Control Engineering (BDA 30703) Lecture #05

By : Dr Salihatun Md Salleh Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering & Manufacturing, Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn


1. are visualize in block diagram. G(s). Output signal Y(s). Input TRANSFER FUNCTION Output X(s) Y(s) X(s) Y(s) G(s) . • To describe the relationship between the output and the input a block diagram is used as shown in Fig. and transfer function.Block Diagram • Normally relation between input signal X(s).

. This cannot be done in t-domain.• One advantage of using s-domain is that the output signal Y(s) is the result of the multiplication between the input signal X(s) and the transfer function G(s).

Can you identify those that are control systems. or parts of control systems? .Figure 2 The space shuttle consists of multiple subsystems.

time-invariant system .Figure 3 Components of a block diagram for a linear.

b. Cascade Form 2. Parallel Form 3.Forms of Block Diagram 1. equivalent transfer function . Feedback Form Figure 4 a. Cascaded subsystems.

Parallel subsystems. equivalent transfer function .Figure 5 a. b.

equivalent transfer function . b. simplified model. Feedback control system. c.Figure 6 a.

to the right past a summing junction R(s) * G (s) + X (s) = C (s)   1 G (s) *  R (s) + * X (s)  = C (s)   G (s)   . b. to the left past a summing junction.Block Diagram Algebra Figure 7 Block diagram (R ( s ) + X ( s ) ) * G ( s ) = C ( s ) algebra for summing R( s) * G ( s) + X ( s ) * G ( s ) = C ( s ) junctions— equivalent forms for moving a block a.

Figure 8 Block diagram algebra for pickoff points— equivalent forms for moving a block a. b. to the left past a pickoff point. to the right past a pickoff point .

Reduction of Block Diagram Example 1: Figure 9 Block diagram for Example1 .

form equivalent cascaded system in the forward path and equivalent parallel system in the feedback path. c. b. form equivalent feedback system and multiply by cascaded G1(s) .Figure 10 Steps in solving Example 1: a. collapse summing junctions.

Example 2 : Figure 11 Block diagram for Example 2 .

Figure 12 Steps in the block diagram reduction for Example 2 .

Tutorial 1 Q1: Reduce the block diagram shown in figure below to a single transfer function. T(s)=C(s)/R(s) .

T(s)=C(s)/R(s). for the system shown in figure below .Q2 : Find the equivalent transfer function.

Q3 : Find the equivalent transfer function. for the system shown in figure below . T(s)=C(s)/R(s).

signal.Figure 13 Signal-flow graph components: a. interconnection of systems and signals . system. b. c.

c. e. feedback system nodes (from Figure 5.Figure 14 Building signal-flow graphs: a. parallel system nodes (from Figure 5(a)). f. feedback system signal-flow graph . d. parallel system signal-flow graph. cascaded system signal-flow graph.6(b)). b. cascaded system nodes (from Figure 4(a)).

signal-flow graph. simplified signal-flow graph . b. c.Figure 15 Signal-flow graph development: a. signal nodes.

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