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AMMONIA PLANT BRIEF DESCRIPTION

The raw material to produced Urea is ammonia and carbon dioxide which is produced in ammonia plant is produced by the following reaction;

N2 + 3H2 ↔ 2NH3 + HEAT

Feed stock to manufacture Ammonia
Raw material as evident from the reaction to produce ammonia is nitrogen and hydrogen. Source of nitrogen is atmospheric air which has 79% Nitrogen, Hydrogen is produced from Natural Gas. KSFL uses Natural Gas as feed stock and Natural Gas/ Naphtha were used as fuel in furnace. Natural gas is supplied by GAIL via HVJ pipeline from Bombay High.

Process Description
Ammonia Plant Technology Basic Engineering Design Capacity : : : Haldor Topsoe, Denark PDIL 1520 MTPD

Following are the main process steps for manufacturing of ammonia:           DESULPHURIASION PRIMAR REFORMER SECONDARY REFORMER WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SHIFT CONVESION CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL METHANATION SYNTHESIS GAS COMPRESSION AMMONIA SYNTHESIS REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

Secondary Reformer outlet gas mixtures contain hydrogen. carbon dioxide and methane ( 11. carbon monoxide . nitrogen. This is achieved by mixing a stoichiometric quantity of process air to the primary reformer exit gases in Secondary Reformer. .05 ppm.12% ). In desulphurization process sulphur content is reduced to 0. carbon dioxide & methane. CH4+2H2O ↔ CO2+4H2+HEAT ( Catalysts Ni ) CO2+H2 ↔ CO+H2O+HEAT SECONDARY REFORMER Function of secondary Reformer is to reform the primary reformer exit residual methane and to add Nitrogen to the process gas. Hydrogenation consists of the following reaction: H2 + S ↔ H2S (Catalyst Ni & Mo) After hydrogenation the process gas is passed through the absorption vessels where the H2S is absorbed on ZNO as follows: ZnO + H2S ↔ ZnS + H2O ( Catalyst ZnO ) PRIMARY REFORMER It consists of a gas fired tubular primary reformer with flue gas heat recovery section.DESULPHURISATION Natural Gas mainly contained methane (98%) and higher hydrocarbon has 10-50 ppm of sulphur. Natural gas is reformed with steam to produced a mixture of hydrogen.

GV solution contains: a) b) c) d) Potassium Carbonate Glycine Di Ethanol Amine & Vanadium Penta Oxide GV solution rich in carbon dioxide is regenerated in HP & LP regeneration by giving heat & carbon dioxide is sent to Urea plant. METHANATION Oxides being harmful for synthesis catalyst. Steam produced is utilised as process steam and as driving force major rotator equipments. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are converted into methane in this steps.05% in gas mixture in CO2 absorber. CO+H2O ↔ CO2+H2+HEAT ( Catalyst Iron oxide ) CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL Giammarcio Vetrocoke ( GV ) solution is used to absorbed carbon dioxide from the process gas thus reducing carbon dioxide content from 17.WASTE HEAT RECOVERY High temperature process gas exit secondary reformer is cooled down in Waste Heat Boiler and in turn high pressure steam is produced.95% to 0.72% to 0. CO+3H2 CO2+4H2 ↔ ↔ CH4+H2O+HEAT CH4+2H2O+HEAT ( Catalyst Ni ) The exit process gas ( Synthesis Gas ) contains mainly a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen in the ratio 3 : 1 . . SHIFT CONVERSION Carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide in two stages shift conversion bringing down the carbon monoxide content from 12.3% in the process gas.

In case Urea Plant is not in operation . AMMONIA SYNTHESIS Conversion of this gas mixture into Ammonia takes place in TOPSOE-S200 radial flow converter.SYNTHESIS GAS COMPRESSION Synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen takes place at high pressure hence the mixture is compressed to 220 kg/cm2 in synthesis gas compressor. The ammonia synthesis takes place in ammonia converter according to the following reaction: 3H2+N2 ↔ 2NH3+HEAT ( Catalyst Element Iron ) REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Gas mixture containing ammonia is cooled down to separate liquid ammonia from the gases by providing ammonia refrigeration. . produced ammonia can be sent to AMMONIA STORAGE TANK. Separated liquid ammonia is sent to Urea Plant at 12 degree centigrade temperature.