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THE HISTORICAL,SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CONTEXT In the period between the end of the reign of Elizabeth I in 1603

and the later years of the reign of Elizabeth II at the start of the twenty-first century, the number of speakers of English increased, English was spoken in almost every country of the world. There are approximately seventy-five territories were English is spoken either as a first language (L1) or as an official (institutionalized) second language. Crystal lists the territories along with their approximate numbers of English speakers. Crystal’s analysis is that there are a group of English speakers who have bilingual competence , are described as a speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL) to distinguish them from speakers of English as a second language (ESL). Since the mid-1990s it has become common the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) and English as an international language (EIL). Crystal suggests that there are about two billion English speakers in the world. The negative attitude which persist today towards certain variety of English have their roots in the past, in the two diasporas of English. The first Diaspora involved migrations of mother-tongue English speakers from England, Scotland, Ireland to America, Australia and New Zealand. The varieties of English spoken in modern North America and Australia are different to their colonizers, have changed sociolinguistic contexts because of migrants. The voyagers landed on the coast of North Carolina, Virginia, Massachusetts. Because of their different linguistic background, there were immediately certain differences in the accents between the group of settlers. English spread to the South of America is a result of slave trade. Slaves were transported from West Africa and exchanged for sugar and rum, and there were a large-scale of immigration. The result was a situation of dialects mixing which was further influenced by the indigenous aboriginal languages. South Africa was colonized by Dutch, the British did not arrive until 1795 when they annexed the Cape. From 1822, English was declared the official language, and became the second language of blacks and Afrikaans speakers and, by Indian immigrants. The second Diaspora involved immigrations from England to West Africa where English was employed as a lingua franca both among the indigenous population an between these people and the British traders. In East Africa English was playing an important role in the major institutions such as government, education, and the law. English was introduced also in India where became the official language for the educational system. British influence in Asia and in the South Pacific was the result of the expeditions of James Cook, who discovered Australia, and Stamford Raffles who played an important role in the founding of Singapore where the use of English, in the recent years has increased. Since 1945, most of remaining colonies have become independent states, with English often being retained neutral lingua franca.

There are several hypotheses as to origin of the term pidgin:  From the Hebrew word “pidjom”(meaning trade)  From the word “pidian”(meaning people) Pidgins languages that become mother tongue are called Creoles. It’s employed to trade. According to Wardhaugh a pidgin is a language with no native speakers: it’s a contact language.a creole. a diminutive suffix to mean an African slave born in the New Word in Brazilian usage. According to Mc Arthur pidgins are simple. detail. clumsy languages incapable of nuance.(Creolisation) . abstraction and precision. or where groups speak languages different from the country in which they reside. is often defined as a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of speakers. The origins of the term creole are less obscure:  According to Holm the word comes from the Portuguese word Crioulo. In contrast to a pidgin.THE ORIGINS OF PIDGINS AND CREOLE LANGUAGES Until very recently pidgins and creoles were regarded as “bad languages”. Pidgin is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between groups that no have a language in common. natural languages developed from the mixing of parents languages.

Finally. especially because English may be employed for specific. The next circle is made of regional standards or standards that are emerging.Australia. Pakistan. Tanzania. ESL and EFL.WHO SPEAKS ENGLISH TODAY? ENL. This includes much of the rest of the world's population: China. but where it is nevertheless widely used as a foreign language or lingua franca. but is important for historical reasons and plays a part in the nation's institutions. Ireland. Some of countries purpose is the use of English as a medium of instruction above all in the school. Models of the spread of English Strevens shows a map of the world on which is superimposed an upside-down tree diagram demonstrating the way in which.Singapore. Australia. etc. Korea.New Zealand ) as a traditional cultural and linguistic bases of English. Kachru refers to these countries(the UK. which were colonized by English. Nigeria. EFL was learned to use the languages with its native speakers in the US and UK. McArthur's 'wheel model' has an idealized central variety called 'World Standard English'. Malaysia. the Philippines. either as an official language or otherwise. usually business English. English as a foreign language (EFL) is the language of those for whom it serves no purposes within their own countries. the multitude of Englishes in Europe are also missing in this layer. Kenya. New Zealand.USA. Kachru conceived the idea of three concentric circles of the language. which is best represented by 'written international English'. Finally. Historically. the expanding circle includes those countries where English plays no historical or governmental role. This circle includes India. The distinction between native-speakers and non-native speakers is that the first group is considered superior regardless of the quality of their language. non-Anglophone South Africa and Canada. English as a Second Language(ESL) refers to the language spoken in a large number of territories such as India. limited purposes. Next comes the outer circle. Canada and South Africa. which includes countries where English is not the native tongue.Bangladesh. most of Europe. Finally. To better understand the use of English in different countries. The total in this expanding circle is the most difficult to estimate. the three different types of English . Egypt. Firstly. ESL AND EFL English as a Native Language (ENL) or English as a mother tongue is the language that raised in one of the countries where English is historically the first language to be spoken. and some of the Caribbean territories. the outside layer includes pidgins. The inner circle represents the traditional bases of English: the United Kingdom. the outer layer consists of localized varieties which may have similarities with the regional standards or emerging standards. Russia. Secondly. since American English became a separate variety from British English. creoles and L2 Englishes.Canada.ENL. etc. Indonesia. Japan. Bangladesh. are conflated in the second circle. the United States. Most scholars would argue that English .

creoles and mixed languages involving English). foreign varieties) each with features peculiar to their own speech community and which are unlikely to be understood by most members of the other four groups. which are better categorized as having partial membership. local varieties. though less comprehensive. his model is more consistent. Outside the circle are mixed varieties (pidgins. The second circle consists of features which may become internationally common or may fall into obscurity. the outer area consists of five groups (American English. with a core set of features which are comprehensible to the majority of native and competent non-native speakers of English. Manfred Görlach's and McArthur's models are reasonably similar. other major varieties. Both exclude English varieties in Europe. Finally. . As Görlach does not include EFLs at all.pidgins and creoles do not belong to one family: rather they have overlapping multiple memberships. British English. In Modiano's model of English. the center consists of users of English as an International Language.

It can be spoken in formal. that not have an associated accent. Nigerian. Standard English is a dialect that differs from other dialects in that it has greater prestige. Codification: The standard has to be fixed in grammar books and dictionaries to use the language correctly. The main levels on which the new and the New Englishes differ from English are: Pronunciation. This process of intervention provides four stages: Selection: Modern standard English derives from the East Midlands dialect favored by the educated in London.VARIATION ACROSS OUTER CIRCLE ENGLISHES The Outer and Inner Circle English belong to one of two groups the new Englishes which resulted from the first Diaspora . Because a living language is by definition dynamic. Non-standard Englishes refers to use of English. Elaboration of function: The standard variety has to be capable of performing a wide range of institutional and literary functions. New English has been taught as a subject. The Englishes in these territories developed independently of and differently from English in Britain. it has developed in an area where a native variety of English was not the language spoken by most of population. and language change is regarded as error by promoter of standard language ideology. spoken by a minority of those occupying positions of power within a society. were and still are learnt as a second languages or as one language within a wider multilingual repertoire of acquisition. Philippine. The second group of Englishes. because of the mixtures of dialects and accents among people settled in these areas or the influence of indigenous populations. Singapore English. grammar. especially regarding grammar. Three Standard Englishes:  American  British  Australian . New Zealand and South Africa. The process could involve the selecting of features from several varieties. The first group consists of North America. Australia. that is considered by convention to be sub-standard or not "proper". STANDARD LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGE STANDARDS Standard language is the term used for the variety of a language which is considered to be the norm. but also including other aspects of language. neutral and informal styles. This group includes. Standard languages are the result of a direct and deliberate intervention by society.or New Englishes which resulted from second Diaspora. and discourse style. that does not form part of a geographical continuum. Indian . Acceptance: The standard variety serves as a strong unifying force for the states. vocabulary/idiom. medium of instruction. these rules are subject to change over time. Language standards: perspective language rules which constitute the standard to which all members of a language community are exposed and urged to conform during education. as a symbol of its independence of the other states.

are shared by most ELF speakers. Accent differences. English is the gateway to Western culture. ELF forms crucially depend on the specific communication context. ELF involves linguistic innovations that differ from ENL and which. international tourism.THE SPREAD OF ENGLISH AS AN INTERNATIONAL LINGUA FRANCA (EFL) The most of England’s colonies had become independent states by the mid-twentieth century and so English was placed to become one of the world’s main language of international business and trade. that are often strictly linked to personal and group identity. technological. Accent differences must decrease. international business and academic conferences. ELF is an alternative to EFL rather than a replacement for it – depends on speaker’s (or learner’s) individual needs and preferences. and academic information in the world is expressed in English. . 2003) In order to fulfil its role as the international lingua franca. in some cases.  Internal political reasons: English provides a neutral means of communication between the different ethnic groups of a country and may be seen as a symbol of national unity or emerging statehood.  Personal advantage/prestige: Proficiency in English is often perceived as conferring higher status.ELF involves the use of certain pragmatic communication strategies. are likely to increase.  Entertainment reasons: English is the main language of popular music. computers and video games. ELF is a contact language among speakers from different first languages: it is used in contexts in which speakers with different L1s (mostly. from Expanding Circle) need it as their means to communicate with each other. It was adopted as an international lingua franca and it’s due to the expansion of British colonial power and the emergence of the United States as the leading economic power of the 20th century. The increase in number of users of ELF has inevitably led to an increase in the range of differences among their Englishes with pronunciation being the most visible level of divergence.  External economic reasons: the USA’s dominant economic position often acts as a magnet for international business and trade  Practical reasons: English is the language of international air traffic control. English used in lingua franca context can be a language of identification and not simply one of communication. The reasons for the international status of English are:  Historical reasons: English is still used institutionally because of the legacy of British or American imperialism.Gimenez having a common language helps us to see ourselves as human beings who live on the same planet.  Intellectual reasons: Most of the scientific. According to T. “The need for intelligibility and the need for identity often pull people and countries in opposing directions” (Crystal. sat TV. particularly accommodation and code-switching. English must be able to achieve mutual intelligibility among its users. but not exclusively.

primitive.THE LEGACY OF COLONIALISM One major legacy of the two diasporas of English is the assumption of the inferiority of the indigenous language. A second major legacy of colonialism is the way in which it has led to the destruction of the ethnic identities of many whose land were colonized. Fearful indeed is the impress of degradation which is stamped on the language of the savages and above all upon their form. the natives were the indigenous populations and the term itself implied uncivilized. The English today debate With an ever-growing number of people speaking English. Non-native speakers suffer from an inferiority complex caused by a defect in our knowledge of English. Non-native Englishes as deficit Quirk : “Language varieties and standard language” Non –native Englishes are inadequately learned versions of “correct” native English forms and therefore not valid as teaching models. positive connotations. culture. This situation is a direct consequence of the history of colonialism and language repression that indigenous have endured. They were weary travelers in a strange landscape without a single reference point. Outer circle Englishes regarded as: Interlanguage. ‘native’ – in relation to English – has acquired newer. civilized and educated. and monolingualism the exception…perhaps the word ‘native’ will return to its pejorative usage. and even character of the colonized. When peoples were colonized they made the effort to communicate in English. . it’s not surprising that the language is diversifying and “English” has becoming “Englishes”. “In the days of the empire. learner language which has not yet reached the target.” (Jenkins. The phenomenon persists to this day towards the English of non-native speakers. and particularly towards their accents. ‘Native speakers’ are assumed to be advanced. It is not only the language. their English was denigrated as broken. and as bilingualism and multilingualism become the accepted world norm. but also place. which provides people with a sense of identity. Native and non-native speakers have different intuitions about language. with English being spoken as an International Language no less. This is the loss of indigenous languages. it’s within the places in the stories that the sense of ourselves resides. all communications difficult. 2000). Fossilized language. as markers of identity. But as NSs lose their linguistic advantage. even cannibalistic…With the spread of English around the globe. language used when learning has ceased short of native-like competence. or heritage languages. all languages were foreign. alongside the assumption of the superiority of the colonizers and their language. barbaric. have radically internalizations of the language. During the colonial period native populations of colonized lands as “savages” to their languages as a primitive and to their cultures as barbaric.

it has become the main vehicle for interaction among its non-native users.  The native speakers of English as teachers are involved in the global teaching of English for the spread of language When an observed feature of language use is indeed an innovation and when it is simply an error.  The international non-native varieties of English are essentially interlanguages striving to achieve native-like character.The so-called variety of English is an attempt to justify inability to acquire what they persist in seeing as real English. Quirk concludes: my goal would be to acquire English precisely because of its power as an instrument of international communication. The English of the teachers acquired deviation from the standard language. and from uncomplicated language policy contexts. If innovations are seen as errors.native variety can never receive any recognition.  English is essentially learnt as a tool to understand and teach American and British values and to impart local and cultural values. The users of institutionalized varieties are expected to conform to local norms and speech strategies since English is used for interaction primarily in intranational contexts. An innovation is seen as an acceptable variant. while an error is a simply a mistake. Non-native Englishes as a difference Kachru: “Liberation linguistics and the Quirk concern” Criticizes Quirk’s deficit linguistic position: The solution of constant touch with the native language does not apply to the institutionalized varieties for two reasons: It is simply not possible for a teacher to be in constant touch with the native language. Kachru highlights four false assumptions of Quirk’s argument:  English is essentially learnt to interact with the native speakers of language. . a non. Quirk seems to perceive the spread of English from the perspective of monolingual societies.