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Rebar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rebar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A rebar (short for reinforcing bar), also known as reinforcing steel, reinforcement steel, rerod, a deformed bar, reo, or reo bar, is a common steel bar, and is commonly used as a tensioning device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures holding the concrete in compression. It is usually formed from carbon steel, and is given ridges for better mechanical anchoring into the concrete.

Contents
1 History 2 Use in concrete and masonry 3 Physical characteristics 4 Sizes and grades 4.1 U.S. sizes 4.2 Canadian sizes 4.3 European sizes 4.4 Grades 5 Placing rebar 5.1 Welding 5.2 Mechanical connections 5.3 Safety 6 Designations 7 Recycling 8 See also 9 References 10 External links
A tied rebar beam cage. This will be embedded inside cast concrete to increase the tensile strength of the concrete.

Corroded concrete and rebar at bridge of Queen Elizabeth Way crossing Welland River in Niagara Falls, Ontario.

History
Rebars were known in construction well before the era of the modern reinforced concrete. Some 150 years before its invention rebars were used to form the carcass of the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk in Russia, built on the orders of the industrialist Akinfiy Demidov. The purpose of such construction is one of the many mysteries of the tower. The cast iron used for rebars was of very high quality, and there is no corrosion on them up to this day. The carcass of the tower was connected to its cast iron tented roof, crowned with the first lightning rod in the Western world. This lightning rod was grounded through the carcass, though it is not clear whether the effect was intentional.[1]

Use in concrete and masonry
Concrete is a material that is very strong in compression, but relatively weak in tension. To compensate for this imbalance in concrete's behavior, rebar is cast into it to carry the tensile loads. For this purpose, the steel
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebar 1/8

This phenomenon is known as oxide jacking. It is available in many forms. an occurrence that often precedes a larger-scale collapse of the structure. Common rebar is made of unfinished tempered steel. This first approach increases the friction locking the bar into place. To prevent such a failure. Secondary reinforcement. divided in two types of reinforcement: primary reinforcement and secondary reinforcement. rebar is either deeply embedded into adjacent structural members (40-60 times the diameter). Epoxy-coated. is employed for durability and aesthetic reasons. This is a particular problem where the concrete is exposed to salt water. Too little concrete cover can compromise this guard through carbonation from the surface. also known as distribution reinforcement. Too much concrete cover can cause bigger crack widths which also compromises the local guard. it causes severe internal pressure on the surrounding concrete. structural failure. While any material with sufficient tensile strength could conceivably be used to reinforce concrete. but significantly lower expense over the service life of the project. spalling. Rebars inside the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk. Care should be taken during the installation of epoxy-coated rebar. because damage will reduce the long-term corrosion performance of these bars.Wikipedia. which is then secured in place with grout.9/26/12 Rebar . while the second makes use of the high compressive strength of concrete. the free encyclopedia reinforcement of a concrete structure is. or bent and hooked at the ends to lock it around the concrete and other rebar. making it susceptible to rusting. as in bridges built in areas where salt is applied to roadways in winter.[3] Fiber-reinforced polymer rebar is now also being used in high-corrosion environments. It is also employed to confer resistance to concentrated loads by providing enough localized resistance and stiffness for a load to spread through a wider area. Masonry structures and the mortar holding them together have similar properties to concrete and also have a limited ability to carry tensile loads. or in marine applications. steel and concrete have similar coefficients of thermal expansion: a concrete structural member reinforced with steel will experience minimal stress as a result of differential expansions of the two interconnected materials caused by temperature changes. from spirals for reinforcing columns. and ultimately. As rust takes up greater volume than the steel from which it was formed. galvanized or stainless steel rebars may be employed in these situations at greater initial expense. Even damaged bars have shown better performance than uncoated reinforcing bars.000 bridge decks in the USA.[2] Although rebar has ribs that bind it mechanically to the concrete. Some standard masonry units like blocks and bricks are made with strategically placed voids to accommodate rebar. If this were not so. en.org/wiki/Rebar 2/8 . Primary reinforcement refers to the reinforcement steel which is employed specifically to guarantee the necessary resistance needed by the structure to support the design loads. conceptually. by providing enough localized resistance to limit cracking and resist stresses caused by effects such as temperature changes and shrinkage. it can still be pulled out of the concrete under high stresses. This combination is known as reinforced masonry. to meshes and many other forms.wikipedia. to the common rod. Normally the concrete cover is able to provide a pH value higher than 12 avoiding the corrosion reaction. leading to cracking. These bars are used in over 70. Physical characteristics Steel has an expansion coefficient nearly equal to that of modern concrete. Most commercially available rebars are made from unidirectional glass fibre reinforced thermoset resins. it would cause problems through additional longitudinal and perpendicular stresses at temperatures different than the temperature of the setting.

284 21.071 6.60 0.S.128 1. and 2 inch square bars.wikipedia.20 0.05 22.400 4. #11. The bars are fabricated from slightly oversized blanks such that standard 1.775 Nominal Diameter (in) 0.79 in 2 .000 1.81 43 57.9/26/12 Rebar .556 2.625 = ⅝ 0.60 14.502 2.996 1.337 Nominal Diameter (mm) 9.7 15.Wikipedia.875 19.044 2.41 20. The diameter of the #9 bar is set so that the area is 1.982 5.75" (#14J) and 2.561 0. 1¼.225 25.670 3. Area = (bar size/9)2 such that area of #8 = (8/9)2 = 0. respectively. rounded to the nearest 5 mm.525 12.4 28. the free encyclopedia Sizes and grades U. Larger bars are sized to correspond to square bars that were formerly used. #10.924 11. #14.00 1.668 1.[4] The tower and sign industry commonly use #14J and #18J (for "Jumbo") bars as anchor rods for large structures.418 7. "Soft" Weight per unit Mass per unit length length Metric Bar Size Size (lb⁄ft) (kg/m) Imperial #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18 #18J #10 #13 #16 #19 #22 #25 #29 #32 #36 #43 #57 0.25" (#18J) threads can be rolled at the ends to accept anchor nuts.049 3.3 59.26 35.65 32.875 = ⅞ 1.25 4.693 2.org/wiki/Rebar 3/8 .270 1.00 4.410 1.043 1.27 1. corresponding to a 1 inch square bar.60 0.650 13.31 0. This applies to #8 bars and smaller. sizes Imperial bar designations represent the bar diameter in fractions of ⅛ inch.376 0. such that #8 = 8⁄8 inch = 1 inch diameter.4 Nominal Area (in²) 0.000 inch2. and #18.11 0.750 = ¾ 0. en.375 = ⅜ 0.24 3. The remaining bars.56 2.313 7.79 1. correspond to 1⅛ inch.500 = ½ 0. 1½.29 Nominal Area (mm²) 71 129 200 284 387 509 645 819 1006 1452 2581 2678 Canadian sizes Metric bar designations represent the nominal bar diameter in millimeters.303 5.257 2.44 0.

wikipedia.850 11.9/26/12 Rebar .Wikipedia.21 1.3 50.9 35.0 50.g.0 32. chemical composition. BS 4449 in the United Kingdom).868 15.0 40.org/wiki/Rebar 4/8 .395 0.7 43. Metric Mass per unit length Nominal Diameter Cross-Sectional Bar Size 6.785 1.222 0.355 3.467 3.4 (mm) Area (mm²) 100 200 300 500 700 1000 1500 2500 European sizes Metric bar designations represent the nominal bar diameter in millimetres.0 20.888 1.2 29.7 56. Bars in Europe will be specified to comply with the standard EN 10080 (awaiting introduction as of early 2007). the free encyclopedia Metric Mass per unit length Nominal Diameter Cross-Sectional Bar Size 10M 15M 20M 25M 30M 35M 45M 55M 0.5 25.5 113 154 201 314 491 616 804 1257 1963 Grades Rebar is available in different grades and specifications that vary in yield strength.0 8.0 28. and percentage of elongation.83 6. The grade designation is equal to the minimum yield strength of the bar in ksi (1000 psi) for example grade 60 en.617 0.855 4.0 19. ultimate tensile strength.0 12.316 9.0 14.579 2.775 19. although various national standards still remain in force (e.0 16.495 7.570 2.0 0.625 (kg/m) 11.413 (kg/m) 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 25 28 32 40 50 (mm) Area (mm²) 28.925 5.0 10.3 16.3 78.0 25.

Rebar is typically manufactured in grades 40. The more ductile steel is capable of absorbing considerably more energy when deformed . For epoxy coated or galvanised rebars only the latter is possible. with a yield strength more typically 500MPa (72. 60. Chromium. Rebar that is not en.wikipedia.a behavior that resists earthquake forces and is used in design. Rebar can be supplied with various grades of ductility. or with mechanical connections.4 sets out the practices for welding rebar in the U. Welding The American Welding Society (AWS) D 1. the free encyclopedia rebar has a minimum yield strength of 60 ksi.org/wiki/Rebar 5/8 . tying steel wire. is sufficient. Common ASTM specification are:[5] ASTM A82: Specification for Plain Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A184/A184M: Specification for Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A185: Specification for Welded Plain Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A496: Specification for Deformed Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A497: Specification for Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A615/A615M: Deformed and plain carbon-steel bars for concrete reinforcement ASTM A616/A616M: Specification for Rail-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A617/A617M: Specification for Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A706/A706M: Low-alloy steel deformed and plain bars for concrete reinforcement ASTM A767/A767M: Specification for Zinc-Coated(Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A775/A775M: Specification for Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel Bars ASTM A934/A934M: Specification for Epoxy-Coated Prefabricated Steel Reinforcing Bars ASTM A955: Deformed and plain stainless-steel bars for concrete reinforcement ASTM A996: Rail-steel and axle-steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement ASTM A1035: Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain.5ksi). however for small or custom work a tool known as a Hickey . Placing rebar Rebar cages are fabricated either on or off the project site commonly with the help of hydraulic benders and shears. Low-carbon.or hand rebar bender.S. The rebars in the cages are connected either by welding. The rebars are placed by rodbusters or concrete reinforcing ironworkers with bar supports separating the rebar from the concrete forms to establish concrete cover and ensure that proper embedment is achieved. Modern rebar is composed of high-yield steel.9/26/12 Rebar . Without special consideration the only rebar that is ready to weld is W grade (Low-alloy — A706). Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM marking designations are: 'S' billet A615 'I' rail A616 (superseded by A996 [6]) 'IR' Rail Meeting Supplementary Requirements S1 A616 (superseded by A996 [7]) 'A' Axle A617(superseded by A996 [8]) 'W' Low-alloy — A706 Historically in Europe. rebar is composed of mild steel material with a yield strength of approximately 250MPa (36ksi).Wikipedia. and 75.

Wikipedia. but provide little to no protection from impalement. "necking of the bar"). These materials are not common.e. and construction industry.55 can be welded. Rebar cages are normally tied together with wire.[10] Safety To prevent workers and / or pedestrians from accidentally impaling themselves.[9] For concrete structures designed with ductility in mind. phosphorus & carbon content. it is recommended that the mechanical connections are also capable of failing in a ductile manner. ACI 318 specifies either Type 1 (125% Fy ) or Type 2 (125% Fy and 100% Fu ) performance criteria. reinforcement is usually tabulated in a "reinforcement schedule" on construction drawings. Caltrans specifies a required mode of failure (i. This eliminates ambiguity in the various notations used in different parts of the world. the special consideration the only rebar that is readyfree encyclopedia grade (Low-alloy — A706).org/wiki/Rebar 6/8 . en. These couplers are also used in precast concrete construction at the joints between members. Mechanical couplers are an effective means to reduce rebar congestion in highly reinforced areas for cast-in-place concrete construction.wikipedia.4) ASTM A 616 & ASTM A 617 reinforcing are re-rolled rail steel & re-rolled rail axle steel with uncontrolled chemistry. The structural performance criteria for mechanical connections varies considerably between different countries. As a minimum requirement. (AWS D1. engineering. High strength steels for prestressed concrete may absolutely not be welded. typically known in the reinforcing steel industry as achieving "barbreak". and is becoming more common in the US. Material with a carbon-equivalent of less than 0. the protruding ends of steel rebar are often bent over or covered with special steel-reinforced plastic "plate" caps. "Mushroom" caps may provide protection from scratches and other minor injuries. Rebar that is not to weld is W produced to the ASTM A706 specification is generally not suitable for welding without calculating the "carbonequivalent". As an example. although welding of cages has been the norm in Europe for many years. More stringent criteria also requires the development of the specified ultimate strength of the rebar. Mechanical connections Also known as "mechanical couplers" or "mechanical splices". The following list provides examples of the different notations used in the architectural.. Designations For clarity. and industries.9/26/12 Rebar . As an example. codes. codes typically specify that the rebar to splice connection meets or exceeds 125% of the specified tensile strength of the rebar. mechanical connections are used to connect reinforcing bars together.

4 RMB per kilogram. welding equipment. This is a detailing requirement for concrete ductility in seismic zones. ^ "GFRP Bar Transverse Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Effects on Concrete Cover" (http://www. (3) #4 Three number 4 rebars (usually used when the rebar perpendicular to the detail) #3 ties @ 9 Number 3 rebars used as stirrups.vt. longitudinal and transverse.pdf.pdf) (PDF). the free encyclopedia Designation New Zealand Explanation High strength (500 MPa) 16 mm diameter rebars spaced at 300 mm centers (center-to-center HD-16-300.[citation needed] See also Carbon grid Concrete cover Cover Meter Welded wire mesh Workers extracting rebar from demolition rubble.. workers are called in to remove the rebar.e. Number 7 rebar spaced 12 inches apart.eng.edu/urs/wallenfelsz. placed in each direction (each way) and on each EF face. Number 4 rebars spaced 12 inches on center (center-to-center distance) on both the top and T&B.org/wiki/Rebar 7/8 . (2) per set which is usually illustrated. distance) on both the top and bottom face and in each way as well (i. sledgehammers. They scour the site.writing. Formwork Fusion bonded epoxy coating for coated rebars Steel fixer Rebar spacer References 1. i.ru/archive/2002/42/102260.writing. extracting the metal using bolt cutters.vt.Wikipedia. loops. OC. #7 @ 12" EW. ^ The office of the first Russian oligarch (http://www. such rebar sold for 2. By default in New Zealand practice all stirrups are normally interpreted as being full. bundled and sold. longitudinal and T&B. 3-D12 R8 Stirrups @ 225 MAX Three mild strength (300 MPa) 12 mm diameter rebars D grade (300 MPa) smooth bar stirrups. The metal is partially straightened.edu/urs/wallenfelsz. and many other countries. and other tools.wikipedia. In April 2012. Recycling In China. spaced at 225 mm centres.html) (Russian) 2.eng. EW bottom faces and in each way as well. after the demolition of a building. EW transverse). en. spaced at 9 inches on center. Each set consists of two ties. United States Explanation Designation #4 @ 12 OC. http://www.itogi.9/26/12 Rebar . closed. If a single strand of stirrup with a hook at each end was required. this would typically be both specified and illustrated.e.

dot. [www.concrete.gov/hq/esc/ctms/pdf/CT_670Feb2011. Astm. 9.htm. 4.astm.epoxyinterestgroup.org.astm. ^ "ASTM A617 / A617M ..wikipedia. Salmon. Retrieved 2012-08-24.org.org.epoxyinterestgroup.org.org "Epoxy Interest Group of CRSI"] (in English). 3.org) American Concrete Institute (http://www.wikipedia. 5.96a Standard Specification for Rail Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement (Withdrawn 1999)" (http://www. 20.org/Standards/A616.astm.pdf. ^ American Concrete Institute: "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary. ACI (American Concrete Institute). additional terms may apply.org/pubs/newpubs/318-08. the free encyclopedia Retrieved 2012-08-24. http://www. ^ California Dept. Caltrans. http://www.96a Standard Specification for Axle Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement (Withdrawn 1999)" (http://www. http://www.org/Standards/A616. 2011. ^ "ASTM A616 / A616M . Hoboken.php?title=Rebar&oldid=509746030" Categories: Building materials Russian inventions Concrete Steels This page was last modified on 29 August 2012 at 10:02. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Astm.html) Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (http://www. of Transportation. ^ ACI.ca. "METHOD OF TESTS FOR MECHANICAL AND WELDED REINFORCING STEEL SPLICES" (http://www. http://www.96a Standard Specification for Rail Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement (Withdrawn 1999)" (http://www. External links OSHA Rebar Impalement Protection Measures (http://www. Retrieved 2012-08-24. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.aci-int.org/pubs/newpubs/318-08.gov/hq/esc/ctms/pdf/CT_670Feb2011.Wikipedia. Retrieved Feb.gov/SLTC/etools/construction/falls/protruding_rebars. Jose (2007)." ISBN 978-0-87031-264-9 6.9/26/12 Rebar . ^ "ASTM A616 / A616M . Retrieved 24 August 2012.htm.org/Standards/A617.astm. 8. Inc. 10.org/w/index.crsi. Charles.org/wiki/Rebar 8/8 . Pincheira. www.org/Standards/A617.org) Retrieved from "http://en. See Terms of use for details.htm) . Reinforced Concrete Design. ^ Epoxy Interest Group.org/Standards/A616.astm.htm) . "ACI 318-08 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary" (http://www. p. ISBN 978-0-471-26286-2.htm) . 7. en. Epoxy Interest Group of CRSI. Chu-Kia. http://www.htm.concrete. Retrieved 2012-08-24.htm) . NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ^ Wang.astm.htm.dot.pdf) .ca.org/Standards/A616. a non-profit organization.osha. Astm.