due to fear of being trafficked.41 Additionally, the Albanian Alternative Report to the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, states that trafficking and prostitution networks are strong and well established in the country and that the victims of CSEC do not report such crimes due to fear of reprisals.42 The report also reveals that several NGO representatives and young female victims of trafficking have indicated that children involved in prostitution are in danger of being re-victimised in the absence of social and psychological support; the victims either fall back into prostitution or start exploiting other children.43

Albanian street children may sometimes be coerced into child prostitution and risk being captured or kidnapped for sex or labour trafficking. In its concluding comment on the initial report of Albania, the Committee on the Rights of the Child “CRC Committee” acknowledged the risk faced by the street children in Albania, stating that street children represented the most unprotected category of children in Albania.44 The CRC Committee also expressed its disappointment with the Albanian government’s inadequate reporting on the issue and recommended that Albania undertake a study in order to devise a comprehensive strategy to address the issue while simultaneously addressing the best interests of the child, youth participation strategies and child participation in the process.45 The Committee also recommended that Albania make additional efforts to provide protection to street children as well as support assistance to families involved.46 Child labour, and in particular street children, have become a national epidemic in Albania. The Children’s Rights Center in Albania reported that there were about 50,000 children involved in child labour and working in the street in 2006.47 The Albanian Institute of Statistics also have reported that 9.8 percent of children 6-14 years old and 32 percent of children aged 6-17 years work, and many of them perform the worst forms of child labour, such as begging, building, refuse recycling, etc.48

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The number of Albanian street children in Tirana is increasing, due in large part to government discrimination against the Roma. As of 2010, in Tirana alone, there were more than 800 children living as beggars, mobile vendors, shoe polishers, etc.49 This number has likely increased due to recent discrimination against Roma families who were residing close to the Tirana train station. On January 21, 2012, officials from the Tirana Municipality reportedly visited the site and ordered the Roma families living there to leave immediately, without offering any alternative accommodation.50 On 27 January, 16 of these families, unable to find another site, returned and rebuilt their homes and now face another forced eviction.51 Other Roma families from the Tirana railway station did move to a tented site in Babrru but have since been forced to leave due to a dispute over unpaid rent between the Ministry of Labour

and Social Affairs, and the landowner.52 On 1 February, these families sought shelter and assistance from the People’s Advocate (Ombudsperson) who had found living conditions at the site to be very poor, lacking water, electricity, heating and medical supplies for children many of whom had suffered from ill health and malnutrition during a period of sub-zero temperatures.53 Instances such as these displacements negatively affect Roma families, and have a destabilising effect upon the family unit. This disruption to family life can result in Roma children leaving the family to work and roam the streets. The Albanian government needs to end its discriminatory practices against the Roma and other vulnerable groups, and create programmes to foster and augment Roma family structures and prevent Roma children from being susceptible to street living as well as child prostitution and trafficking.

Child trafficking
Each year approximately 6,000 children aged between 12 and 16 are trafficked into Italy.54 Some 37 percent of female minors trafficked into Italy are Albanian followed by Romanian, Moldovan and Nigerian children.55 Albania is still regarded as a source country56 for international human trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation, forced labour and begging.57 A 2006 report released by the United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime titled ‘Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns’ identifies Albania along with 7 other countries (such as Thailand, China, Germany) as the greatest sources of trafficked persons in the world.58 Police corruption plays a part in Albanian trafficking. In 2007, the Ministry of Interior referred 157 criminal cases involving corruption and trafficking to the Public Prosecution Office against 219 officers with 44 of the officers arrested. The cases also involved illegal border crossing, for which 12 police officers were charged. Subsequently, in 2007-2008, when a criminal group comprised of 11 people engaging in human trafficking was uncovered, 6 were found to be police officers.59 The scale of child trafficking remains unknown due to the covert nature of the crimes and the lack of reliable and accurate data/statistics, although the government recognises the increase of school dropouts and children working on the streets.60 Among the 97 victims of trafficking identified in 2010, there were 83 women and 14 children of Albanian nationality.61 It is worth noting that there were no male victims found. Most women and children are trafficked for forced labour and exploitation in the sex industry to destination countries such as Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Kosovo, and many Western Europe countries.62 Trafficking for sexual purposes also occurs

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inside Albania. Women and girls are trafficked to the Albanian cities of Tirana, Durres and Vlora and exploited in prostitution.63 While experts have stated that international trafficking is on the decline compared to the 1990s, domestic trafficking has been on the rise with a particular focus on children being used for begging and commercial sex.64 In 2007, according to the national police, human trafficking in Albania decreased with only 7 cases involving children being identified.65 However, NGOs have questioned the validity of that fact as the vast majority of cases are simply not reported because of fear of retaliation. Accordingly, NGOs believe that the number of trafficked and exploited children remains significant.66 Children and youth are often trafficked with the promise of a better future abroad, as leaving the country is seen as the ultimate opportunity to provide one’s family with some sort of economic support. Traffickers will subsequently use false identification to claim to be the child’s legal guardian.67 Many cases of trafficking in girls involve kidnapping from poor cities in discos, bars, streets or even schools.68

In order to get to a destination country like Italy, traffickers use Vlora, the second largest port city of Albania as a transit point because it is only 70 miles away from the coast of Southern Italy. The Vatra PsychoSocial Centre, a not-for-profit women’s organisation based in Vlora works on women’s and girl’s rights issues and the prevention of trafficking69 drawing attention to the problem of re-trafficking, as many of the women and girls they assist have been re-trafficked. The trafficking of children for sexual purposes has taken a new course in Albania; exploiters are now internally trafficking women and children for prostitution and labour exploitation.70 The children most at risk are those belonging to certain ethnic communities, especially the Roma, who are working in the streets. In 2009, approximately half of the victims of trafficking within the country were Albanian women and girls subjected to conditions of forced prostitution in hotels and private residences in the cities of Tirana, Durres, and Vlora.71

Amnesty International reported two cases of convictions for trafficking in children for sexual purposes. In January 2007, the Serious Crimes Court sentenced two Albanians to 16 and 15 years’ imprisonment, respectively, for trafficking Albanian children to Greece and forcing them to work as prostitutes or beggars. In June 2007, two men from Lushnja were arrested and charged with trafficking a 16-year-old girl to Greece where she was forced into prostitution”.72

In November 2010, the European Council of Interior Ministers decided to abolish the visa requirement for Albanian (and BosnianHerzegovinian) citizens entering the EU.73 Albanian citizens are allowed to enter the Schengen Area without visas for a period up to 3 months (90 days). Whilst the decision promotes freedom of movement from the

Balkans to the EU, it could also facilitate child trafficking. As such, strong regional cooperation is needed to avoid such risks. The European Commission has been monitoring the regularity of the migration fluxes from Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina countries to the EU through a series of “readiness reports”.74

The US Department of State annually releases a Trafficking in Persons Report that categorises countries into different “tiers” based on the extent of government action to combat human trafficking. Countries that have the highest level of compliance with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking are placed in Tier 1. Those that have made

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“significant efforts” to meet the standards are placed in Tier 2 and countries that are not making significant efforts to combat human trafficking are placed in Tier 3. In the 2012 report, Albania was placed in Tier 2.75

Child Pornography / child abuse images
The information available on the production and possession of child pornography in Albania is very limited. No updated data is available, though in recent years some activities aimed at the prevention of online abuses have been carried out by civil society organisations.

According to the June 2010 First State Report on the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, there were no recorded instances of child pornography prosecutions for the dissemination of material portraying children in a sexual manner.76 The lack of cases involving child pornography does not translate into an absence of child pornography in the country, but reflects the difficulties of investigating and catching perpetrators in Albania. The medium of child pornography in Albania is mobile phones rather than the internet. Children in Albania (as in most countries) own their own phones, and distribution of pornographic materials via Bluetooth has become a commonplace occurrence, and has resulted in cases of teenagers engaging in the production and distribution of pornographic materials. One such case was reported in the Albanian daily newspaper ‘Shekulli’ in 2007 where an ex-boyfriend distributed a video of a 16-year-old girl sharing intimate moments with him as an act of revenge.77 There has been a significant increase in internet usage in Albania. The International Telecommunication Union indicates that by the end of 2010, more than 45 percent of Albanian youth had access to the internet.

The Albanian government is attempting to establish computer centres and the internet in every school. However, currently, there are no safe internet use measures or policies in place. According to the Electronic and Postal Communication Authority, there is no structure in place to monitor internet content or access to internet websites from private individuals through registered ISPs in Albania, making easy access and downloading of child pornographic websites in Albania possible by any person, including a child, without any legal liability.78 The CRC Committee expressed its concern over the lack of an efficient system to protect children from harmful images and information related to violence, racism and pornography in Albania and prevent accessibility of the information to the children.79 Although Albania has ratified the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cyber Crimes (2002), (“CETS No.: 185”), it has failed to adopt any laws or acts to prevent the publishing, manufacturing, accessing, dissemination, and expansion of child pornography.80 The Albanian government needs to take immediate action to implement laws combating and controlling child pornography.

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Child sex tourism
Albania is an emerging tourist destination, with more than 1 million tourists visiting the country every year and the number of tourists keeps growing. In 2006, the Ministry of Tourism, Youth and Sports reported that there was a 22% increase in the number of tourists visiting Albania in 2006 (compared to the records of the previous year), and similar trends have been reported for the period of 2007-2010.81 Although the rise of the tourism sector has been a revenue generator, it also exposes children to sex tourism and exploitation. Although very limited information is available on child sex tourism, media and NGOs have reported a number of child sex tourism cases. However, these cases were not fully investigated or prosecuted. Representatives of public institutions confirm the existence of child sex tourism, and it is acknowledged that exploitation of children in sex tourism is closely linked to internal child trafficking which is on the rise in Albania.82 Recently, there has been a case involving a British man convicted of sexual tourism in Albania.83 This case represents a hopeful step forward for the Albanian government. Subsequently, the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities introduced the Standards of Social Care Services for Children in Residential Institutions, which reinforced the service licensing process, and initiated checks.84 Additional progress on CST issues came in the form of 22 Albanian tour and hotel operators signing the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism (the Code) in November 2007.85 This initiative was organised by the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry of Interior, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The follow-up activities organised by the OSCE included: organising national awareness campaigns at border crossings and creating campaigns targeting tour operators as well as preparing training manuals and courses for the participating businesses and signatories.86 Despite these initiatives in place to combat child sex tourism, without appropriate policies and mechanisms in place, the problem of child sex tourism continues to exist in Albania. There is no specific provision relating to child sex tourism in the Albanian criminal legislation.87 Similarly, national policies such as the Anti-Trafficking Strategy and the National Strategy for Children remain silent on the issue of child sex tourism.88

NATIONAL PLAN OF ACTION
The Albanian government has promoted new legislation to meet international and European regional standards regarding human rights.89 Despite having several plans of action, there is no policy document which deals explicitly with CSEC.

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While Albania has no specific plan of action addressing commercial sexual exploitation in children, the government has shown some efforts in promoting children’s rights and child protection. In 2004, the National Strategy for Children was adopted for the period 2005 – 2010, together with the comprehensive National Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Strategy (“NSC 2005-2010”). The NSC 2005-2010 aimed to realise children’s rights in Albania with emphasis on equal opportunity for children, prevention of child trafficking and child labour, as well as to strengthen the protection against child abuse and violence. Under the Strategy, a policy framework was created to strengthen the monitoring system of children’s rights. The CSC 2005-2010 was implemented at national, regional and local levels through the Inter-ministerial committee which was established in 2007 to oversee the Strategy implementation.90 (See Coordination and Cooperation Section on page 22 for more details) The NSC (20052010) pays limited attention to CSEC. With the conclusion of the National Strategy for Children 2005-2010, the government of Albania has developed and approved another Action Plan covering the period 2012-2015. The strategic aims and objectives of this Action Plan follow the defined policies in the previous Strategy and revolve around two main directions: 1) Strengthening of the institutional structures created to monitor and to report the implementation of children’s rights at national and regional level; and 2) Promoting the drafting of comprehensive, coordinated and harmonised policies for the protection and social involvement of children.91 Besides the NSC 2005-2010, Albania has implemented several plans of action addressing vulnerable groups. One example of a national plan of action that contributes to the promotion of children’s rights is the National Strategy for Improving Conditions of Roma Living Conditions, (“Roma

Strategy”) which recognises the vulnerability that Roma children face in regards to prostitution and human trafficking.92 The priority measure outlined in the Roma Strategy is the implementation of a special programme designed to combat trafficking of Roma in cooperation with international organisations.93 The Trafficking NPA 2005 – 2007, was a renewal of the previous Framework and NAP and was created with the goal of ‘harmonising the structure of Albania’s national anti-trafficking response based on international and EU standards’.94 In particular, the Strategic Framework and Action Plan followed a model format that was part of the EU CARDS programme “Enhancement of Implementation Strategies for National Anti-Trafficking Action Plans in Stabilization and Association Process (SAP) Countries” programme for a comprehensive anti-trafficking response.95 The significant achievements of the Trafficking NPA 20052007 were: (1) the establishment of AntiTrafficking Unit acting under the authority of the Ministry of Interior Office of National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons;96 and (2) the establishment of a structured referral system and helpline which focused on human trafficking and migration. The Trafficking NPA 2005-2007 also set up a local anti-trafficking database that focuses on victims and a local anti-trafficking committee to assist law enforcement agencies, as well as potential victims.97 The Office of National Coordinator was established to supervise the implementation. In May 2008, the National Strategy on Combating Trafficking in Persons 2008-2010 was launched by the Ministry of Interior Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons.98 Apart from filling in the gaps left by previous NPAs, the 2008-2010 Trafficking NPA highlighted the fight against trafficking of children through the creation of a separate National Strategy and Action Plan for the Fight

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against Child Trafficking and the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking 2008-2010 (“2008-2010 Trafficking NPA”).99 The 20082010 Child Trafficking NPA detailed specific approaches needed to intensify actions and measures when dealing with trafficking of minors and can be read together with the 2008-2010 Trafficking NPA.100 The National Strategy and Action Plan prioritised the identification of potential and actual victims of trafficking through the enhancement of the system of Child Protection Units (CPUs) which respond to child trafficking as well as to other forms of child abuse, exploitation and neglect.101 Among other measures, capacity building102 and establishment of temporary shelters for victims103 were identified as enhancements of the child protection system. Furthermore, the education sector was prioritised as a key sector to be integrated into the function of the child protection system. 104 Additionally, the 2008-2010 Child Trafficking NPA emphasised the necessity to increase

collaboration between government bodies, international and domestic organisations and civil society.105 However, in 2011, an assessment report released by the Office of National Coordinator for the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings points out the need for more proactive investigations related to domestic trafficking106 and calls for more extensive cooperation between the government and civil society at the national level, as well as coordination at the international level with neighbouring and destination countries.107 Additionally, for prevention efforts, the report recommends introducing in the next NPA more preventive measures focusing on reduction of child vulnerability to trafficking. As a means of incorporating the GRETA report, the Albanian government has prepared a new National Action Plan on the Fight against Trafficking in Persons for 2011 – 2013, which is accompanied by the Plan of Action on the Fight against Child Trafficking and the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking.108

COORDINATION AND COOPERATION
Coordination and cooperation are crucial for an efficient and effective fight against CSEC. In accordance with the Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Action, close interaction and cooperation between government and nongovernment sectors are necessary to effectively plan, implement and evaluate measures to combat CSEC. The Albanian government has been active in combating human trafficking at the national and international levels; however, it needs to increase its cooperation and coordination in combating other manifestations of CSEC.

Local and national level
Since 2008, Albania has been working to develop mechanisms of cooperation and collaboration in order to enhance child rights protection throughout the country. The most significant development has been the establishment of Child Protection Units (CPUs) across the country.

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In March 2007, the government created an Inter-Ministerial Committee to Monitor and Coordinate the Implementation of the National Strategy for Children. The Committee, which gathers various ministries, is supported by the Technical Secretariat for Children (TSC) and has been piloted in 4 regions and 2 municipalities.109 The Technical Secretariat for Children (TSC) was established by Prime Minister’s Order No.162 in 2006.110 The TSC has the duty: 1) to attend to the implementation of the National Children’s Strategy and its Action Plan; 2) to collect data, assess information and submit reports regarding children’s rights; 3) to coordinate with the Ministries, other central entities, regions, municipalities, communes, organisations and service operators, etc; 4) to prepare 6 month and annual progress reports on the implementation of the NCS; 5) to coordinate the meetings of the InterMinisterial Committee; 6) to commission studies and analyses on children’s situations.111 These reports are submitted for review to the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Children’s Rights. The annual report is made available to the public in the national conference, which takes place on 1 June, the international Children’s Day.112 The Albanian government has given specific attention to address the issue of child trafficking for sexual purposes by institutionalising efforts to counteract human trafficking. In 2005, the Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons was established under the Ministry of Interior. In the same year, the Anti-Trafficking Unit was established as part of the Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings with supervision by the National Coordinator the Deputy Minister of the Interior. This is the first time that Albania had a high ranking official responsible full-time for the coordination of the anti-trafficking efforts in the country.113 The Office of National Coordinator is responsible for the coordination of all

anti-trafficking activities in Albania as well as the management and the collection of human trafficking data, including a victim database The Office of the National Coordinator oversees coordination under the National Referral Mechanism, which was established for inter-agency coordination for the protection and provision of assistance to trafficking victims in Albania.114 The State Police, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, the National Reception Centre for Victims of Trafficking in Tirana and several NGOs all participate.115 As an integral part of the 2008-2010 Trafficking NPA, the 2008-2010 Child Trafficking NPA outlines the establishment of CPUs in every municipality as part of Social Assistance and Protection Units. The establishment of the Technical Secretariat for Children (TSC) at the national level, the Anti-Trafficking Committee at the regional level and the CPU at the local level have the potential to play a major role in the improvement of the national child protection system. However, as these agencies are not part of a cohesive system and not linked to the other national agencies, the practical implementation of policies and activities is not homogeneous,116 resulting in discrepancies between the different municipalities. While the degree of implementation has improved, there remains a gap between planned policies and projects and actual coordinated action. NGOs play an important role in creating networks of collaboration and participation. The “Albanian Coalition against Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children” (ACTSEC),117 the ECPAT group in the county, is supported by the Children’s Human Rights Centre in Albania. ACTSEC collaborates with the Information and Research Centre for Child Rights in Albania (IRCCRA) and the Albanian Children’s Right Network (ACRN). ACTSEC is the only network working on all of the different manifestations of CSEC, whilst most of the

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other organisations focus on child trafficking. Moreover, since 2002, the coalition “All together against Child Trafficking” (BKTF)

has coordinated the national NGOs’ efforts to combat trafficking.118

PROMOTING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

In an effort to combat trafficking of children, the government of Albania recognises linkages between child trafficking for sexual purposes and sexual exploitation of children in tourism and the need to tackle the problem. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in Albania was signed, implementing a Code of Conduct for Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Tourism (“The Code”). Following the signing of the MoU, the Code of Conduct was implemented by the regulation of the Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports as part of an effort to support and strengthen the role of private sector in the protection of children from sexual exploitation.119 The implementation

of the Code of Conduct includes adoption of the standard of conduct for tour operating companies and allows for the removal of licenses in the event of non-compliance with the provisions of the rules on qualification or standardisation of services.120 The Albanian government acknowledges the links between child trafficking and child sex tourism globally and within Albania. Part of its effort to address the problem has been the Albanian government has been the signing of the Code of Conduct.121 Additionally, 24 tourist operators signed a cooperation agreement for the implementation of the Code. The Ministry of Tourism continues to monitor the Code of Conduct; however, no additional or new activities have been specifically adopted to reduce the demand for child sex tourism.122

Regional and international levels
Human trafficking for sexual purposes is the form of exploitation that receives the most attention in regional and international cooperation agreements. Regional and international cooperation to address other forms commercial sexual exploitation in children is still needed. Between 2005 and 2007, the government of Albania signed and ratified 14 agreements and conventions with surrounding countries such as Kosovo and Macedonia, and included discussions of mutual aid to ensure child protection, border control, parental responsibility, victim protection, drug control, and justice and police policies.123 One particular example of international cooperation is Albania’s relationship with Greece. The governments of Albania and Greece have acknowledged the extensive and persistant prescence of child trafficking existing between the two countries. Together, they developed a cooperative agreement aiming to protect trafficked children, “On the Protection and Assistance to the Children Victims of Trafficking” in February 2006.124 The agreement regulates the cooperation between the states’ authorities and defines

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mutual obligations for the identification, protection, rehabilitation and safe return of Albanian children who are exploited in Greece.125 The agreement also provides a repatriation procedure, which was created using the best interests of the child standard.126 Until 2011, police cooperation with neighboring countries took place within the framework of the Regional Centre of the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative, SECI (as of 2011 SECI became the Southeast European Law Enforcement Center (SELEC)).127 SECI has been active in carrying out operations against human trafficking. The Albanian law enforcement officials also cooperated in 2010 with the U.K. law enforcement officials regarding an Albanian organised criminal group involved in trafficking women for prostitution.128 Albania also takes part in a number of projects under the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), including the Transnational Referral Mechanisms for Trafficked Persons in SouthEastern Europe. Another project under the same programme is the Transnational Referral Mechanisms for Trafficked Persons in Europe (TRM-EU),129 which aims to establish a standardised procedure grouping the states of origin, destination and transit,

and promote cooperation among different actors to ensure adequate protection and assistance to victims of trafficking. Albania is also a member of the “Transnational Action against Child Trafficking” promoted by Terre des Hommes.130 During the period 20052007 Albania signed a MoU to develop a pre-screening mechanism for asylum seekers, economic migrants and trafficking victims.131 This particular MoU was created in cooperation with UNHCR, IOM, OSCE and ICMC: Albania, as the implementation country, developed a pre-screening mechanism which will help the authorities to identify and distinguish a trafficking victim from other migrants through cooperation with the police and IOM.132 A recent initiative from Terre des Hommes took place in 2009 and involved the countries of Albania, Greece and Kosovo. The NGO created a pilot database collecting information on disappeared and unaccompanied children in these countries. The online database aims to share information and increase the protection and identification of these children, who are at particular risk of being trafficked and/or physically and sexually abused. Terre des Hommes is now in charge of managing the database and developing a national database.

The Mario project is a joint NGO-led initiative to provide better protection to migrant children in Europe and advocate at the European regional and national level for legislation to protect children from abuse and trafficking. The project was initiated in 2009 by the OAK Foundation, ECPAT UK, Save the Children in Albania and Terre des Hommes and is implemented at the national level in Albania, Bulgaria, Kosovo and Poland; as well as at the transnational level in the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Greece, Macedonia, Belarus and Ukraine. Mario targets children at-risk of being trafficked. In order to promote coordination within the region, Mario promotes NGOs and state coordination for the identification of at-risk children and the establishment of common protection standards. As part of the project, experts from Terre des Hommes and Save the Children provide three training sessions per year in Albania and Kosovo. The trainings target Child Protection Units’ workers and social service workers.133

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Save the Children Albania implemented its Regional Child Trafficking Response Program in Southeastern Europe (CTRP). The programme lasted from 2009-2011. Countries involved in the project were Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.134 As a result of the project, more than 650 children have been involved across 7 countries.135 Additionally, capacity building trainings on children’s right and trainings on the needs of abused children have been organised. The CTRP project set additional achievements in Albania, such as the training of professionals working in Child Protection Units and a programme of peer-to-peer life skills education in order to empower children against trafficking and exploitation

through knowledge and awareness building.136 Training manuals were developed and distributed in Albania to the government sectors, NGOs, and others involved in child protection. Peer-to-peer life skill training was carried out in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro, with a focus on leadership training.137 With regard to cybercrime, some efforts have been made in the region. The Nordic Mule Software, a programme to assist local police was introduced by OSCE to the Western Balkan countries. The most recent meeting was in November 2011.138 The programme aims to assist local police in tackling with cybercrime, particularly child pornography and online child sexual abuse.139

PREVENTION
Trafficking remains a major concern in the country and the vast majority of preventative programmes focus on eradicating this problem and addressing this issue. Different actors, from government and NGOs, are making a concerted effort in the fight against trafficking of children. Measures to prevent trafficking also focus on the root causes of trafficking, such as poverty and lack of education. However, less attention is allocated to combating other manifestations of CSEC; nevertheless, new initiatives are emerging to fight ICT related child sex offences and child sex tourism. Empowering children, particularly children at risk, with knowledge about the risk of trafficking and exploitation is a powerful tool in CSEC prevention. In 2007, the Ministry of Education and Science established the inclusion of a specific module on trafficking in human beings in the national school curricula.140 The 2008-2010 Child Trafficking NPA recognises a lack of education to be a primary cause of vulnerability to child trafficking.141 Education is free and compulsory until grade 9 or until a child reaches the age of 16.142 Due to poverty, many neglect a child’s right to education and pull their children out of school, using their children to generate income for the family.143 In an effort to eliminate this practice, the Albanian government offers to reimburse other costs related to schooling for families with financial difficulties.144 The campaign to raise awareness of the importance of education is targeted at parents, as they can face a penalty due to their failure to send their kids to school.145 The 2008-2010 Child Trafficking NPA prioritises the involvement of schools in the functioning of the country’s Child Protection System. The aim is to improve

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the identification of children at risk of neglect, abuse, exploitation (including human trafficking) at the earliest possible stage, as well as to identify factors that raise children’s vulnerability to abuse and exploitation.146 According to the 2008-2010 Child Trafficking NPA, the Ministry of Education and Science along with its Regional Directorates is piloting a child protectors’ system in schools comprised of trained child psychologists.147 In 2010, the National Coordinator in cooperation with other government entities, carried out a number of awareness-raising activities. Leaflets were distributed to victims and potential victims of trafficking at border crossing points, consular offices and relevant places. Trainings have been organised as part of collaboration between IOM and the National Coordinator for Albanian journalists to remind them of their role in building awareness about the underlying causes of trafficking in human beings, code of professional ethics and the rights and dignity of victims.148 Save the Children has been running a project since 2009, which helps unregistered children living on the streets attain an education. They have a drop-in centre where children can partake in literacy lessons. The centre also extends aid to these children to enroll in school, provides them with school supplies and monitors their progress.149 NGOs are very much involved in the organisation of preventive programmes against child trafficking and the Human Rights Council recently recognised their contribution in fighting and preventing human trafficking.150 During the summer of 2010, Terre des Hommes organised summer camps for vulnerable and socially excluded children.151 The aim of the summer camp was self-esteem training and learning through

group work, with the primary purpose of offering educational, psychosocial, cultural and sport activities as an alternative to street work and begging. Most of the children were between 13 and 17 years of age and came from the Roma, Balkan and Egyptian communities. The event was organised to respond to the phenomenon of child trafficking which often increases during summer.152 Another prevention initiative by the Albanian government was the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Code.153 However, the impact of the Code is yet to be analysed as no report has been prepared on the number of children that have benefited from the Code implementation.154 It has been noted that Albania still lacks preventive measures focusing on the demand side of child trafficking, especially in connection with sexual exploitation.155 Additionally, although Albania is no longer considered a transit country of trafficking, preventive activities to highlight the danger of traffickers using Albania as a transit country should not be overlooked. In addition, the Albanian public should always be informed about the harm that victims of trafficking face while transiting through the country.156 One of the factors that contribute to the vulnerability of children to trafficking is their lack of civil status or birth certificates. Activities to promote birth registration have focused particularly on Roma and Egyptian minorities. Initiated by the National Coordinator, and in cooperation with the Directorate of Civil Registry at the Ministry of the Interior, an action plan and guidelines for resolving cases of unregistered children were drawn up by UNICEF and in cooperation with the MoI.157 The Transnational Action against Child Trafficking (TACT) was a 6-year programme which concluded in 2010. TACT

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was comprised of preventative and protective activities organised by an umbrella group of international and national organisations and two local Roma organisations.158 To help prevent child trafficking, TACT organised activities for the promotion of birth registration especially within vulnerable communities.159 Protecting children and youth from abuse is more effective when youth are involved. Reflecting this principle, in 2009 Terre des Hommes and the United Nations Volunteers organised training for 20 young child protection community mediators from the Roma, Balkan and Egyptian communities from Tirana, Fier and Elbasan, as part of the TACT project.160 The workshops were aimed at understanding the importance of child rights protection, in particular the problems encountered by vulnerable children, such as abuse, sexual exploitation and trafficking. Additionally, youth received training on prevention and intervention, and how to identify and respond to abuses. Young people had the opportunity to discuss sensitive topics related to the sexual abuse of children, including early marriages, which is very common within Roma communities.161 Albania has hosted some initiatives addressing the problem of abusive use of internet leading to sexual offences

against minors. In 2008, in response to the expanded use of the internet among children, the ECPAT affiliate group in Albania (ACTSEC) launched the “Make the Internet Safe for Children” campaign in Albania. Supported by ECPAT International, the campaign aimed at extending public and professional awareness about the dangers of children accessing internet pornography. The campaign held an open forum, addressing students from the fields of social work, psychology and philosophy at the University of Tirana. As these students are future professionals who will work closely with vulnerable youth, it is imperative that they be aware of the imminent challenges endangering youth.162 Albania takes part in the celebration of Safer Internet Day which was initiated by the European Commission. As part of Safer Internet Day each year, countries organise campaigns and events to promote the safer use of internet among young people. In 2010, awareness-raising classes were organised in different schools in Tirana for children, parents and teachers. The guideline for using internet safely was distributed to media and schools across Albania.163 A workshop for government officials was conducted to raise awareness of the danger of recruitment for human trafficking via internet.

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PROTECTION
International instruments
Human rights bodies related to child rights Charter-based bodies Working Group of the Universal Periodic Review – Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially in women and children November – December 2009 October 2005 No visits so far Comments

Treaty-based bodies
Committee on the Rights of the Child Children’s rights instruments Convention on the Rights of the Child – 1989 First report reviewed on 28 January 2005 Date of ratification 1992 Date of submitted reports Report scheduled to be submitted in November 2009. Postponed to 2012. To be considered in 2012

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography – 2000 ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour - 1999 (No. 182) UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and children – 2000 (supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime)

Accessed in 2008 2001

2004 2004

Regional Instruments
Convention on Cybercrime Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse 2002 2007 2009

Albania has ratified the main international treaties that protect children’s rights and its international obligations have precedence over

national law as specified by article 122 of the Constitution.164

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Legislation
The domestic legislation of Albania addresses child rights through various instruments. The National Constitution sets out provisions for the protection of the children’s civil, political, economic and cultural rights and envisages provisions for the protection of children, particularly against violence. The Family Code focuses on the protection of children’s rights and incorporates international principles and standards.165 The Criminal Code criminalises offences committed against children.166 Three laws provide children with protection from specific violations and provide protection from violence and abuse: The Law “On Measures against Domestic Violence”, the Law “On the Adoption Procedures and Albanian Adoption Committee” and the Law “On Legal Aid”.167

The continuous amendments to the Criminal Code have envisaged not only specific provisions to protect children and women against physical and sexual abuse, trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and indecent acts, but also increased punishment against the perpetrators of these criminal offences. Starting in 2001, the Criminal Code has specified the criminal offences of “Trafficking in persons”, “Trafficking in women”, “Trafficking in children”, “Pornography”, “Aid to the illicit border-crossing”, as well as “Ill-treatment of minors” which punishes the phenomenon of child exploitation to forced labour, begging and other services. These laws are more supported with the adoption of the Law “On the prevention and fight against the organized crime” (2004), the Law “On the protection of witnesses and justice collaborators” (2004), and the Law “On the pronouncement of the moratorium on the sailing vessels in the Republic of Albania” (2006).168 The Criminal Code criminalises illegal border crossing as well as assistance in illegal border crossing. When these acts are committed for profit, the sanctions provided are more severe. In addition, the legislation also criminalises prostitution related acts and prostitution (Article 113); exploitation of prostitution (Article 114); exploitation of prostitution in aggravated circumstances (Article 114(a)); the maintenance of premises for prostitution (Article 115); and, pornography (Article 117).169

While the Albanian legislature has traditionally been strong in criminalising sexual exploitation of children, it has failed to criminalise child exploitation through forced labour trafficking and other CSEC manifestations outside of the trafficking context.170 The proper implementation of laws such as the Family Code, the Labour Code, the Law on Social Services, the Law on Witness Protection, etc. are indispensable in preventing child trafficking and guaranteeing the proper protection and reintegration of trafficked children. Albania is in the process of reforming its legal framework on child protection. On November 4, 2010 the Albanian Parliament approved the Law “For the Protection of the Rights of the Child” Nr. 10347.171 The Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child reflects the harmonisation of the CRC and other international legal instruments within the Albanian domestic system.172 It addresses the right to education, quality health, social, and legal services for children, prohibition of all forms of discrimination and abuses against children, and effective data collection and information systems to track progress and inform policy related to children.173 Additionally, the law creates strong monitoring, reporting and evaluation systems,174 in part due to the collaborative approach and NGO involvement which provided specific expertise during the drafting phase.175 Lastly, the 2010 law consolidates the legal framework and other existing Albanian legislation that addresses child

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rights and child protection issues under one comprehensive legislative umbrella, which lays out the necessary institutional mechanisms for guaranteeing the constitutional rights of all Albanian children.176 The penalties for the commercial sexual exploitation of children are a maximum of 15 years’ imprisonment.177 The Albanian Criminal Code states the age of consensual sex is 14 years or the age of a female child who is not sexually matured (i.e. a child who maybe over the age of 14 but is not sexually developed).178 The penalty for statutory rape of a child under the age of 14 is a prison term of 7 to 15 years with additional aggravating factors.179 Additionally, within the Albanian Criminal Code there is a provision, Article 101, which criminalises ‘violent sexual intercourse’ with children between the ages of 14 - 18 years.180 Article 101 carries a punishment of imprisonment from 5 to 15 years, and also has aggravating factors that can augment the sentence up to 20 years if applicable (the increases in punishment listed in Articles 100 and 101 are related to the nature of the crime committed and are in conformity with article 3.3 of the OPSC).181 Whilst Albania instituting a legal provision protecting against under age sexual intercourse is a sign of progress, the age of

consent, 14, is contrary to both the CRC and the OPSC, which define a child as any individual below the age of 18.182 In addition, Article 101, which addresses adults having ‘violent sex with children’ who are 14-18 years old is vague and may imply a medical examination in order to determine whether a girl has attained sexual maturity. Furthermore, the definition does not criminalise sexual acts other than actual intercourse, for example making a child expose his or her genitalia or masturbating in the presence of a child are not included in this definition. Most disturbing about Article 101 is the requirement of “violent” sexual intercourse with a 14-18 year old child to have occurred in order to be charged under Article 101.183 There are additional gaps in the Albanian Criminal Code related to children’s age and protection. For example, Article 108 punishes obscene acts committed in the presence of a child younger than 14 (but does not provide a definition of obscene acts).184 Furthermore, children older than 14 are not protected under this article.185 With regard to the identification of children for the purpose of protecting against CSEC, the Albanian government needs to harmonise its laws to meet the standards of the CRC and the OPSC and identify children as individuals up to 18 years old.

CHILD PROSTITUTION

Under OPSC Article 2(b), child prostitution is defined as the use of a child in sexual activities for remuneration or any other form of consideration186 and includes offering, obtaining, procuring or providing a child for child prostitution.187 The Albanian Criminal Code criminalises prostitution-related acts and prostitution (Article 113), exploitation of prostitution (Article 114), exploitation of prostitution in aggravated circumstances (Article 114(a)), and the maintenance of premises for prostitution (Article 115).188 Prostitution is punishable with a fine or

imprisonment for up to 3 years.189 A minor can be legally prosecuted for engaging in prostitution, even though in practice minors are not prosecuted. Exploiting prostitution is defined as “soliciting prostitution, mediating or gaining from it” and is punishable by a fine or up to 5 years of imprisonment.190 The Criminal Code falls short in that the definition does not comprise the act of recruiting individuals for prostitution work, as required by OPSC Article 3(b) nor does it sanction attempt.191

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Article 129 of the Criminal Code sanctions those who induce minors into criminality but provides no information on what constitutes criminality or induction. Additionally, the engaging or soliciting of child prostitution is not penalised as a separate offence from adult prostitution and there is no definition of “child prostitution” in the Albanian Criminal Code. However,

child prostitution is considered an aggravating element under Article 114(a).192 According to this article, when prostitution is committed with a minor, the sentence is between 7 and 15 years and all profit incurred from the illegality is confiscated. The Albanian government needs to draft a child prostitution provision in the Criminal Code which complies with the OPSC.

CHILD TRAFFICKING

The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, (“Trafficking Protocol”) defines “trafficking in children” as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person less than 18 years of age for the purpose of exploitation.193 In 2004, the Albanian Parliament approved the Law No. 9188 on amendments to the Albanian Criminal Code, which introduced the criminal offence of trafficking in women and trafficking in minors.194 There are two provisions in the Criminal Code addressing trafficking of children: Article 110(1) Trafficking of People and Article 128(b) Trafficking of Children. Albanian legislation punishes trafficking generally under Article 110(1). Trafficking is the recruitment, transport, transfer, hiding or reception of persons through threat or the use of force or other forms of compulsion, kidnapping, fraud, abuse of office or taking advantage of social, physical or psychological condition or the giving or receipt of payments or benefits in order to get the consent of a person who controls another person, with the purpose of exploitation of prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation. It is punished with imprisonment of 5 to 15 years and a fine.195 Aggravating factors include organised trafficking, trafficking resulting in death or government-sponsored trafficking.

The Albanian Criminal Code also includes a specific child trafficking law, Article 128(b).196 The article states that “the recruitment, sale, transportation, transfer, concealment or reception of minors, for the purposes of exploitation of prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or putting to use or transplanting organs, as well as other forms of exploitation shall be punishable by between 7 and 15 years imprisonment and a fine.197 The usage of the term “sale” is the result of a 2008 governmental reform to further solidify the protection of children from various forms of abuse.198 There are also other crimes that contribute to trafficking or are related to trafficking that are identified in the Criminal Code, such as article 124, which punishes parents and guardians who abandon children below the age of 16 who are entrusted in their care.199 Articles 297 and 298 of the Criminal Code penalise assisting individuals in crossing borders illegally, removing passports and other identification documents, assisting traffickers, and harbouring persons.200 While these provisions do aid in the efforts to eradicate trafficking, these articles (particularly Articles 297 and 298), do not explicitly mention child trafficking. As such, they should be augmented to specifically include punishments related to child trafficking.

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The meaning of “aggravating circumstances” includes the following: “(i) organising, running and financing trafficking; (ii) committing the offence in collaboration with other persons or repeatedly or accompanying the act with ill-treatment or the use of physical force or psychological pressure to coerce the victim into committing various acts, or resulting in serious consequences for the victim’ s health; (iii) committing the offence by means of exploiting a position occupied in a state structure or public authority”. 201 With these offences, the prison sentence and fines are increased by a quarter in relation to the penalties normally stipulated.202 The existence of the increased sanctions on crimes committed within the governmental sector demonstrates the Albanian government’s awareness and concern of power imbalances related to the crime of CSEC. In 2010, the Albanian State Police reported investigating 51 suspected traffickers in 37 cases.203 All suspected trafficking offenders were referred to court for prosecution;204 11 convictions were made at the Serious Crimes Court. The number of trafficking cases involving children was not specified, however, out of 97 victims referred to government shelters by the National Referral Mechanism, 14 of the victims were children.205 The existing Albanian legal scheme does not adequately handle the phenomena of domestic trafficking, which is steadily on the rise in Albania. Many of the legislative measures made by the Albanian government

in the past several years have chiefly targeted the transnational trafficking of Albanians to countries such as Greece, Italy, or elsewhere in Europe. As more prevention measures have been carried out by the local authority on transnational trafficking, traffickers are turning to domestic trafficking: trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation and children for the purpose of sexual exploitation and begging. Accordingly, the Albanian government needs to augment its national policies and implementation regarding domestic trafficking, while simultaneously maintaining its international prevention efforts.206 A possible option for the Albanian government to expedite the development of legal policy addressing the new threat of domestic trafficking is to apply the existing regional Council of Europe treaty law to the Albanian domestic scheme. Under Article 122 of the Albanian Constitution, international treaties that have been ratified by the Albanian government form part of the country’s internal legal system and are directly applied, (except in cases where the treaties are not self-executing and require the Albanian government to implement a specific law in order for them to apply domestically).207 Albanian authorities have pointed out that the Council of Europe Anti-Trafficking Convention is part of the Albanian internal legal system; accordingly, under Article 122 it takes precedence over any law or administrative regulation, which would be incompatible with the Council of Europe Anti-Trafficking Convention.208

CHILD PORNOGRAPHY

The Criminal Code of Albania was amended in January 2008 to include a specific provision on child pornography (under article 117).209

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Child pornography is defined in Article 2(c) of the OPSC as “any representation, by whatever means, of a child engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a child for sexual purposes”.210 Article 117 of the Albanian Criminal Code criminalises the production, delivery, advertising, importing, selling and publication of pornographic materials in minors’ premises with a fine of 1 to 5 million leks ($10,000 to $50,000) and a prison sentence of 1 to 5 years.211 “The first Paragraph of this Article (117(1)) defines the premises for the production, distribution, advertisement, importation, sale and the publication of pornographic materials in minors; whereas the second paragraph (117(2)) defines the engagement of minors in the production of pornographic materials and in the distribution or publication of these materials via internet or other forms of communication”.212 The sanction for violating this law is 1 to 5 years’ imprisonment and a fine from 1 to 5 million lek (US$ 13,000 to $ 65,000).213 While Albania has progressed in its efforts to comply with Article 2(c) of the OPSC definition, Section 117 the new Criminal Code does not comply with all elements of OPSC Section 2(c). Specifically, the definition of child pornography under Section 171 does not include representations of children in pornographic situations by

whatever means, and does not penalise for depicting a child engaging in real or simulated sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a child for sexual purpose. The Albanian government needs to augment the statutes defining child pornography to include representations of children and children’s body parts. Additionally, Article 117 lacks a definition of child pornography itself and does not specify the criminalisation of all the possible forms of child pornography, for example audio, video or written pornography or possession of child pornography. Additionally, there is no mention of virtual child pornography. The lack of a clear definition leads to confusion. In particular, the crime could only be perceived as such if it involves exposure of children performing sexual activities. Lastly, the term ‘minor’s premises’ is undefined, leaving the term ambiguous and difficult to attempt to prosecute. Lastly, the relevant Albanian provisions do not criminalise grooming. Albania, having ratified the Council of Europe (CoE) Convention on Cyber crime, is bound to criminalise the phenomenon of grooming of children for pornography.214 As an increasing number of vulnerable youth are accessing the internet daily, it is imperative that the Albanian government introduces this concept into its Criminal Code.

EXTRADITION LAW

One of the main impediments to the full realisation of international legal standards on extraterritorial legislation is the existence in Albania of the provision for double criminality. Under Article 6 of the Criminal Code, the Albanian Criminal Code applies fully to Albanians who commit crimes within Albania; however, Albanians can be punished for crimes committed abroad only if the alleged crime is recognised by the jurisdictions of both states, (with the only

exception to double criminality being if the foreign court has given a final sentence).215 The double criminality principle is also present in the Albanian extradition provisions of the Criminal Code, as under the Albanian Criminal Code, extradition of Albanian nationals is possible only when the offence is recognised by both states involved and there is a stipulated provision regarding extradition in a corresponding bilateral agreement.216

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CHILD PROTECTION UNITS

The 2008-2010 Child Trafficking NPA, provides for the establishment of child protection units (CPUs) in all Albanian municipalities.217 The Agency on Child Protection, set up within the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, is currently drafting and implementing the secondary legislation related to the Law on Child Protection.218 The newly established CPUs constitute a vast improvement in the Albanian national child protection system. The aim of the CPU is to monitor the implementation and fulfilment of children’s rights, allocating special attention to the children of at-risk families and vulnerable groups.219 CPUs are in charge of establishing and coordinating protection activities, victim/at-risk referral systems at the local level, services for children and one-on-one assistance provisions.220 Other tasks include identifying and referring child abuse victims of neglect, exploitation and violence to the

appropriate government agencies.221 Albania has 28 Child Protection Units.222 The international organisations Save the Children in Albania, Terre des Hommes and World Vision have largely supported the Albanian government in establishing these units, providing training programmes and toolkits for governmental professionals and social workers.223 In November 2011, Albania introduced the Law for Protection of the Rights of the Child.224 The Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child called for the establishment of the CPUs at local level.225 Prior to the passing of this law, the establishment of a local Child Protection Unit was at the discretion of local government.226 However, despite the obligation imposed by the new law, there is still some reluctance in setting up the CPUs, as many government officials have not sufficiently prioritised the CPUs.227

Albanian Schools are Focal Points of Child Protection
In December 2009, the Ministry of Education and Science in collaboration with Terre des Hommes presented the ‘Manual for the Schools’228 and the ‘Training Handbook for Child Protection’.229 The project was developed in part from the idea that schools are a critical point of contact between children, parents and community members, and accordingly are valuable outreach opportunities. The subsequent training programme was meant to develop schools’ capacities to protect children and provide a protective environment. By 2010, Terre des Hommes had already trained 83 school directors and 100 school psychologists on child protection issues.230

It is the National Police’s responsibility to address child protection issues. Within the Police Directorates, the “Section for the Protection of Children and Domestic Violence” have been established to provide protection for children from physical and sexual violence.231 In 2011, two new CPUs were established: the first in Municipality Unit No.4 in Tirana,

and the other at the Commune of Levan in Fier, as a means to provide services to some of the most vulnerable communities in the capital.232 In 2012, the CPU in Levan will be the third CPU to be established in the region of Fier, (as two other CPUs are already operating at the Municipality of Fier and at the Commune of Dermenas).233

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Support services for children
Until recently, services in place to assist child victims of commercial sexual exploitation were lacking in Albania. NGOs and civil society organisations have accordingly played a greater role in providing such services. Recently, the victim support services provided by the government related to trafficking have been steadily increasing.234 However, organised support for other forms of CSEC are still neglected and need more political capital and resources devoted to the development of more extensive victims’ services.

The 2008-2010 Child Trafficking NPA outlines governmental support for child trafficking victims and specifies fundamental measures for working with children, while emphasising the need to provide adequate temporary shelter and capacity building of social care workers.235 It also seeks to establish cooperation amongst different NGOs and governmental bodies involved in the prevention of child trafficking.236 In 2005, the National Reception Centre for Victims of Human Trafficking (NRCVHT), various governmental ministries of Albania, the non-profit organisations Vatra and Tjeter Vizion, and the IOM formed a “Cooperation Agreement to Establish a National Referral Mechanism for the Enhanced Identification and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking”.237 The programme created support services for adults and children and set specific regulations to ensure that the services provided were human rights and victim-rights oriented in their approach. Additionally, services were to be delivered on a voluntary basis and not contingent on particular requirements (such as participating with investigations).238 Children’s ability to receive governmental support is to be decided by their parents or legal guardians. In regards to child trafficking victims, a legal advocate is to be appointed to provide children with legal assistance during any interview and trial.239 Child trafficking victims and children at risk of trafficking are to be assisted at the National Reception Centre for Victims of Trafficking (National Reception Centre), which is open to both women and children.240 Despite
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government efforts such as the National Reception Centre, civil society organisations continue to be the major implementers of care services. For example, since 2008, the Albanian organisation ‘Different and Equal’ has been running projects to assist trafficking victims. One such project aimed to reintegrate victims of trafficking through programmes fostering their recovery in a reintegration centre.241 However, the project did not focus solely on children. In 2010, the Albanian government extended NGO funding and provided direct financial assistance to trafficked victims for their reintegration into society. In an effort to enhance the prosecution of trafficking cases and improve the treatment of victims serving as state witnesses, the government appointed a victim-witness coordinator and two specialised anti-trafficking prosecutors.242 The Albanian government often encourages victims to testify against their traffickers. However, due to the fear of retribution from traffickers, victims are often reluctant to participate in the proceedings. Additionally, certain sources claim that the government fails to provide victims with sufficient protection forcing them to rely exclusively on NGOs help. According to NGOs, although the NRM has improved its effort to identify and protect victims of trafficking, gaps remain in its implementation, perhaps attributable to widespread corruption, especially within the judiciary.243 In 2010, the government finalised a law, extending a stipend of $30 a month to trafficked victims once they left the shelter.244

No information is available on whether this is implemented for children as well.245 While the victim support measures that the Albanian government have unilaterally taken on are somewhat lacking, Albania has acted upon regional legal obligations in an effort to improve victim support services. Albania has ratified the European Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. In the European Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings,246 Article 30, which touches upon the protection of witnesses and victims, requests parties to take measures to protect victims’ private lives and identities and to provide for their safety and protection from intimidation in the course of judicial proceedings, including special protection measures for child trafficking victims.247 In February 2011, the government approved a National Anti Trafficking Strategy (20112013) which was prepared collaboratively with input from civil society organisations. The government continued to promote and organise campaigns to prevent trafficking and monitor its anti-trafficking efforts through its National Coordinator’s office. However, regional anti-trafficking groups are not operational in the absence of leadership and assistance, and unfortunately, the Albanian government does not always involve civil society organisations in a consistent manner.248 Lack of understanding on trafficking issues by government agencies accompanied by the absence of political willingness deters in the establishment of an institutionalised response to trafficking in Albania. Regional Committees for fighting human trafficking were established in 12 regions in Albania following an order of the Prime Minister under the leadership of the Qarku Prefect.249 The Regional Committees are responsible for monitoring the trafficking situations in their region and assisting the prefects, which include the mayors, directors of Social Service units, Employment office,

Police, etc. They aim to identify victims and potential victims of trafficking and provide protection and immediate support.250 In addition to government services, several NGOs are providing a variety of victim services on the ground. On 1st June 2009, UNICEF and CRCA/DCI Albania established the Albanian National Child Helpline (ALO 116), a national 24/7 free of charge service to children across the country. The main goal of the helpline is to protect the rights of children at risk and in need, while ensuring that they have access to a range of prevention and protection services in the context of a broader child protection system and referral mechanism.251 In 3 years of work, ALO 116 has received more than 400,000 phone calls from children from all over Albania.252 Terre des Homme is actively engaged in prevention of child trafficking in Albania. Besides arranging prevention campaigns, school programmes, and social support programmes at the municipal level, the organisation works for the establishment of CPUs across Albania (together with the support of UNICEF, Save the Children, World Vision and Partner for Children etc).253 ARSIS, a Greek organisation active in Albania works on providing psychosocial assistance, legal and administrative aid to children on request from the child and their family members. The organisation, along with the municipality of Tirana and UNICEF, established the first Emergency Centre for children in Tirana.254 IOM, in collaboration with governmental and non-governmental partners, provides direct assistance to child trafficking victims while also organising counter-trafficking programmes. The organisation also devises strategies to develop coordination and promote collaboration among the organisations involved.255

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TRAINING lAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL Albanian legislation is improving upon its efforts to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation. In order to ensure the effective implementation and enforcement of CSEC protections, further efforts need to be made to enhance capacity of relevant law enforcement agencies at all levels.

In 2007, the General Police Directorate (in cooperation with UNICEF) held training on children’s rights protection for law enforcement officers. Over 270 police officers attended the training, which was delivered by different child protection experts such as child psychologists, children’s advocates, professors from the School of Magistrates, and pedagogues of the Police Academy.256 In 2008, two training sessions were organised in the Police directorates of the Region of Tiranë, Shkodër, Korçë, Fier, Vlorë, Gjirokastër, Lezhë, Elbasan, Dibër, Berat and Durrës.257 These specific trainings addressed

themes such as the rights of the child, procedural safeguards, and effective police interviews of minors.258 Also in 2008, training sessions were held for 590 police enforcers at all levels, in collaboration with UNDP. The training took place in the Regional Police Directorates and focused on measures against domestic violence.259 Additionally, the Albanian government has in place 40 anti-trafficking officers who work exclusively on human trafficking cases. As for trainings that collaborate with NGOs, in 2010, the government conducted anti-trafficking training, which included the training of 113 judicial officers.260

CHILD AND YOUTH PARTICIPATION
Child and youth participation, as stipulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, is fundamental in the realisation of children’s rights. Albanian youth are involved in promoting their rights in various forms. In November 2010, in honour of the Universal Day of Children’s Rights, street children lobbied for their rights in the main meeting hall of the Parliament with the head of Parliament. Initiated by Save the Children Albania and in collaboration with local NGOs, Children of the World, Albania-Human Right (FBSH), and Association for the Social Support of Young People (ARSIS), the street children had an opportunity to give input regarding the development and enhancement of child rights in Albania. Over 120 children sat in the meeting hall, speaking out about the hardships they encounter and possible ideas to improve their circumstances.261 With support from CRCA/DCI Albania, ALO 116, Save the Children, World Vision and the SOS Village, an Alternative Report on the CRC was prepared with the contribution of more than 14,000 children

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across Albania. The report highlights several problematic issues affecting Albanian children, including poverty, discrimination, violence, isolation, and equality of education, and concludes with several recommendations to improve the wellbeing and protection of children.262 In addition to demonstrations, there are youth organisations that actively cultivate youth political participation, such as the Albanian Youth Parliament. The Albanian Youth Parliament is a forum involving children between the ages of 14 and 18 who participate in the democratic process in the country.263 The Albanian Youth Parliament aims to increase youth participation in public debates and has played an important role in lobbying for increasing funds in the field of education.264 The Albanian Youth Parliament also submitted a report entitled Strategy on Youth and when the government failed to implement the report, the group submitted the Youth Implementation Plan, which

detailed the process of putting the strategic plan into action.265 Troc or “Straight Talk” is a diverse youth-run television show in Albania with all reporters under the age of 18, and broadcasts news and viewpoints of pressing national issues from 11 bureaus across Albania on Albanian National Television.266 Troc was created through the collaboration of UNICEF and Albanian National Television (TVSH) and launched its first episode in February 2001. A group of funders, which include the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, support the project.267 Troc has also been influential in bringing change in the area of CSEC as one of its stories exposed a case of mistreatment and abuse of children in a dormitory, which subsequently resulted in the removal of the dormitory director.268 Although TROC has recently come to an end, it remains a good example of child and youth participation.

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PRIORITY ACTIONS REQUIRED
National plan for action

î î î

The Albanian government must establish and implement a national plan of action specifically addressing all forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children. The government shall also adopt a national plan of action against child labour and economic exploitation of children to fulfill its obligation under ILO 138 and ILO 182. The Albanian government needs to establish a central monitoring mechanism to oversee the different initiatives surrounding the suppression of CSEC and ensure that governmental organisations and NGOs are working efficiently and not duplicating or contradicting one another’s efforts. The government should adopt a policy to financially support the child protection services provided by NGOs that are currently funded only by other donors.

î

Cooperation and coordination

î î

The government needs to identify a Ministry responsible for collecting data on the situation of CSEC in Albania and monitoring programmes that are in place combating CSEC. The Ministry of Tourism needs to start a national programme of cooperation with the Ministry of Interior and the tourism sector to coordinate their efforts to identify, report and prevent child sex tourism. Through collaborating with neighbouring countries, Albania should continue to expand their victim identification and repatriation programmes. The Ministry of Innovation responsible for ISP policies and legislation should foster collaboration with the ICT industry with the purpose of eradicating complex internet servers disseminating child pornography.

î î

Prevention

î

The migration of unaccompanied and unregistered children from Albania renders these children easy targets for CSEC. It is essential that the Albanian government ensure the registration of these births. The Albanian government needs to offer more extensive social service programmes to street children and impoverished families. Initiatives already in place such as CPUs and CRUs must be geographically positioned to target the social groups most vulnerable to CSEC.

î

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î î

More public awareness regarding the dangers and prevalence of CSEC is needed at the national level. The Albanian government should develop specific programmes targeting the demand for child prostitution and child pornography.
Protection

î î î î î î

Albanian legislation should be amended to include a law against the grooming of children. The mere possession of child pornography for personal use should be made illegal. The legislation should develop a clear and consistent definition of ‘child’, ensuring that all children below the age of 18 are protected. CSEC victims should be consistently treated as victims and not offenders. The Albanian government must extend witness protection to victims of trafficking participating in trials. Albania should eradicate the principal of dual criminality when dealing with the extradition of offenders involved in CSEC.

Child and youth participation

î î

The Albanian government should increase its efforts to involve children in the development and implementation of laws that have bearing on their well-being. The Albanian government should allocate funding to organisations involved in youth selfesteem and leadership skills building.

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ANNEX
The Rio de Janeiro Declaration and Call for Action to Prevent and Stop Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents*
Note: This is a condensed version. The full Rio Declaration and Call to Action also contains: Preamble; A. Review of progress and outstanding challenges; and B. Declaration.

C. Call for Action
We call on all States, with the support of international organizations and civil society, including NGOs, the private sector, adolescents and young people to establish and implement robust frameworks for the protection of children and adolescents from all forms of sexual exploitation, and we call upon them to:
I - International and Regional Instruments

(1) Continue working towards ratification of relevant international instruments, including as appropriate the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, ILO Convention 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (2) Continue working towards ratification of relevant regional instruments, including as appropriate the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, the ASEAN Charter,
*

the Inter-American Conventions on International Traffic in Minors and on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women, the SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, and the Council of Europe Conventions on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, on Cybercrime and on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse, conventions which can be ratified by States that are non-members of the Council of Europe. (3) State Parties should take all necessary measures to implement the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, taking into due accounts the conclusions and the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child in the context of its review of State Parties’ reports. All countries are encouraged to use this as an important reference.
II – Forms of Sexual Exploitation and its New Scenarios

Child pornography/child abuse images (4) Criminalize the intentional production, distribution, receipt and possession of child pornography, including virtual

The Rio de Janeiro Declaration and Call for Action to Prevent and Stop Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents (2008), full text available at: http://www.ecpat.net/WorldCongressIII/PDF/Outcome/WCIII_Outcome_Document_Final.pdf

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images and the sexually exploitative representation of children, as well as the intentional consumption, access and viewing of such materials where there has been no physical contact with a child; legal liability should be extended to entities such as corporations and companies in case the responsibility for or involvement in the production and/or dissemination of materials. (5) Undertake specific and targeted actions to prevent and stop child pornography and the use of the Internet and new technologies for the grooming of children into online and off-line abuse and for the production and dissemination of child pornography and other materials. Victim identification, support and care by specialized staff should be made a high priority. (6) Conduct educational and awarenessraising campaigns focusing on children, parents, teachers, youth organizations and others working with and for children with a view to improve their understanding of the risks of sexually exploitative use of the Internet, mobile telephones and other new technologies, including information for children on how to protect themselves, how to get help and to report incidences of child pornography and online sexual exploitation. (7) Take the necessary legislative measures to require Internet service providers, mobile phone companies, search engines and other relevant actors to report and remove child pornography websites and child sexual abuse images, and develop indicators to monitor results and enhance efforts. (8) Call upon Internet service providers, mobile phone companies, Internet cafes and other relevant actors to develop and

implement voluntary Codes of Conduct and other corporate social responsibility mechanisms together with the development of legal tools for enabling the adoption of child protection measures in these businesses. (9) Call upon financial institutions to undertake actions to trace and stop the flow of financial transactions undertaken through their services which facilitate access to child pornography. (10) Set up a common list of websites, under the auspices of Interpol, containing sexual abuse images, based on uniform standards, whose access will be blocked; the list has to be continuously updated, exchanged on international level, and be used by the provider to perform the access blocking. (11) Undertake research and development, in the realm of the private sector, of robust technologies to identify images taken with electronic digital devices and trace and retract them to help identify the perpetrators. (12) Promote public/private partnerships to enhance the research and development of robust technologies to investigate and to trace the victims with a view to immediately stop their exploitation and provide them with all the necessary support for full recovery. (13) Make technologies easily available, affordable and usable for parents and other caregivers, including to assist with the use of filters to block inappropriate and harmful images of children. Sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in prostitution (14) Address the demand that leads to children being prostituted by making

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the purchase of sex or any form of transaction to obtain sexual services from a child a criminal transaction under criminal law, even when the adult is unaware of the child’s age. (15) Provide specialized and appropriate health care for children who have been exploited in prostitution, and support child centered local models of recovery, social work systems, realistic economic alternatives and cooperation among programmes for holistic response. Sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in travel and tourism. (16) Encourage and support the tourism, travel and hotel sectors in adopting professional Codes of Conduct, for example by joining and implementing the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in Travel and Tourism; encourage the use of businesses that put in place appropriate child protection-focused corporate social responsibility strategies; and/or provide other incentives for those participating. (17) Ensure that all stakeholders pay specific attention to unregulated tourism to prevent domestic and international travellers from sexually exploiting children and adolescents. (18) Cooperate in the establishment of an international travel notification system, such as the Interpol ‘green notice’ system, in accordance with applicable law and human rights standards. (19) Ensure investigation and, where sufficient evidence exists, that appropriate charges are brought and vigorously pursued against the State’s nationals who are reported or alleged to have sexually exploited a child in a foreign country.

(20) Prohibit the production and dissemination of material advertising the sexual exploitation of children in tourism; and alert travellers to criminal sanctions that will apply in cases of sexual exploitation of children. (21) Monitor new and emerging tourist destinations and establish proactive measures to work with private sector partners involved in the development of tourism services on measures to prevent the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, including the use of socially and environmentally responsible strategies that promote equitable development. Trafficking and the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents (22) Mobilize communities, including children and adolescents with a view to engaging them in dialogue on and a critical review of social norms and practices and economic and social conditions that make children vulnerable to trafficking, and establish procedures that involve them in developing strategies and programmes where they participate, where appropriate, in the planning, implementation and monitoring of such programmes. (23) Pilot and adapt or replicate successful models of community-based prevention and rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for child victims of trafficking. (24) Establish policies and programmes that address not only cross-border but also internal trafficking of children and that include, among other elements, a standard operating procedure for the safe repatriation and return of children based on the child’s view and on a careful assessment of the needs and risks to the child of returning to her/his place of origin to ensure that the best interests of the child are taken into account.

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(25) Continue strengthening cross-border and internal cooperation of law enforcement officials, for example by establishing coordinating units with a mandate to issue clear guidelines for child centered investigation of cases of trafficking of children and for treating trafficked children not as criminals but as victims in need of protection. (26) Take legislative and other measures to ensure that a guardian is appointed without delay for every unaccompanied trafficked child, that an effective system of registration and documentation of all trafficked children is established, and that every trafficked child is provided with not only short-term protection but also with the necessary economic and psycho-social support for full and longlasting recovery and social reintegration (in line with the UNICEF Guidelines on the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking and UNHCR Guidelines on Formal Determination of the Best Interests of the Child). (27) Undertake and/or support, with the involvement of civil society and children, the regular evaluation of programmes and policies to prevent and stop the trafficking of children and of legislation that may have a conducive impact on trafficking, for example laws on marriage, free education, adoption and migration, birth registration, accordance of citizenship, refugee or other status.
III – Legal Frameworks and Enforcement of the Law

(29) Establish effective extraterritorial jurisdiction, abolishing the requirement of double criminality for offences of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, and facilitate mutual legal assistance, in order to achieve effective prosecution of perpetrators and appropriate sanctions. Make all acts of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents an extraditable offence in existing or newly established extradition treaties. (30) Designate a lead law enforcement agency, where appropriate to national circumstances, to proactively enforce extraterritorial laws related to sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. (31) Ensure that child victims of sexual exploitation are not criminalized or punished for their acts directly related to their exploitation, but are given the status of victim in law and are treated accordingly. (32) Establish special gender sensitive units/ children’s desks within police forces, involving when appropriate other professionals like health care and social workers and teachers, to address sexual crimes against children, and provide specialized training to judicial and law enforcement personnel. (33) Address corruption in law enforcement and the judiciary, as well as other authorities with a duty of care to children, recognizing corruption as a major obstacle to effective law enforcement and protection for children. (34) Establish and implement international, regional and national legal mechanisms and programmes for addressing sex offender behaviour and preventing recidivism, including through risk assessment and offender management programmes, the provision of voluntary extended and comprehensive rehabilitation services (in addition to but not in lieu of criminal sanctions

(28) Define, prohibit and criminalize, in accordance with existing international human rights standards, all acts of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in their jurisdiction, irrespective of any set age of consent or marriage or cultural practice, even when the adult is unaware of the child’s age.

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as appropriate), safe reintegration of convicted offenders and the collection and sharing of good practices and establish where appropriate sex offenders registers.
IV – Integrated Cross-Sectoral Policies and National Plans of Action General

awareness and preventing the sexual exploitation and trafficking of children and adolescents. (38) Initiate and support the collection and sharing of reliable information and cross-border cooperation, and contribute to databases on victims and perpetrators, to enhance assistance to children and address the demand for sex with children, in accordance with applicable laws. Prevention (39) Ensure that all children born on their territory are registered immediately and for free after their birth and pay special attention to not yet registered children and children at risk and in marginalized situations. (40) Strengthen the role of educational institutions and staff to detect, denounce and help address sexual abuse and exploitation of children in all forms and sources. (41) Emphasize prevention of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, through e.g. awareness raising and educational campaigns, support for parents and eradication of poverty while reinforcing or establishing multisectoral referral mechanisms to provide comprehensive support and services to children who have been victimized in sexual exploitation. (42) Support children to gain deeper knowledge of their own rights to be free from sexual exploitation, and the options available to help them to address abuse, so that they are empowered, with the partnership of adults, to end sexual exploitation. (43) Engage children in meaningful and critical examination of changing contemporary values and norms and their potential to increase vulnerability

(35) Develop and implement comprehensive National Plans of Action on the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, or include these in existing relevant planning frameworks, such as National Development Plans and ensure that these Plans are based in a cross-sectoral approach which brings all stakeholders together in a coherent and comprehensive framework for action. These Plans should incorporate gendersensitive strategies, social protection measures and operational plans, with adequate monitoring and evaluation targeted resources and designated responsible actors, including civil society organizations for implementation of initiatives to prevent and stop the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents and provide support for child victims of sexual exploitation. (36) Promote and support multi-sectoral policies and programmes, including community-based programmes, within the framework of a comprehensive national child protection system to address phenomena that contribute to the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents including, for example, discrimination (including on the basis of sex), harmful traditional practices, child marriage and social norms that condone sexual exploitation. (37) Promote and fund meaningful child and youth participation at all levels in the design, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes, in campaigns and through peer-to-peer youth programmes, aimed at raising

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to sexual exploitation; and promote education to enhance children’s understanding of these issues in relation to sexual exploitation. (44) Undertake research on contemporary patterns of socialization of boys and men across different contexts to identify factors that promote and strengthen boys’ and men’s respect for the rights of girls and women and engage them in action initiatives that inhibit and discourage them from engaging in sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. Protection of the child (45) Increase efforts to address the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents through the development of comprehensive and integrated national child protection systems, including the necessary budget allocations and based on identifications of settings where children are most at risk that aim to protect children from all forms of violence and abuse. (46) Establish by 2013 an effective and accessible system for reporting, follow up and support for child victims of suspected or actual incidents of sexual exploitation, for example by instituting mandatory reporting for people in positions of responsibility for the welfare of children. (47) Develop or enhance accessibility of existing telephone or web-based help lines, in particular for children in care and justice institutions, to encourage children and require care givers to confidentially report sexual exploitation and seek referral to appropriate services, and ensure that the operators of such reporting mechanisms are adequately trained and supervised. (48) Strengthen existing national child protection services or establish new

ones in order to provide all child victims of sexual exploitation, girls and boys, without discrimination, with the necessary economic and psychosocial support for their full physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration, and when appropriate, family reunification and interventions that support and strengthen families to mitigate the risk of further exploitation; such services to be provided by well trained multi-disciplinary teams of professionals. (49) Ensure that these services are accessible, appropriately resourced, comprehensive, child- and gender-sensitive, and reach all children without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex (or orientation), and social origin and including children with disabilities, from ethnic minorities, indigenous or Aboriginal children, refugee or asylum-seeking and children in domestic service or living on the streets and children displaced by conflict or emergency situations. (50) Develop programs that provide children of sex workers and children living in brothels with support and protection. (51) Promote and defend the privacy of the child victims and child perpetrators of sexual exploitation, taking into account relevant national laws and procedures, to protect their identity in investigatory or court proceedings or from disclosure by the media and ensure that these proceedings are child friendly and allow the child to participate in a meaningful way in the process of bringing the perpetrator to justice. (52) Ensure that children and adolescents exhibiting acts of sexual violence harmful to others receive appropriate care and attention as a first option through gender-sensitive and childfocused measures and programmes that balance their best interest with

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due regard for the safety of others, and ensure compliance with the principle that depriving children of liberty should be pursued only as a measure of last resort, and ensure that those responsible for the care of such children are equipped with relevant and culturally appropriate training and skills.
V – International Cooperation

up on the implementation of the recommendations made. (56) Provide, when in a position to do so, financial, technical and other assistance through existing multilateral, regional, bilateral and other programmes for addressing the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents; and explore the potential of a fund for child and youth initiatives in this area. (57) Develop, where appropriate with the support of UN agencies, NGOs, civil society organizations and the private sector, workers’ and employers’ organizations, policies and programmes to promote and support corporate social responsibility of enterprises operating inter alia in tourism, travel, transport and financial services, and of communication, media, Internet services, advertising and entertainment sectors; so that child-rights focused policies, standards and codes of conduct are implemented throughout the supply chain and include an independent monitoring mechanism. (58) Support and contribute to the Interpol international child abuse images database and nominate a responsible national focal point person or unit to collect and update promptly national data on sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, and systematically share this information with Interpol in order to support cross-border (international) law enforcement action and strengthen its effectiveness, and adopt multilateral agreements especially for police investigation work. (59) Undertake national and international coordinated measures to curb and stop the involvement of organized crime

(53) Take all necessary steps to strengthen international cooperation by multilateral, regional and bilateral arrangements for the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution and punishment of those responsible for acts of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents; and for the assistance of child victims in their physical and psychological recovery, social reintegration and, as appropriate, repatriation. (54) Establish and/or improve by 2013 concrete mechanisms and/or processes to facilitate coordination at national, regional and international levels for enhanced cooperation among government ministries, funding bodies, UN agencies, NGOs, the private sector, workers’ and employers’ organizations, the media, children’s organizations and other representatives of civil society with a view to enabling and supporting concrete action to prevent and stop the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. (55) Strengthen and improve the effectiveness of existing regional mechanisms for exchange, coordination and monitoring of progress on child protection including against sexual exploitation in order to review progress and strengthen follow-

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in commercial sexual exploitation of children and bring persons and/or legal entities responsible for this form of organized crime to justice.
VI – Social Responsibility Initiatives

We encourage the private sector, employers’ and workers’ organizations, to proactively engage in all efforts to prevent and stop the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, and to use their knowhow, human and financial resources, networks, structures and leveraging power to: (60) Integrate child protection, including the prevention of sexual exploitation of children, into new or existing corporate social responsibility policies of enterprises operating inter alia in tourism, travel, transport, agriculture and financial services, and of communication, media, Internet services, advertising and entertainment sectors, and ensure appropriate implementation of such policies and widespread public awareness. (61) Incorporate the prevention and protection of children from sexual exploitation in human resources policies, such as Codes of Conduct and other corporate social responsibility mechanisms throughout the supply chain. (62) Join efforts with Governments, UN agencies, national and international NGOs, and other stakeholders to prevent the production and dissemination of child pornography, including virtual images and the sexually exploitative representation of children, and stop the use of the Internet and

new technologies for the grooming of children into online and off-line abuse; undertake actions to trace and stop the flow of financial transactions for sexual exploitation of children through the services of financial institutions; support efforts to address the demand for sexual exploitation of children in prostitution and the strengthening of services for children victims and their families, including the establishment of accessible telephone or web-based help lines; and provide support for educational and awareness-raising campaigns targeting children, parents, teachers, youth organizations and others working with and for children, on the risks of sexual exploitation of children, sexually exploitative use of the Internet, mobile phones and other new technologies as well as on protective measures.
VII – Monitoring

(63) Establish by 2013 independent children’s rights institutions such as children’s ombudspersons or equivalents or focal points on children’s rights in existing human rights institutions or general ombudsperson offices, highlighting the importance for States Parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child of General Comment No 2 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child; these bodies should play a key role in the independent monitoring of actions taken for the prevention of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, protection of children from such exploitation and the restoration of the rights of sexually exploited children, in advocating for effective legal frameworks and enforcement and

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in ensuring, where necessary, that child victims have effective remedies and redress, including the possibility of filing complaints before these institutions. We encourage the Committee on the Rights of the Child to: (64) Persevere with reviewing progress of States Parties’ fulfilment of their obligations to uphold the right of children to protection from sexual exploitation and pay special attention to the recommendations in the Rio Call for Action in its examination of reports under the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols. (65) Adopt as a matter of priority a General Comment on the right of the child to protection from sexual exploitation, trafficking for sexual purposes, and the abduction and sale of children, including detailed guidance to States on the development, implementation and enforcement of national legislation and policies in this regard. (66) Continue to work with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in protecting child rights, and raising awareness of relevant international and regional human rights mechanisms. We encourage other United Nations human rights treaty bodies, special procedures of the Human Rights Council and special representatives of the United Nations Secretary-General, as well as regional human rights mechanisms, to: (67) Pay particular attention to combating the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, within their respective mandates and during their examination of State Parties’ reports, country visits, in their thematic work and/or other activities.

We urge the Human Rights Council to: (68) Ensure that the Universal Periodic Review process includes rigorous examination of States’ fulfilment of their obligations to children, including preventing and stopping the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents and to respectfully the rights of child victims of such exploitation. We urge the yet-to-be-appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, the Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, especially in Women and Children, together with other appropriate mandate holders and in collaboration with the Committee on the Rights of the Child, to: (69) Work together to avoid duplication and to maximise their impact in preventing and stopping the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents and, through their work, map experiences in the area of prevention and response to sexual exploitation of children and asses their effectiveness. We encourage UN agencies, NGOs and human rights institutions to: (70) Support and provide information on the extent of and responses to sexual exploitation of children and adolescents to these bodies. (71) Work with the media to enhance their role in education and empowerment, and in protecting children from sexual exploitation, and to mitigate the harmful potential of the media, including

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through the sexualization of children in advertising. We call on international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to: (72) Review their current macro-economic and poverty reduction strategies with a view to counteracting any negative social impact on children and their families, including loan conditionality which essentially limits social services and access to rights and minimizing the risk for children to sexual exploitation.

We call on religious communities to: (73) Reject, in the light of their consensus about the inherent dignity of every person, including children, all forms of violence against children including sexual exploitation of children and adolescents and establish, in that regard, multi-religious cooperation and partnership with other key stakeholders such as governments, children’s organizations, UN agencies, NGOs, media and the private sector using their moral authority, social influence and leadership to guide communities in ending sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.

C. Call for Action
(1) We commit ourselves to the most effective follow-up to this Call for Action: At the national level, inter alia, by biennial public reporting on the measures taken for the implementation of the Rio Declaration and Call for Action and promoting/initiating discussions on the progress made and the remaining challenges to named responsible mechanisms for monitoring implementation while also integrating such requirements into State reporting to the Committee on the Rights of the Child. At the international level, by encouraging and supporting coordinated actions by the relevant human rights treaty bodies, special procedures of the Human Rights Council and Special Representatives of the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations with a view to maintaining awareness of the Rio Declaration and Call for Action and promoting its implementation. (2) Encourage the private sector to join the United Nations Global Compact and communicate their implementation progress with regard to addressing the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents and supporting the realization of this platform for coordinated corporate efforts and sharing of best practices.

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ENDNOTES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

UNICEF, “A Young Country on the Move,” Albania Country Overview, Accessed on 14 May 2012 from: http://www.unicef.org/albania/overview.html UNICEF, “A Young Country on the Move,” Albania Country Overview, Accessed on 14 May 2012 from: http://www.unicef.org/albania/overview.html UNICEF, “A Young Country on the Move,” Albania Country Overview, Accessed on 14 May 2012 from: http://www.unicef.org/albania/overview.html UNICEF, “A Young Country on the Move,” Albania Country Overview, Accessed on 14 May 2012 from: http://www.unicef.org/albania/overview.html UNICEF, “A Young Country on the Move,” Albania Country Overview, Accessed on 14 May 2012 from: http://www.unicef.org/albania/overview.html Bardha (Prendi) Qokaj, Breaking the chains in the cycle of poverty through education, World Vision, Accessed on 1 February 2012 from http://beta. wvi.org/content/breaking-chains-cycle-povertythrough-education). UNDP, International Human Development Indicators 2011, Accessed on 14 May 2012 from: http:// hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/ALB.html

14

php?aid=424.

15

Compendium: Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, Albania 4.24Cultural diversity and inclusion policies, Council of Europe/ERICarts, the 13th edition, 2012, Accessed on 6 November 2011 from: http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/albania. php?aid=424, European Human Rights Centre, Basic Facts on Roma – Albania, 28 August 2010, Accessed on 11 November 2010 from: http://www.errc.org/cikk. php?cikk=3622 European Human Rights Centre, Basic Facts on Roma – Albania, 28 August 2010, Accessed on 11 November 2010 from: http://www.errc.org/cikk. php?cikk=3622

16

17

8 9

UNICEF, “A Young Country on the Move,” Albania Country Overview, Accessed on 14 May 2012 from: http://www.unicef.org/albania/overview.html

18

Republic of Albania: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The First National and Periodic Report in the Framework of the Optional Protocol to the UN Convention “on the Rights of the Child, the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, June 22, 2010, Accessed in June 2011 from: www2.ohchr.org/ english/bodies/crc/docs/CRC.C.OPSC.ALB.1.doc

10 11

U.S. Department of State, 2010 Report on Human Rights Practices: Albania, Accessed on 12 November 2010 from: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/ hrrpt/2010/eur/154409.htm UNICEF, Country Information, Albania Statistics, Accessed on 11 November 2010 from: http://www. unicef.org/infobycountry/albania_statistics.html GRETA, Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Albania, 1st Eval. Round, GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings), Strausbourg at 25 (2011).

19

European Human Rights Centre, Basic Facts on Roma – Albania, 28 August 2010, Accessed on 11 November 2010 from: http://www.errc. org/cikk.php?cikk=3622 citing Maria Koinova, Roma of Albania, August 2000, Albanian Helsinki Committee, (CE EDIME-SE), available at http://www. greekhelsinki.gr/pdf/cedime-se-albania-roma.doc U.S. Department of State, 2010 Report on Human Rights Practices: Albania, Accessed on 12 November 2010 from: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/ hrrpt/2009/eur/154409.htm Gerta Yzeiraj Hagen, Albanian Street Children’s Plight Recognized by Study World Vision, 22 February, 2008 available at http://beta.wvi.org/ content/albanian-street-children%E2%80%99splight-recognized-study

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Centro Informazione e Educazione allo Sviluppo (CIES), Research Report on Trafficking Situation in Albania, June 2008, Accessed on 24 June 2011 from: www.cies.it/aeneas/attachments/068_Survey%20 Albania.doc Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania. Law No. 7895, dated 27 January 1995, consolidated 2004 Article 110(1), Available at http://www.hidaa.gov. al/english/laws/penal%20code.pdf Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania Law No. 7895, dated 27 January 1995, consolidated 2004, Available from: http://www.legislationline.org/ documents/action/popup/id/5875 Accessed on 13 December 2010 Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania. Law No. 7895, dated 27 January 1995, consolidated 2004 Article 128(b), Available at http://www.hidaa.gov. al/english/laws/penal%20code.pdf GRETA, Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Albania, 1st Eval. Round, GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings), Strausbourg at 25 (2011) Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania. Law No. 7895, dated 27 January 1995, consolidated 2004 Article 124 Available at http://www.hidaa.gov.al/ english/laws/penal%20code.pdf Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania. Law No. 7895, dated 27 January 1995, consolidated 2004 Art, 297, 298 Available at http://www.hidaa.gov.al/ english/laws/penal%20code.pdf GRETA, Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Albania, 1st Eval. Round, GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings), Strausbourg at 25 (2011).

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U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report – 2011, Accessed on 8 July 2011 from: http:// www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4e12ee9c3c.html U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report – 2011, Accessed on 8 July 2011 from: http:// www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4e12ee9c3c.html U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report – 2011, Accessed on 8 July 2011 from: http:// www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4e12ee9c3c.html

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Government of Albania, Annex To The First, Second,

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Third And Fourth Periodic Report According To General Guidelines Regarding The Form And Content Of Periodic Reports To Be Submitted By State Parties Under Article 44, Paragraph 1/B Of The Convention, Accessed on 25 November 2010 from: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/ AdvanceVersions/Albania-Annex-future.doc GRETA, Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Albania, 1st Eval. Round, GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings), Strausbourg at 25 (2011). Republic of Albania, Ministry of Interior, Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons, National Strategy for the Fight against Trafficking and the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking, Accessed on 22 November 2010 from: http://s3.amazonaws.com/rcpp/assets/ attachments/597_623_EN_original.pdf Republic of Albania, Ministry of Interior, Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons, National Strategy for the Fight against Trafficking and the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking, Accessed on 22 November 2010 from: http://s3.amazonaws.com/rcpp/assets/ attachments/597_623_EN_original.pdf Terre des Hommes, Albania news letter July 2010, Accessed on 25 November 2010 from: http:// tdh-childprotection.org/news/the-law-for-theprotection-of-the-rights-of-the-child-is-approved Sonila Donaj Situation Analysis on Child Protection System in Albania 2011, BKTF Coalition, 2011. Law for Protection of the Rights of the Child Nr. 10347, 4 November 2010; Terre des Hommes, The Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child is Approved, Accessed on 13 December 2010 from: http://tdh-childprotection.org/news/the-lawfor-the-protection-of-the-rights-of-the-child-isapproved Law for Protection of the Rights of the Child Nr. 10347, 4 November 2010; Terre des Hommes, The Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child is Approved, Accessed on 13 December 2010 from: http://tdh-childprotection.org/news/the-lawfor-the-protection-of-the-rights-of-the-child-isapproved

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Koller Aline, Child Protection Manual for Schools, Albanian Ministry of Education and Science (2009, available at http://tdh-childprotection.org/ documents/child-protection-manual-for-schoolsseparate-reference-tool Koller Aline, Child Protection Training Book, Albanian Ministry of Education & Science (2009) Available at http://tdh-childprotection.org/ documents/child-protection-training-handbookfor-professionals-working-in-the-field-of-childprotection

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Back to News from the field - Headlines: Albania Child protection at School: Manual and Training Handbook Launched Terre des Hommes, (2009) Available at http://tdh-childprotection.org/news/ child-protection-at-school-manual-and-traininghandbook-launched, Accessed on 28 May 2012

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Human Rights Council Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, National Report Submitted In Accordance with Paragraph 15(A0 of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1-Albania: A/HRC?WG.6/6/ALB/1 6th Sess., 2009, at 7 (2009), Accessed on 14 December 2010 from: http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/ Session6/AL/A_HRC_WG6_6_ALB_1_E.pdf Tana Lala- Prtichard ed., Terre des Hommes Albania, Spring Newsletter at 1 2011, Issue 5, Accessed on 23 December 2011 at: http://s3.amazonaws.com/ rcpp/assets/attachments/1358_Tdh_Spring_2011_ Newsletter_Eng__original.pdf Tana Lala- Prtichard ed., 1.1 Child Protection Safety Net to Extend Further: New Child Protection Units to Open in Tirana and Levan, Terre des Hommes Albania, Spring Newsletter 2011, Issue 5, Accessed on 23 December 2011 at: http://s3.amazonaws. com/rcpp/assets/attachments/1358_Tdh_ Spring_2011_Newsletter_Eng__original.pdf

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Save the Children in Albania, Protection, Accessed on 7 July 2011 from: http://www.scalbania.org/html/ cp.htm

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See e.g. Republic of Albania, Ministry of Interior, Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons, National Strategy for the Fight against Trafficking and the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking, Accessed on 22 November 2010 from: http://www.protectionproject.org/ wp-content/uploads/2010/11/NAP-Albania_ Child_2008-2010.pdf Republic of Albania, Ministry of Interior, Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons, National Strategy for the Fight against Trafficking and the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking, Accessed on 22 November 2010 from: http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-content/ uploads/2010/11/NAP-Albania_Child_2008-2010. pdf Republic of Albania, Ministry of Interior, Office of the National Coordinator on Combating Trafficking in Persons, National Strategy for the Fight against Trafficking and the Protection of Child Victims of Trafficking, Accessed on 22 November 2010 from:

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AlertNet, Stepping away from violence as a family norm in Albania, April 25, 2011, Accessed on May 28 2012 from http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/ stepping-away-from-violence-as-a-family-norm-inalbania/ AlertNet, Stepping away from violence as a family norm in Albania, April 25, 2011, Accessed on May 28 2012 from http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/ stepping-away-from-violence-as-a-family-norm-in-

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http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-content/ uploads/2010/11/NAP-Albania_Child_2008-2010. pdf Tirana, 18 July 2005, available at: <http://www. legislationline.org/documents/action/popup/ id/6224>

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Republic of Albania Council of Ministries “Cooperation Agreement to Establish a National Referral Mechanism for The Enhanced Identification of and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking”, Republic of Albania Council of Ministries “Cooperation Agreement to Establish a National Referral Mechanism for The Enhanced Identification of and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking”, Tirana, Art. 4, 18 July 2005, available at: <http:// www.legislationline.org/documents/action/popup/ id/6224> Republic of Albania Council of Ministries, Cooperation Agreement to Establish a National Referral System for the Enhanced identification of and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking, at Art. 5(B)9, 18 July 2005, Accessed on 15 December 2010 from: http://www.legislationline.org/ documents/action/popup/id/6224

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on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings 7th meeting of the Committee of the Parties available at http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/ docs/CommitteeParties/Recommendations/ CP_2012_1_ALB_en.pdf by Albania 30 January 2012 Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

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CETS No.: 197 Art. 30, 1/2/2008, Available at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ QueVoulezVous.asp?Nt=197&cm=1&cl=eng; U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report: Albania, Accessed On 3 Febuary 2012 from: http://tirana.usembassy.gov/press-releases2/2011press-release/2011-trafficking-in-persons-report. html; Tier 2 Welcome to The Albanian Initiative: Coordinated Action Against Human Trafficking (CAAHT), Accessed on 3 Febuary 2012 from: http://www. caaht.com/ Albania Alternative Report to the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Prepared by CRCA/DCI Albania, ACTSEC and The ALO 116 at 8 ON January 2012, Tirana

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IOM, Regional Cooperation in South Eastern Europe, Children and Youth Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings, National Assessments at 8, (2009)Accessed on 15 December 2010 from: http://www.iom.bg/ images/book_en.pdf Different and Equal, Projects 2010, Accessed on 15 December 2010 from: http://www. differentandequal.org/english/projekt.htm U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report: Albania, Accessed On 3 Febuary 2012 from: http://tirana.usembassy.gov/press-releases2/2011press-release/2011-trafficking-in-persons-report. html; Tier 2 U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report: Albania, Accessed on 8 July 2011 from: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4e12ee9c3c. html U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report: Albania, Accessed on 8 July 2011 from: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4e12ee9c3c. html Committee of the Parties to the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings Recommendation CP(2012)1 on the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings 7th meeting of the Committee of the Parties available at http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/ docs/CommitteeParties/Recommendations/ CP_2012_1_ALB_en.pdf by Albania 30 January 2012 Committee of the Parties to the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings Recommendation CP(2012)1 on the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention

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Albanian National Child Helpline - ALO 116 available at http://al.missingkids.com/missingkids/ servlet/PageServlet?LanguageCountry=en_ AL&PageId=4481, see also Kristi Pinderi, ALO 116” - the round the clock service only for children, CRCA website, 25 January 2010, Available at http://crca. ampaserver.com/index.php?option=com_content&ta sk=view&id=92&Itemid=84 Albanian National Child Helpline - ALO 116 available at http://al.missingkids.com/missingkids/ servlet/PageServlet?LanguageCountry=en_ AL&PageId=4481, see also Kristi Pinderi, ALO 116” - the round the clock service only for children, CRCA website, 25 January 2010, Available at http://crca. ampaserver.com/index.php?option=com_content&ta sk=view&id=92&Itemid=84 Albania Alternative Report to the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Prepared by CRCA/DCI Albania, ACTSEC and The ALO 116 at 23 ON January 2012, Tirana, Albania Alternative Report to the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Prepared by CRCA/DCI Albania, ACTSEC and The ALO 116 at 23 ON January 2012, Tirana, Albania Alternative Report to the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Prepared by CRCA/DCI Albania, ACTSEC and The ALO 116, at 23 ON January 2012, Tirana,

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Government of Albania, Annex To The First, Second, Third And Fourth Periodic Report According To General Guidelines Regarding The Form And Content Of Periodic Reports To Be Submitted By State Parties Under Article 44, Paragraph 1/B Of The Convention, Accessed on 25 November 2010 from: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/ AdvanceVersions/Albania-Annex-future.doc Government of Albania, Annex To The First, Second, Third And Fourth Periodic Report According To General Guidelines Regarding The Form And Content Of Periodic Reports To Be Submitted By State Parties Under Article 44, Paragraph 1/B Of The Convention, Accessed on 25 November 2010 from: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/ AdvanceVersions/Albania-Annex-future.doc Government of Albania, Annex To The First, Second, Third And Fourth Periodic Report According To General Guidelines Regarding The Form And Content Of Periodic Reports To Be Submitted By State Parties Under Article 44, Paragraph 1/B Of The Convention, Accessed on 25 November 2010 from: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/ AdvanceVersions/Albania-Annex-future.doc Government of Albania, Annex To The First, Second, Third And Fourth Periodic Report According To General Guidelines Regarding The Form And Content Of Periodic Reports To Be Submitted By State Parties Under Article 44, Paragraph 1/B Of The Convention, Accessed on 25 November 2010 from: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/ AdvanceVersions/Albania-Annex-future.doc U.S. Department of State, 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report: Albania, Accessed on 8 July 2011 from: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4e12ee9c3c. html Save the Children in Albania, Children promoted their rights in the Parliament, 26 November 2010, Accessed on 8 July 2011 from: http://www.

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