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- Adaptive Control (Karl J. Astrom) 2nd Ed - Solution Manual
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By : Dr Salihatun Md Salleh Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering & Manufacturing, Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn

2012

Input TRANSFER FUNCTION Output X(s) Y(s) X(s) Y(s) G(s) . Output signal Y(s). and transfer function.Block Diagram • Normally relation between input signal X(s). • To describe the relationship between the output and the input a block diagram is used as shown in Fig. G(s). are visualize in block diagram. 1.

This cannot be done in t-domain.• One advantage of using s-domain is that the output signal Y(s) is the result of the multiplication between the input signal X(s) and the transfer function G(s). .

or parts of control systems? .Figure 2 The space shuttle consists of multiple subsystems. Can you identify those that are control systems.

time-invariant system .Figure 3 Components of a block diagram for a linear.

Feedback Form Figure 4 a.Forms of Block Diagram 1. Cascade Form 2. equivalent transfer function . Parallel Form 3. Cascaded subsystems. b.

b.Figure 5 a. equivalent transfer function . Parallel subsystems.

b.Figure 6 a. Feedback control system. c. equivalent transfer function . simplified model.

b. to the left past a summing junction.Block Diagram Algebra Figure 7 Block diagram (R ( s ) + X ( s ) ) * G ( s ) = C ( s ) algebra for summing R( s) * G ( s) + X ( s ) * G ( s ) = C ( s ) junctions— equivalent forms for moving a block a. to the right past a summing junction R(s) * G (s) + X (s) = C (s) 1 G (s) * R (s) + * X (s) = C (s) G (s) .

to the right past a pickoff point . to the left past a pickoff point. b.Figure 8 Block diagram algebra for pickoff points— equivalent forms for moving a block a.

Reduction of Block Diagram Example 1: Figure 9 Block diagram for Example1 .

form equivalent cascaded system in the forward path and equivalent parallel system in the feedback path. collapse summing junctions. b. form equivalent feedback system and multiply by cascaded G1(s) .Figure 10 Steps in solving Example 1: a. c.

Example 2 : Figure 11 Block diagram for Example 2 .

Figure 12 Steps in the block diagram reduction for Example 2 .

Tutorial 1 Q1: Reduce the block diagram shown in figure below to a single transfer function. T(s)=C(s)/R(s) .

Q2 : Find the equivalent transfer function. T(s)=C(s)/R(s). for the system shown in figure below .

Q3 : Find the equivalent transfer function. for the system shown in figure below . T(s)=C(s)/R(s).

interconnection of systems and signals . b. signal.Figure 13 Signal-flow graph components: a. system. c.

feedback system nodes (from Figure 5. b. c.6(b)). f. cascaded system nodes (from Figure 4(a)). e. parallel system signal-flow graph. d. feedback system signal-flow graph . cascaded system signal-flow graph.Figure 14 Building signal-flow graphs: a. parallel system nodes (from Figure 5(a)).

b. c. simplified signal-flow graph .Figure 15 Signal-flow graph development: a. signal nodes. signal-flow graph.

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