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Present [Verb + (s/es in 3rd person)] Use 1 – repeated actions Eg: I play tennis.

Use 2 – facts and generalizations Eg: Birds do not like milk. Use 3 – Scheduled events in the near future Eg: The train leaves tonight at 8pm. Use 4: Now (Non-cont. verbs) Eg: He needs help right now.

Past [Verb + ed OR irregular verbs] Use 1 – Completed action in the past. Eg: I saw a movie yesterday. Use 2 – A series of completed actions. Eg: I finished work, walked to the beach and found a nice spot for a swim. Use 3 – duration in the past. Eg: I lived in Brazil for two years. Use 4 – Habits in the past. Eg: I studied French when I was five. Use 5 – past facts or generalizations. Eg: He didn’t like tomatoes before. [was/were + (verb+ing)] Use 1 - interrupted action in the past. Eg: I was listening to my iPod, so I didn’t hear the fire alarm. Use 2 - specific time as an interruption. Eg: Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work. Use 3 - parallel actions Eg: they were eating dinner, discussing their plans and having a good time. Use 4 – atmosphere Eg: When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on their phones, the boss was yelling out directions…. Use 5 – repetition and irritation with “always” in the past Eg: She is always coming to class late.

Future [will + verb] OR [am/is/are + going to + verb] Use 1 – “will” – express voluntary action. Eg: I will do the dishes so you can rest. Use 2 – “will” – express a promise. Eg: I will not tell anyone your secret. Use 3 – “be going to” – express a plan. Eg: I am going to be an actor when I grow up. Use 4 – “will” OR “be going to” – express a prediction. Eg: The year 2222 will be/ is going to be a very interesting year. [will be + present participle] OR [is/am/are + going to be + (verb+ing)] Use 1 – interrupted action in future Eg: I’ll be watching TV when she arrives tonight. Use 2 – specific time as an interruption in the future Eg: at midnight, we will still be driving through the desert. Use 3 – parallel actions in the future Eg: I’m going to be studying and she is going to be preparing dinner. Use 4 – atmosphere Eg: when I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating, some will be dancing, and others are going to be…

Simple Continuous/ Progressive

[am/is/are + (verb+ing)] Use 1 – Now Eg: You are learning English now. Use 2 – Longer actions in progress now Eg: I am not reading any books right now. Use 3 – near future Eg: I am meeting my friends after work. Use 4 – repetition & irritation with “always” Eg: He is always talking in class.

Eg: they will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives. lately Recently. [had + past participle] Use 1 – completed action before something in the past. Use 2 – duration before something in the future (Noncont. Use 2 – Duration before something in the past (Noncont. Use 2 – Cause of something in the past. Topic 5 – Multiple actions at different times Eg: The army has attacked our town five times. verbs only) Eg: We had had a car for 10 years before it broke down. Eg: They have been talking for the last hour. Perfect continuous . I have been feeling really tired.[has/have + past participle] Use 1 – unspecified time before now. Topic 2 – change over time Eg: you have grown so much since the last time I met you. Use 2 – Cause of something in the future. [will have been + (verb+ing)] OR [am/is/are + going to have been + (verb+ing)] Use 1 – Duration before something in the future. perfect [will have + past participle] OR [am/is/are + going to have + past participle] Use 1: Completed action before something in the future. Eg: Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. Topic 3 – accomplishments Eg: Man has walked on the moon. verbs only) Eg: I have had a cold for two weeks. Eg: Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work. Use 2 – duration from the past until now (Non-cont. [has/have + been + (verb+ing)] Use 1 – duration from the past until now. Eg: Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour. verbs only) Eg: I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave. Topic 1 – experience Eg: I have been to France. Use 2 – recently. Eg: I am going to have finished this test by 3 o’clock. Topic 4 – uncompleted action you are expecting Eg: The rain has not stopped. [had been + (verb+ing)] Use 1 – duration before something in the past. Eg: Jason was tired because he had been jogging.