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Economy Under Spain Spain stressed the religious aspects of colonization and neglected to promote the economic development

of the Philippines. Despite of many good laws and policies on the economic welfare of the colony, the country languished miserably due to the corruption, ignorance and indolence of Spanish officials and friars. In the end, Spain could only give what she herself possesed. When the Spanish empire declined, so did the colonies of Spain suffer. The Encomienda System • Encomienda  was a grant of inhabitant living in a particular territory which Spain gave to Spanish colonizer as a reward for his service • Royal Encomienda  were exclusively owned by the king and they consisted of cities, seaports and inhabitant of regions rich natural resources • Private Encomienda  were exclusively owned by private persons or charitable institutions The Tribute • Tribute  is a symbol of vassalage to Spain  8 reales (1 peso) increased to 12 reales (1 ½ pesos) in 185  according to law, it was payable in money or in kind but encomenderos forced them to pay in rice or in honey, appraising it at a low price, and later resold it to them at very high price • 1 Tribute  1 Family (Husband, Wife, Minor Children) • ½ Tribute  Unmarried Man or Woman • Cedula Tax  Replaced Tributes when abolished in 1884 • Bandala  annual enforced sale or requisitioning of goods • Why Filipinos hated the tribute?  It reminded them oftheir bondage to Spain  It spawned Spanish abuses

The Polo • Polo   Polistas  Falla  all male Filipinos from 16 to 60 yrs are obliged to render forced labor it lasted for 40 days but it was reduced to 15 days Person who rendered forced labor A sum of money payed to be exempted from polo

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Spain’s Economic Policy • Real SItuado  An annual subsidy to relieve the financial worries of Manila authorities Introduction of New Industries • Coconut, hemp, sugar and tobacco industries  The pillars of Philippine economy • Cattle ranching • Making of candles and sopas • Construction of stone houses • Building roads, bridges and irrigation dams

Manila  where Chinese immigrations converged • Naujan  where naos (galleon) were made • Calapan  where Filipino carpenters cut the huge and heavy logs • Puerto Galera  where completed galleys weresafely moored Effects of Galleon Trade • It enriched only few Spaniards for it was more gambling than commerce • It caused Spaniards to flock to Manila. because agriculture and other industries were neglected in favor of overseas commerce with Acapulco Basco and Economic Progress • Jose Basco  The most economically-minded Spanish governor general • Economic Society of Friends of the Country  helped much in the agricultural advancement of the Philippines  it made the first shipment of indigo to Europe  granted free scholarships to eight Filipinos to study the art of dyeing in Manila  founded the first agricultural school in Manila which introduced the cultivation of tea. cotton. Marinduque and Ilocos provinces  All tobacco crops from these areas were sold to the government which undertook the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes and their sale to the public  Good Results  gave a large annual revenues to the government  promoted tobacco production. poppy and mulberry trees • Tobacco Monopoly  Cagayan valley. making the Philippines the greatest tobacco-growing country in the Philippines  Bad Results  offcials comitted many abuses  several revolts broke out in the tobacco-producing regions  encouraged smuggling and bribery  smoking • Direct Trade with Spain  Buen Consejo  the first frigate assigned on the ne Philippine-Spain trade captained by Juan Casseins  Asuncion  the last frigate used in the trade between Manila and Cadiz • Royal Company of the Philippines  it aimed to promote Philippines trade with Spain and to encourage Philippine agriculture and trade  Contributions to the Philippine Economy  it opened commercial realtions between Europe and the Philippines  furnished the needed capital to develop the economy . Nueve Ecija. leaving the provinces without the benefit of their colonial services • It hampered the economic development of the Philippines.• Distillation of wines • Weaving of hats and mats from buri and pandan fibers Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade • Peruvian dos mundos  pillar dollars or pieces of eight • Alcaiceria  Binondo.

 he submitted a document titled” Plan of Reforms for the Government of the Philippines Opening of Manila to World Trade • Its immediate effects were the establishments of foreign commercial firms in Manila and also the opening of foreign consulates • Laissez-faire  with its acceptance. Spain relaxed her restrictive mercantilist policy • Don Sinibaldo de Mas  a Spanish economist and diplomat sent in Manila to conduct after the opening of Manila to world trade to conduct an economic and political investigation of the colony  informe sobre el estado de las Islas Filipinas The Rise of the Banks • Obras Pias  is the earliest banking institution which is a charitable oragnizations under the supervision of the different religious orders  gave loans to businessmen at various rates of interests • Francisco Rodriguez  the first Filipino to engage in the banking business  established the first Filipino bank called Rodriguez Bank • Banco Espanol-Filipino  the first government bank in the Philippines  issued the first bank note. a ten-peso denomination which conatine dthe picture of Queen Isable II of Spain  the oldest existing bank in the Southeast Asia  Bank of the Philippine Islands • Monte de Piedad  the first saving bank in the Philippines Improvement of Transportation and Communication • Farola  the first lighthouse in the Philippines was built at the mouth of Pasig River • Ferrocarril de Manila  the first railroad in the Archipelago • Puente Colgante  first suspension bridge build by Gustave Eiffel • Compania de los Tranvias de Filipinas  established by Jacobo Zobel de Sangroniz and Adolfo Bayo • Escolta  the city’s main street and business sector • Calle Hormiga  a small alley in Binondo • Nippon Yusen Kaisha  shipping between Manila and Yokohama • Kingke  french gas lamp • La Electricista De Manila  powered the city . it opened Manila to world trade • Governor Berenguer de Marquina  his first offical act was the demolition of nipa houses in the city of Manila because they were an ugly sight and were a fire hazard. fostered the colony’s infant industries  After abolishment.

jamon. Puchero. “Prince of Filipino Printers”  the first author of the first Tagalog book. stockings.Our Spanish Heritage Christianity  the Spain’s Greatest Legacy Diet and Dress • to eat bread and drink coffee. Librong pag-aaralan nang manga Tagalog nang uicang Castila Journalism • Del Superior Govierno  the first newspaper • La Esperanza  the first daily newspaper • La Illustracion Filipina  the first illustrated periodical • El Catolico Filipino  the first religious newspaper • La opinion  the first political newspaper • El Ilokano  the first vernacular newspaper • El Hogar . hair combs. sardines • Sinigang. and panuelos Family life • father. was not despotic. mantillas. forks. Menudo. mutton. consulted his wife on family matters • mother acts as the first tutor of their children. table knives and napkins • to drink foreign wines • to drink chocolate for breakfast and merienda • wearing of Americana in exchanged of bahag for male and hats for putong • wearing of camisa and saya instead of sarong for female • they learned to wear slippers. Mechado. recognized as master of the family. Adobo. • canned goods such as chorizos de Bilbao • to use spoons. drinking glasses. opo and mano po • broken homes were a rarity during the Spanish times • Narciso Claveria  changed the Philippine calendar into Gregorian calendar  gave Spanish surnames to Filipino families Arte y reglas de lengua tagala  the first published Tagalog grammar Francisco Blancas de San Jose  Demosthenes of the Tagalog Language • • • Printing • Old xylographic method  printing using engraved wood blocks • Tomas Pinpin  the first Filipino printer. Sarsyado. shoes. • beef. the custodian of the family fund and keys • prays the Angelus and the rosary every night • pray before meals • went to church together to attend Sunday Mass • po. longanizas.

 Literature • Corridos  • Awits  • Pasion  the first women’s magazine legendary religious poems chivalric-heroic poems it was the favorite reading during the Lent season. suffering and crucifixion of Christ • Florante at Laura  the most popular epic of Tagalog literature • Francisco Baltazar  the “Prince of Tagalog Poets” • Urbana at Feliza  a book on proper behavior for women • Biag ni Lam-ang  the popular Ilocano epic • Pedro Bukaneg  “Father of Ilocos Literature” • Pedro Paterno  wrote the first Filipino novel. as evidenced by Sampaguita of Paterno and Bella Filipina of Masaguer • The Philippine National Anthem by Julian Felipe shows remarkable similarity to the Spanish National Anthem • Musikong Buho  bamboo musicians • Geronimo de Aguilar  was the first to teach music to the Filipinos of Bicolandia • Colegio de Ninos Triples  a music conservatory in Manila Cathedral • Marcelo Adonay  “Palestrina of the Philippines” • Bamboo Organ of Las Pinas  a unique bamboo organ in the world . story in verse of the life. Ninay • Jose Palma  wrote the Filipinas which became the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem The Theatre • Duplo  a poetical debate held by trained men and women on the last night of mourning period for the dead  bellocos and bellacas  male and female participants • Karagatan  a poetical debate partaked by amateurs • Cenaculo  a religious play during Lent season depicting the life and sufferings of Christ • Moro-moro  a cloak-and-dagger play depicting the wars between the Christians and the Muslims • Zarzuela  a musical comedy • Teatro Comico  the first theatre Music • Filipino songs were Hispanized .

It became a formal University in 1645 offering theology and philosophy and in 1871. medicine and pharmacy.Architecture • azotea –terrace • kwarto • banguerahan – dish rack • casillias – kubeta • Aljibe – well Art and Sciences • Damian Domingo  Father of Filipino Painting  founded the first school of painting • Manuel Blanco  Prince of Botanists • Castro de Elera  wrote the first work of Philippine zoology • Anacleto del Rosario  the first Filipino director of Manila Laboratory  Prince of Filipino Chemists • Observatory of Manila  the oldest observatory in Asia • La Granja  this conducted the first experiments in scientific agriculture • Juan Clemente  founded the first hospital • San Juan de Dios and San Lazaro Hospital  two of the oldest existing hospital in Southeast Asia • Real Hospicio de San Jose  the first regular orphanage • La Funeraria  the first funeral parlor Social Gatherings and Amusements • Holy Week – Semana Santa • All Saint’s Day – Todos los Santos • Misa de Gallo – Morning Mass • Cockfighting • Horse Racing – Sport of the Kings • Loteria Nacional – supervise and manage lottery • Carillio – a unique cardboard puppet show • Siyaman – 9th day after the burial • Haranas • Flores de Mayo and Santacruzan • Sipa – Native Football Educational System • College of San Ildefonso • Colegio de Santo Thomas (1619)  formerly known as Colegio de Nuestra Senora del Santisimo Rosario. • Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620)  originally called the Seminario de Ninos Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo which taught orphaned Spanish children .

Spanish Blood • Peninsulares  Spaniards born in Spain settled in the Philippines • Insulares  Spaniards of born in the Philippines • Mestizo  descendants of inter-racial marriages  Ilustrados • Indios  Commoners • Principales  governor-general.• • • • • •  the oldest existing college for boys Ateneo de Municipal(1817)  originally called Escuela Pia which taught poor boys but renamed Ateneo de Municipal de Manila in 1865. established by the decree of 1863 Beaterios  a combined school and nunnery Santa Isabel  the oldest existing college for girls in the Philippines Beaterio de la Compania de Jesus  the only college exclusively for Filipino girls Escuela Normal Superior de Maestras  prepared native women teachers for the primary schools. the first normal school train male teachers for primary schools. Escuela Normal de Maestros de Manila  administered by the Society of Jesus. alcalde mayor • Compadrazgo  ritual of co-parenthood .